Proceedings of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea Conference (한국지진공학회:학술대회논문집)
Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea (EESK)
 기타
Domain
 Earth Science(Earth/Atmosphere/Marine/Astronomy) ＞ Geophysics
2003.09

The velocity structure beneath the CHNB broadband station is determined by receiver function analysis using by from teleseismic P waveforms. The detailed broadband receiver functions are obtained by stacking method for sourceequalized vertical, radial and tangential components of teleseismic P waveforms. A time domain inversion uses the stacked radial receiver function to determine vertical P wave velocity structure beneath the station. The crustal velocity structures beneath the stations are estimated using the receiver function inversion method in the case at the crustal model parameterized by many thin, flatlying, homogeneous layers. Events divide into 4 groups. four azimuths corresponding to events in group a(southwest), b(south), c(southeast), d(northeast). The result of crust at model inversion shows the crustal velocity structure beneath the CHNB station varies smoothly with increasing depth. The conard discontinuity lies around 18 km and moho discontinuity lies range from 30 to 34 km.

Crustal velocity model is very important to determine the hypocenters of the local earthquakes, because the real crust is more complex and heterogeneous than simple homogeneous layered model. But the exact crust model in and around Kyeongsang basin area is not fixed till now. To solve this problem, Joint Hypocenter Determination(JHD) method is applied to the 151 local earthquakes, that is recorded at KIGAM local network from Mar. 25, 1999 to Dec. 16, 2001. According to the comparison of earthquake locations and depths for the conventional procedure and JHD relocation procedure, each locations is very similar, but depth distributions are different. An initial depth distribution derived from the conventional methods is irregular and does not show the general trends. JHD relocations reduce scatter and define a dipping plane.

Discriminant method using seismic signal was studied for discrimination of surface explosion. By means of the seismic spectral characteristics, multivariate discriminant analysis was performed. Four single discriminant techniques  Pg/Lg, Lg1/Lg2, Pg1/Pg2, and Rg/Lg  based on seismic source theory were applied to explosion and earthquake training data sets. The Pg/Lg discriminant technique was most effective among the four techniques. Nevertheless, it could not perfectly discriminate the samples of the training data sets. In this study, a compound linear discriminant analysis was defined by using common characteristics of the training data sets for the single discriminants. The compound linear discriminant analysis was used for the single discriminant as an independent variable. From this analysis, all the samples of the training data sets were correctly discriminated, and the probability of misclassification was lowered to 0.7％.

The nonparametric method was employed to obtain detailed broadband attenuation characteristics of horizontal Fourier spectra without generally assigned constraint that derived path terms be zeros at a reference distance. Instead, path terms fer a reference distance were obtained based on the physical phenomenon that the seismic phase is stable over the hypocentral distance range from 200km to 400km so that the Qvalues evaluated at several distances inside that region should be the same. The inverted path terms show three distinct linear regions roughly divided by hypocentral distances at 65km and 115km. Also complex behavior at the near distance range below 100km was revealed which can not be properly fitted by combination of single
$Q_{0}$ $f^{η}$ model and any geometrical spreading models.s. 
Quaternary faults found around the Ulsan Fault System can be divided into 4 types based on the fault outcrop features : Type I fault cuts basements and Quaternary deposits of which remain on both hangwall and footwall. Type II fault is developed only in Quaternary deposit. Type III fault has inclined unconformity after Quaternary faulting. Type IV fault is common type around the Ulsan fault system and has horizontal unconformity surface after cutting earlier Quaternary deposit. After erosion, later Quaternary deposit overlays on both old deposit and basement. The Ulsan Fault System consists of three segments at large scale from north to south based on the lineament rank and shape, Quaternary fault location, and slip rate. The segment boundaries are identified by the existence of the two intervals which show no lineaments and Quaternary faults. But, if detail fault parameters could be obtained and used in segmentation, it can be divided into more than three segments.

Sensitivity analyses for several seismic source models were studied. For the area sources, the hazard is steeply decreasing with the sourcetosite distance. Hazard is decreasing when the area of the source is increasing with fixed annual rate. For the fault sources, the fault length, distance from a site and dip angle of near fault show very sensitive effect to seismic hazard. But the various magnituderupture length relationships show effect to seismic hazard slightly. For the fault source with small magnitude, the exponential model is preferred rather than the characteristic model to the magnituderecurrence law.

Lately, a guideline for seismic design of electric substation facilities has been newly prepared and issued. The guideline adopts a new simplified dynamic analysis technique called "pseudoresonance method" from the design code of Japan. The method can effectively consider resonance effect of structural system during earthquake motion. However, reliability and practical applicability of the method have not been fully guaranteed under the different seismic and engineering situations in Korea. This paper presents a validation study of the pseudoresonance method for practical seismic analysis. For this purpose, various parametric studies have been performed using recorded earthquake motions and idealized substation equipment models. The results showed that the pseudoresonance method can be effectively used for the practical seismic design of substation facilities in Korea.

The seismic response analysis of a freestanding spent fuel storage cask model are performed for an artificial time history acceleration generated by the basis on the US NRC RG1.60 response acceleration spectrum. This paper focuses on the structural stability by seismic loads to check the overturing possibility of storage cask and the slipping displacement on bed. Parametric analyses of a simplified cask model are performed to take into account the variations in seismic load magnitude and cask/bed interface friction. The analyses results show that the storage cask has a large marginal integrity in the response acceleration and slipping distance for both design seismic and beyond design seismic loads.

The technique for the seismic reliability evaluation of the electric power network is presented. In the previous study, the state of the substations was represented by the bistate which is classified as failure or survival. However, the histate model can result in oversimplified analysis, because substations are worked by the parallel operating system. In this paper, Considering the characteristics of the parallel operating system, the damage of the substation is expressed by the multistate for the more realistic seismic reliability evaluation. Using MonteCarlo simulation method, the seismic reliability for Korean 345㎸ electric power network is evaluated. Analysis results show that reliability levels of the network by the multistate analysis is higher than that by the histate analysis and the electric power network in southeastern area of the Korean Peninsular may be vulnerable to earthquakes.

During the 1995 HyogokenNambu earthquake, many caissontype quay walls in Kobe Port moved several meters towards the seaside due to liquefaction and subsequent ground flow, To investigate the mechanism of quay wall damage, we carried out the numerical simulation using the 2D effective stress analysis. Input earthquake motions used for the analyses are original Dip wave and the component wave in each compact support of wavelet transformation. The results suggested that the shear failure occurred in the foundation soil underneath the caisson type quay wall due to the deformation of the caisson type quay wall.

Nearfield ground motions exhibit special characteristics that are different from ordinary farfield ground motions. In this study the shaking table tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of earthquake ground motions with different characteristics on the response of the structure. The ground motions used in this study were the scenario earthquake, design earthquake, and ChiChi earthquake measured in TCU052 station. These earthquakes have different frequency contents. The test results show that the frequency content of ground motion is very important to the response of structures. The floor responses of structure were greatly affected by the higher modal frequencies, as well as the fundamental frequency. The responses of third floor were significantly reduced due to the interaction between the structure and the base isolated mass installed at the third floor.

The purpose of this study is to understand the dissipation pattern of excess pore pressure after liquefaction which governs the postliquefaction behavior of liquefied sand deposits. 1g shaking table tests were carried out on 5 different kinds of sands, all of which had high liquefaction potentials. During the tests excess pore pressure at various depths, and surface settlements were measured. The measured curve of the excess pore pressure dissipation was simulated using the solidification theory, and from the analysis of the velocity of dissipation, the dissipation pattern of excess pore pressure after liquefaction was examined. The dissipation velocity of excess pore pressure after liquefaction had a linear correlation with the effective grain size (
$D_{10}$ ) divided by the coefficient of uniformity ($C_{u}$ ), and the increase in the initial relative density of the ground played a role in shifting this correlation curve toward an increased dissipation velocity. From the correlation, an approximate method was recommended for prediction of the dissipation curve of excess pore pressure after liquefaction in saturated sand deposits.s.s. 
To construct pilesupported wharf structures that must support heavy horizontal loads, both vertical piles and batter piles are used. Batter piles are used to secure the bearing capacity against the horizontal loads. However, past case histories have shown that the heads of batter piles are vulnerable because these heads are subjected to excessive axial loads during earthquakes. Therefore, the aseismatic reinforcement method must be developed to prevent batter pile heads from breaking due to excessive seismic loads. Two different connecting methods of either inserting rubber or ballbearing between batter pile head and upper plate were proposed to improve the aseismatic efficiency. Three largescale pile head models(rubber type model, ballbearing type model, and fixed type model) were manufactured and horizontal loading tests were peformed for these models. The results showed that the forcedisplacement relationship of the fixed type model was linear, but that of the rubber type model and the ballbearing type model was bilinear. The increase in the horizontal displacement led to the increase in the horizontal stiffness of the rubber type models and the decrease in that of the ballbearing type model. Compared with the values for fixed type model, the damping ratios of the rubber type model and the ballbearing type model increased about 33~185％ and 263~269％, respectively.

There are many problems in the prediction of dynamic behaviors of saturated soils because undrained excess pore water pressure builds up and then the strain softening behavior is occurred simultaneously. A few analytical constitutive models based on the effective stress concept have been proposed but most models hardly predict the excess pore water pressure and strain softening behaviors correctly In this study, the disturbed state concept (DSC) model proposed by Dr, Desai was modified to predict the saturated soil behaviors under the dynamic loads. Also, backprediction program was developed for verification of modified DSC model. Cyclic triaxial tests were carried out to determine DSC parameters and test result was compared with the result of backprediction. Through this research, it is proved that the proposed model based on the modified disturbed state concept can predict the realistic soil dynamic characteristics such as stress degradation and strain softening behavior according to dynamic process of excess pore water pressure.

Long span structures with low natural frequencies such as shopping malls, large offices, and assembly rooms may experience signification dynamic responses due to human activities. In this study, equations to estimate the magnitudes of group walking loads are derived and a simple procedure to estimate and evaluate the corresponding response of the existing and new building structures subjected to human loads is proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified analytically using a simple floor and experimentally on a footbridge measuring the structural response induced by group pedestrians. Results indicate that the amplitudes of group walking loads can be easily estimated if the mode shapes are available, and that the corresponding structural responses can be estimated easily by the simple response measurement using the proposed method.

This paper clarifies the problems which structural engineers would have when the highrise reinforced concrete building structures with vertical and plan irregularities are to be designed against earthquakes. The most important problems appear to be as follows: (1) ambiguity in defining the principal direction of the structure and the dynamic base shear, (2) the methodology how to account for the accidental eccentricity when the modal analysis should be conducted as required for the torsionally irregular structures, and (3) the choice of 100/30 and SRSS methods to take into account the effect of the critical direction of earthquake.

The objective of this study is to clarify the seismic capacity and the characteristics in the hysteretic behavior of RC structures with nonseismic detailing. Interior and exterior beamcolumn subassemblages were selected from a tenstory RC building and six 1/3scale specimens were constructed with three variables; (1) with and without slab, (2) with and without hoop bars in the Joint region, (3) upward and downward direction of anchorage for the bottom bar in beams of exterior beamcolumn subassemblage. The test results have shown; (1) in case of interior beamcolumn subassemblage, there is no almost difference between nonseismic and seismic details in the strength and ductility capacity; (2) the Korean practice of anchorage (downward and 25
$d_{b}$ anchorage length) in the exterior Joint caused the 10％~20％ reduction of strength and 27％ reduction of ductility iii comparison with tile case of seismic details; and the existence of hoop bars in the joint region shows no effect in shear strain.n. 
An experimental investigation was conducted to estimate the flexural behavior of circular concrete beams confined by carbon sheet tube under the loading and unloading cycles. Six specimens were produced with different layers of carbon sheets and with or without corrugations inside of tubes. The experimental results represented that the load and displacement capacity are increased in the specimens which have increased layers of tube and have installed corrugations inside of tubes. In order to obtain enough capacity, tubes have to keep tubes at proper layers but it can not affect positively more than certain layers to increase the layers of tube. Therefore, appropriate estimation of structural member is needed to obtain enough capacity and displacement by means of proper carbon sheet direction and layers of tube.

The purpose of this study is to investigate analytically the flexural behavior characteristics of Circular concrete beams confined by carbon sheet. Nonlinear analysis method is presented to simulate the structural behavior beam models. The proposed analytical hardening models were considered the confinement effect of concrete and the tensile effect of carbon sheet in tensile region of concrete. PrandtlReuss numerical formula was used to nonlinear analysis of finite element models. Comparisons analytical models with experimental data obtained from flexural testing in the laboratory were presented. Analytical and experimental models show similar behavior.

The evolved energy concept has been demonstrated to fir the seismic evaluation of various steel connection details with the objective basis. For this, the strain energy stored in the structural system obtained from the experimental database has been normalized by that of a benchmark system. In this notion, the ideal elasticperfectly plastic structural system has been assumed as a benchmark. In addition, the attempt shows that those previously peformed experimental database can be recycled to have further significance.

Most of existing beamtocolumn connections are reinforced symmetrically because of reverse action cause by earthquake but in the weakearthquake region like Korea connections reinforced asymmetrically can be used. Specially, the connections between CFT(Concrete Filled Tube) column and Hshape beam can be applied by simplified lower diaphragm. The tensile capacity of Combined Cross Diaphragm for upper reinforcing was tested by simple tension test and four types for lower reinforcing; Combined Cross, None, Horizontal Tbar and Vertical Plate were tested by ANSI/AISC SSPEC 2002 loading program. Horizontal Tbar and stud bolts in vertical flat bar transmit tensile stress from bottom flange of beam to filled concrete. All test specimens were satisfied 0.01 radian of inelastic rotational requirement in ordinary moment frame of AISC seismic provision. As the results of parametric studies, simplified lower diaphragms demonstrated an outstanding strength, stiffness and plastic deformation capacity to use sufficient seismic performance in the field.

In the performance based seismic design method such as the capacity spectrum method, it is required to estimate precisely strength, deformability and energy dissipation of the member. However it merely depends on empirical equations which are not exact in the estimation of energy dissipation capacity. It is same to the generously used computer programs for nonlinear analysis such as DRAIN2DX. On the other hand, simple equations for evaluating energy dissipation were developed in a recent study, In this paper, based on the evaluation method, a new cyclic behavior model for a flexuredominated RC member is proposed. Although this model is simplified, it can accurately reflect the variation of energy dissipation capacity with design parameters. Using this model, a program for the nonlinear static/dynamic analysis of RC moment frame structures is also developed.

The purpose of this study is to investigate the seismic behavior of reinforced concrete shear wall subjected to earthquake motions. A computer program, named RCAHEST(Reinforced Concrete Analysis in Higher Evaluation System Technology), was used for the analysis of reinforced concrete structures. A 4node flat shell element with drilling rotational stiffness is used for spatial discretization. The layered approach is used to discretize behavior of concrete and reinforcement through the thickness. Material nonlinearity is taken into account by comprising tensile, compressive and shear models of cracked concrete and a model of reinforcing steel. The smeared crack approach is incorporated. Solution of the equations of motion is obtained by numerical integration using HitherHughesTaylor(HHT) algorithm. The proposed numerical method for the seismic analysis of reinforced concrete shear wall is verified by comparison of analysis results with reliable experimental results.

Flat slab system has been adopted in many buildings constructed recently because of the advantage of reduced floor heights to meet the economical and architectural demands. Structural engineers commonly use the equivalent frame method(EFM) with equivalent beams proposed by Jacob S. Grossman in practical engineering for the analysis of flat slab structures. However, in many cases, when it is difficult to use the EFM, it is necessary to use a refined finite element model for an accurate analysis. But it would take significant amount of computational time and memory if the entire building structure were subdivided into a finer mesh. An efficient analytical method is proposed in this study to obtain accurate results in significantly reduced computational time. The proposed method employs super elements developed using the matrix condensation technique and fictitious beams are used in the development of super elements to enforce the compatibility at the interfaces of super elements. The stiffness degradation of flat slab system considered in the EFM was taken into account by reducing the elastic modulus of floor slabs in this study. Static and dynamic analyses of example structures were peformed and the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method were verified by comparing the results with those of the refined finite element model and the EFM.

The purpose of this study is to experimentally investigate the structural performance of concrete exterior beamcolumn joints confined by carbon sheet tube. Four specimens were produced with different numbers of carbon sheet and the other specimen was produced with reinforced concrete. A hydraulic dynamic actuator with 30tonf capacity was used to cyclic lateral loading test. The experimental results represent that the numbers of carbon sheet have an influence the load and displacement capacity. However, the bond length of carbon sheets for connecting beam and column has to be considered to improve the capacity of joint.

To evaluate the seismic performance of multistory building structures use an equivalent SDOF model. This paper presents a method of converting a MDOF system into an equivalent SDOF model. The principal objective of this investigation is to evaluate appropriateness of converting method through perform nonlinear time history analysis of a multistory building structures and an equivalent SDOF model. The hysteresis rules to be used an equivalent SDOF model is obtained from the pushover analysis. The conclusion of this study is following; A method of converting a MDOF system into an equivalent SDOF model through the nonlinear time history response analysis is valid. The representative lateral displacement of a moment resisting reinforced concrete frames is close to the height of the first modal participation vector
$_1$ $\beta$ ｛$_1$ u｝=1. It can be found that the hysteresis rule of an equivalent SDOF model have influence on the time history response. Therefore, it is necessary for selecting hysteresis rules to consider hysteresis characteristics of a moment resisting reinforced concrete frames. 
고층의 강 모멘트저항골조에 대한 지진 반응을 살펴보기 위해서 동적해석을 실시하였다. 구조물은 세가지의 다른 설계절차로 의도적으로 설계하였고 그 세가지의 개념은 강도 지배설계, 강기둥약보 지배설계, 횡변위 지배설계이다. 그렇게 설계한 구조물이 각각 질량비정형이 존재하도록 하여 힁변위, 소성힌지, 이력에너지 입력 및 요구응력에 대해서 토론하였다. 미래에 설계에의 응용을 위해서 최대 지반가속도로 표현한 두 등급의 지진 하중을 이용해서 이력에너지 입력요구 곡선을 제시하였다.

Employing classical beam theory for the design of RBS seismic steel moment connections was brought into question in this study, Both the experimental strain data and analytical results from the calibrated finite element analysis confirmed that the shear transfer mechanism in the RBS connection is completely different from that as predicted by classical beam theory Plausible explanations of a higher incidence of brittle fractures observed in the specimens with boltedwebs were presented. It was pointed out that the practice of providing web bolts uniformly along the beam depth is not consistent with the load path identified by both experimental and analytical results. More rational boltedweb details were proposed based on the identified principal load path,.

The overstrength factor and the ductility factor are the two important factors that determines response modification factors used in current seismic codes. The objective of this paper is to obtain the overstrength and ductility factors of special concentric braced frames. For this purpose pushover analysis is performed with model structures until the maximum interstory drift reaches 2.5% of story height. According to the analysis results, the overstrength factors increase as the height of structures decreases and the span length increases. Ductility factors for midstory structures turns out to be higher than the other structures and span length does not contribute much to ductility factors.

A new earthquake design method performing iterative calculations using secant stiffness was developed. The proposed design method has the advantages of convenience and stability in numerical analysis because it uses elastic analysis. At the same time, the proposed design method can accurately estimate the strength and ductility demands on the members because it performs the analysis on the inelastic behavior of structure using iterative calculation. In the present study, the procedure of the proposed design method was established, and a computer program incorporating the proposed method was developed. Design examples using the proposed method were presented, and its advantages were presented by the comparisons with existing design methods using elastic or inelastic analysis. The proposed design method, as an integrated method of analysis and design, can address the earthquake design strategy devised by the engineer, such as ductility limit on each member, the design concept of strong column  weak beam, and etc. Through iterative calculations on the structure preliminarily designed only with member sizing, the strength and ductility demands of each member can be directly calculated so as to satisfy the given design strategy As the result economical and safe design can be achieved.

To improve the reliability of seismic hazard assessment of historic earthquake, shaking table test of a 1/2 scale model of wood house with thatched roof was peformed. Scaled model was constructed through rigorous verification process to have quantitative relationship between the intensity of earthquake and damage state. The completed model was mounted on a shaking table and subjected to the dynamic tests. Two kinds of tests were performed: exploratory test and fragility test. The exploratory test was done with low intensity shaking. In the fragility test, the behavior of the model was carefully monitored while increasing the shaking intensity. The construction details of the model are provided and test procedures are reported. Finally important test results are presented and their implications are discussed.

In present Korea Highway Bridge Standards the lap splice of longitudinal bars in a potential plastic hinge region is allowed so that large amount of transverse rebar specified in high seismicity regions Is required to prevent brittle bond failure If the brittle failure effects can be completely removed from the conventional designed piers, the amount of transverse rebar will be reduced drastically. In this study scaled models with solid and hollow rectangular sections were tested to investigate the seismic behavior of RC piers with 50％ of lapspliced longitudinal bars in plastic hinge regions. In the tests the typical flexural failure conducting a ductile behavior were observed in both models. It is shown that the 50％ of lapspliced bars can be considered as a good alternative of seismic detailing for longitudinal bars.

Before the implementation of the 1992 seismic design provisions in Korea, longitudinal steels of RC bridge piers were practically lapspliced in the plastic hinge region. Experimental investigation was made to evaluate the seismic performance of RC bridge pier specimens in a flexure/shear mode. Six circular test specimens in an aspect ratio of 2.5 (600mm in diameter) were made with test parameters confinement ratio, lap splices, and retrofit FRP materials. They were damaged under a series of artificial earthquakes with 0.22g PGA, being compatible in Korean peninsula, through the pseudodynamic test. Probable damages were assessed by the Park and Ang damage index. Approximate 0.1 and 0.3 damage indices were obtained for RC specimens without lap splice and with lap splice, respectively. Directly after the pseudodynamic test, damaged test columns were laterally actuated under inelastic reversal cyclic loadings simultaneously under a constant axial load. Through curvature measurements, residual seismic performance was evaluated for test specimens. Test results show that RC pier specimens with lapspliced appeared to fail at low ductility, but significant improvement was obtained for the ductility of these specimens if externally wrapped with FRP.

The objective of this study is to evaluate the damage of the reinforced concrete bridge piers. For the purpose of this research, twelve reinforced concrete specimens were fabricated and experimented with quasistatic test method. The selected test parameters are lap splice, axial load ratio, confinement steel ratio and number of loading cycle. The method of evaluate of damage index is the model proposed by Park and Ang. In accordance with this research, the most effective test parameter is lap splice of longitudinal steel. Therefore, the retrofit scheme of reinforced concrete bridge piers with lap splice of longitudinal steel, which was constructed before 1992, must be settled without delay. Otherwise, the effect of axial force is trivial. The more confinement steel is less damage index and more loading cycle lead to raise damage. The damage statement proposed Park and Ang is the same with experimental results.

The bridge columns with lapsplice reinforcements in earthquake suffered a brittle bondslip failure due to the deterioration of lapspliced longitudinal reinforcement without developing its flexural capacity or ductility. In this case, such a brittle failure can be controlled by the seismic retrofit using FRP wrapping. The retrofitted columns using FRP laminated circular tube showed significant improvement in seismic performance due to FRP's confinement effect. This paper presents the circumferential confinement effect of existing circular bridge pier strengthened with FRP wrapping for poor lapsplice details. The effects on the confinement of FRP wrapping, such as gap lengths between footing and FRP, fiber orientations, and thicknesses of FRP, were investigated by Quasistatic experiments.

Increasing the volume of traffic on the roads causes social and economical problems such as increasing airpollution and distribution cost. Prefabricated light weight bridge becomes a possible solution for these problems in the urban area where it is difficult to construct new one or expend the existing road. There are some merits in this kind of bridge. First, the design live and dead loads are minimized by allowing only passenger cars. Second employing prefabrication construction scheme reduces the construction time. Third, there is no need to buy land if the elevation road is placed on the top of existing one. In seismic design of bridges, base isolation has been an effective solution when the bridge has stiff piers and a heavy superstructure. The prefabricated light weight bridge has different dynamic characteristics from the ordinary bridges. In this paper, the applicability of base isolators such as lead rubber bearing and elastomeric bearing, to prefabricated light weight bridge is examined.

A quantitative approach for the retrofit prioritization of bridges is developed based on the damage risk of seismic vulnerable components. In the developed approach, seismic damage risk is estimated in the probabilistic perspectives with an analytical bridge model, which can consider various phenomena found in the seismic behaviors of girdertype bridges and damage models of various vulnerable components. Based on the total cost due to failure of structural components, weighting factors are proposed. Finally, the ranking index and retrofit priority of bridges are estimated from the overall damage risk and weighting factors of bridges. As a result, the retrofit priority of four PSC girder bridges is evaluated by using the proposed approach. The vulnerable components in need of seismic retrofit are selected accordingly. From simulated results, the validity of the proposed approach is verified by comparison with the existing approach. In addition, the proposed approach is found to be appropriate in evaluating the priority of existing bridges.

Smallscale models have been frequently used for experimental evaluation of seismic performance because of limited testing facilities and economic reasons. However, there are not enough studies on similitude law for analogizing prototype structures accurately with smallscale models, although conventional similitude law based on geometry is not well consistent in the inelastic seismic behavior. When fabricating prototype and smallscale model of reinforced concrete structures by using the same material, added mass is demanded from a volumetric change and scale factor could be limited due to size of aggregate. Therefore, it is desirable that different material is used for smallscale models. Thus, a modified similitude law could be derived depending on geometric scale factor and equivalent modulus ratio. In this study, compressive strength tests are conducted to analyze equivalent modulus ratio of microconcrete to normalconcrete. Equivalent modulus ratios are divided into elastic, weak nonlinear and strong nonlinear phases, which are based on ultimate strain level. Therefore, an algorithm adaptable to the pseudodynamic test, considering equivalent three phase similitude law based on seismic damage levels, is developed. In addition, prior to tile experiment, it is verified numerically if tile algorithm is applicable to the pseudodynamic test.

The compressive strength of concrete is a criterion to produce concrete. However, the tests on the compressive strength are complicated and timeconsuming. More importantly, it is too late to make improvement even if the test result does not satisfy the required strength, since the test is usually performed at the 28th day after the placement of Concrete at the Construction site. Therefore, strength prediction before the placement of concrete is highly desirable. This study presents the probabilistic technique for predicting the compressive strength of concrete on the basis of concrete mix proportions. The estimation of the strength is based on the probabilistic neural network, and show that the present methods are very efficient and reasonable in predicting the compressive strength of concrete probabilistically.

The fragility curves of seismic retrofitted bridges by steel jacketing of bridge columns and restrainers at expansion joints after the 1994 Northridge earthquake are developed. Fragility curves are represented by lognormal distribution functions with two parameters(fragility parameters consisting of median and logstandard deviation) and developed as a function of peak ground acceleration (PGA). Two parameters in the lognormal distribution are estimated by the maximum likelihood method. The sixty ground acceleration time histories for Los Angeles area developed for FEMA SAC project are used for the dynamic analysis of the bridges and a computer code is developed to calculate hysterestic parameters of bridge columns before and after steel jacketing. The effect of retrofit is expressed in terms of the increase of the median value of the fragility curve for the retrofitted bridge from that of the bridge before retrofit. The comparison of fragility curves of the bridges before and after column retrofit demonstrates that the improvement of the bridges with steel jacketing on the seismic performance is excellent for the damage states defined in this study. The comparison of fragility curves of the bridges before and after restrainers at expansion joints also shows the improvement in the seismic performance of restrained bridges for the severe damage states.

Most longspan bridges such as a cablestayed bridges have a number of longperiod modes due to the flexibility, thus the design concept extending the natural period of structures using base isolation system may be difficult to use directly to these structures. But, the effectiveness of LRB for cablestayed bridges is indicated in several papers. In this study, the guidelines of designing LRB for a seismically excited cablestayed bridge using benchmark cablestayed bridge are presented. The design properties of LRB are chosen that the design index(DI) is minimized or little changed for variation of properties. And the seismic performance of designed LRB is also investigated. The consequences show that the perforamnce of designed LRB is better than that of simply designed LRB for several history earthquakes. Moreover, the design properties of LRB are researched to several diffrent dominant frequency of earthquake. The results present that the plastic and elastic stiffness of LRB are affected by the dominant frequency of earthquake.

본 논문의 목적은 스팅베어링의 기존교량과 납고무베어링(LeadRubber Bearing)으로 내진 보강된 교량에 대해서 갭(Gap)의 크기가 교량의 지진 취약도에 미치는 영향에 대해서 평가하였다. 이를 위해서 다경간 단순교(MultiSpan Simply Supported Bridge)와 다경간 연속교(MutiSpan Continuous Bridge)를 대상으로 취약도 분석을 실시하였다 또한 다양한 크기의 갭사이즈를 도입하여 해석을 실시하였다. 이를 통해서 갭사이즈의 변화가 각 교량의 구성품에 미치는 영향을 확률적으로 평가할 수 있었고, 합성된 취약도 곡선을 이용하여 최적의 갭사이즈를 확정할 수 있었다.

In order to consider the characteristics of nonlinear dynamic responses of seismic isolated bridges reasonably, piers and isolators are modeled as a 2DOF bilinear system. Then nonlinear timehistory earthquake response analysis is accomplished many artificial input ground motions which were generated to reflect the characteristics of earthquakes. Damage probabilities and failure probabilities of each structural elements of the brides are calculated by using MonteCarlo simulation method. Based on LCC evaluation considering various cost items of direct/indirect damage costs, the optimal design method of seismic isolated bridges is proposed. By using a sensitivity analysis about the design variables and a cost effectiveness evaluation in the viewpoint of LCC, the validity and the adequacy of proposed optimal design method are verified.

철도나 고속철도 교량에 사용되는 장대레일은 차량에 의한 동적충격의 완화, 주행시 승차감의 향상과 같은 장점을 가져온 반면에, 인접한 교량의 연결부에서 레일과 교량 상부구조간의 거동 불일치로 인해 레일에 부가적인 응력을 발생시킨다. 이러한 부가적인 레일응력과 지반운동의 특성에 따른 구조적 응답의 민감도 및 열차의 안전한 정지를 고려하여, 지진 발생시 고속철도교량의 장대레일 응력을 해석하기 위해 레일의 재료비선형성, 지반운동의 위상차 등을 고려한 비선형 시간이력해석 방법을 제시하였다. 그리고 우리나라의 여러 지반조건을 고려하고 고속철도의 대표적인 연속교량 모델에 적용하여 제시한 방법의 타당성을 검토하였다.

This paper presents passive vibration control method to suppress traininduced vibration on a longspan steel arch bridge. According to the train load frequency analysis, undesirable resonance of a bridge will occur when the impact frequency of the train axles are close to the modal frequencies of the bridge. Because the first mode shape of the longspan steel arch bridge may take antisymmetric shape along the bridge direction, however, the optimal control configuration for resonance suppression should be considered carefully In this study, bridgevehicle element is used to estimate the bridgetrain interaction precisely. From the numerical simulation of a loom steel arch bridge under TGVK train loading, dynamic magnification influences are evaluated according to vehicle moving speed and efficient control system with passive dampers are presented in order to diminish the vertical displacement and vertical acceleration.

The objectives of this study were to provide experimental data on the behavior of interlocking spiral columns under cyclic loading, to compare the performance of columns with interlocking spirals to columns with Utype hoops with hook, to study the flexural detailing of interlocking spirals and other transverse steel configurations as the transverse reinforcement The oblong columns with interlocking spirals and with hooked Utype hoops and crossties better seismic performance than the rectangular columns with rectangular hoops and crossties. The oblong columns with hooked Utype hoops and crossties showed better seismic performance than the rectangular columns with rectangular hoops and crossties. And this research were to make recommendations for the design of bridge columns incorporating interlocking spirals and Utype hoops with hook as the transverse reinforcement.

For more rational and economical seismic design of long span bridges, it is essential to include in the analysis the effects of multiple input motions and structural or soil nonlinearity which are not considered in the current design practice. In this paper, the effects of these factors on the seismic behavior of long span bridges are studied. First, for the effect of multiple input motions, we take into account the differences in arrival times of seismic waves. To consider nonlinear soil properties we utilize SHAKE which is based on the equivalent linearization method. As a numerical example, a cablestayed bridge is modelled using the analytical procedures described above. It is shown from the results that the these factors influence the seismic response of the bridge significantly and should never be neglected in design.

A compromise between passive and active control systems has been developed recently in the form of semiactive control systems. Semiactive control systems maintain the reliability of passive control systems while taking advantage of the adjustability of an active control system. This paper presents the results of an experimental study to evaluate the performance of a semiactive orificed fluid damper. The semiactive orificed fluid damper considered is a twostage damper with normally open solenoid valve. Through a series of experimental tests, characteristics and performance of the damper is investigated.

Characteristics of base isolators including frictional and hysteretic types may be described by BoucWen model. A probabilistic optimum design method of the base isolation system using BoucWen model is presented in this paper. For optimum design, the objective function and constraints are derived based on the stochastic responses of the system. As a numerical example, the optimum design problem of a threestory base isolated shear type structure is formulated and solved by the sequential quadratic programming method.

This paper presents the results of experimental studies on the equipment isolation effect in the nuclear containment. For this purpose, shaking table tests were performed. The isolation system, known as Friction Pendulum System (FPS), combines the concepts of sliding bearings and pendulum motion was selected. Peak ground acceleration, bidirectional motion, effect of vertical motion and frequency contents of selected earthquake motions were considered. Finally, it is presented that the FPS systems are effective for the small equipment isolation. Key word equipment isolation, nuclear containment, shaking table test, Friction Pendulum System (FPS)

This paper presents the results of experimental studies on the equipment isolation effect in the nuclear containment. for this Purpose, shaking table tests were performed. The natural rubber bearing (NRB) and high damping rubber bearing (HDRB) were selected for the isolation. Peak ground acceleration, damping characteristics of isolation system and frequency contents of selected earthquake motions were considered. finally, it is presented that the NRB and HDRB systems are effective for the small equipment isolation and the damping of isolation systems can be affected to the seismic isolation effect.

An efficient procedure using LQR method for determining optimal sliding surfaces appropriate for different controller types is provided. The parametric evaluation of the dynamic characteristics of sliding surfaces is peformed in terms of SMC controller performance of singledegreeoffreedom(SDOF) systems. The control force limit is considered in this procedure. Numerical simulations for multidegreeoffreedom(MDOF) systems verify the effectiveness of proposed method.

In this study, the control performances of Tuned Mass Damper (TMD) and Tuned Liquid Column Damper (TLCD) are evaluated and compared for seismically excited structures. Results show that TLCD is more effective than TMD for interstory drift control while TLCD is as effective as TMD for acceleration control. In special, it is shown that interstory drifts are maximally controlled in lower floors and accelerations are reduced most in upper floors. This indicates that TLCD is an effective controller for earthquakeinduced structures in terms of structural safety as well as serviceability.

본 논문에서는 Maximum Energy Dissipation Algorithm(MEDA) 사장교의 MR댐퍼제어에 적용하고자 한다 MR댐퍼의 제어를 위해서 여러 제어 이론들이 제안되었으나, 각각의 특성에도 불구하고 성능면에서는 큰 차이가 없다 MEDA는 Lyapunove 직접법을 바탕으로 군성되는 제어이론으로써, 15년전에 제안되었음에도 실제 토목구조물에는 적용된 바 없어 그 성능 및 장점이 제대로 검증되지 않았다. 따라서 본 논문에서는 벤치마크 사장교 수치예제를 통해서, MEDA의 토목구조물에의 적용성을 성능(performance)과 강인성(robustness) 측면에서 분석하려한다. 수치예제에서 다양한 지진에 대한 층간변위, 가속도, 그리고 상대변위의 각 제어기법에 의한 감소량은 벤치마크문제에 정의된 평가지수(evaluation criteria)를 사용하였다.

This paper presents a robust hybrid control system for seismic response control of a cablestayed bridge. Because multiple control devices are operating, a hybrid control system could alleviate some of restirctions and limitations that exist when each system is acting alone. A LQG algorithm with onoff control scheme, H
$_2$ and H$_{\infty}$ control algorithms with various frequency weighting filters are used to improve the controller robustness of the active control part in the hybrid control system. The numerital simulation results show that control performances of robust hybrid control systems are similar to those of the hybrid control system with LQG algorithm. Furthermore, it is verified that robust hybrid control systems are more robust than the hybrid control system with LQG algorithm and there are no signs of instabilities in the$\pm$ 5％ stiffness matrix perturbed system. Therefore, the proposed hybrid control system have a good robustness for stiffness matrix perturbation without loss of control effectiveness. 
The objective of this study is to investigate the seismic performance for a seismically isolated main control room (MCR) of nuclear power plant. MCR was isolated by spherically shaped friction pendulum system (FPS). The FPS provided the simplest means of achieving long period in the isolation system under low gravity load. Some parametric studies were conducted with different properties of FPS. When the coefficient of friction in the sliding surface of FPS is low, the seismic performance of MCR was satisfactory However, the lateral displacement in the isolation level was rather large. To restrict this displacement into adequate range, a fluid viscous dampers were used.

The rockfall protection fences are installed to reduce rockfall damage in roads side slopes. The energy absorbing capacity of widely used rockfall protection fences is about 50kJ. But in many cases, rockfall protection fences are easily damaged even by a low level of rockfall energy. The objective of this paper is to verify the energy absorbing capacity of rockfall protection fences and investigate the behavior of them by rockfall. The LSDYNA3D, a finite elements analysis program for dynamic movement of three dimensional objects, is used to perform the numerical simulations In the result, it is shown that rockfall protection fences absorb half of standard absorbing energy or less than it. It is inadquate for the rockfall protection fences to perform the principal function. To improve the performance of the fences, new rockfall proctection fence is proposed and numerical simulation is performed.

The objective of optimal placement of dampers for a structure is to maximize the effectiveness of the vibration control with the same number of dampers. While many optimal placement methods of linear viscous dampers have been proposed and used, there are only a few methods for MR dampers. Here some optimal location indices for MR dampers are proposed, which are similar to those for linear viscous dampers and show how large the structural responses on each floor we. Every time an additional MR damper is implemented, the optimal location index on each floor is measured, and then the next damper is installed on the floor with the maximum location index. In these sequential procedures, the peak interstory drift, the peak interstory velocity and the absolute acceleration of each floor are selected as the optimal location indeices. Four different earthquakes with various scales are loaded to the 20story nonlinear benchmark building model (Otori et at. 2000, 2002). Passive On/Off algorithms are used in order to represent the control algorithm of MR dampers.

In these days, The base isolation system is often used improve the seismic capacity of the structure Instead of conventional techniques of strengthening the structural members. The purpose of this study is to evaluate dynamic property evaluation of control equipment using Lead Rubber Bearing. In this study, analysis numerical was performed to determine the optimal dynamic property of lead rubber bearing and damper which minimize the response of base from in main control room. Also the analytical results was composed with the test results peformed in previous study

A fluidstructureisolator interaction program was developed in this study. The behavior of liquid regions are simulated by the boundary element method, and then the technique of analyzing the free surface motion in time domain is developed by using the nonlinear free surface boundary condition(NFBC) and the condition of interface between the structure and the fluid. Structure regions are modeled by the finite element method. In order to construct the governing equation of the fluid structure interaction(FSI)problem in time domain, the finite elements for a structure and boundary elements for liquid are coupled using the equilibrium condition, the compatibility condition and NFBC. The isolator is simulated by equation proposedin 3D Basis Me. In order to verify the validity and the applicability of the developed fluid structure Isolator interaction program, The horizontal forced vibration analysis was performed. The applicability of the developed method is verified through the artificial seismic analysis of real size liquid storage tank.

Korea Gas Corporation has recently constructed a LNG pilot tank with 1, 000㎥ capacity in Incheon, Korea. The main objective of this pilot tank construction is to accumulate field data under different operating conditions for the future use in design procedure, construction, and maintenance. As the part of the project, a field dynamic test, socalled modal test, is performed to obtain the dynamic characteristics of the pilot tank. This paper describes the instrumentation and measurement Process used in the testing. From the measured Frequency Response Functions (FRFs), resonant frequencies and corresponding mode shapes of the tank are extracted and provided. Also, these results are compared to those calculated from a finite element model. The change of dynamic characteristics of the pilot tank due to the effect of internal fluid and the possible structural deterioration will be investigated in near future.

An optimal design method for hybrid structural control system of building structures subject to earthquake excitation is presented in this paper. Designing a hybrid structural control system nay be defined as a process that optimizes the capacities and configuration of passive and active control systems as well as structural members. The optimal design proceeds by formulating the optimization problem via a multistage goal programming technique and, then, by finding reasonable solution to the optimization problem by means of a goalupdating genetic algorithm. The process of the integrated optimization design is illustrated by a numerical simulation of a ninestory building structure subject to earthquake excitation. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by comparing the optimally designed results with those of a hybrid structural control system where structural members, passive and active control systems are uniformly distributed.

As large structures such as highrise buildings and cablestayed bridges become lighter and more flexible, the necessity of structural control for reducing excessive displacement and acceleration due to seismic excitation is increased. As a means to minimize seismic damages, various base isolation systems are adopted or considered for adoption. In this study, the seismic performance of M dampers are studied and compared with that of the NZ system as a base isolation system As the control algorithm of the MR damper, the clippedoptimal control(applied LQR method) is employed. A fivestory building is modeled and the seismic performance of the two systems subjected to three different earthquakes is compared. The results show that the M damper system can provide superior protection than the NZ system for a wide range of ground motions.