Firstly, the goals and the domains of contents of environmental education was classified in order to systematize the contents of environmental education which would be taught in each subject. According to these goals and domains of contents, the contents of 10 subjects (Korean Language, Ethics, Social Studies, Mathematics, Science, Music, Arts, Physical Practicum(Technology and Heme Economics), English were analyzed. The norms in the analysis of the goals of environmental education by each subject were 4 domains: information and knowledge, skills, value & attitudes, & action and participation. The norms in the analysis of the contents of environmental education by each subject were 11 domains: natural environment, artificial environment, population, industrialization/urbanization, resources, environmental pollution, environmental preservation and measures, environmental sanitation, environmental ethics, environmentally sound and sustainable development(ESSD), and sound consumption life. As a result, it was found that all the 4 domains of goals in environmental education could come true. Furthermore, the goals of environmental education were found to be reached in the subjects of Korean Language, Music, Arts, Physical Education, Mathematics, English, etc., which had been thought to have nothing to do with environmental education. It was also found that the contents of each subject could deal with its own unique environmental contents. The result of this study can keep all subjects from overlapping in environmental contents, and can make the most of each subject's characteristics. Also, the result of this study will be referenced in developing the teaching and learning materials for environmental education according to each subject.
As the environmental problems are recognized as daily problems in our lives, not as issues of those who are engaged in specific professional fields, the interest in environmental education is increasing gradually. The environmental education is the one that studies the environment and its problems and seeks the solutions for them. This paper deals with how the Korean subject will include environmental education. The environmental problems are already dealt with in the Korean textbooks according to the 6th curriculum for the Korean subject. A noticeable fact is that those textbooks connect the skills for language skills with environmental education. That is, the textbooks try to improve 4 language skills (speaking, listening, reading, and writing) with the Korean data related to environment, which can be the most practical means. This tendency will be also reflected in the 7th curriculum for the Korean subject, and the means will be taken by which environmental education will be able to be implemented more effectively through a variety of learning activities. In case of speaking and listening, learning activities such as speaking of, listening to, or discussing the contents concerning environmental problems can be recommended. In case of reading and literature, learning activities such as reading articles or works concerning environmental problems. Through these learning activities the Korean education will be able to achieve the goal in the fields of knowledge, information, and autonomy or attitudes which are the goals of environmental education. If the contents of the Korean curriculum are described in detail, it can be known that the Korean subject have someting to do with knowledge, skills, and recognition more deeply. In the methods In obtain information and knowledge, it will be desirable to recognize knowledge and information indirectly through various reading data rather than to recognize knowledge and information directly. Or it will be desirable to increase the sensitivity about environmental problems through literary works. For this environmental education in the above, we need to utilize discussion or presentation-oriented leaching and learning in the Korean education. Also we need to approach environmental problems by using various teaching media. We need to emphasize the education in the affective domain, especially through expression of emotions. guidance of reactions, internalization, personification, and so on.
The goals of moral education according to the 7th educational curriculum are (1) to learn the basic life custom and ethical norms necessary to desirable life, (2) to develop the judgment to solve desirably and practically the ethical matters in daily life, (3) to develop the sound citizenship, national identity and consciousness, and the consciousness of world peace and mankind's mutual prosperity, and (4) to develop the ethical propensity to practice the ideal and principle of life systematically Based on the goals in the above, the following can be established as goals of environmental education possible: (1) to learn judgment to solve practically the environmental problems in the society with their ethical understanding, and (2) to recognize that environmental consciousness is the basic necessity of sound citizenship and national identity and consciousness, and mankind's mutual prosperity, and to have attitudes to practice environmental preservation in daily life. Like these, the intellectual aspect, the affective aspect, and the active aspect can be established in the environmental education in the ethics education keeping their balance. In order to achieve its goals, the contents of ethics subject are organized largely with 4 domains: (1) individual life, (2) home life, life with neighbors, and school life, (3) social life, and (4) national life. Among these, environmental education is mainly included in the domain of social life. These contents concerning environmental education take 22 (32.4%) out of the whole 68 teaching factors which are taught in the ethics subject from the 3rd grade to 10th grade. These 22 environmental teaching factors are mainly related to environmental ethics, environmental preservation and measures, and sound consumption life. Classified according to each goal, the environmental contents in the 7th curriculum for ethics subject put emphasis on environmental value and attitudes, action and participation, and information and knowledge. Therefore, the recommendable teaching and learning method for the environmental education in ethics subject is to motivate students' practice or to make them practice in person. For example, role-play model, value-conflict model, group study model can be applied according to the topics of environmental education.
As an attempt to systematize the environmental education in schools according to the 7th curriculum, this study extracted the contents of environmental education to which Social Studies Education can approach in the social studies lessons. This study analyzed these contents from the goals of environmental education and from its contents and, as a result, it found out the following: (1) in the aspect of ‘knowledge’ and ‘skills’, Social Studies and the goals of environmental education have direct relations with each other, and (2) Social Studies can be taught in the aspect of ‘environmental pollution’, ‘environmental preservation ＆ alternative’ ,‘human environment’, ‘population’, ‘inderstrialization & urbanization, ‘resources’, and so on. By utilizing various teaching and learning methods of Socal studies education, We can approach the goals of environmental education: ‘attitudes’ and ‘participation’. We think that ‘problem solving ability’ is main teaching method” in Socal Studies.
Environment education, which is a principal solution to environmental problems in the world, is being practiced in Korea through the national curricula for primary and secondary schools. However, it hasn't been effective so far to practice environment education within those schools where a variety of subjects are taught. The purpose of this study is to look for the possibility of practicing environment education and thereby to make some suggestions for effective environment education in the field of English education, which doesn't seem to have a close relationship with environment education. This study first specified prospective contents of environment education by analyzing the Seventh National English Curriculum. Then, on the basis of them, the study explored how to practice environment education in the field of English education. Finally, for effective environment education, it made some suggestions and emphasized the importance of consistent efforts.
As an attempt to systematize environmental education in the 7th curriculum, this study extracted the contents of environmental education to which science can approach in the science lessons. This study analyzed these contents from the goals of environmental education and from its contents and, as a result, it found out the followings : (1) in the aspect of ‘knowledge’ and ‘skills’, the goals of Science environmental education have direct relations with each other, and (2) the science can be taught in the aspect of ‘natural environment’, ‘environmental ethics’, ‘environmental pollution’, ‘resources’, and so on. By utilizing various teaching and learning methods of science education the science subject on, however, approach the goals of environmental education, of ‘attitudes’ and ‘participation’.
In this paper an attempt was made to establish a direction in systematizing the technical education with regard to the relation to environmental education. This study was made mainly through literature review concerning the relationship between technology and environment, and thus this study has a purpose of connecting the contents of technical education with environmental education. It will provide referential data for environmental education. The main text of this study dealt with which goal to establish in the technical education from the viewpoint of academical position considering the relationship between technical education and environmental education. Also, it dealt with the organization of contents of environmental education according to the 7th curriculum and, as a result, it reached the following conclusions: In the first place, technology and environmental education which have close relationship with each other should be considered in the developmental aspect. In the second place, technology, in any directions, affects natural environment. In the third place, environmental education should be done by the integrated approach and one of the alternatives can be through SET education including society and culture, environment, and technology all together. In the fouth place, the environmental education should be environmentally sound and developed sustainably so that the technology can be developed along with environment. One example can be found in the ecological architecture. In the fifth place, the environmental education which is a souce of technical education has its necessity in 8 aspects. In the sixth place, according to the 7th curriculum, the following can be the teaching contents which will connect technical education and environmental education: gardening, vegetable raising, planting and trimming, the future techniques, energy and transportation techniques, and so on. In the seventh place, the technical education can have seven goals concerning environment. In the eighth place, the environmental education in the technical education should be considered in the aspect of contents, of teaching and learning, of evaluation, and of the relations with subjects. In the ninth place, should be included as teaching materials of the units of technology textbooks where environment education will be dealt with.
This study is aimed to systematize the contents of environmental education in the home education and to develop the environmental education. For this, this study firstly examined the characteristics and goals of home education and its relation to environmental education. Secondly, in the paradigm of environmental education this study analyzed the goals and contents of environmental education in the domain of home education which is included in the practicum subject of the 7th curriculum. Thirdly, this study examined the effective teaching and learning methods for home education and the considerations in organization of textbook contents which reflect these teaching and learning methods. Finally, this study suggested an example of textbooks which reflect all these considerations. It has been found out that: (1) the home education is based on the recognition of environmental problems related to home life, (2) the home education explains the environmental problems, and (3) the home education has its goals of acquring active attitudes and skills to solve these problems. In the teaching contents, the home education was analyzed to have the following concerning environmental education: the utilization of resources for food, clothes, and housing and home life, that is, the domain of ‘environmental sanitation’ related to food ingestion and sanitary life, the domain of ‘sound consumption life’ related to the utilization of resources and their consumption, and the domain of ‘environmental pollution’ on the prevention of every kind of pollutants in the home life. However, the environmental education in the home education according to the 7th educational curriculum has the distinctiveness from the contents of environmental education which were emphasized in the past home education. The distinctiveness are as following: (1)the resources matter is dealt with in the aspect of recycling various resouces from home life, (2)the prevention or reduction of pollutants in life which take the considerable part of environmental pollution is emphasized, (3)children's sensitivity In environment is emphasized to be developed, and (4)the importance of life is emphasized to be taught.
Mathematics has been usually recognized as value-neutral and anti-ideological subject, and as a result, it has not dealt with environmental problems clearly. Also, it is not easy to find any environment-related contents in the 7th mathematics curriculum. However, because mathematics is also precious human products and essence, in any ways there is a need to reflect the social issues in the mathematics subject which speak for human mental activities. If this need is admitted to change the mathematics contents to the direction of social issues, environmental problems can stand out and be dealt in the mathematics education. Among the 6 domains in the 7th mathematics curriculum, the environmental problems can be dealt with in the domains of ‘numbers and operation’, ‘letters and formulas’, ‘regularity and function’, ‘chances and statistics’, ‘measurement’ except in the domain of ‘diagrams’. Also, the '문장제들' which takes up a considerable part of mathematics textbooks needs the authentic situation, and thus it will be possible to take environmental situations as mathematical materials. Furthermore, one of the 7th mathematics curriculum is that it suggested further study in each level of each domain, the representative pattern of which is the application of the mathemantics contents to the daily life. With this kind of mathematics further study contents, environmental problems can provide a variety of contents for the further study. From this viewpoint, it can be expected that the contents of environmental education will be increased in the mathematics subject. Under the recognition that the mathematics subject cannot be an exception in considering environmental problems, this study has studied some concrete plans and examples for how the mathematics textbooks based on the 7th educational curriculum can deal with environmental Problems.
Recently, the interest in artificial environment made by mankind as well as natural environment has been increased. This interest in the environment began to be reflected in the physical education, which environmental problems affect modern people's living quality as a crucial factor affecting directly or indirectly our life. Furthermore, since we entered the era of mass sports the physical education subject has dealt with destruction of natural environment by constructing golf courses, ski slopes, etc., destruction of ecosystem by water sports, mountaineering sports, aero sports, etc., and noise pollution near the sport facilities. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to examine the means to reinforce environmental education in many ways in the physical education concerning environmental problems. For this purpose this paper analyzed the contents of the 7th curriculum for physical education which can be thought to be teaching materials for environmental education, and described the contents in detail. Also, this paper established the orientation and goals of environmental education in the physical education subject and examined some important teaching and learning methods. In addition, this paper suggested some considerations concerning environmental education and a textbook model for the development of physical education textbooks connecting with the 7th curriculum for physical education, which is to suggest a means to connect physical education with environmental education smoothly. The physical education has an attribute that its activities like swimming, climbing mountains, and camping are performed outdoor. The physical activities in the physical education are, of course, performed in the environment, so we had better implement the environmental education including such physical activities at the same time with physical education. Also, there should be efforts so that the education through environment, the education about environment, and the education in the environment can be implemented along with the physical education.
This is a study of strengthening the practice of environmental education in the primary and secondary school music program. Since the world war II, the environmental situation has been getting worse and worse. So it is now a global issue to conserve energy and solving the ecological problems we are confronting. Solving the environmental problem is not just a scientist's task nor a specific school education subject's either, but a responsibility of all human beings. In this sense, it is necessary for every school subject, including music, should include elements of environmental education in its education contents. in this paper the researcher has tried to point out some reasonable aspects of environmental education guidelines which would be pursued through school music programs. In the music subject the following eight environmental education strategies could be suggested: 1. An affective aspect of music should be used in educating students to aware of the importance of environmental problems. 2. The effectiveness of employing music for various educational purposes should be implemented to make students environmentally enlightened individual. 3. The main issue of environmental problem must be used in various musical activities such as singing, implementing, composing and appreciating music. 4. By employing an alternative materials for making musical instruments, students and musicians can participate in environmental education program actively. 5. Music is analogues to life and nature. Thus it is highly suggested for teachers to teach students music more sincerely In a way of studying music more seriously, students could achieve environmental education goals by discovering the similarities of the nature of the environment and music as a human environment. 6. By appreciating many musical works of dealing with environmental problems and ecological problems, one could achieve the necessary goals of environmental education. 7. By enlarging the boundary of music including the sounds of nature such as birds' singing, sounds of winds and various streams and tree's trembling, music could achieve the major goals of environmental education. 8. By recognizing sounds as an important human environment, school music program could attain the goals of environmental education. The researcher also has mentioned about the characteristics of music as a schooling subject. and has provided with some detailed curriculum guidelines for strengthening environmental education programs in music classes. Some model lesson plans implementing the environmental education for elementary, junior high school and 10th grade music classes are also suggested followed by six specific teaching ＆ learning methods for environmental education.
The art subject deals with aesthetic experience within natural environment around and artificial environment, and it represents the experience through formative arts. And it also extends the aesthetic experience by making students appreciation of the works of art. In the main text of this study was studied with the connection with environmental education on the basis of the characteristics of art subject. That is, in the art education there can be an understanding of the harmony between natural environment and artificial one and their relationship and, furthermore, more positive environmental education can be possible by environmental murals, environmental sculpture, environmental design, packing design, poster design, elf through systematic formative arts. In addition, the art education can make students keep sensitivity to the natural and artificial environment through the appreciation of a variety of art works made with a theme of environment or through the appreciation of the works in the environment around our lives. Also, it can lead to acquire the desirable values and attitudes toward the environment by discussing the harmony of environmental development and environmental preservation visually. In the second place, this relation described in detail by each grade according to the contents of the 7th curriculum for the art subject. In the third place, the following were suggested: the goals for the environmental education in the art subject, the direction of environmental education, the organization of contents related to environment and their emphases, and the main teaching and learning methods for environmental education.
We analysed current elementary and secondary school curriculum and subjects of social studies and ethics focused on environmental education. The criteria of content analysis is what are the keynotes of environmental education (environmentalism or ecology). In lower grades, most of curriculum and subjects are described on the standpoint of ecology. But in upper grades, environmentalism becomes the keynotes of environmental education. Ethics curriculum and subjects are constructed on the basis of ecology, On the other hand social studies and its curricula are written out skewed to the environmentalism. Overall, it seems that environmentalism and ecology are scattered in curriculum and subjects of social studies and ethics without coherent keynotes.
The purpose of this study is to suggest a systematic and effective way of environmental education by analyzing current environment classes being provided as one of elective courses in some middle schools and their impact on the students. To conduct this study, 1,467 students of 36 middle schools were asked to fill out the questionnaire of 30 items and they were divided into two different groups depending upon whether they were taking ‘environment’ classes at school or not. The survey was peformed to see if there is a difference between these two groups in terms of their recognition of environmental problems and their daily practice of that concept. The conclusion is that the students taking environment classes have more knowledge about environmental issues than the ones without the classes, but their actual behaviors show no difference. In that point, it is necessary to take up a more effective and practical way of environmental education together with teaching its theoretical values.
An environmentally hot issue has arisen from the plan of Young-Wall Dam Construction at Tong river in Korea lately. The point at issue is which value is bigger between the water conservation for human use in future and the ecosystem protection for the intrinsic value of nature including animals and plants there. The purpose of this study is in the qualitative understanding of college students' critical thinking ability and opinion and the environmental values of them through the analysis of their writings. Various environmental values written in the 7th revised national curriculum of Korea are used as a criteria to investigate students' environmental values in their written opinions. Various environmental values are shown up to be handled such as the anthropocentrism, ecocentrism, pro-technology etc. Students of Dept. of Environment Teaching in the Kongju National University are the subject of this study. It shows that they have a deep understanding of the Young-Wall Dam issue and assert their opinions objectively and critically. Most of them(89.5%, n=17) are against the constructional plan of the Young-Wall Dam. Students who are for the plan are proved to have pro-technology value only and the others who are against to have various values including deer ecology.
Firstly, the goals and the domains of contents of environmental education was classified in order to systematize the contents of environmental education which would be taught in each subject. According to these goals and domains of contents, the contents of 10 subjects (Korean Language, Ethics, Social Studies, Mathematics, Science, Music, Arts, Physical Practicum(Technology and Heme Economics), English were analyzed. The norms in the analysis of the goals of environmental education by each subject were 4 domains: information and knowledge, skills, value & attitudes, & action and participation. The norms in the analysis of the contents of environmental education by each subject were 11 domains: natural environment, artificial environment, population, industrialization/urbanization, resources, environmental pollution, environmental preservation and measures, environmental sanitation, environmental ethics, environmentally sound and sustainable development(ESSD), and sound consumption life. As a result, it was found that all the 4 domains of goals in environmental education could come true. Furthermore, the goals of environmental education were found to be reached in the subjects of Korean Language, Music, Arts, Physical Education, Mathematics, English, etc., which had been thought to have nothing to do with environmental education. It was also found that the contents of each subject could deal with its own unique environmental contents. The result of this study can keep all subject from overlapping in environmental contents, and can make the most of each subject’s characteristics. Also, the result of this study will be referenced in developing the teaching and learning materials for environmental education according to each subject.
This survey was conducted to investigate the perception on environmental education by teachers, the current situation of environmental education including problems faced by them in teaching environmental education in the primary and secondary schools. Questions in the survey are designed to aid the development of an environmental education program on trees and forests for teachers to use in their instruction of environmental education. Eight hundred teachers were chosen as a sample in the survey and some of them were again invited to a workshop on environmental education afterwards. In the workshop the survey result was discussed in order to make it more meaningful for program development. The process of environmental education program development, which is sponsored by UNDP and the Korean Government, will be shared with the participants of the conference.
In environmental value education, the difference between Ecological and Economic view-point about environmentmust should be considered. Usually, although the differences are unavoidable, because our lifes are inclined to Economic life. But this propensity have become great obstacles to Environmental value education by diluting the fundamental reasons which the nature should be preserved. Furthermore we can't say that environmental problems are not solved just by economic approach, owing to its limits of solving by incentives. So we can say that it is very important to have equalized view-points in the relations of economics and ecology for balanced environmental value education. This study is to alternative environmental value education program, to have equalized view-points in the relations of economics and ecology through the small community located in Japan. The exact name of that program is GENSANGGAI. They have persued to attain a spiritual state of complete absence of ego through this program, and this spiritual state can be important environmental value educaton goal, which make the student to see the evironment with equalized view-points in the interdependence between economics and ecology. we can say that this program can be a kind affective (sentimentally perceived) environmental education program. It can be good environmental education program in affective domain. we can say that equalized view-points is to attain a spiritual state of complete absence of ego. This program is some similar to Kohlberg's latter term theory and Open educationin theory in substantial aspect, he persued Just Community Approach through Kibbutz in Israel. From the basis of his theory, if the GENSANGGAI program, which means harmony between socialization and development of moral stage, individualism and communism.
Restricted by time and space, formal environmental education has a limit in accommodating fast changing socal phenomena and quickly spreading environmental problems. Therefore, to carry out more efficiently the environmental education for middle and high school students, this study is intended to search for a way to establish a network of formal and nonformal environmental education. More than 80% of civil environmental organizations replied they agree to establish a network of environmental education. As for the establishment of a network, they preferred the establishment in which middle and high school, civil environmental organizations, government, the environment-related departments of the universities. They preferred ‘civil environmental organizations’ for the operator, ‘local municipal or provincial level for the scale, ‘direct personal relations’ for the interchange method. To establish a network, they replied that ‘funding’, ‘specialists in environmental education’, ‘staff to proceed educations’, ‘reform of law and systems’ are required. They also preferred ‘funding from government budget’ for a way to fund a network. We can draw the following conclusions from the survey, We need a training program for environmental education staff not to make those educational programs by civil environmental organizations temporary Also, more studies should be done to establish more organized network of environmental education and nonformal environmental education by civil environmental organizations. Environmental problem varies depending on the local characteristics, and thus environmental education should be carried out locally at the network center for environmental education. Besides, local self-governing bodies should support it administratively and financially.
The objectives of this study were: (a) to measure the level of rural community residents' environmental preservation consciousness, (b) to identify the variables related to their level of environmental preservation consciousness, and (c) to provide suggestions to improve their environmental preservation consciousness. The major findings of this study were as follows; 1) Personal characteristics- gender, years of education, age, and income- were related to the rural communities residents' the environmental preservation consciousness. 2) Social characteristics- membership in environmental organizations, participation in environmental preservation campaigns, environmental dispute within their communities, experiences of participation in environmental dispute in their communities, participation in environmental education-were related to the rural community residents' the environmental preservation consciousness. Based on the above findings, the following suggestions are offered: 1) To improve rural community residents' environmental preservation consciousness, residents in rural community should be motivated and encouraged to participate in environmental and agriculture-related organizations. 2) To effectively solve environmental disputes among rural community residents and between rural communities, central and local governments should provide opportunities for rural residents to acquire their sound environmental consciousness. 3) Environmental preservation consciousness should be assessed including affective domain, cognitive domain, and behavioral domain. Appropriate environmental education programs should be developed after considering rural residents' personal characteristics including education level, income, gender, years of residency, and are.
The concept of environmental education contains from teaching environmental pollutions and the importance of environment to the ecological relationship between human and the nature. The ultimate goal of environmental eduaction, however, is to build the environmental-friendly and responsible behavoir. One of the best way to achieve this goal is ecological learning centers, where students can observe and analyse threes, plants and animals, and they learn the principle of the environmental succession with feeling and understanding. Students internalize environmental awareness through experiencing the nature. In this paper, we would like to introduce the diverse types of ecological learning centers in germany and their programs focusing on the ecocenters in berlin, with an intention of adopting practical programs in korean school system.
The purpose of this study is to investigate what are objects in environmental education and to develop the teaching model for environmental education. The major objects of environmental education is how to teach students who not only take knowledge/skill, but also change their behavior with responsibility for environment. In order to change students' behaviors for environment, Hungerford recommended that teachers have teaching strategies with recognition, evaluation, and adaptation. Also, McCarthy developed teaching model to engage immediate personal meaning, to raise intellectual awareness of a concept, to enhance skills that students can use in their lives, and to foster personal adaptations. Based on the Hungerford's teaching strategies, and Mccarthy's 4MAT system, a teaching model is developed to encourage thinking skill, problem-solving ability, interesting, and participation in the class. The basic steps of the teaching model in this study are experience/recognition, knowledge/skill, evaluation, and adaptation/new experience and 8 sub-steps for instructional methodologies are developed to match of all students' learning style types in a classroom. This model will make it possible to raise the efficiency of instruction, and contribute to changing students who have responsibilities for their environmental behaviors. This model will be supplemented in schools, and applied to developing other instructional issues.
From the students' point of view, this study was carried out to find out barriers to environmental conservation practice of secondary school students. According to the questionare and interview with secondary school students on barriers to environmental conservation practice at home, school, society and fellow-relation conditions and in personal psychology, the following findings were resulted. The major barriers to environmental conservation practice are (1) not doing environmental conservation practice of parents, friends and neighborhood, (2) having no interest in environment and environmental problems, (3) dirty and laboriousness of environmental conservation practice, (4) lack of environmental equipments, (5) the shortage of chance and time for environmental conversation practice, (6) lack of the inducement for environmental conservaton from school, (7) little effects of individual environmental practice, (8) a busy life, (9) shortage of the voluntary courage to practice for environmental conservation, (10) lack of compensation on the environmental conservation practice, (11) anti-environmental behavior among friends, (12) urging on edcation of parents. Those barriers related with home, school, society and fellow-relation anti-environmental conditions hold back environmental conservation practice of secondary school students. Those barriers are divided into three closely correlated tipes, (1) unpleasant traits of environmental conservation practice such as cleaning, recycling were linked with personal psychology, (2) lack of the social interest and practice for environmental conservation were linked with personal psychology, (3) the social atmosphere to urge on education was linked with students' busy life and the shortage of chance and time for environmental conversation practice. According to the results, attractive environmental education programs, home environmental education, cooperative environmental conservation programs, and inducements for environmental conservation are reguired of secondary school students to promote environmental conservation practice.
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