The purpose of this study is to investigate thel present situation and to analyze the needs and problems of the $\ulcorner$Environment$\lrcorner$ subject in secondary school of the current 6th curriculum in Korea and to indicate the directions of improvement environmental education. The first step of this research was to review the related literature and the result indicated that the number of secondary schools that selected $\ulcorner$environment$\lrcorner$ subject and the teachers who have $\ulcorner$environment$\lrcorner$ certification of a second-major has increased yearly but it shows much difference by regions. The second step was questionnaire surveys on 60 $\ulcorner$Environment$\lrcorner$ teachers in secondary school. According to the survey, 65% of teachers are not certificated and 50% of teachers have no self-confidence of teaching. And most of teachers thought it was difficult to select the modules out of textbook and teachers had difficulties such as the lack of appropriate reference materials and instructive experience of their own instructive experience of active researches. The third step was the questionnaire survey on a students group(606) learning the $\ulcorner$environment$\lrcorner$ subject and a students group(621) without the $\ulcorner$environment$\lrcorner$ subject in secondary school. The group learning $\ulcorner$environment$\lrcorner$ subject showed significantly higher scores than those of the group without $\ulcorner$environment$\lrcorner$ subject in most items. And among the students having $\ulcorner$environment$\lrcorner$ subject, the first year students achieved the highest score, and it revealed that the teaching was most effective to them. The suggestions based on the results of this study are as follows. First, the uncertifiable teachers currently teaching $\ulcorner$environment$\lrcorner$ subject should be given priority to the second-major certificate training program ; which are diverse in contents according to differences of majors and levels. Second, specific and practical re-training programs for the certificated teachers teaching the subject are needed. Third, considerable and continual adjustment of the textbook yearly is required in addition to regular curriculum amendment. Fourth, the more efficient and actual teaching.learning methods of $\ulcorner$environment$\lrcorner$ subject education that can attract students' interest must be developed. Fifth, it is most desirable to have first year students select the subject.
The Quality of human living depends on the environmental quality of the region sustaining the life. The environmental deterioration of the modern society is due to mechanical environmentalism. For the better quality of the life, The changes of recognition and attitude on the environments are required. These changes of mind are also important in environmental education for teenagers. The 7th national curriculum, officially anounced December 1998, focuses on the change of attitude to environments and practical behavior in real life for “Environments”, the environmental education curriculum in middle school. Basic elements of the curriculum are cultivation of the pro-environmental thinking, multi-levelling of teaching materials and methods, and encouraging of student participating activity. Actually, the curriculum construction is composed of stepped-levelling of teaching and learning, reasonable contents volume, encouraging of student practice, and suggesting of evaluation standards of textbook writing. Three main subjects of environmental education for middle school consist of (1) man and environment, (2) recognition of environmental problem, and (3) protection activity for environment. Methodology of environmental education can include multi-disciplinary approaches, variable teaching methods, and continuing evaluation of student practice and participation attitude. Environmental education for teenagers relating to the 7th national curriculum focuses on recognition of the environmental problems and practice activity in daily life. The recognition includes considering relationship of human life to environment, solving environmental problems in regional context, and development of comprehensive understanding concept of the environments. For the practice education, variable teaching methods, such as field survey and application of multi-media, are needed.
The ‘Ecosystem St Environment’ subject is included in the 7th revised curriculum for high schools in Korea, which ‘Environmental Science’ subject in the 6th curriculum was changed to. The 6th curriculum was announced in 1992 and has been applied till now, and the 7th revised curriculum was announced in the late of 1997 and will start to be applied in school education from 2001. The ‘Ecosystem & Environment’ subject is an integrated subject for liberal arts and science, which deals with environmental problems with approaches of natural science and social science. Its significance lies in understanding and solving environmental problems, and thus improving the quality of human life. And it is aimed to achieve the goal of environmental education in connection with ‘Environment’ subject in middle schools, which is one of the three optional subjects. This subject consists of six domains: human being and environment, ecosystem and environment, environmental pollution, global environmental problems ＆ their measures, environment and society, and environmental preservation. Compared with ‘Environmental Science’ in the 6th curriculum, in this subject less emphasis is put on environmental technological approach and more emphasis is put on environmental ethics and environmental social approach. On the contrary, one unsatisfactory point is as the following: locally integrated solutions of environmental problems are omitted: the organization of the textbook is more or less sporadical and sometimes overlapping; practical solutions are not concrete in writing the textbook and teaching it. The ‘Ecosystem & Environment’ subject which has been organized with new contents according to the 7th revised curriculum for high schools will be successful in achieving the given goal only when a lot of high schools select this subject and are taught effectively.
Since 1970', the international community has displayed a heightened consciousness concerning the Earth environment and Environmental Education has became to be as survival strategies for the environment and human life. For developing the model of instructional procedure for educating environmental behaviors in environmental education, this study analyzed the objectives, characteristics, contents, instructional methods and instructional procedures of case studies that were awarded the first prize of the Contest of the Case Study in Korea that were had charged by KFTA. The main results of this study were as follows :(1) the more objectives for environmental education were focused on “formulating values and attitudes for the environment”, some objectives for “skills” need to investigate or solve the environmental issues were found, and some objectives for “environmental behaviors”. (2) the more contents of environmental education were focused on “environmental pollutions” (3) the more instructional methods for environmental education used for “investigating or experiment” to solve the environmental issues or problems, some methods for “taking actions for the environment”. (4) the most of case studies were used the model of environmental instruction that were developed by KEDI in 1988. Conclusionally, This study suggested that you have to emphasis on level of responsible citizen behaviors to resolve the environmental issues or problems in the environmental instructional procedures.
With a theme of the ‘Environmental Education in Middle Schools’ and ‘Open Education’, this study has been aimed to suggest the improvements for environmental education through ‘Open Education’, which is nowadays emphasized in Korea. This study suggests that the following should be concluded in the syllabic for the environmental education; the environmental problems and their relations to the environments] education, the establishment of the model of environmental education system, the goal of environmental education and its characteristics, the analysis of environment-related subjects' contents, the teaching-learning methods for environmental education, and the applications of ‘Open Education’ to the environmental education. This study has found that the ‘Open Education’ would play a great role in increasing the effect of the environmental education, and thus it strongly recommends, as a necessity, that teaching skills and text for it should be developed as soon as possible.
This study was performed to investigate the trends in Environmental Education Research of Korea. In this study, the papers in $\ulcorner$Hwankyungkyoyuk$\lrcorner$ (Journal of the Korean Society for Environmental Education) and $\ulcorner$Journal of the Korean Association for Research in Science Education$\lrcorner$ from the initial number to the latest number were investigated. The category of analysis in this study were the number of papers, research area, method, character, the major targets of Environmental Education, the major targets of research, the purpose of Environmental Education, and the contents of environment. The results of this study are as follows: 1. The number of papers in $\ulcorner$Hwankyungkyoyuk$\lrcorner$ were 178 and in $\ulcorner$Journal of the Korean Association for Research in Science Education$\lrcorner$ were 406(10 of them were related in environmental education) 2. The research areas of the papers were Environmental Education(52.4%), Social Environmental Education(19%), Environmental Science(8.5%), Science Education(7.9%), and Social Education(3.2%). 3. The major parts of the method of the papers were literature review(31.7%), survey research(21.2%), and descriptive study(20.3%). 4. More than half of the character of the papers were research on the actual condition(35.4%) and consciousness (17.9%), 5. The major targets of Environmental Education of the papers were secondary school students(33.9%) and elementary school students(18.8%). 6. The major targets of researches of the papers were secondary school students(33.8%), teachers(30.0％), the general public(20.0％), and elementary school students(18.8%). 7. The purpose of Environmental Education of the papers were Values and Attitudes(31.2%), Behaviors and Participations(29.6%), Knowledges and Informations(27.2%), and Skills(12%). 8. The contents of Environment of the papers were waste(27.7%), water quality(15.2%), the whole environment(12.5%), air quality(9.8%), natural environment(5.4%), soil(4.4%), energy(4.4%), and so on. The results indicated that the Environmental Education research of Korea were needed to be reinforced in the field of qualitative research method, teaching and learning strategy, the development of learninyg meterals, and teacher education.
‘Environmental Literacy’ is defined as ‘one's individual status to be accomplished or to be acquired by environmental education’ and it has the same meaning as ‘the Goals of EE’. The purposes of this study was to identify the components of environmental literacy and analyse the related studies. Much of the work in EE has followed the path outlined by the Belgrade Charter, the Tbilisi Declaration, and later in Agenda 21. Over the years, scholars such as Hungerford et al., Iozzi et al., Roth, the Wisconsin Center for Environmental Education, and the Environmental Education Literacy Consortium have examined and proposed a framework of ‘Environmental Literacy’. Recently, the influential framework developed by the NAAEE(the North American Association for Environmental Education) National Project for Excellence in EE included seven categories: affect, ecological knowledge, socio-political knowledge, knowledge of environmental issues, skills, additional determinants of environmentally responsible behavior, and environmentally responsible behaviors. According to the analysed results, 37.7% of the American studies and 32.5% of Korean ones measured aspects of the attitude. Especially, the measure of this variable in America, however, led to the most inconclusive and least positive outcomes. The studies included related to cognitive skills were very few but 100% reported positive impacts of instructions in two countries. In America, using a television documentary, a journal and the field trip were very useful and effective. But using a computer simulation/game was less effective and the supplemental instruction did't led to the positive effect. In Korea, instruction, the supplemental instruction and EE program led to positive outcomes generally. The lack of validity and reliability of the instruments was pointed out as a common problem and the development of valid and reliable instrument for nation-wide assessment is urgently needed.
Responsible environmental behavior of Youths who will live in the 21C needs the ‘Personalization of Environment’, which means the process or the result of awareness to the non-personal environment as the personal environment to show the responsible environmental behaviors through the intended physical and psychological contacts to environment. This study intended to analyze various programs of national parks, zoo, children's garden and Project Learning Tree in the United States and to discuss the possibility of ‘personalization of environment’ and implication for environmental education of Korea. Literature review, field trips, personal interviews and internet searches were used to collect information and data. Programs of North Cascade National Park, Mt. Rainier National Park and 4-H Children's Garden in Michigan State University showed the cases of direct personalization of environment focusing on the direct contact with nature. The programs of Binder Park Zoo in Battle Creek and Project Learning Tree showed the possibilities of indirect personalization of environment forming meaningful relationships with nature through various indirect activities. It is suggested that various natural education programs in Unites States make nature and places meaningful for the people and it needs to be applied for the environmental education programs in Korea.
This survey is made to offer the fundamental data for the establishment of practical environmental education plan based on understanding of the change of the environmental awareness of elementary school students under the longitudinal-sectional research design. In this research, the questionnaire made by Kim Jong-ki in 1988 and by Kim Hak-Bong in 1993, is amended and filled up, which is used to the 624 numbers of fifth and sixth grade students lived in Seoul, Pyungtaek and Yangjugu. This research ares are devided into 5 ares which are the environmental general, environmental pollution, living environment, environmental education and consciouness of environmental crisis to humen beings. First, it is grasped general tendency and then is compared and analyzed the level of awareness by residence, sex, grade. stsdard of living parental academic, the background variation of parental job with the status in 1988 and 1933. The results are as follows: 1) The rate of interest for environmental pollution and population is reduced but the rate of interest for animal protection is increased. 2) In spite of reinforcement of environmental education In school, the numbers of the students who became to know some information about that from the class are diminished. 3) Even if the children are aware of sewage seriousely, the numbers of the students who answer it is caused by domestic sewage are a few. 4) On the environmental education area, the various materials of the are not utilized well in a class. 5) On the environmental crisis to the human beings the rate is much increased in 1993 ttan that of 1988 environmental contamination is the important cause of the human beings' crises but now the rate is reduced again. In other variables except the environmental contamination, it is increased the that of 1993 on the war, on population it is showed a tendency of reduction. The results of this study are as follows : 1) It is supposed that the education should be done only not for the knowledge of environmental education but for the practice of that - animal breeding, field experience of the ecological destruction places. 2) The various environmental education materials such as TV, VTR are demanded to give the students proper information about that and to educate sufficently. 3) The course of fields exploration for environmental education should be prepared under cooperation of the authorities concerned. 4) It has to be groped for an epoch-making teaching method and the training and the practice of teachers in order to reform environmental pollution.
This study was conducted as a preliminary step to establish a model for the practical application of environmental education related to food wastes collected from elementary school foodservices. Methods of treatment and present recycling status of food wastes in elementary schools in Kyonggido were surveyed. The consciousness of dieticians who have been serving for elementary school foodservices was also analyzed through the survey questions concerning environmental education for the reduction and recycling of food wastes. The results derived from this survey were as follows: The major portion of food wastes from elementary school foodservices was constituted with vegetables and soup, and an average amount of food wastes per day was highest in June and July. Therefore environmental education related to reduction of wastes was needed in the first semester of school terms, and the possible reduction of food wastes achieved through the proper planning of school foodservice menu was also needed. In most cases food wastes were collected and treated by animal growing farmers or composted by machines in school. In operating composting machines microorganism inoculant was mostly used but dieticians pointed out the problem of a nasty odor, insects, and high energy consumption. This situation means it has not been operated efficiently and suggests an efficiency problem of machine composting in elementary schools because composting itself is based on the aerobic digestion and high temperature fermentation which kills insects and harmful microorganisms. Elementary school dieticians in Kyonggido were aware that food wastes cause main pollution problem, and that food wastes are valuable resources which can be recycled, and recycling of food wastes is inevitable. But more than half of the schools surveyed have not been reused food wastes in school, so a proper model for recycling and reuse of food wastes in school grounds was thought to be needed. Environmental education programs related to food wastes have not been peformed in more than half of the schools surveyed. It was concluded that the following three plans will be helpful to reduce school food wastes. First, environmental education should be enforced, second, teachers' and dieticians' intensive teaching concerning food wastes should be needed, and finally establishment of a model for recycling and reuse of food wastes in school grounds and its application to environmental education would offer a valuable field experience to school students.
This research aims to perceive the present state of science experimental education practiced in middle school and also to improve the laboratorial environment. Accordingly, this study surveyed 297 middle school science teachers in Seoul to examine the risks and accidents occurred during lab sessions, the conditions of chemical waste disposal, and whether or not teacher's manual clearly states cautions on toxic chemicals. About 70%(69.6%) of science teachers were highly concerned about risks and toxicity of chemicals used in classes, 59.9% experienced actual accidents, and 83.2% were anxiety of incidents caused by chemicals. Besides, 55.2% of science teachers answered that they have little knowledge about caring noxious chemicals used in lab sessions. So it turns out that they need more specific education on handling toxic chemicals. More than one third(36.7%) answered that they disposed of chemical waste water without any special care or kept it in the lab after experiments. The number of chemicals as well used in middle school curriculum is increasing as grades gets higher toxic chemicals. However, there are few teachers' manual covering how to handle noxious chemicals. Therefore, in middle school curriculum the number of poisonous chemicals should be minimized as much as possible, and in case the toxic chemicals have to be used, teacher's guide book should state precautions on handling chemicals in detail. Also government should make it obligatory on schools to instate ventilator for chemical waste, or to transport the waste to proper disposal systems.
On the border between the Geography subject and the Science subject, much of the content area is found to be interrelated or shared in common due to the characteristics of each subject. This possibly causes a problem of which of the two subjects should treat these overlapping areas with more responsibility and importance, and, as a result, might cause teachers to neglect the areas and result in insufficient treatment of the areas on both sides. In other words, these overlapping area can be overlooked on both subjects. On the other hand, as the science subject treats these areas more deeply and widely in both quantity and quality, the geography subject might lose its original content area to the science subject and accordingly lose its characteristics as an independent subject. To conclude, the following suggestions must be taken into consideration when we develop and organize the environment-related unit in the geography subject. First, the various real cases damaged by pollution, the efforts and steps to avoid being polluted, the inquiry questions and activities to set up the value of the environment conservation, and sufficient assistant materials such as maps, graphs, photos, illustrations, statistics, which will help to realize the environment problem more directly and clearly, must be presented in the textbooks. Second, as the environment education is not just teaching the environmental pollution, the content should be composed for the students to realize the value of the environment and to change their awareness and attitude toward the environment. Third, the environment education cannot be restricted to a certain subject, or it needs to be approached in multi-subject areas. To exercise a effective environment education while we maintain the unique characteristics of the geography subject, a way to link the environment and the region, which is one of the main concepts of geography, should be developed. Finally, textbooks are indispensible materials to teaching-learning, but for more effective teaching the teachers of geography should try to recompose and reorganize the content and to develop newer and more effective teaching material-aids.
This paper presents the development of standardized modules and an integrated program which will be used for social environmental education. The study objectives are to develop modules which are based on various environmental topics, to relate the regional environmental topics to the educational modules and program, and to include the demand of students in the modules and program. Literature and questionary surveys, as well as, module development method were utilized as research tools. The titles of developed modules are “The Green Planet Earth, “Unexpected Resources: Save Resources and Recycle”, “Water as the Mother of All Lives”, “The Blue Sky with Clean Air”, and “Soil as the Home of All Living and Non-living Things”. It is hoped that the developed modules and program are utilized as course materials and curriculum for social environmental education in various educational institutes. The study results will be materialized as multimedia in near future.
The main results of this study were as follows :(1) the more objectives for environmental education in science textbooks of Korea were focused on “awareness of the environment”. While the objectives of the Project WILD of Canada were balanced between each objectives. (2) the more environmental skills in science textbooks of Korea were focused on ‘observation’ and ‘description’, while the environmental skills of the Project WILD of Canada for environmental education focused on ‘analysis’ and ‘observation’. The environmental skills for the environmental education in the science textbooks of Korea were concentrated on ‘observation ’ and ‘description’, while the Project WILD of Canada were balanced between each skills for investigating the environment and the environmental problems. (3) the instructional procedures in science textbooks of Korea for the environmental education were very similar between each activities of the science textbooks, while the instructional procedures of the Project WILD of Canada were very different, and these procedures were very useful for educating the environmental behaviors.
The purpose of this study that was based on the theory review about the practical use necessity of school landscape was to survey on the awareness of elementary school teachers about the applications of school landscape for environmental education. This study was carried out through the review of literature, the questionnaire to 132 elementary school teachers in Seongnam City. The findings derived from this study were as follows : First, School landscape is an important field as environmental education resource for the improvement of school environmental education. Especially, for the improvement of environmental sensitivity through field-experience learning, the practical applications of elementary school landscape is very important and urgent in aspects of environmental education theory, accessibility, and convenience. Second, Most of responded teachers give an affirmative answer about the field-experience learning for school environmental education and the necessity of practical use of school landscape for field-experience learning. Several the improvement to use elementary school landscape for environmental education being suggested by teachers are the increase of financial support, the magnification of school area, and the school landscape planning and design in consideration of environmental education by landscape architect expert. Third, Above half of teachers don't agree to use the roof garden for environmental education because of the safety of students and the school building construction. Fourth, Teachers are more satisfied with the status of school landscape maintenance than the practical usability of school landscape in aspect of environmental education and the facilities in school landscape. Teachers think that the most important functions and roles of school landscape is psychological factor.
Environmental education, which has been thought as the most fundamental solution to environmental problems, should be performed not only in school but also in home and society with a long-term plan. In line with this, environmental-friendly attitude in daily life should be achieved by the perception of the vital environmental principle-new understanding of relation between nature and human being. It is in the city park that children in urban area, who has little opportunity to contact nature, have rather easier access to nature and realize the principle. Despite such great potential, the city park in Korea has not played its pivotal role because of lack of both facilities and activities. In addition, existing studies on this issue are not satisfactory. Therefore, this study is aimed at analyzing and evaluating city parks' environmental education function, potential and problems according to their types, then offering practical reform measures and programs in order to make students better understand the parks as an everyday natural experience spot. These plans are not based on full-scale revision, instead focuses on optimizing potential of existing natural environment and parks. Additionally, activities to experience various nature are included in the study. The value of city park is not decided by the park itself, but by its relationship with visitors. Environmental education function of city park is not confined to building up facilities and providing programs. It also should be complemented and improved, reflecting visitors' opinions and evaluation of environmental education.
Since 1980's during which environmental pollution became serious enough to urge various types of environmental educations in many areas. But, most emphasis has been put on theoretical education. Even field education training mostly focused on water pollution. Therefore, simple air pollution monitoring system was needed for better field education in air pollution. In this study, we evaluated Passive Sampler as an useful tool for teaching air pollution in field. Students have found passive sampler very effective tool. Recent comparative study of auto-monitoring and passive sampler networks suggested a potential use of passive sampler as an useful tool for environmental education. In this study, the correlation between two sets of values appears very high judging from the regression slope of 0.92 and correlation coefficient of 0.91 However, inexpensive Passive sampler with easy-to-operate colorimeter, has not been used in environmental education partially because large scale fluctuation in time and space characteristic to air pollution has been overlooked so that the sampler has not been tested for an effective educational tool. Passive sampler certainly deserves further in depth research as an effective air monitoring system, and better attention to its usefulness to teach students and public.
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