Proceedings of the KSME Conference (대한기계학회:학술대회논문집)
The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers (대한기계학회)
 Semi Annual
2000.04

In this study, We evaluated the Performance of PFC and the system performance of large size airconditioner applying to outdoor condenser. PFC can meet the same cooling capacity in 40.42% of volume to fintube condenser. Although the fintube condenser requires 3600g of refrigerant charging, PFC requires 1700g, 1800g, 1900g, 2000g refrigerant charging for each 2.0mm, 2.5mm, 3.0mm and 3.5mm fin pitches. Difference of condensing and evaporation pressure is the biggest point 2.0mm fin pitch and the smallest point 2.5mm fin pitch.

The purpose of this study is to develop heat transfer analysis program of heat pipe elements and design a revolving heat pipe exchanger by the performance experiment of hot air production by means of middletemperature waste heat. Experimental variables are the revolution per minute, normal velocity of inlet air and the temperature of waste heat. The revolving heat exchanger has designed as
$2^{\circ}$ in inclination angle of heat pipe bundle and as 20% in working fluid quantity and as water in working fluid. Experimental value of the total heat transfer coefficient was$20w/m^2^{\circ}C$ 
The objective of the Present study is to investigate the performance of electronic scale mitigation unit(ESMU), which reduces the amount of scale in a heat exchanger. A plate heat exchanger with 20 thermal plates is used for the tests. In order to accelerate the rate of fouling in a laboratory test artificial hard water of 2000 ppm(as
$CaCO_3$ ) is recirculated at a flow rate 5L/min throughout the tests. The overall heat trans(or coefficients and fouling factors are examined. Results show that the ESMU technology can significantly reduce the scale deposits. 
The objective of this study is to develope a computer simulation model and estimate theoretically the transient performance characteristics of heat exchangers in an automotive airconditioning system. To do that, the mathematical modelling of heat exchangers, such as evaporator and condenser, is presented first of all. For detail calculation, evaporator and condenser are divided into many subsections. Each subsection is an elemental volume for transient modelling. The elemental volume is assumed to consist of three components, refrigerant, tube with fin, and air, and various properties including temperatures of three components are determined step along subsections. The properties of refrigerant R134a and air are calculated directly in the program. The heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop in single or two phase are also calculated by suitable empirical correlations. The overall tendencies of the simulation results were agreed well with those of actual situation.

Plate and shell heat exchanger(P&SHE) has been applied to the refrigeration and air conditioning systems as evaporators or condensers fur their high efficiency and compactness. The purpose of this study is to analyze the characteristics of pressure drop in plate and shell heat exchanger. An experiment for single phase (low pressure drop in plate and shell heat exchanger was performed. Also numerical work was conducted using the FLUENT code for
$ {\kappa}{\varepsilon}$ model. The dependence of friction factor on geometrical Parameters was numerically investigated. The study examines the internal flow and the pressure distribution in the channel of plate and shell heat exchanger. The results of CFD analysis compared with experimental data, and the difference of frictor factor in plate side and shell side are 10% and 12%, respectively. Therefore, the CFD analysis model is effectively predict the performance of plate and shell heat exchanger. 
The existing theoretical models for steady twodimensional free convective laminar film condensation or pure saturated or superheated vapor under atmospheric pressure on isotheraml vertical wall have been reviewed. To investigate the effects of inertia, thermal convective and liquidvapor interface shear stress, the models of constant or variable properties in liquid film for condensation of saturated vapor are compared in detail with Nusselt model. Also, for condensation of superheated vapor the effects of superheated temperature and variable properties in liquid and vapor layer are examined and then new correlation is proposed to predict the heat transfer. The results are in good agreement with the Shang's correlation within 2% errors.

Numerical investigation is made to study the effects of natural convection on the formation of macrosegregation of a PbSn alloy solidification process in a 2D confined rectangle mold. The governing equations are calculated using previous continuum models with SIMPLE algorithm doring the solidification process. In addition. to track the solidliquid interface with time variations. the moving boundary condition Is adopted and irregular interface shapes are treated with BoundaryFitted Coordinate system. As the temperature reduce from the liquidus to the solidus, the liquid concentration of Sn. the lighter constituent, increases. Then the buoyancydriven flow due to temperature and liquid composition gradients, called thermosolutal convection or double diffusion, occurs in the mushy region and forms the complicated macrosegregation maps. Related to this phnomena, effects on the macrosegregation formation depending on the cooling condition and gravity values are described.

A numerical investigation is made of threedimensional buoyant convection of a Boussinesqfluid in a vertical cylinder. The top and bottom endwalls are thermally insulated. Flow is driven by the substantial azimuthal variations in thermal boundary conditions. Comprehensive numerical solutions to the NavierStokes equations are obtained. The representative Rayleigh number is large, thus, the overall flow pattern is of boundary layertype. Threedimensional (low characteristics are described. Specially, the global flow and the heat transfer features are delineated when the severity of azimuthal variation of sidewall temperature n, is intensified. Temperature and velocity fields on the meridional planes and the planes of constant height are presented. The global flow weakens as n becomes large. The pattern of the local Nusselt number on the surface of cylinder is similar regardless of n. The convective gain in heat transfer activities is reduced as n increases.

The Finite Element Solutions Is reported on solidliquid phase change in porous media with natural convection including freezing. The model is based on volume averaged transport equations, while phase change is assumed to occur over a small temperature range. The FEM (Finite Element Method) algorithm used in this study is 3step timesplitting method which requires much less execution time and computer storage the velocitypressure integrated method and the penalty method. And the explicit LaxWendroff scheme is applied to nonlinear convective term in the energy equation. For natural convection including melting and solidification the numerical results show reasonable agreement with FDM (Finite Difference Method) results.

The present work investigates the heat transfer characteristics for laminar fully developed forced convection in an internally finned tube with axially uniform heat flux and peripherally uniform temperature through analytical models of convection in a porous medium. Using the Brinkmanextended Darcy flow model and the two equation model fur heat transfer, analytical solutions fur fluid flow and heat transfer are obtained and compared with the exact solution for fluid flow and the numerical solutions for conjugate heat transfer to validate the porous medium approach. Using the analytical solutions, parameters of engineering importance are identified and their effects on fluid flow and heat transfer are studied. Also, the expression fur total thermal resistance is derived from the analytical solutions and minimized in order to optimize the thermal performance of the internally finned tubes.

Experimental investigations were conducted to study the forced convection of fullydeveloped turbulent f)on· in horizontal equilateral duct fabricated with the same length and equivalent diameter, but different surface roughness Pitch ratio(P/e) of 4, 8 and 16 on the one side wall only The experiments were performed with the hydraulic diameter based Reynolds number ranged from 70.000 to 10,000 The entire bottom wall of the duct was heated uniformly and the other surfaces were thermally insulated. To understand the mechanisms of the heat transfer enhancement. measurements of the heat transfer were done to investigate the contributive factor of heat transfer promotion. namely the fin effect. And the results were compared with those of Previous investigations for similarly configured channels, at which they were roughened by regularly spaced transverse ribs in the rectangular and circular channels.

This experimental study was conducted to figure out the drag reduction and convective heat transfer in vertical downward twophase flow with polymer additives. The drag reduction effect were analyzed by using the difference of the pressure drop between the flow with polymer additives and without it. Experimental results show that the pressure drop with polymer additives is less than the pressure drop without polymer in vertical downward twophase flow. And the convective heat transfer has decreased with increasing the polymer concentration in vertical downward twophase flow.

Parametric study fur the cooling characteristic investigation of a notebook PC mounted with heat spreader has been numerically performed. Two oases of airblowing and airexhaust at inlet were tested. The cooling effect on Parameters such an, velocities of airblowing and airexhaust, materials of heat spreader, and CPU powers were simulated for two cases. Cooling performance in the case of airblowing was better than the case of airexhaust.

This paper presents a pressure drop correlation for evaporation and condensation of alternative refrigerant with oil in microfin tubes. The correlation was developed from a data base consisting of oilfree pure and mixed refrigerants in microfin tube; Rl25 R134a. R32 R410a(R32/R125 50/50% mass), R22, R407c(R32/R125/R134a, 23/25/52% mass) and R32/R134a(25/75% mass). The microfin tube used in this paper had 60 0.2mm high fins with a 18 helix angle. The cross sectional flow area
$(A_c)$ was$60.8 mm^2$ giving an equivalent smooth diameter$(D_e)$ of 8.8mm. The hydraulic diameter$(D_h)$ was estimated to the 5.45mm. The new correlation was obtained by replacing the friction factor and the tubediameter in Bo Pierre correlation by a friction factor derived from pressure drop data for a microfin tube and the hydraulic diameter, respectively. This correlation was also used to predict some pressure data with a lubricant after using a mixing viscosity rule of lubricants and refrigerants. As a result, the new correlation was also well predicted to the measured data within a mean deviation of 19.0%. 
Condensation heat transfer experiments for R22 and R407C refrigerants mixed with mineral oil and POE oil respectively were performed in straight and Ubend sections of a microfin tube. Experimental parameters were an oil concentration from 0 to 5%, a mass flux from 100 to
$400 kg/m^2s$ and an inlet quality from 0.5 to 0.9. The enhancement factors for R22 and R407C refrigerants at the first straight section decreased continuously as the oil concentration increased. They decreased rapidly as the mass flux decreased and inlet quality increased. The heat transfer coefficients in the Ubend were the maximum at the$90^{\circ}$ position. The heat transfer coefficients at the second straight section within the dimensionless length of 48 were larger by a maximum of 33% than the average heat transfer coefficients at the first straight section. 
In this study, evaporation heat transfer tests were conducted in flat aluminum multichannel tubes using R22. Two internal geometries were tested ; one with smooth inner surface and the other with microfins. Data are presented for the following range of variables ; vapor quality
$(0.1{\sim}0.9)$ , mass flux$(100{\sim}600kg/m^2s)$ and heat flux$(5{\sim}15kW/m^2)$ . The microtin tube showed higher heat transfer coefficients compared with those of the smooth tube. Results showed that, for the smooth tube, the effects of mass flux, quality and heat flux were not prominent, and existing correlations overpredicted the data. For the microfin tube at low quality, the heat transfer coefficient increased as heat flux increased. However, the trend was reversed at high quality Kandlikar's correlation predicted the low mass flux data, and Shah's correlation predicted the high mass flux data. The heat transfer coefficient of the micro fin tube was approximately two times larger than that of the plain tube. New correlation was developed based on present data. 
Evaporative heat transfer characteristics of carbon dioxide has been investigated. Experiment has been carried out for seamless stainless steel tube with outer diameter of 9.55 mm and inner diameter of 7.75 mm. Direct heating method is used for supplying heat to the refrigerant was uniformly heated by electric current which was applied to the tube wall. The saturation temperature of refrigerant is calculated from the measured saturation pressure by using an equation of state. Inner wall temperature was calculated from measured outer wall temperature, accounting for heat generation in the tube and heat conduction through the tube wall. Mass Quality of refrigerant was calculated by considering energy balance in the preheater and the test section. Heat fluxes were set at 12, 16, 20, 23, and
$27kW/m^2$ , mass fluxes were controlled at 212, 318, 424, and$530 kg/m^2s$ , and saturation temperature of refrigerant were adjusted at 0, 3.4, 6.7 and$10.5^{\circ}C$ . From this study, heat transfer coefficients of carbon dioxide have been provided with respect to quality for several mass fluxes, heat fluxes. Finally, the experimental results in this study are compared with the correaltion by Gungor and Winterton(1987). 
This paper presents a mathematical model and simulation of the microactuator based on thermally induced liquidvapor phasechange in a partiallyfilled closed cavity. The volume expansion by liquidvapor Phase change can generate considerable forces and displacement
$({\sim}50{\mu}m)$ required for commercial use. For optimum operation involving many cycles within the closed chamber, active(thermoelectric) heating and cooling is used. The optimization of the system is conducted according to the parameters such as input power and response time. The optimized performance of microactuator is reasonable compared to other actuators. 
Experimental results describing the effects of blowing ratio on film cooling from two rows of holes with opposite orientation angles are presented. The inclination angle was fixed at
$35^{\circ}$ and the orientation angles were set to be$45^{\circ}$ for downstream row. and$45^{\circ}$ for upsream row. The studied blowing ratios were 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. The boundary layer temperature distributions were measured using thermocouple at two downstream loundary layer temperature distributions were measured using thermocouple at two downstream locations. Detailed adiabatic film cooling effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient distributions were measured with TLC(Thermochromic Liquid Crystal). The adiabatic film cooling effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient distributions are discussed in connection with the injectant behaviors inferred from the boundary layer temperature distributions. Film cooling performance, represented by heat flux was calculated with the adiabatic film cooling effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient data. 
The heat transfer characteristics of confined turbulent slot jet impingement on the flat plate with square rods(turbulence promoter) have been experimentally investigated. The effects of jet Reynolds number (Re=3900, 5800, 7800, 9700), dimensionless slottoplate distance(H/B=4, 6, 8) clearance(c) between square rods and the plate, and the length(d) of a side of the square rod were examined. Measurement or heat transfer rate were conducted using naphthalene sublimation technique. When square rods were inserted over the heat transfer surface, heat transfer rate was slightly increased in the wall jet region.

The local heat/mass transfer coefficients for arrays of impinging circular air jets on a plane surface are determined by means of the naphthalene sublimation method. Spent fluid makes a crossflow in the confined space. The crossflow reduces heat/mass transfer at the small gap distance between the jet plate and impingement surface because of reentrainment of the spent fluid. The present study suggests a new exhaust system having effusion holes in the impinging jet plate. The spent air flow out after impingement just through effusion holes located in the upper plate. This system increases heat/mass transfer coefficients and uniformity for small gap distances
$(H/d{\leq}2)$ 
A complete theoretical treatment of the photothermal displacement technique has been performed for thermal diffusivity measurement in solid materials. The influence of parameters  radius and modulation frequency of pump beam and thickness of material  on the phase lag was studied. The phase decreases up to a certain position, then starts to increase and does have an asymptotic value. The position, where phase has the minimum value, is a function of thermal diffusion length thickness of sample, and radius of pump beam. A new method based on minimum phase lag is described to determine the thermal diffusivity of solid material.

A new method of measuring the thermal diffusivity of solid material at room temperature with photothermal displacement method is proposed. The influence of the parameters on phase lag was studied. From the minimum position of phase of measured deflection with respect to the pump beam the thermal diffusivity of the materials can be obtained. The minimum position of phase is determined using multiparameter leastsquare regression fitting. The experimental values for different samples obtained by applying new method are in good agreement with the literature values.

A numerical method for the solution of onedimensional inverse heat conduction problem is established and its performance is demonstrated with computational results. The present work introduces the maximum entropy method in order to build a robust formulation of the inverse problem. The maximum entropy method finds the solution that maximizes the entropy functional under given temperature measurement. The philosophy of the method is to seek the most likely inverse solution. The maximum entropy method converts the inverse problem to a nonlinear constrained optimization problem of which constraint is the statistical consistency between the measured temperature and the estimated temperature. The successive quadratic programming facilitates the maximum entropy estimation. The gradient required fur the optimization procedure is provided by solving the adjoint problem. The characteristic feature of the maximum entropy method is discussed with the illustrated results. The presented results show considerable resolution enhancement and bias reduction in comparison with the conventional methods.

An experimental study was conducted to investigate an isothermal characteristics of the condenser surface of disk type heat pipe using PF 5060 and FC 40 as working fluids. Desired temperature range at the condenser surface was
$90^{\circ}C{\sim}130^{\circ}C$ , which was cooled by natural convection. The operating temperature, the height of vapor space, the wall thickness of condenser, and the existence of a wick structure were considered as experimental factors. The temperature difference and the temperature fluctuation at the condenser surface were analysed to describe the performance of the heat pipe. 
As a mass flow controller is widely used in many manufacturing processes for controlling a mass flow rate of gas with accuracy of 1%, several investigators have tried to describe the heat transfer phenomena in a sensor tube of an MFC. They suggested a few analytic solutions and numerical models based on simple assumptions, which are physically unrealistic. In the present work, the heat transfer phenomena in the sensor tube of the MFC are studied by using both experimental and numerical methods. The numerical model is introduced to estimate the temperature profile in the sensor tube as well as in the gas stream. In the numerical model, the conjugate heat transfer problem comprising the tube wall and the gas stream is analyzed to fully understand the heat transfer interaction between the sensor tube and the fluid stream using a single domain approach. This numerical model is further verified by experimental investigation. In order to describe the transport of heat energy in both the flow region and the sensor tube, the Nusselt number at the interface between the tube wall and the gas stream as well as heatlines is presented from the numerical solution.

Construction machinery includes an engine enclosure separated from a cooling system enclosure by a wall to reduce noise and advance cooling system performance. For this structure, however, the axial fan cannot be of benefit to the engine room, and so the temperature rise in the engine room makes several bad conditions. This paper proposes that hot air in engine room is evacuated tv secondary pipe using jet pump. This paper demonstrates the structure and the effect of jet pump and useful guideline on design of area, length, and shape of secondary pipe to maximize the effect of jet pump.

Chae, J.O.;Hwang, J.W.;Han, J.H.;Hwang, H.J.;Jun, J.K.;Han, J.O.;Lee, J.S.;You, H.S.;Lee, H.C. 168
This paper illustrates the validity of reciprocating type superadiabatic combustor as a industrial applicable dryer. After the investigations of inner and surface temperature distributions of combustor various with airfuel(methane) ratio, mixture flow rate and reciprocating time, this combustor can be applied in industrial dryer at certain operating conditions. The results are as follows. 1) Higher equilivalence ratio emits more radiation heat flux at the censer chamber 2) Higher mixture flow rate makes more uniform temperature distribution. however, due to the heat transfer from censer chamber to porous media, the radiation beat flux is worse. 3) Longer reciprocating time emit more radiation heat flux. however, this case also makes temperature distribution wide 
A combustion project was completed regarding the development of a highflowrate purge burner in cooperation with three city gas companies(Pusan, Taegu, Samchulli). The project, started in May 1991, aimed at purging the linepackedgas safely and quickly before getting into gas pipe working or relocation. According to the results, the purging noise is less than 80dB due to silencer screen. multinozzle and outlet inserted tube employed. In addition, the developed burner shows an increased work efficiency of 4050% more as compared to the performance of conventional purge equipments. The project result is regarded as the first highflowrate purge burner developed within Korea. contributing to shortening purge hours, safe field work and easiness of purge site selection.

This paper presents a new winding method in the electronic descaling(ED) technology. The ED technology Produces an oscillating electric field via the Faraday's law to Provide necessary molecular agitation to dissolved mineral ions. But present method gives another agitation force to mineral ions, which is Lorentz's force. Experiments were peformed at various Renolds number. A series of tests was conducted, measuring pressure drop across test section and the overall heat transfer coefficient as a function of time. In order to accelerate the rate of fouling, artificial hard water of 1000ppm
$CaCO_3$ was used throughout the tests. The results show that the new method accelerates collision of mineral ions and improvs efficiency of system. 
The textile which is rotated in the tumbler dryer is dried by the heated air. the energy consumption for drying textile depends on various parameters. The objective of this study is to save the energy and the drying time. One of the various methods for energy saving is EGR(exhaust gas recirculation). We set the drying equipment for this study and perform the experimental study with the changes of the recirculation rate, the input power, and the air mass flow rate. We found the optimal drying conditions.

For an inverterdriven compressor, the discharge temperature increased with a rise of frequency, Therefore, it is necessary to control the discharge temperature at high frequencies in order to obtain system reliability and efficiency. This paper describes the effects of liquid injection system on the performance of an inverterdriven scroll compressor. Experiments were performed at ASHRAET conditions. Frequency was altered from 45 to 105Hz. As results of the present work, the refrigerant discharge temperature fur the injection system was dropped approximately
$10{\sim}20^{\circ}C$ as compared to those for the noninjection system. The COP of the compressor was improved approximately$0.8{\sim}9.3%$ at high frequencies(75, 90, and 105 Hz). 
A low temperature differential model stirling engine is manufactured, and its operation characteristics are measured and analyzed by SIMPLE analysis model, in which heat transfer processes are simply considered. The heat transfer coefficients between working fluid and heat sources in the analysis are estimated by comparing the PV diagrams by experiment and by analysis. This result may be very useful for further design and manufacture of model Stilting engines as well as real engines because it provides a comparatively correct predictions of the operation conditions and power output. It will be also conveniently used as an educational material for mechanical engineering students because it can be a nice example of optimal design process to decide the phase angle and compression ratio of engine design with a simple but realistic simulation.

Induction motors. having axial cooling channels in stator and rotor are designed for better cooling performance. Traction motors are one of those examples. And, thermal analysis gain more attention with the Increased demand of the motors, for reliable operation and life prolongation. was Induced to effective thermal conductivity through modeling. Through. fundamental comparison experiment, heat source experiment and transient state experiment, the induction motor using inverter was examined to produce heat source with frequency level and traced to thermal variation at starting and stopping. And thermal analysis using thermal network was compared with a transient state experiment.

In this work, it has been predicted the thermal performance of the engine cooling system in cases of stationary mode, constant speed mode, citydrive mode, and hillclimb mode by theoretical modeling of each component and numerical analysis. The modelling components are engine, radiator, heater, thermostat, waterpump, and coolingfan. And also it has been developed the simulation program that can be used in case of design and system configuration changes. The comparison has not been made to verify the results of this work with experimental data, but the overall tendencies were agreed well with those of actual situation in four modes.

The purpose of this study is to develop the nongravity fluidized dryer. In this nongravity fluidized dryer the fluidized zone is produced by two paddles in mixer, which maximizes the surface area of materials and then heated air through the guiding panels dehumidify them. This can conduct the drying process quickly and control moisture contents to lower limits. The ventilation system is closed loop system, which can be changeable to open system, and can be used as a multipurposed dryer in which mixing, drying, granulating and cooling process is conducted. In order to develop nongravity fluidized dryer, in the first the fundamental experiments performed to mixing accuracy and then the other parts of dryer and control system were examined to check whether they were designed properly and operated harmoniously with mixer. Also the preparatory experiments were fulfilled to examine the efficiency and reliability of dryer. Lastly, on the basis of preparatory experiments in case the initial moisture contents, desired moisture contents, heated air velocity and heating temperature were vary, performance test for the nongravity fluidized dryer carried out.

An experimental study has been performed regarding heat and mass transfer in a falling film absorber of domestic smallsized absorption chiller/heater. Components were concentrically arranged in cylindrical form : from the center, with a series of low temperature generator, absorber and evaporator. The arrangement of such helicaltyped heat exchangers allows to make the system more compact as compared to conventional one. Experimental measurements were conducted with a helical absorber using
$LiBr+LiI+LiNO_3+LiCl$ and LiBr solutions. As a result, the heat and mass flux performance of$LiBr+LiI+LiNO_3+LiCl$ solution shows the tendency of$2{\sim}5%$ increase. Therefore,$LiBr+LiI+LiNO_3+LiCl$ solution can be taken consideration into applying to smallsized absorption chiller/heater because of using without crystal through high concentration as 4wt% comparing with LiBr solution. 
The capillary pumped cooling system (CPCS) is a cooling system which controls temperature of the small electronic devices, such as IC device systems, notebook computers, etc. An important feature of CPCS is that a working fluid circulates in a system by capillary force in tubes instead of mechanical input power. The cooling effect of CPCS is investigated with respect to heat flux, condensation temperature under different working fluids (water, ethanol, methanol). Capillary pumped flows are visualized under various conditions and mass flow rate and temperature are experimentally measured. It is shown that the increasing tendency of mass flux for each working fluid is observed as the temperature of evaporator increases, and that the cooling possibility of CPCS depends on the performance of evaparator and condenser which sustains the steady state temperature continuously.

In this study, thickness, density and effective thermal conductivity of frost forming on the horizontal cylinder were measured with various air temperature and humidity. Reynolds number and temperature of cooling surface are controlled 17300 and
$l5^{\circ}C$ respectively. In each case of air temperature$5^{\circ}C,\;10^{\circ}C,\;15^{\circ}C,$ varying absolute humidity, experiments were executed. In measuring frost surface temperature and thickness of frost layer, infrared thermocouples and CCD camera were used. Frost was gathered from cylinder to measure mass of frost layer. Experimental data showed that the thickness and effective thermal conductivity of the frost layer increase with respect to time. Thickness of frost layer increase with humidity increasing, and density of frost layer increase with air temperature rising. Frost growth with air temperature and density of frost layer with humidity are affected by whether dew point is below or above freezing point. 
In the present study, the analysis on heat and fluid flow in the single screw extruder is carried out by simultaneously considering the metering section and the die. The finite difference method and the finite volume method are applied to the metering section and the die, respectively. The zonal method is used to couple the metering section and the die. To investigate the effect of die on the characteristics of heat and fluid flow in the single screw extruder, the pressure back flow is included in the analysis. The screwtip rotation is also considered by employing the quasi 3dimensional die model. The present results are compared with the numerical and experimental data available in the literatures.

An efficient method is developed for mold thermal cycle analysis in repeated forming process, which is well suited to the analysis in TV glass production. plunger, which is a mold to pressform the glass, undergoes temperature fluctuation during a cycle due to the repeated contact and separation from the glass, which attains a cyclic steady state in the end. If analyzed straightforwardly of this problem, it leads to more than 80 cycles to get reasonable solution, and it is yet hard to setup stopping creteria due to extremely slow convergence. An exponential fitting method is proposed to solve the problem, where an exponential function is found to best approximate temperature values of 3 consecutive cycles, and new cycle is restarted with the function value at infinite time. From numerical implementation, it is found that the method reduces the number of cycles dramatically to only
$6{\sim}15$ cycles to reach accurate solution within$1^{\circ}$ error. A system for the analysis is contructed, in which the thermal analysis is performed by commercial software ANSYS, and the fitting of the result is done by IMSL library. 
River water is higher in temperature than the surrounding environment during the winter. It is highly suitable a heat source for heat pump system. Despite its suitability, however, it is not widely used, due to its fouling and corrosive nature in heat exchanger tubes of evaporator. It is designed priortreatment system which come into direct contact with the river water, such as autoseamer, ozone generator for bactericidal test and autocleaning system. And it is analyzed treatment effects for its operation. It is designed twostage compression heat pump system using R134a with heating load 35.16kW, ad analyzed its performance. As a result it is obtained 3.08 COP when midpoint pressure is 1,200kPa, and bypass ratio of flowing refreigerant to highstage compressor is 25.1%

As a part of the ongoing effort towards commercial application of hightemperature fuel cell power generation systems, we have recently built a pilotscale molten carbonate fuel cell power plant and tested it. The stack test system is composed of diverse peripheral units such as reformer, preheater, water purifier, electrical loader, gas supplier, and recycling systems. The stack itself was made of 40cells of
$6000cm^2$ area each. The stack showed an output higher than 25kW power and a reliable performance at atmospheric operation. A pressurized performance was also tested, and it turned out the cell performance increased though a few cells have shown a symptom of gas crossover. The pressurized operation characteristics could be analyzed with numerical computation results of a stack model. 
In this study, heat transfer and Pressure drop characteristics for R718 in the plate and shell heat exchanger (P&SHE) investigated experimentally. The plates are circular and welded into a stack which fits into a cylindrical shell in P&SHE. Although apparently very different from rectangular the compact brazed plate heat exchanger (CBE), the underlying flow passage structure through the P&SHE is the same as in the CBE. The R718 between plate side and shell side was performed a counterflow heat exchange. Heat transfer characteristic of R718 were measured for turbulent flow in P&SHE by using wilson plot technique. Heat transfer experiment Ivas performed in the
$200{\leq}Re{\leq}500$ regime and Pressure drop experiment was performed in the$150{\leq}Re{\leq}1600$ regime. The purpose of this study is to investigate heat transfer and friction factor correlations for R718 in P&SHE and to offer fundamental data for experiment 
A simulation program using the mass transfer correlation was constructed to analyze 1D simplified condensing flow across the tube bank. Higher efficiency was anticipated by reducing the flue gas temperature down below the dew point where the water vapor in the flue gas is condensed at the surface of the heat exchanger; that is, the heat transfer by the latent heat is added to that by the sensible heat. Thus, there can be an optimum operating condition to maximize the heat recovery from the flue gas. The temperature rises of the flue gas and the cooling water between the inlet and the outlet of the tube bank were compared with the experimental data reported previously. The predicted results agree well with the experimental data. Using this simulation program, the parametric studies have been conducted fur various operating conditions, such as the velocities and temperatures of the vapor/gas mixture and the cooling water, the number of the rows, and the conductivity of the wall material.

Direct numerical solution for flow and heat transfer for Benard convection with a body is obtained using an accurate and efficient FourierChebyshev collocation and multidomain method. The flow and temperature fields are obtained fur different Rayleigh numbers and thermal boundary conditions of body. The body has adiabatic and constant temperature conditions. The existence of a body gives different flow and heat transfer fields in the system, compared to pure Benard convection. The flow and temperature fields are also affected by the thermal boundary condition of a body.

An experimental study was carried out in a cavity with upper channel and square heat surface by visualization equipment with MachZehnder interferometer and laser apparatus. The visualization system consists of 2dimensional sheet light by ArgonIon Laser with cylindrical lens and flow picture recording system. Instant simultaneous velocity vectors at whole field were measured by 2D PIV system(CACTUS'2000). Obtained result showed various flow patterns. Severe unsteady flow fluctuation within the cavity are remarkable and sheared mixing layer phenomena are also found at the region where inlet flow is collided with the counterclockwise rotating main primary vortex. Photographs of MachZehnder are also compared in terms of constant heat flux.

Study on natural convection in a rectangular enclosure with a heating point has been studied by numerical and experimental methods. The governing equations were solved by a finite volume method, and for pressure term was used a SIMPLE algorithm. The parameters considered for numerical study are positions and surface temperature of a heating point i.e. Y/H = 0.25. 0.5. 0.75 and
$11^{\circ}C{\leq}{\Delta}T{\leq}59^{\circ}C$ . The results of isotherms and velocity vectors have been represented for various parameters. Based on the numerical data. the mean Nusselt number in the space can be expressed as a function of Grashof number 
The experimental study has been conducted on heat transfer characteristics of the plate heat exchangers(PHE) by several researchers. However most of all were focused on a gaskettype plate heat exchanger. Therefore further studies are need for a brazedtype. In the present study, a brazed type plate heat exchanger was tested at a chevron angle of
$70^{\circ},\;55^{\circ}$ and$45^{\circ}$ with R22 and R410A. Condensation temperatures were$24.5^{\circ}C$ , and mass flux was ranged from 35 to$60kg/m^2s$ . The inlet and exit conditions are in a superheated vapor and subcooled liquid, respectively. The heat transfer coefficient increased with the chevron angle. The heat transfer coefficient of R22 was lamer than that of R410A for all chevron angles. 
A numerical investigation is made of timedependent buoyant convection in a square of a nonBoussinesq fluid. The densitytemperature
$({\rho}T)$ relation is modeled by a quadratic function, with the maximum density${\rho}_M$ at temperature$T_M$ . The horizontal walls of the square are insulated, and a pulsating temperature$T_H=T_M+{\Delta}T'\;sin({\omega}{\tau})$ is imposed on the hot vertical sidewall. The temperature at the cold wall$T_c$ is constant. Extensive numerical solutions to the governing NavierStokes equations are portrayed. Resonance is identified by monitoring the amplitude of the midplane Nusselt number,$A(Nu^*)$ . The primary resonance frequency is found by matching${\omega}$ to the nondimensional basic mode$N_1$ of internal gravity oscillations. Due to the quadratic$({\rho}T)$ relationship, the effective pulsation frequency for density,$2{\omega}$ , is meaningful, which brings forth the secondary resonance frequency, i.e.,$2{\omega}=N_1$ 
In this study, heat collecting performance was study of flat plate solar collector by the angle. A method of study on were made turn out artificial sun by the angle of 0, 15, 30 degrees. The heat performances were measured the tube array surface temperature by thermocouple. The winter season natural condition for 4 times on the angles of various general and emboss glass at optimum distance(0.68m) calculated of between sun and solar collector. To sum up temperature rise is appear more or less that emboss glass is all the better for general glass. The temperature variable at below of 30 degree was appear very less. The maximum performance of this system at that it is tilt angle of 30 with general glass is appear Q:11.54(kcal/min) and
${\Delta}T=18.9^{\circ}C$ . 
Natural convection heat transfer in an enclosure with an opening in the right vertical wall and a heat source at the bottom surface is investigated using a holographic interferometric technique. The effects of the opening length, divider length attached to the top wall, and heater temperature on the temperature distribution are examined. The openging length as well as the divider length greatly affects the degree of inflow and outflow of air. With a small opening, the opening doesn't affect much the upward warm air flow resulting in the symmetric temperature distribution. On the other hand, with the increase of the opening length, the inward cold flow moves the upward flow to the left direction. With the increase of the divider length, temperature in the lower region of enclosure becomes higher for the small opening and lower for the large opening.

This research was concerned with the enhancement of heat transfer by surfactant added to the aqueous solution of LiBr. Different horizontal tubes were tested with and without an additive of normal octyl alcohol. The test tubes were a bare tube, floral tube, hydrophilic tube. The additive concentration was about
$0.05{\sim}5.5mass%$ . The heat transfer coefficient was measured as a function of solution flow rate in the range of$0.01{\sim}0.034 kg/ms$ . The experimental result were compared with cases without surfactant. The enhancement of heat transfer by Marangoni convection effect which was generated by addition of the surfactant is observed in each test tube. 
A 3 valvetype pulse tube refrigerator optains its cooling effect from pressure drop by releasing the part of the charged gas through hot end nozzle. The objective of this study is to analyze the performance and to find an optimal expansion pressure of the 3 valvetype pulse tube refrigerator. It is assumed that gas lumps are not mixed and periodically repeat the adiabatic compression and expansion processes. And the nodal model is applied for the analysis of the regenerator. As the result of analysis, the optimum pressure at the end of expansion process was about 8090% of the maximum pressure.

This experimental study investigated the flow motion of the working fluid for various diameters of miniature thermosyphons and the performance characteristics for the various amount of the working fluid. The temperatures of condenser surface were measured and visual observations were conducted. The test results show that some fluid condensed in the tube diameters of 0.18cm and 0.22cm is not returned to the evaporator section due to capillary effect so that large temperature gradients are measured. To enhance returning the working fluid, one copper wire of 0.5mm diameter was inserted and the test results show good performance. When the liquid charge was less than 10% in volume dryout was occurred fur the thermosyphons of the inner diameter of 1.8mm and 2.2mm.

The pressure drop characteristics of R22 and R410A(a mixture of 50wt% R32 and 50wt% R125) flowing in a small diameter tube with 1.77[mm] inner diameter and 3.14[mm] outer diameter was investigated experimentally. the mass fluxes of refrigerants are ranged from 450 to
$1050[kg/(m^2{\cdot}s)]$ and the qualites are varied from 0.05 to 0.95. The main experimental results were summarized as follows; The singlephase liquid friction factors for small diameter tubes are higher than those predicted by the Blasius equation. In case of twophase flow, the pressure gradient of the small diameter tube increases with increasing mass velocity and vapor quality. The experimental data are not well correlated by predictions which were proposed for the large diameter tube. 
This paper presents the experimental investigation about miniature heat pipe for notebook PC. The focus of analysis is the operating temperature not to exceed
$65^{\circ}C$ maximum allowable CPU surface temperature. Copper is used to heat pipe material and brass is wick material, and working fluid is selected to water. This cooling system is heat spreader method using a aluminum plate, since this method is most commonly used. According to the present study, heat for 3mm heat pipe, 8W, and for 4mm heat pipe, 10W, is found to power dissipation limit respectively, Soon after this investigation, sufficient long term life test should be followed. 
A numerical study has been performed for the 2dimensional film cooling employed in the cooling of hot components such as gas turbines. The flow and heat transfer characteristics are numerically simulated using FLUENT software. Blowing ratios vary from 0.25 to 5.0 and coolant injection angles vary from
$15^{\circ}\;to\;60^{\circ}\;in\;15^{\circ}$ increment. The result shows that, for all cases, there exists a blowing ratio which maximizes film cooling effect (measured by the distance from the slot exit to the downstream wall location at which temperature increases to 900 K) for a given injection angle. It is also observed that the film cooling effectiveness decreases when downstream wall is sunk or lifted. The simulation has been performed using both constant properties and temperature dependent variable properties. It is found that the cases with constant properties overestimate the film cooling effect considerably. 
By the means of microcellular (earning, we can make polymers with
$10{\mu}m$ sized gas bubbles. After the$CO_2$ gas bubbles solve, diffuse and leave the polymer matrix, the thermal properties of polymer matrix are changed. Expecially, thermal conductivity becomes low. So, the polymer matrixes with gas bubbles can be used as insulator In this paper, we make model after microcellular foamed polymer matrix to know the change of thermal properties. Most of all, the purpose of this paper is the mlcrocellular foamed polymer matrix's availability as a insulator Beside of thermal properties the surface of microcellular foamed polymer is polished and easy to be colored. Above all the mechanical properties are better than the other insulator. So, microcellular foamed polymer can be used as exterior of building or it can be replaced as a tile. 
An experimental investigation on the incipience of nucleate boiling in forced flow of water is performed as a verification and extension of previous analysis. The effects of the subcooling, Reynolds number and surface curvature on the onset of nucleate boiling(ONB) in a concentric annulus flow channel with smooth inner heating surface is investigated experimentaly. Through flow visualization, the boiling phenomenon was observed directly and the experimental results were examined to find ONB heat flux. The results show that the variation of heat flux at ONB is increased linearly as the Reynolds number and subcooling are increased. The effect of surface curvature is very great specially for a small radius when radius of the inner heating tube is increased, the heat flux at ONB is almost inversely increased for the range of this investigation. It is found that the effect of convex surface curvature on ONB heat flux is very significant for a small radius.

HighTc superconducting current leads with multistep and continually varied crosssectional area are studied to reduce heat leak into cryostat and material use. Assuming conductioncooled lead the crosssectional area is reduced along the heat flow direction according to the increase of critical current density which increases with decreasing temperature. In this study, we also analyze the multistep crosssectional area HighTc current leads. The multist데 current leads changes the crosssectional area to have constant safetyfactor at changed section. The heat leak into cryostat, total voume, safetyfactor and the temperature profiles are compared to those of the constant safetyfactor current leads. The developed methods are applied to the Bi2223 superconductor sheathed with AgAu alloy.

Park, HyungGyu;Chung, JaeDong;Kim, CharnJung;Lee, JoonSik;Park, HeuiJae;Cho, YoungMan;Cho, HaeKyun;Park, DeukIl 385
An analysis of the heat transfer in a PDP ventilation chamber has been conducted to investigate the required heat curve and temperature uniformity of the panels. Firstly, experiment in a test chamber has been carried out and compared with the unsteady 3D numerical simulation. Reasonable agreement was found, which suggested that the employed numerical model had its credibility in an actual PDP ventilation process. On this ground, tacttype heating/cooling system was analyzed. The panel temperature was more uniform in the$40^{\circ}C$ tacttype system than in the$80^{\circ}C$ one. Comparison of full simulation of a cart and simplified simulation of one panel shows the panel pitch, which is closely related to a production rate, can be also predicted. 
Monodisperse particles generated by a condensation particle generator are widely used to meet the experimental and industrial needs. The characteristics of particles generated by homogeneous nucleation have been studied experimentally using a laminar flow condensation particle generator. Dry nitrogen gas saturated with oleic acid vapor was cooled well below the saturation temperature causing the highly supersaturated vapor to nucleate. The dependence of GSD(Geometric Standard Deviation), GMD(Geometric Mean Diameter), and the mass concentration of particles on the temperature at the evaporator, flow rate and the temperature condition at condenser was studied. The experimental results show that the mass concentration of particles is affected by the radial temperature profile at condenser. Nucleation at the center of the condenser causes the mass concentration of particles to increase. The experimental results also show that the suppression of additional nucleation by a constant temperature condition at the condenser increases the mean diameter of particle.

Experimental Study on the Temperature Distribution and CO, NOx Emission of Porous Ceramic Oil BurnerExperimental study on the porous ceramic burner for oil burning has been performed. Temperature profile of the combustor and CO and NOx emission have been obtained for with and without porous ceramic plate. It is found that very uniform and high temperature region with porous ceramic plate can be realized due to high radiation emission from the plate and also obtained lower CO and soot particulate emission, when compared to the conventional burner. When this burning method is applied to conventional boiler of small heating capacity, it is found that near 6 and 7 percent increase in thermal efficiency could be obtained without a proper calibration for optimization.

Growth Characteristics of Silica Particles Using In situ Sampling from
$H_2/O_2TEOS$ Diffusion FlameGrowth characteristics of silica particles have been studied experimentally using in situ sampling technique from$H_2/O_2TEOS$ diffusion flame with carefully devised sampling probe. Verification of sampling result was done through new method and effects of flame condition and TEOS flow rate on growth characteristics of silica particles were investigated. By comparing particles sampled by thermophoretic sampling in flame with those by collector sampling after probe, particles do not change before and after probe sampling, which was clearly proved from the fact that the result of TEM image analysis makes good agreement with that of SMPS measurement. As flame temperature increases, the effect of coalescence or sintering becomes important mechanism during growth of silica particles, resulting in canceling the effect of coagulation, which makes mean diameter of silica particles increase slowly. With increase in TEOS flow rate, the number concentration of generated silica particle increases but residence time of particles in flame decreases. As a result, there exists upper limit to which the diameter of silica particle increases under same flame condition. 
A diesel engine is one of the major prime movers to its high thermal efficiency. But due to the recent attention far the environmental pollution, the emissions of diesel engine became to a important problem. So it is needed to understand the characteristics of diesel spray injected into a combustion chamber. The factor which controls the diesel spray are the injection pressure, the nozzle diameter, the impinging angle and the variation of pressure and temperature. In this paper, experiments were conducted far the variation of the environmental temperature(273k, 373k, 573k), free spray and impinging spray. And the notions of penetration, spray angle, axial distance for free spray, and axial distance, spray thickness from impinging wall fur impinging spray.

We have developed a simple model for describing the nonspherical particle growth phenomena using modified 1dimensional sectional method. In this model, we solve simultaneously particle volume and surface area conservation sectional equations which consider particles' irregularities. From the correlation between two conserved properties of sections, we can predict the evolution of the aggregates' morphology. We compared this model with a simple monodisperseassumed model and more rigorous two dimensional sectional model. For the comparison, we simulated silica and titania particle formation and growth in a constant temperature reactor environment. This new model shows a good agreement with the detailed two dimensional sectional model in total number concentration, primary particle size. The present model can also successfully predict particle size distribution and morphology without costing very heavy computation load and memory needed for the analysis of two dimensional aerosol dynamics.

Propagation characteristics of tribrachial flames have been investigated experimentally in both twodimensional and axisymmetric counterflows. Mixture fraction gradient at stoichiometric location is controlled by varying equivalence ratios at the two nozzles, one of which maintains rich while the other lean premixture. Tribrachial flames propagating through these mixtures are investigated. The propagation speed of tribrachial flames in twodimensional counterflow decreases with fuel concentration gradient and has much higher speed than the maximum speed predicted previously in twodimensional mixing layers. From an analogy with premixed flame propagation, this excessively large propagation speed can be attributed to the tribrachial flame propagating with respect to burnt gas. Corresponding maximum speed in the limit of small mixture fraction gradient is estimated and extrapolated experimental results substantiate this limiting speed. As mixture fraction gradient approaches zero, a transition in propagation characteristics occurs, such that the propagation speed of tribrachial flame approaches stoichiometric laminar burning velocity with respect to burnt gas. Similar behavior has been obtained for tribrachial flames propagating in axisymmetric counterflow.

The consolidation behavior of multicomponent particles prepared by the flame hydrolysis deposition process is examined to identify the effects of Si substrate temperature. To fabricate multicomponent particles, a vaporphase ternary mixture of
$SiCl_4(100 cc/min),\;BCl_3(30cc/min)\;and\;POCl_3,(5cc/min)$ was fed into a coflow diffusion oxyhydrogen flame burner. The doped silica soot bodies were deposited on silicon substrates under various deposition conditions. The surface temperature of the substrate was measured by an infrared thermometer. Changes in the chemical states of the doped silica soot bodies were examined by FTIR(Fouriertransformed infrared spectroscopy). The deposited particles on the substrate were heated at$1300^{\circ}C$ for 3h in a furnace at a heating rate of 10K/min. SiOB bending peak has been found when surface temperature exceeds$720^{\circ}C$ . Correspondingly, the case with substrate temperatures above loot produced good consolidation result. 
The atomization characteristics of airassist atomizer which is surrounded by a coflowing airstream is investigated. The airassist, coflow air stream had swirl imparted to them in the same direction with 45 degree's angle swillers. The fuel and air entered the combustor at ambient temperature and the combustor was operated in an unconfined environment. Diesel fuel was used for all the experiments. Drop size and mean velocity are reported for certain distances downstream from the nozzle. The droplet size and velocity measurements were performed using a twocomponent phase/Doppler particle analyzer and velocity profiles across the entire flowfield are presented.

Chemical compositions of monodisperse
$SiO_2/TiO_2$ multicomponent aggregates were measured for different heights from the burner surface and different mobility diameters of aggregates.$SiO_2/TiO_2$ multicomponent particles were generated in a hydrogen/oxygen coflow diffusion flame from two sets of precursors: TTIP (titanium tetraisopropoxide), TEOS(tetraethylorthosilicate). To maintain 1:1 mole ratio of TTIP:TEOS vapor theoretically, flow rate of carrier gas$N_2$ was fixed at 0.61pm for TTIP, at 0.11pm for TEOS. In situ sampling probe was used to supply particles into differential mobility analyzer(DMA) which was calibrated with using commercial DMA(TSI 3071A) and classifying monodisperse multicomponent particles. Classified particles were collected with electrophoretic collector. The distributions of composition from particle to particle were determined using EDS (energy dispersive spectrometry) coupled with TEM (transmission electron microscope). The chemical (atomic) compositions of classified monodisperse particle were obtained for different heights; z=40mm, 60mm, 80mm. The results suggested that the atomic composition of$SiO_2$ decreased with the height from burner surface and the composition of$SiO_2$ and$TiO_2$ approached to the value of 1 to 1 in far downstream. It is also found that the composition of$SiO_2$ decreases as the mobility diameter of aggregate increases. 
The lowemission and highperformance diesel combustion is an important issue in the combustion research community. In order to understand the detailed diesel flame field involving the complex Physical Processes, It Is quite desirable to study diesel spray dynamics, autoignition and spray flame propagation. Dynamics of fuel spray is a crucial element for airfuel mixture formation flame stabilization and pollutant formation. In the present study, the diesel RCM (Rapid Compression Machine) and the Electric Control injection system have been designed and developed to investigate the effects of injection Pressure, injection timing, and intake air temperature on spray dynamics and diesel combustion processes. In terms of the macroscopic spray combustion characteristics it is observed that the fuel jet atomization and the droplet breakup processes become much faster by increasing the injection pressure and the spray angle. With increasing the cylinder pressure there is a tendency that the shape of spray pattern in the downstream region tends to be spherical due to the increase of air density and the corresponding drag force. Effects of intake temperature and injection pressure on autoignition is experimently analysed and discussed in detail.

The paper describes a study of the variation of the NO production emitted from turbulent propane flames established on a practical combustor where a primary and a secondary fuel lines are installed. The flowrate of the secondary fuel is pulsated or added in addition to that of the primary fuel which constrantly flows to the nozzle of the burner. Two modes depending on the positions of supplying the secondary fuel are performed; one is for its position to be placed at the center of the primary fuel tube and the other around the stabilization baffle. The mean concentrations of gas species,
$O_2,\;Co\;CO_2,\;NO$ , and HC(unburnt hydrocarbones) have been measured at the exit of the combustor. As equivalence ration$({\Phi})$ is increased the profile of the NO concentration on the latter mode rises slowly less than that on the former one. In the range of${\Phi}=0.5$ to 0.54 the NO production is reduced by about 35% more on the latter mode than on the former one. The influence of pulsating the secondary fuel on the variation of the NO concentration doesn't appear at both modes. 
In order to investigate the effectiveness of an orifice system in producing pressure drops and the effect of compressibility on the Pressure drop, computations using the massaveraged implicit WavierStokes equations were applied to the axisymmetric pipe flows with the operating pressure ratio from 1.5 to 20.0. The standard ke turbulence model was employed to close the governing equations. Numerical calculations were carried out for some combinations of the multiple orifice configurations. The present CFD data showed that the orifice systems, which have been applied to incompressible flow regime to date, can not be used for the hint operating Pressure ratio flows. The orifice interval did not strongly affect the total pressure drop but the orifice area ratio more than 2.5 led to high pressure drops. The total pressure drop rapidly increased in the range of the operating pressure ratio from 1.5 to 4.0, but it did not depend on the operating pressure ratio over 4.0.

The flow characteristics around an elliptic cylinder with axis ratio of AR=2 located near a flat plate were investigated experimentally to study the interaction between the cylinder wake and the turbulent boundary layer. The pressure distributions on the cylinder surface and on the flat plate were measured with varying the angle of attack of the cylinder. In addition, the velocity profiles of wake behind the cylinder were measured using a hotwire anemometry As the angle of attack increases, the location of peak pressure on the windward and leeward surfaces of the cylinder moves toward the rear and front of the cylinder, respectively. At positive angles of attack, the position of the minimum pressure on the flat plate surface is moved downstream, but it is moved upstream at negative angles of attack. With increasing the angle of attack, the vortex shedding frequency is gradually decreased and the critical angel of attack exists in terms of the gap ratio. By installing the elliptic cylinder at negative angle of attack, the turbulent boundary layer over the flat plate is disturbed more than that at positive incidence. This may be attributed to the shift of separation point on the lower surface of the cylinder according to the direction of the angle of attack.

An experimental study is performed to analyze flow structures behind a local suction/blowing in a flatplate turbulent boundary layer, The local forcing is given to the boundary layer flow by means of a sinusoidally oscillating jet issuing from a thin spanwise slot at the wall. The Reynolds number based on the momentum thickness is about
$Re_{\theta}=1700$ . The effects of local forcing are scrutinized by altering the forcing frequency$(0.011{\leq}f^+{\leq}0.044)$ . The forcing amplitude is fixed at$A_0=0.4$ . It is found that a small local forcing reduces the skin friction, and this reduction increases with the forcing frequency. A phaseaveraging technique is employed to capture the coherent structures. Velocity signals are decomposed into a periodic part and a fluctuating part. An organized spanwise vortical structure is generated by the local forcing. The larger reduction of skin friction for the higher forcing frequencies is attributed to the diminished adverse effect of the secondary vortex. An investigation of the random fluctuation components reveals that turbulent energy is concentrated near the center of vortical structures. 
A Navierstokes based finite volume method has been developed to analyze an incompressible, steady state, turbulent walljet flow. The standard ke model, the RNG
${\kappa}{\varepsilon}$ model and their nonlinear counterparts are adopted as a closure relationship. Comparison with the experimental data shows that a linear${\kappa}{\varepsilon}$ model performs satisfatorily for twodimensional walljet flows. However, as the flow becomes three dimensional, the linear model fails to predict the spanwise jet growth accurately and the nonlinear model needs to be adopted to capture threedimensional flow characteristics. 
The effect of curvature, rotation, variable crosssection can make very complex flow pattern in turbomachinery such as Pumps, compressors, turbines, In this study of turbulent flow characteristics rotating
$90^{\circ}$ curved duct under a Plane rate of strain condition is computationally analyzed. The objective of this study is to understand the complex turbulent flow phenomena in turbomachinery passage by analyzing the modeled rotating$90^{\circ}$ curved duct flow. RSM(Reynolds Stress Model) was employed for the turbulence modeling of Reynolds stress in momentum equations proposed by Shin(1995). The three dimensional computational code which adopts RSM for trubulence modeling was newly developed for the generalized curvilinear coordinate. 
The objective of this study is to increase lift and decrease drag of an airfoil by delaying flow separation with piezoceramic actuators. The airfoil used is NACA 0012 and the chord length is 30cm. An experiment is performed at the freestream velocity of 15m/s at which the Reynolds number is
$3{\times}10^5$ . Seven rectangular actuators are attached to the airfoil surface and move up and down based on the electric signal. At the attack angle of$16^{\circ}$ , the separation point is delayed downstream due to momentum addition induced by the movement of the actuators. Drag and lift are measured using an inhouse 2dimensional load cell and the surface pressures are also measured. Lift is increased by 10%, drag is reduced by 50%, and the efficiency is increased to 170%. The flow fields with and without control are visualized using the smokewire and tuft techniques. 
Flow over a sphere is controlled experimentally at
$Re=10^5$ using electromagnetic actuators. The electromagnetic actuator developed in this study is composed of the permanent magnet electromagnet membrane and slot. Eight actuators are placed inside the sphere at equally spaced intervals on a latitudinal plane and the position of the control slot is 76 from the stagnation point. Each actuator generates a periodic blowing and suction through the slot at variable frequencies of$10{\sim}140Hz$ and variable amplitudes by controlling electric signals applied to the electromagnet. Drag on the sphere measured using a load cell is significantly reduced with control at the forcing frequencies larger than the natural shedding frequency$({\approx}14Hz\;at\;Re=10^5)$ , whereas drag is slightly increased at the forcing frequency of 10Hz. It is shown from pressure measurement that the static pressure in the rear surface of the sphere is significantly increased with control, indicating that the separation is delayed due to control. Flow visualizations also show that the detaching shear layer is more attracted to the sphere center with control, the separation bubble size is significantly reduced, and motion inside the bubble is very weak, as compared to the case of uncontrolled flow. 
Fundamental studies on the drag reduction of the circular cylinder having dimple were conducted by the measurement of the fluid force acting on the cylinder and by the flow visualization around the cylinder. The drag coefficients were changed by the shape and the space for the arrangement of the dimple. The drag of the cylinder was reduced about 50% by the proper arrangement of the dimple. The flowfield around the cylinder having dimple, which was the minimum drag, was visualized by the hydrogen bubble technique. In this case, the separation points were moved rearward and the wake region was small in comparison with the cylinder having no dimple.

An experimental investigation has been carried out for two circular cylinders having different groove configurations(U and Vshape). The results were compared with those for the smooth circular cylinder. The drag force, mean velocity and turbulent intensity profiles of wake behind the cylinders were measured with varying the Reynolds number
$Re=8000{\sim}14,000$ based on the cylinder diameter. As a results, the Ugroove circular cylinder was found to be most effective riblet shape with reducing the drag up to 21%. As the Reynolds number increases, the vortex shedding frequency of the grooved cylinders becomes a little larger, compared to the smooth cylinder. The flow visualization using the smokewire technique was also carried out to see the flow structure qualitatively. 
Recently a considerable interest is being concentrated on industrial applications of supersonic Coanda wall jets, but the flow physics are not still understood well. It is of practical importance to evaluate the effectiveness of supersonic Coanda wall jet devices fer such industrial purposes. In the present work, experiments and computations were performed to Set a better understanding of the supersonic Coanda jet physics. The experiments were made using a small blowdown wind tunnel. The operating pressure ratio and the Coanda surface configuration were changed to investigate their influences on the wall jet flows. Twodimensional NavierStokes computations were performed using a TVD finite volume scheme to effectively capture the important wave structures of supersonic Coanda jet flows. Both experimental and computational results showed several important hysterical features of the supersonic Coanda wall jets; the attachment and detachment of supersonic Coanda jet were strongly dependent on the change processes of the operating pressure ratio and the detailed flow configuration.

A ejector system is one of the fluid machinery, which has been mainly used as an exhaust pump or a vacuum pump. The ejector system has often been pointed out to have only a limited efficiency because it is driven by pure shear action and the mixing action between primary and secondary streams. In the present work, numerical simulations were conducted to investigate the effects of the geometry and the mass flow ratio of supersonic ejectordiffuser systems on their mixing performance. A fully implicit finite volume scheme was applied to solve the axisymmetric NavierStokes equations, and the standard
${\kappa}{\varepsilon}$ turbulence model was used to close the governing equations. The flow fields of the supersonic ejectordiffuser systems were investigated by changing the ejector throat area ratio and the mass flow ratio. The existence of the second throat strongly affected the shock wave structure inside the mixing tube as well as the spreading of the underexpanded jet discharging from the primary nozzle, and served to enhance the mixing performance. 
The effects of vortex generators, in the form of small tabs projecting into the flow at the axisymmetric supersonic nozzle exit and triangular thin tapes attached on the inner surface at the nozzle exit, on the characterixtics of supersonic mixing enhancements are experimentally investigated. Deltashaped tabs as small as 1% of the nozzle exit area produce strong counterrotating vortices, and is found to produce significant effects on the jet flowfield downstream of the nozzle. The effects is larger on the underexpanded cases than over and perfectexpanded cases. Nozzle inner surface roughness also can do a role of centerline pressure decay for highly underexpanded jet cases. The effects of the angle of tabs with respect to flow direction are also investigated.

The objective of this investigation is to find effects of the pulsatile flow on the morphological changes of the endothelial cell(E.C.) in blood vessel. The shear flow experiment system is used to get the morphological changes of the E.C. The shapes of E.C. are simulated by the cosine curves and computer simulation is used to calculate the pressure and shear stress fields on the E.C. The inlet boundary condition is given from the measured velocity data of femoral artery. The endothelial cells reduce their heights in the flow field so as to reduce the pressure and wall shear stress on the surface. As the exposed time increases, the shear stress and pressure on the E.C. are reduced under the pulsatile flow. The shear stresses on the cell surface show the minimum values during the deceleration phase.

Flow Visualization of Pulsatile Flow in a Branching Tube using the PIV System and Numerical AnalysisThe objective of the present study is to visualize the pulsatile flow fields by using threedimensional computer simulation and the PIV system. A closed flow loop system was built for the steady and unsteady experiments. The Harvard pulsatile pump was used to generate the pulsatile pressure and velocity waveforms. Conifer powder as the tracing particles was added to water to visualize the flow field. Two consecutive particle images were captured by a CCD camera for the image processing. The crosscorrelation method in combination with the moving searching area algorithm was applied for the image processing of the flow visualization. The pulsatile flow fields were visualized effectively by the PIV system in conjunction with the applied algorithm. The range validation and the area interpolation methods were used to obtain the final velocity vectors with high accuracy. The finite volume predictions were used to analyze threedimensional flow patterns in the bifurcation model. The results of the PIV experiment and the computer simulation are in good agreement and the results show the recirculation zones and formation of the paired secondary flow distal to the apex of the bifurcated model. The results also show that the branch flow is pushed strongly to the inner wall due to the inertial force effect and helical motions are generated as the flow proceeds toward the outer wall.

Experiments were done for the comparison of performance and flow characteristics between a two stage axial flow fan and a counterrotating axial flow fm. The fan performance curves were obtained by the Korean Standard Testing Methods for Turbo Fans and Blowers (KS B 6311). The fan flow characteristics were measured using a fivehole probe by the nonnulling method. Each stage of the two stage axial flow fan used for the present study has an eight bladed rotor and thirteen stator blades. The front and the rear rotor of the counterrotating axial flow fan have eight blades each and are driven by coaxial counter rotating shafts through a gear box located between the rear rotor and the electric motor. Both of the two axial fan configurations use identical rotor blades and the same operating conditions for the onetoone comparison of the two. Performance characteristics of the two configurations were obtained and compared by varying the blade setting angles and axial gaps between the blade rows. The passage flow fields between the hub and tip of the fans were measured and analyzed for the particular operating conditions of peak efficiency, minimum and maximum pressure coefficients.

The aim of this paper is to understand the time averaged pressure distributions in a highspeed centrifugal compressor channel diffuser at design and offdesign flow rates. Pressure distributions from the impeller exit to the channel diffuser exit are measured and discussed far various flow rates from choke to near surge condition, and the effect of operating condition is discussed. The strong nonuniformity in the pressure distribution is obtained over the vaneless space and semivaneless space caused by the impellerdiffuser interaction. As the flow rate increases, flow separation near the throat, due to large incidence angle at the vane leading edge, increases aerodynamic blockage and reduces the aerodynamic flow area downstream. Thus the minimum pressure location occurs downstream of the geometric throat, and it is named as the aerodynamic throat. And at choke condition, normal shock occurs downstream of this aerodynamic throat. The variation in the location of the aerodynamic throat is discussed.

An experimental study on pumping characteristics of various turbotype drag pumps is purformed. The inlet pressures are measured for various outlet pressures of the test pump. The maximum compression ratios for nitrogen are 100,000(Disktype drag pump+ turbo molecular pump), 10000(Helicaltype drag pump+turbo molecular pump), 850 (Helicaltype drag pump), 100(disktype drag pump).

This paper is concerned with the viscous interaction between rotor and stator. The viscous interaction is caused by wakes from upstream blades. The rotor cascade in the experiment was composed with five blades, and cylinders were placed to make the stator wakes and their locations were about 50 percent upstream of blade chord. The locations of cylinders were varied in the direction of cascade axis with 0, 12.5, 25, 50, and 75 percent of pitch length. The static pressure distributions on the blade surfaces and the velocity distributions in the cascade flow were measured. From the experimental result it was found that the value of velocity defect by a cylinder wake might vary depending on the wake position within the cascade but the value at the cascade exit approached to some constant value regardless of the difference of wake locus. The momentum defect at the downstream from the cascade and the pressure distribution on the blade surfaces showed that the wake flowing near the blade surfaces caused the decrease of lift and the increase of drag regardless of the disappearance of flow separation.

In this study, experimental and numerical analyses are carried out to investigate the performance of centrifugal pump with various air admitting conditions. Experiments on pump performance under airwater twophase flow n accomplished using a centrifugal pump with semiopen type impeller having three, five and seven blades, respectively. Also, the numerical analysis of turbulent airwater twophase flow using finite volume method has been carried out to obtain the pressure, velocities and void fraction on the basis of a socalled bubbly flow model with the constant size and shape of cavity. The results obtained through this study show the reasonable agreements within the range of bubbly flow regime. There are promising developments concerning application of the present study for the flow in a centrifugal pump with twophase flow conditions and efforts must be followed to improve the turbulence model and twophase flow model for turbomachinery.

In this study. an offdesign performance prediction program for centrifugal pumps is developed. To estimate the losses in an impeller flow passage, twozone model and twoelement in series(TEIS) model are used. At impeller exit. the mixing process occurs with an increase in entropy. In twozone model. there are both primary zone and secondary zone for an isentropic core flow and an average of all nonisentropic streamtubes respectively. The level of the core flow diffusion in an impeller was calculated by using TEIS model. While internal losses in an impeller an automatically estimated by using the above models, some empirical correlations far estimating external losses. far example, disk friction loss, recirculation loss and leakage loss are used. In order to analyze the vaneless diffuser flow. the momentum equations for the radial and tangential directions are used and solved together with continuity and energy equations.

Recently TEIS model, Twozone model aid Stanitz equations are often used for offdesign performance prediction of centrifugal compressor and pump. The prediction results often agree well with experimental data. However these models and equations have some important variables which have a great influence on overall performance prediction me. But no systematic study about these variables has been performed. So, in this paper, a systematic study about these variables influence on overall performance prediction owe is peformed. Finally the meaning of the variables and the research to be undertaken are discussed.

터보머신 태부에 존재하는 정익  동익의 상호작용 유동현상을 수치모사 하는 코드를 병렬화 하였다 정익  동익의 상호작용을 해석하는 데에 편리하도륵 MultiBlock Grid System을 도입하여 계산영역을 형성하였고, 동익의 움직임으로 인해 발생하는 Sliding Interface부분은 Patched 알고리즘을 적용하여 해석하였다. 정익과 동익의 수를 1대 1로 단순화시켜 수치모사한 결과와 정익과 동익의 수를 실제 조건과 더 비슷하게 설정한 3대 4의 비율로 맞추어 수치모사한 결과를 비교하였다. 또한, 병렬컴퓨팅으로 인해 단축된 계산시간을 다른 연구에서의 계산시간들과 서로 비교하였다. 2차원 비정상 압축성 NavierStokes 방정식이 이용되었고, 난류모델링에는 Kw SST 모델링이 적응되었다. Roe의 FDS 기법을 사용하여 플럭스를 계산하였고, MUSCL 기법을 적용하여 3차의 공간정확도를 갖도록 하였다. 시간적분에는 이보성의 DPSGS를 사용하였다. 해석결과의 분석에는 Timeaveraged pressure distribution과 Pressure amplitude distribution 데이터를 사용했다.

Experimental study is conducted to clarify the pneumatic characteristics of brake system for freight train. Emptyload and diaphragm brake systems are mainly installed in the freight trains owned by KNR(Korean National Railroad). Experimental train set is composed of sixteen freight train and one diesel locomotive that are now in use. From the experimental results, in case of commercial brake, emptyload brake system responds to the brake command more slowly than the diaphragm brake system. But, in case of release command, the response time of diaphragm brake system is shorter than that of emptyload one. In the emergency brake test, the decreasing rate of brake pipe pressure of tenth car is almost same that of decreasing rate of commercial brake service.

In order to study unsteady aerodynamic loads on high speed trains passing by each other at the speed of 350km/h, threedimensional flow fields around trains during the crossing event are numerically simulated using the threedimensional Euler equations. The Roe's FDS with MUSCL interpolation is employed to simulate wave phenomena properly. An efficient moving grid system based on domain decomposition techniques is developed to analyze the unsteady flow field induced by the restricted motion of a train on a rail. The numerical simulations of the trains passing by on the doubletrack are carried out to study the effect of the train noseshape, the train length and the existence of tunnel when the crossing event occur. Unsteady aerodynamic loads side force and drag forceacting on the train during the crossing are numerically predicted and anlayzed. It is found that the strength of the side force mainly depends on the noseshape, and that of drag force on tunnel existence. And it is observed that the pushpull like impulsive force successively acts on each car and acts in different directions between the neighborhood cars. The maximum change of the impulsive force reaches about 3 tons. These aerodynamic force data are absolutely necessary for the evaluation of the stability of the high speed multicar train. The results also indicate the effectiveness of the present numerical method for the simulation of unsteady flow field induced by the bodies in the relative motion.

A series of wind tunnel test were conducted on Korean high speed train model to understand the flow physics around the vehicle related to the aerodynamic drag. For the wind tunnel test on highspeed ground vehicle, a moving ground simulation is necessary to predict the aerodynamic drag accurately. So, the models were tested in three wind tunnels with various ground simulation facility including moving belt ground plane system and tangential blowing system. The test results including measured aerodynamic drag and flow visualization showed that a tangential blowing method can be an alternative ground simulation method in short time using conventional wind tunnel.

The test facility of the 1/60scale models for the traintunnel interactions was recently developed to investigate the effects of entry portal shapes, hood shapes and airshafts for reducing the micropressure waves radiating to the surroundings of the tunnel exits by KRRI in Korea. The launching system of train model was chosen as airgun type. In present test rig, after train model is launched, the blast wave by the driver did not enter to inside of the tunnel model. The train model is guided on the onewire system from airgun driver to the brake parts of test facility end. Some cases of the experiments were compared with numerical simulations to prove the test facility.

The purpose of present study is to investigate for reducing micro pressure waves generated according to train speeds
$(240km/h{\sim}380km/h)$ through tunnels with countermeasures as followings; the hood configuration in tunnel entrance. We developed hoods for tunnel of 0.5 km length in the condition of tunnel crosssection area of$107m^2$ on the slab track. According to the results the maximum micropressure wave is reduced by 41.2% for the slit hood installed at the entrance of the tunnel and reduced by 47.7% for the slit hood installed at the entrance of the tunnel and the$45^{\circ}$ slanted portal at the exit of the tunnel 
Numerical and experimental investigations are peformed for the rarefied gas flows in pumping channels of a helicaltype drag pump. Modern turbomolecular pumps include a drag stage in the discharge side, operating roughly in
$10^{2}{\sim}10Torr$ . The flow occurring in the pumping channel develops from the molecular transition to slip flow traveling downstream. Two different numerical methods are used in this analysis: the first one is a continuum approach in solving the NavierStokes equations with slip boundary conditions, and the second one is a stochastic particle approach through the use of the direct simulation Monte Carlo(DSMC) method. The flow in a pumping channel is threedimensional(3D), and the main difficulty in modeling a 3D case comes from the rotating frame of reference. Thus, trajectories of particles are no longer straight lines. In the Present DSMC method, trajectories of particles are calculated by integrating a system of differential equations including the Coriolis and centrifugal forces. Our study is the first instance to analyze the rarefied gas flows in rotating frame in the presence of noninertial effects. 
The experimental study concerns the characteristics of a transitional flow in a concentric annulus with a diameter ration of 0.52, whose outer cylinder is stationary and inner one rotating. The pressure drops and skinfriction coefficients have been measured for the fully developed flow of water and that of glycerinewater solution (44%) at a inner cylinder rotational speed of
$0{\sim}600$ rpm, respectively. The transitional flow have been examined by the measurement of pressure drops and the visualization of flow field, to reveal the relation of the Reynolds and Rossby numbers with the skinfriction coefficients and to understand the flow instability mechanism. The present results show that the skinfriction coefficients have the significant relation with the Rossby numbers, only for laminar regime. The occurrence of transition has been checked by the gradient changes of pressure drops and skinfriction coefficients with respect to the Reynolds numbers. The increasing rate of skinfriction coefficient due to the rotation is uniform for laminar flow regime, whereas it is suddenly reduced for transitional flow regime and, then, is gradually declined for turbulent flow regime. Consequently, the critical (axialflow) Reynolds number decreases as the rotational speed increases. Thus, the rotation of inner cylinder promotes the early occurrence of transition due to the excitation of taylor vortices. 
The shrouded corotating disk flow has a simple figure on geometric basis, but has various and complicated forms of flow. this complicated flows can be variously applied to not only information storage device, but also turbomachinery which is greatly influenced by centrifugal force. This study measured its velocity to measure inner flow field with unique flow field univluenced, using LDV and subminiature hotwire. The result of experiment shows that distribution limits of solid body rotation region, dimensionless velocity gradient and distribution limits of disk surface boundary layer(Ekman layer) are changed by the gap of disks and rotating speed. Circulating vortex which is near the shroud is effected by the gap of disks and rotating speed.

Lee, JaeKeun;Lee, JungEun;Kim, SeongChan;Cho, MinChul;Hyun, ChoongNam;Kwack, DongJin;Lim, KyungSuk;Lee, SungHwa;Yang, ByungSun;Ji, HeonPyung;Jeong, HoiKil;Park, DeogBae;Liu, Benjamin Y.H. 644
A new cyclone system for the vacuum cleaner to collect dusts has been studied experimentally and numerically to meet the constant suction power, hygienic exhaust and a reduction of maintenance cost. The cyclone system of the vacuum cleaner consists of twin cyclones for improving dust collection efficiency. The first. cyclone catches large dust particles and the second one having two separated flows to decrease pressure drop collects small dust particles. The optimal design factors such as dust collection efficiency, pressure drop, and cutsize are investigated from the experimental results by the Taguchi method. Cyclone cleaner systems designed in this study has a good Performance taking into account the dust collection efficiency of 93% and the cutsize of$1.6{\mu}m$ in mass median diameter at the flow rate of 1 CMM. The cyclone vacuum cleaner showed the potential to be an effective method to collect dusts generated in the household. 
Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) is becoming one of essential methods to measure velocity fields of fluid flows. In this paper, a genetic algorithm capable of tracking same particle pairs on two separated images is introduced. The fundamental of the developed technique is based on that ontoone correspondence is found between two tracer particles selected in two image planes by taking advantage of combinatorial optimization of the genetic algorithm. The fitness function controlling reproductive success in the genetic algorithm is expressed by physical distances between the selected tracer particles. The capability of the developed genetic algorithm is verified by a computer simulation on a farced vortex flow.

Animation technique from the PIV database is particularly emphasized to give macroscopic and quantitative description of complex flow fields. This paper shows animation construction and application example for the postprocessing of PIV data. As examples, first case is a pitching airfoil immersed in tree surface water circulating tunnel. Second case is a wake of a modelship. Third case of PIV data is a large scale surface flow field. Obtained images are processed in time sequence by PIV exclusive routines where an efficient and reliable cross correlation algorithm is included for vector identification. All. animation Jobs are implemented completely on single personal computer environment. Compressed digital images are obtained initially by MotionJPEG board and various An files are finally obtained through graphic processes.

Nearwake flow field of a circular cylinder is studied by means of a cinematic PIV system with high sampling rate and large internal memory block. Experiments are conducted in a closedcycle water tunnel system and a crosscorrelation algorithm in conjunction with FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) analysis and an offset correlation technique is used for vector processing. With the help of very high sampling frequency compared to the shedding frequency, it is possible to obtain phaseaveraged information of the threedimensional wake, even though the shedding is not forced but natural. Phaselocked vortical structures observed simultaneously from the spanwise and crossstream planes are displayed in the waketransition regime where finescale secondary vortices have a spanwise wavelength or around one diameter. Spatial relations and temporal evolutions of the primary Karman vortex and the secondary vortex are also discussed schematically.

The Characteristics of the conical vortices on the roof surface of a lowrise building has been investigated by using a PIV(Particle Image Velocimerty) technique. The scaled model of TTU building with 1:92 scaling ratio was used. The Reynolds number based on the free stream velocity and the length of the model was
$1.96{\times}10^5$ . When the angle of attack for the building model is$45^{\circ}$ , the conical vortices are occurred symmetrically and the center of vortices are changed with respect to the angle of the approaching flow. The rotating direction of the conical vortices found to be counterrotating. The secondary vortex motions are investigated using the instantaneous flow field data. 
LNG Carriers are currently known as sole commercial means of shipping natural gas on the sea. They are designed to proven dangerous explosion for shipping a lot of gas over long distance. In this study. In this study, a scaled model chamber was made to investigate ventilation characteristics of the hood room in LNG carrier. Experimental study was performed in model using visualization equipments with laser apparatus and image intensifier CCD camera gated by an AOM controller Twelve different kinds of measuring area were selected as experimental condition. Instant simultaneous velocity vectors at whole field were measured by using 2D PIV system which software adopts twoframe greylevel cross correlation algorithm. To look into stagnation area of hood room for LNG carrier, a threedimensional numerical simulation with standard
${\kappa}{\varepsilon}$ model was carried out by using PHOENICS for three kinds of Reynolds number,$6.5{\times}10^3$ ,$9.7{\times}10^3\;and\;1.29{\times}10^4$ , based on the cavity inlet velocity and cavity height. The flow pattern showed the large scale counterclockwise forcedvortex rotated at center area, small eddies at each corner and stagnation area located at leftback upper side of model. 
Liquid flow in a stirring mixer driven by a sixblade turbine has been investigated experimentally. The flows were quantified by measurements of velocity characteristics. obtained by a Particle Image Velocimetry(PIV). for a blade rotational speed of 100r.p.m. and for two blade clearances from the bottom of the tank. The instantaneous flow fields show that the bulk flow consists of small scale vortices very complicately. However, the mean flow results show that the formation of ring vortices above and below the blade. which depend on the clearance.

Animation technique from the PIV database is particularly emphasized to give macroscopic and Quantitative description of complex flow fields. As an example, an experimental study was carried out investigate the fundamental (low characteristics of the freezer with the domestic refrigerator. Optimized cross correlation identification to obtain velocity vectors is implemented by direct calculation of correlation coefficients. Image intensifier CCD camera to cope with illumination problem is arranged for the accurate PIV measurement of large flow field. As a results, continuous pictures of the spatial distribution of the instantaneous and timemean velocity distribution are displayed in realtime sense.

In Particle Tracking Velocimetry, the analysis of doubleexposed photographic plate can be carried out either by means of Young's fringe analysis or by a digital image processing technique. In this study, we used digital image processing to two images in one frame far analyzing incylinder flow fields, and compared PTV with PSV(Particle Streak Velocimetry). Additionally, this technique was verified by two different calibration method. One is interpolation by invert distance, the other is interpolation by area ratio. Finally, the results between two interpolation methods were similar in whole flow fields.

In a computational fluid dynamics, the imposition of open boundary condition has an important part of the accuracy but it is not easy to find the optimal boundary rendition. This difficult is introduced by making artificial boundary in unbounded domairs. Such open boundary requires us to ensure the continuity of all primitive variables because the nature is in continuum. Here we introduce a revised wellconditioned open boundary condition particularly in FEM and apply it to various problemsentrainment, body force, short domains.

A new efficient numerical method for computing unsteady, incompressible flows, DRANS (Decoupled ReynoldsAveraged NavierStokes), is presented. To eliminate the restriction of CFL condition, a fullyimplicit time advancement in which the CrankNicolson method is used fer both the diffusion and convection terms. is adopted. Based on decomposition method, the velocityturbulent quantity decoupling is achieved. The additional decoupling of the intermediate velocity components in the convection term is made for the fullyimplicit time advancement scheme. Since the iterative procedures for the momentum,
${\kappa}\;and\;{\varepsilon}$ equations are not required, the components decouplings bring fourth the reduction of computational cost. The secondorder accuracy in time of the present numerical algorithm is ascertained by computing decaying vortices. The present decoupling method is applied to turbulent boundary layer with local forcing. 
A splitting method for the direct numerical simulation of solidliquid mixtures is presented, where a symmetric pressure equation is newly proposed. Through numerical experiment, it is found that the newly proposed splitting method works well with a matrixfree formulation fer some bench mark problems avoiding an erroneous pressure field which appears when using the conventional pressure equation of a splitting method. When deriving a typical pressure equation of a splitting method, the motion of a solid particle has to be approximated by the 'intermediate velocity' instead of treating it as unknowns since it is necessary as a boundary condition. Therefore, the motion of a solid particle is treated in such an explicit way that a particle moves by the known form drag (pressure drag) that is calculated from the pressure equation in the previous step. From the numerical experiment, it was shown that this method gives an erroneous pressure field even for the very small time step size as a particle velocity increases. In this paper, coupling the unknowns of particle velocities in the pressure equation is proposed, where the resulting matrix is reduced to the symmetric one by applying the projector of the combined formulation. It has been tested over some bench mark problems and gives reasonable pressure fields.

Stratified flow past a threedimensional obstacle such as a sphere has been a longlasting subject of geophysical, environmental and engineering fluid dynamics. In order to investigate the effect of the stratification on the near wake, in particular, the unsteady vortex formation behind a sphere, numerical simulations of stratified flows past a sphere are conducted. The timedependent NavierStokes equations are solved using a threedimensional finite element method and a modified explicit time integration scheme. Laminar flow regime is considered and linear stratification of density is assumed under Boussinesq approximation. The computed results include the characteristics of the near wake and the unsteady vortex shedding. With a strong stratification, the separation on the sphere is suppressed and the wake structure behind the sphere becomes planar, resembling that behind a vertical cylinder.

Impedance method was carried out to design the electrode that can measure the void fraction of the bubbly flow in pool reservoir. To find out the optimum electrode shape, Styrofoamtests were performed in a specially designed acrylic reservoir. Three kinds of electrodes were designed to compare the characteristics of waterair flow. The resistance was increased as the void fraction increased and the capacitance was decreased as the void fraction increased. The resistance is a main parameter to express the nature of the waterair flow in impedance method. Almost all the values of impedance were involved in resistance. The degree of deviation from the meanresistance values showed reasonable results. Electrode typeI expressed excellent results among the three electrode shapes. The impedance values in void fraction 010% were similar to those of Maxwell's equation. But the impedance values in void fraction 1020% were not similar to those of Maxwell' equation because of the edge effect near electrode.

In this research, the velocity distribution of the liquid sheet formed by two impinging jets at low velocities are measured using LDV. The spatial distribution of the sheet velocity as well as the effects of impinging angle and jet velocity are examined. The sheet velocity is the highest along the sheet axis and it decreases with the increase of the azimuthal angle. With the increase of the impinging angle, however, the difference of sheet velocity on the liquid sheet is decreased. The average sheet velocity is proportional to the jet velocity but it is always higher than the jet velocity as against the fact that the sheet velocity can be assumed to be equal to the jet velocity in the previous researches.

Vortices terminating at free surface have been investigated extensively. Most of investigations, however, are focused on surface parallel vortices and little has been known about surface normal vortex or columnar vortex. Visualized experimental results utilizing LIF technique are discussed for the purpose of characterization of columnar vortex interacting with a clean and a contaminated free surfaces in the present investigation. The results reveal that surface tension changes due to surface contamination although bulk viscosity remains constant and eventually the behavior of a columnar vortex interacting with a contaminated free surface is totally different from the clean free surface case.

Effects of porous fences on the wind erosion of sand particles from a triangular pile were investigated experimentally. The porous fence and sand pile were installed in a simulated atmospheric boundary layer. The mean velocity and turbulent intensity profiles measured at the sand pile location were well fitted to the atmospheric boundary layer over the open terrain. Particle motion was visualized to see the motion of windblown sand particles qualitatively. In addition, the threshold velocity were measured using a light sensitive video camera with varying the fence porosity
${\varepsilon}$ . As a result, various types of particle motion were observed according to the fence porosity. The porous wind fence having porosity${\varepsilon}=30%$ was revealed to have the maximum threshold velocity, indicating good shelter effect for abating windblown dust particles. 
A study on discharge characteristics of a rotating discharge hole is very important to enhance the performance of an induction motor which have external forced cooling system. The discharge characteristics of rotating discharge holes are influenced by rotating speed, lengthtodiameter ratio, inlet shape of rotor holes, etc. An experimental study on the effect of chamfered inlet edge of rotor inlet part with various depthtodiameter and inlet chamfered edge angle is conducted. Depthtodiameter ratios range from 0 to 0.5 and inlet chamfered edge angle range from 0 to 60. As a result, there is an optimal design point of inlet chamfered edge depth. And the inlet edge angle far maximum discharge coefficient is influenced mainly by the rotating speed of discharge holes.

Heat engine and fluid machinery in the plant have to linked with various ducts network and the corresponding design have to be concerned about effectiveness and stability of system of plant. To optimum control and design system concerning stability, economization, operating effectiveness we have to exact analysis flow properties of a duct applying to fluid machinery, heat exchanger, cooling machine, air conditioning equipment. therefore, it is necessary to research the duct, heat transfer equipment, for increasing overall effectiveness of air conditioning system by suggesting basic data of the duct resulting from organic research. So we can contribute to technical development of the duct. In case of speeding up the flow rate of the duct, lots of wave velocity components are occurred the value of boundary layer resulting from developing the boundary layer at both walls of duct.

In this study, the confined laminar flow around a square cylinder, which ejects a either on the front face or on the rear face, is numerically simulated. In each case, three ratios of jet velocity to the fixed upstream velocity are considered. In all cases of the rear fuel jet, the high massfraction region is formed along the streamlines from the jet exit. In case of front jet, drag is significantly decreased when the jet velocity ratio is greater than 1. The results obtained exhibit flow and scalarmixing characteristics encountered in a planar combustor

Hotwire measurements are reported on the developing turbulent flows subject to plane rate of strain in a rotating
$90^{\circ}$ dog bend. The crosssection of the bend varies from$100mm{\times}50mm$ rectangular shape at the bend inlet gradually to the$50mm{\times}100mm$ shape at the bend outlet with remaining a constant area. Data signals from the rotating test section are transmitted through a slip ring to the personal computer which is located at the outside of the rotating disc. 3dimensional velocity and 6 Reynolds stress components were calculated from the equations which correlate the fluctuating and mean voltage values measured with rotating a slant type hotwire into 6 orientations. The effects of Coriolis and centrifugal forces on the mean motions and turbulence structures are investigated with respect to rotational speed. 
Fine grid calculations are reported for the developing turbulent flow in a straight duct and a curved duct of square crosssection with a radius of curvature to hydraulic diameter ratio
${\delta}=R_c/H_H=3.357$ and a bend angle of 180 deg. A sequence of modeling refinements is introduced; the replacement of wall function by a fine mesh across the sublayer and a low Reynolds number second moment closure up to the near wall sublayer in which the nonlinear return to isotropy model and the cubicquasiisotropy model for the pressure strain are adopted; and the introduction of a multiple source model for the exact dissipation rate equation. Each refinement is shown to lead to an appreciable improvement in the agreement between measurement and computation. 
The flow fields in the volute casing of a smallsize turbocompressor at different flowrate (design point
${\pm}20%$ ) are studied by numerical analysis. The governing equations for threedimensional steady viscous flow are solved using SIMPLE algorithm with commercial code of STARCD. Numerical results show that the threedimensional flow pattern inside the volute casing of a smallsize turbocompressor is strongly influenced by secondary flows that are typically created by the curvature or the casing passages. The flow pattern in the casing also affects the performance of the turbocompressor. In order to elucidate the loss mechanism through the volute, we prepared the secondary flow, velocity magnitude, and static pressure distribution at the four crosssectional planes of the casing. 
Flow fields in twodimensional plane channels with thin obstacles("baffles and blocks") mounted symmetrically in the vertical direction and periodically in the streamwise direction are studied numerically to understand how various geometric conditions influence the critical Reynolds number and pressure drop. Changing BR(the ratio of channel to baffle interval) from 1:1 to 1.5, we computed the critical Reynolds number and pressure drop. Especially when BR is 1:3, at which the critical Reynolds number turned out to be minimal, we added blocks in the geometry in order to study their destabiliting effects on the flows.

The Paper studies the flow and heat transfer characteristics to a jet impinging at different oblique angles, to a plane surface by numerical methods. The flowfield and heat transfer rate associated with the oblique Impingement of an axisymmetric jet are of interest as a result of its presence in numerous technological Problems. For the computation of heat transfer rate, the standard
${\kappa}{\varepsilon}$ and${\kappa}{\varepsilon}\bar {{\upsilon}'^ 2}$ turbulent model were adapted. The accuracy of the numerical calculations was compared with various experimental data reported in the literature.${\kappa}{\varepsilon}\bar {{\upsilon}'^ 2}$ model showed better agreement with experimental data than standard${\kappa}{\varepsilon}$ model in prediction of the turbulent intensity and the heat transfer rate. In the case of computation of flowfield, the study carries on the${\alpha}=45$ deg, h/D=4.95. The jet Reynolds number based on the nozzle diameter(D), was 48,000. For the computation of heat transfer rate, the Re=20,000, the jet orificetoplate spacings(L/D) are 4, 6 and 10, and the angle between the axis of the jet orifice and the plate surface is set at 30, 45, 60, or 90 deg. For the smaller spacings, the nearpeak Nusselt numbers are not significantly effected by the initial decreases in the Jet angle. The overall shape of the local Nusselt number xaxis profile is influenced by both the jet orificetoplate spacing and the jet angle. 
A CCFL(Counter Current Flow Limit) test have been performed in narrow annular gaps with large diameter, because it has been confirmed that the CCFL phenomena affected the critical power in hemispherical narrow gap geometries from the SONATA(Simulation Of Naturally Arrested Thermal Attack)IV (InVessel)/VISU(Visualization)II experiments. The objectives of the CCFL experiments are to investigate the small gap sizes(1, 2mm) effect on CCFL under the large diameter condition and to confirm the findings of the VISUII study that global dryout in hemispherical narrow gaps was induced by the CCFL. The test section was made of acrylic resin to allow visual observation on the twophase flow behaviors inside annular gaps. It was observed from visualization that a part of water supplied was accumulated in the upper plenum and a significant increase in the differential pressure across the gap was occurred, which was the definition of the CCFL occurrence in this experimental study. From the experimental results in annular gap with large diameter it can be known that an increase in the differential pressure was not big at small air flowrates. When the CCFL was occurred, the differential pressure across gaps was increased significantly and a water accumulated in the upper plenum. The occurrence of CCFL was correlated using the Wallis parameter.

This experimental study is to investigate the intermittent spray characteristics of a multihole nozzle in a heavyduty DI diesel engine. Multi 8 hole
$(d_n=0.25mm)$ , Multi 3 hole$(d_n=0.42)$ and Sing hole nozzle$(d_n=0.25mm)$ were used in this experiment. By using the 2D PDPA(phase Doppler particle analyzer), the droplet diameter and the velocity of a diesel spray injected intermittently from the multi and the singlehole nozzle into a still ambient were measured. In order to calculate the mean values such as mean velocity, SMD, AMD etc. and to analyze the intermittent characteristics, the timewindow of 0.15ms were applied. In the spray, the small droplet$(D<10{\mu}m)$ was regarded as an air flow, and the correlation between the fuel droplet$(10{\mu}m and the air (low was examined. The normalized axial dropletair relative velocity of the 8 hole, the 3 hole and the single hole nozzle was evaluated as 0.081, 0.067, 0.06 and in case of the radial dropletair relative velocity, the normalized. value is 0.014, 0.013 and 0.008 respectively. 
Chlorination dosage in water treatment plant of field is determined by chlorination demand experiment through two or three hours after raw water was sampled in inflow. It is impossible to continuously control fer real time because sampled water is adapted chlorination dosage after water treatment process had been proceeded. Therefore in this study, we will design informal chlorination demand system this designed system will be experimented as to water quality and accuracy of control in various conditions. Throughout these. experimental results, we will revise the system and revised system is enable to optimal control of chlorination dosage. Finally, We have developed chlorination demand system, which can automatically determination of chlorination dosage to be determined according to variety of raw water quality inflow in water treatment plant.

The objective of this study is to elucidate the characteristic performance of Rootstype vacuum pump with Cassini oval lobe shape. The modelled lobe shape of Rootstype vacuum pump is twolobe spur gear. The numerical analyses are performed fer leak flows, using 4thorder RungeKutta method and are compared with experimental results. Results show that for the case of involute lobe shape the total amount of the leak flow conductance is greater than that of cycloid and Cassini oval lobe shapes.

The flow inside an axial turbomachinery must be unsteady. Rotorstator interaction by two blade rows influences performance, the generation of noise and vibration. So, it will be necessary to study the rotorstator interaction for the design of an axial fan in which the axial gap between two blade rows is small. In this study, rotorstator interaction is investigated by experimental methods. The research fan has one stage which consists of 24 rotor blades and 22 stator blades. Threedimensional velocities measured using
$45^{\circ}$ slanted hot wire probe and total pressure is measured using Kiel total pressure probe between rotor and stator with the axial 25%, 55%, 145% of chord length,. This study describes the influence of rotorstator gap on the flow pattern, performance and loss. The efficiency curve show that the change of the rotorstator gap make difference in the efficiency. And, the 3dimensional velocity distribution show that the potential interaction between the rotor and the stator have a great effect on the flow field downstream of rotor, where there are wake flow. various vortices in hub region and leakage vortex in casing region etc. 
The objective of the present study is to develop a new device that the viscous characteristics of fluids are determined by applying the unsteady flow concept to the traditional capillary tube viscometer. The capillary tube viscometer consists of a small cylindrical reservoir, capillary tube, a load celt system oat measures the mass flow rate, interfacers, and computer. Due to the small size of the reservoir the height of liquid in the reservoir decreases as soon as the liquid in the reservoir drains out through the capillary and the mass flow rate in the capillary decreases as the hydrostatic pressure in the reservoir decreases resulting in a decrease of the shear rate in the capillary tube. The instantaneous shear rate and. driving force in the capillary tube are determined by measuring the mass flow rate through the capillary, and the fluid viscosity is determined from the measured flow rate and the driving force.

This paper is primarily directed toward analyzing the transient response characteristics in hydraulic pipe lines. The exact solution to the transient response characteristics was obtained by using the complicated transfer function derived by Iberall. The discrepancy with the exact and approximate is small, so the approximate solution is adopted to the theoretical one. An equation was derived which describes the pressure times relationship Hat occurs at the end of volume terminated transmission line following a sudden pressure change at its inputs. As a result, It is found that the density has relationship about the Wave Propagation is very useful in analyzing the transient response characteristics of hydraulic pipe lines. The velocity of Pressure wave Propagation decreases as the density of fluid increased.

The objective of the present study is to investigate the characteristics of pressure wave propagation of viscous fluid flow in a circular pipe line. The goal of this study is to select the best frequency of each control factor of a circular pipe. We intend to approach a formalized mathematical model by a very exact and reasonable polynomial for fluid transmission lines. and we computed this mathematical model by computer. The results show that the oil viscosity decreased as the length of the circular pipe increases. and The energy of pressure wave propagation decreased as the pipe diameter decreases. The factor is that density of oil was changed resonant frequency. It has been found the viscosity characteristics is changed largely by length of hydraulic pipe and volume of cavity tank.

The compression wave produced when a highspeed train enters a tunnel propagates along the tunnel ahead of the train. The micro pressure wave related to He compression wave is a special physics Phenomena created by highspeed traintunnel interfaces. On this work, the method for reducing the micro pressure wave is to delay the gradient of the compression wave by using aerodynamic structures. The objective of this paper is to determine the optimum angle of the slanted portal using the moving model rig. According to the results of the present study, the maximum value of micro pressure wave is reduced by 19.2% fer the
$45^{\circ}$ slanted portal installed at the entrance of the tunnel and reduced by 41.9% far the$45^{\circ}$ slanted portals at the entrance and exit of the tunnel. Also it is reduced by 34.6% for the$30^{\circ}$ slanted portals installed at the entrance and exit of the tunnel. 
Three dimensional CFD investigations are carried out to understand the complex flow field in a gas turbine combustor with multielement fuel injectors. The gas turbine considered here is the GE7FA model which has aye fuel injectors in each combustor can and utilizes leanpremixed combustion to meet nitric oxide emission requirements. Detailed threedimensional flow characteristics and fuelair mixture formation process inside the fuel nozzle and gas turbine combustor including five swirl nozzle tips are analyzed using commercial FLUENT code.

The working fluid from the combustor to the turbine stage of a gas turbine makes various boundary layer thickness. Since the inlet boundary layer thickness is one of the important factors that affect the turbine efficiency. It is necessary to investigate secondary flow and loss with various boundary layer thickness conditions. In the present study, the effect of various inlet boundary layer thickness on secondary flow and loss and the proper height of the boundary layer fences for various boundary layer thickness were investigated. Measurements of secondary flow velocity and total pressure loss within and downstream of the passage were taken under 5 boundary layer thickness conditions, 16, 36, 52, 69, 110mm. It was found that total pressure loss and secondary flow areas were increased with increase of thickness but they were maintained almost at the same position. At the fellowing research about the boundary layer fences, 1/6, 1/3, 1/2 of each inlet boundary layer thickness and 12mm were used as the fence heights. As a result, it was observed that the proper height of the fences was generally constant since the passage vortex remained almost at the same position. Therefore once the geometry of a cascade is decided, the location of the Passage vortex and the proper fence height are appeared to be determined at the same time. When the inlet boundary layer thickness is relatively small, the loss caused by the proper fence becomes bigger than endwall loss so that it dominates secondary loss. In these cases the proper fence hight is decided not by the cascade geometry but by the inlet boundary layer thickness as previous investigations.

This paper reports a numerical flow characteristic analysis in gas boiler combustion chamber. The numerical results with simplification and assumptions were found within 30% of the experiment. A lot of geometrical modification has been invested in attempt to obtain the uniform flow in the combustion chamber exit. As a result, the velocity magnitude of the combustion chamber is relate with the hole size in air distribution plate. The velocity uniformity of the combustion chamber is relate with the number of holes and location in air distribution plate.

The flow and the moisture contamination of the dry room in the manufacturing process of lithium ion battery are analyzed numerically by finite volume method. Standard
${\kappa}{\varepsilon}$ turbulent model widely applied in predicting turbulent flow is adopted in this study. Moisture contamination and distribution are studied by assumption of two cases; onepoint generation and uniform generation throughout the room. To evaluate ventilation efficiency on moisture contamination, scales of ventilation efficiency are introduced. From these analyses, moisture contamination is strongly dependent on the flow field and the radius of moisture contamination can be reduced by closing a part of outlets in a dry room. 
Exergetic and thermoeconomic analysis were performed for a 500MW combined cycle plant and a 137MW steam power plant without decomposition of exergy stream of matter into thermal and mechanical exergies. The calculated costs of electricity are almost same within 0.5% as those obtained by the thermoeconomic method with decomposition of exergy into thermal and mechanical exergies of the combined cycle plant. However for the gasturbine cogeneration plant having different kinds of products. the difference in the unit costs of products, obtained from the two methodologies is about 2%. Such outcome indicates that the level at which the cost balances are formulated does not affect the result of thermoeconomic analysis, that is somewhat contradictory to that concluded previously.

This study is carried out to make clear the reason of occurrence of sudden acceleration incident of AT vehicle. The stepping motor is used to control the engine speed at idle by compensating the volume of air. By the way it's valve is contaminated by blowby gas, deposit and back fire etc. This contamination could occur the load of motor at low temperature. This plays an important role in damaging the motor's coil with the motor's performance interfered. If it's coil is damaged the ISC could malfunction. If these phenomena occur, the speed of engine may increase or the engine may stall with hunting.

Thermal Expansion Measurement of Turbine and Main Steam Piping by Using Strain Gages in Power PlantsOne of the domestic cogeneration plants have undergone excessive vibration problems of turbine attributed to external force for years. The root cause of turbine vibration may be shan alignment problem which sometimes is changed by thermal expansion and external farce, even if turbine technicians perfectly performed it. To evaluate the alignment condition from plant startup to full load, a strain measurement of turbine and main steam piping subjected to thermal loading is monitored by using strain gages. The strain gages are bonded on both bearing housing adjusting bolts and pipe stoppers which. installed in the xdirection of leftside main steam piping near the turbine inlet in order to monitor closely the effect of turbine under thermal deformation of turbine casing and main steam piping during plant full load. Also in situ load of constant support hangers in main steam piping system is measured by strain gages and its results are used to rebalance the hanger rod load. Consequently, the experimental stress analysis by using strain gages turns out to be very useful tool to diagnose the trouble and failures of not only to stationary components but to rotating machinery in power plants.

This study is on the development of a new muffler composed of a valve system using an elasticity or spring. The valve system using the elasticity of spring is set along the exhaustgas flow and designed to work itself alone the driving condition of a engine. By that reason the engine capacity is so enlarged that a muffler with controller sensing exhaustgas pressure is able to be satisfied to noise reduction and power enlargement more than conventional muffler. The purpose of this study is to develope the new muffler which has more noise reduction and power enlargement than conventional muffler and electriccontrol muffler.

The characteristics of air flow and engine performance with swirl ratio variance of intake port In a turbocharged DI diesel engine was studied in this paper. The intake port flow is important factor which have influence on the engine performance and exhaust emission because the properties in the injected fuel depend on the combustion characteristics. The swirl ratio for ports was modified by handworking and measured by impulse swirl meter. For the effects on performance and emission, the brake torque and brake specific fuel consumption were measured by engine dynamometer and NOx, smoke were measured by gas analyzer and smoke meter. As a result of steady flow test, when the valve eccentricity ratio are closed to cylinder wall, the flow coefficient and swirl intensity are increased. And as the swirl ratio is increased, the mean flow coefficient is decreasing, whereas the gulf factor is increasing. Also, through engine test its can be expected to meet performance and emission by optimizing the main parameters; the swirl ratio of intake port, injection timing and compression ratio.

In this study, for the use of LFG, the burning velocities of LFG and LFG mixed fuels have been numerically analyzed. C3 reaction mechanism which consists of 92 species and 621 reaction was adopted in the calculation. The results show that the burning velocities of LFG and LFG mixed fuels are obtained as a function of
$CH_4$ and LFG percentage at stoichiometric conditions. In addition, the correlations of burning velocities LFG and LFG mixed fuels were obtained over a wide range of the equivalence ratio. The comparison of burning velocity correlated from numerically calculated results with experimental ones shows good agreements. From these results, the suggested burning velocity correlations far LFG and LFG mixed fuels in this study can be applied to the practical utilization of LFG. 
Spray and combustion characteristics were investigated to find suitable injection pressure by using ultra high pressure injection and single shot diesel combustion systems. As injection pressure was increased, spray penetration and spray angle were increased continuously until 2,000bar, but after this injection pressure region the rate of increase was decreased suddenly. Combustion characteristics were also enhanced until 2,000bar of injection pressure.

Spray impingement model and fuel film formation model were developed and incorporated into the computational fluid dynamics code, STARCD. The spray/wall interaction process were modelled by considering the change of behaviour with surface temperature condition and fuel film formation. We divided behaviour of fuel droplets after impingement into stick, rebound and splash using Weber number and parameter K. Spray impingement model accounts for mass conservation, energy conservation and heat transfer to the impinging droplets. A fuel film formation model was developed by Integrating the continuity, the NavierStokes and the energy equations along the direction of fuel film thickness. The validation of the model was conducted using diesel spray experimental data and gasoline spray impingement experiment. In all cases, the prediction compared reasonably well with experimental results. Spray impingement model and fuel film formation model have been applied to a direct injection diesel engine combustion chamber.

This paper is investigated the entrainment of air into sprays which has significant effects on the combustion efficiency, stability of flame using the airassisted twinfluid nozzle in nonburning. The factors which may be expected to affect the entrainment of air by a liquid spray are: Relative velocity of droplet and ambient gas; Drop size and size distribution; Density and other property of the liquid. Here, axial, radial velocity and turbulent kinetic energy of spray droplet was measured with the PIV(Particle Image Velocimetry). Spray characteristics were also visualized using CCD camera. The results indicate that the entrainment rate increases more or less nonlinearly with the downstream region.

An experimental study has been carried out of the combustion behavior of single fuel droplets of waterinlight oil emulsions in an electric furnace to elucidate the dominant factor for the occurrence of microexplosions. The tests were carried out by changing the following four parameters; the size of water droplets in the emulsified fuels having the same water content, the ratio of water to light oil, ambient temperature in electric furnace, and the kind of fuel having different viscosity(Kerosene, Olive Oil). The result shows that the each parameter plays the different role in the effect on behavior of vaporization, explosion, ignition and combustion for single droplets of waterinoil Emulsified fuels.

The characteristics of spray combustion and dropsize of spray through twinfluid atomizer was experimentally investigated. The distribution of flame temperature have an effect on the generation of NOx. To investigate there effects, flame temperature with different spray shape was observed. The spray shape was varied by various bluffbodys. Mean temperature were measured by thermocouple respectively, and NOx concentration was measure by NOx analyser. Distribution of droplet sizes were measured by PMAS. The result showed that the flame with wide distribution has lower temperature and lower NOx emission compared with narrow.

The Twinfluid Swirl Nozzles are used in many parts of the industry to produce homogeneous spray. This study is to investigate the effects of outer air swiller and inner water swiller on atomization of liquid.. The experiment was carried out with increasing airflow rate at constant liquidflow rate and with changing outer air swiller angle and inner water swiller angle. A Particle Dynamics Analyzer(PDA) was used to measure drop size, mean and ms values of axial velocity, number density and Sauter mean diameter(SMD). The axial mean velocity and SMD of droplets were measured along the center line and radial directions. It was found that the higher air flowrate resulted in the smaller Sauter mean diameter of liquid spray and the higher axial mean velocity of droplets. This experimental results will be conveniently used for the preliminary design stage of twinfluid nozzle development.

Numerical study with detailed chemistry has been conducted to investigate the NOx formation and structure in
$CH_4/AirCO_2$ counterflow diffusion flames. The importance of radiation effect is identified and the role of$CO_2$ addition is addressed to thermal and chemical reaction effects, which can be precisely specified through the introduction of an imaginary species. Also NO separation technique is utilized to distinguish the contribution of thermal and prompt NO formation mechanisms. The results are as follows : The radiation effect is dominant at low strain rates and it is intensified by$CO_2$ addition. Thermal effect mainly contributes to the changes in flame structure and the amount of NO formation but the chemical reaction effect also cannot be neglected. It is noted that flame structure is changed considerably due to the addition of$CO_2$ in such a manner that the path of methane oxidation prefers to take$CH_4 {\rightarrow}CH_3{\rightarrow}C_2H_6{\rightarrow}C_2H_5$ instead of$CH_4 {\rightarrow}CH_3{\rightarrow}CH_2{\rightarrow}CH$ . At low strain rate(a=10) the reduction of thermal NO is dominant with respect to reduction rate, but that of prompt NO is dominant with respect to total amount. 
This paper describes the design of a small size Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) which employs a capillary structure for recirculating sodium working fluid. The cycle is based on the simple and small capillary type
${\beta}"$ alumina and wick tube element. The proposed cell consists of the 37 conversion elements with capillary tube of$50{\mu}m$ in diameter and the sealed cylindrical vessel of 22mm in outer diameter. Results on the cycle analysis of sodium flow and heat transfer in the cell showed that the expected power output was 4.65W and the conversion efficiency was 19% for the source temperature of 900K. 
Quality that character of energy is the same at every state in case of equal working fluid and net concept of material flow was applied to thermoeconomics about energy system, and we could naturally explain the suitable degree about this concept, also thermoecomic equations about general power plant was easily deduced. And deduced equations exactly corresponded with principle of thermoeconomics that overall input cost flow rate equal overall output cost flow rate. This equations is applied to gas turbine cogeneration power plant as one example and found the product unit cost. Also this product cost comparison could been naturally explained.