The purpose of this study is to formulate the direction lot improvement of the curriculum on environmental education teacher training. The results of this study are summarized as follows: First, the nature of the courses related to subject matter education should be changed from the course of teaching profession into the course of special study, Second, the combination of the courses related to environmental education and environmental science is needed, Third, the curriculum should sufficiently include the contents of the 7th curriculum, Fourth, the curriculum should contain the courses of environmental science which can help the pre-service teachers to understand the fundamentals and concepts of ecology, This curriculum should also include the courses which can improve the pre-service teacher's ability to teach for the development of student's affirmative environmental value and attitude, Fifth, the curriculum should include the courses which are useful for the pre-service teachers to learn teaching method such as case study and simulation for the education of environmental knowledge and of cognitive domain about environmental issues. Sixth, the curriculum should reflect the contents of the regulation for teacher certificate which was renewed in Jan. of 2000.
This attempts to find out training system of environment education teacher in Korea. The results are summarized as follows. The primary and secondary school have focused on environment education and the environment course was designated as a subject, but only 12% of the 2741 middle school chose the environment subject in 1998. The environment education course is not popular among students. The environment education is an interdisciplinary subject, which is composed of natural science, social studies, earth science, and medical science, that is why the subject is so unsystematic and complicated that appropriate teaching methods and contents for school classes are not able to be developed. Moreover, material and manuals in environment education for students and teachers are limited. While the contents of environment education is composed of field experience learning and experiment learning, but lecture-centered instruction is emphasized in school because of materials, time and experts. Over 300 environmental education teachers are annually produced, but the ratio of employment low. is, Therefore, a retraining program for environment education teacher needs to be developed.
As the environmental industry grew bigger and bigger, the corcern about environmental condition increased and the demand of environmental expert tended to be much more increased. A lot of universities therefore established environment-related departments on campuses and ended up with producing numerous students every single year. However, some problems such as followings were in this study. First, the industry cannot adopt all the students directly from universities due to their low capabilities in environment affairs. Second, the universities yield much more students than the industry can actually adopt. In order to yield the appropriate students meeting the expectation of the industry, it is necessary to permit no more new department established on campus and to adopt new environmental field such as environmental management, eco-auditing and also 3+1 lecture system focused on real affairs.
In this study, the effects of structured controversy strategy, individual learning, and traditional learning on the learning of environmental unit in ‘General Science’ were compared. One hundred and forty-three 10th-graders had been taught about environmental issues-self purification, biological concentration, acid rain, greenhouse effect, noise, and radioactivity-for 6 class hours. Prior to the instructions, environmental attitudes test and self-esteem test were administered. After the instructions, their achievements, critical thinking, environmental attitudes. self-esteem, and views on Science-Technology-Society were examined. The results of 2-way ANCOVA and/or Kruskal-Wallis test revealed that there were no significant main effects in the scores of the achievement test and the critical thinking test. The environmental attitudes test scores tended to be highest in the structured controversy group, and lowest in the traditional learning group. Self-esteem scores of the structured controversy group and the individual learning group were higher than those of the traditional learning group. Significant differences by students' prior achievement level in students' critical thinking, environmental attitudes, and views on Science-Technology-Society were also found.
The objective of this study is to identify the relationship between the individual's environmental behaviors and personal experiences about nature. Interview surveys were done to collect data from 237 adults who live in the metropolitan area of Seoul. Statistical methods such as mean, standard variables, 1-test, ANOVA, multiple regression analysis, GLM(general linear model) were employed to analyze the data using SPSS program. The major results were as follows: 1. The group who has higher nature experience score also has significantly higher environmental behaviors score. 2. Most of nature experiences show significant relationship with positive environmental behaviors. 3. In each demographic group, nature experiences were related to positive environmental behaviors.
Environmentally literated students and adults should be able to use and apply the basic ecological concepts when considering environmental problems and issues. Because ecology forms the foundation of environmental education, a review of the literatures on the degree of students' understanding for ecological concepts can provide useful insights for environmental educators. The purposes of this study were as follows: first, to analyse the parts connected with ecological knowledge of two environmental education books, ‘environments’(middle school) and ‘environmental science’(high school), second, to investigate the level of understanding on ecological concepts by the use of new developed instrument. The 20 most important ecological concepts from Cherrett(1989) and the important ecological concepts' lists from Hungerford and Volk(1990), Ramsey, Hungerford and Volk(1992), Volk(1993) would be recognized and endorsed by most environmental educators as concepts essential to environmental literacy, We referenced these informations and sequenced ecological knowledge as four main categories(communities, populations, ecosystem, man as a component of the nature systems). We have used it as a criterion in the analysis of teaching materials and the development of a new test instrument($\alpha$=0.81). According to the analysed results, the understanding levels for scales and relationships of communities, populations, ecosystem were high but those for individual concepts and differences were low. By the analysis of Korean High School EE book, ‘environmental science’, learning for some concepts(succession, material cycling, niche etc.) has pointed out as one of problems. Environmental educators must pay a careful attention to the concepts that showed high rates of incorrect answer and this work will contribute toward consolidating the basis of EE and help the accomplishment of the ultimate goals in EE.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the content of environmental inquiry activities and values of elementary school students written in their reports of the Energy Environment Inquiry Activity Contest which is a unit contest of the Youth Science Festival held annually in Korea and get some ideas for the valuable way of Korean environmental education. 10 teams' reports were gathered and the locality, class study area, inquiry theme, inquiry method and values were analyzed and introduced as case studies to get some insights to teach elementary school students environmental values through inquiry activities of science subject approach. Each teams set various inquiry themes in the content domain of energy resources and earth environment conservation focusing on each team's geographical characteristics and occurring environmental problems in their local areas. There were 16 sentences representing technocentrism and 12 sentences representing ecocentrism. 5 of 10 teams showed both of technocentrism and ecocentrism in their reports. But their was only scientific knowledge without any environmental values in one team's report. Inquiry activity is a good teaching-learning method to develop environmental literacy. There should be environmental values involved as far as it is the environmental inquiry activities using environmental subject matter. The result of this study proposes that environmental educators should actively intervene for inquirers to set a stage in the whole process to search for an alternative to solve environmental problems involved in their project activities. The reason is because the environmental education in the elementary school is established to operate by the infusion way into various subjects already existed in the Korean curriculum.
Despite the perceived significance of cross-cultural studies in environmental education, only few of this kind have been conducted in Korea because of several barriers such as additional communicative, fanancial and administrative efforts. This cross-cultural study was conducted to examine if there were any significant differences in environmental awareness and attitude toward current environmental issues. The results revealed that the American subjects appeared to be more concerned with environmental issues, have higher willingness to act, and have more internalized Locus of Control than the Korean subjects. Similar observations have been reported by Horsley's(1984) study that compared environmental attitudes among students from 10 different countries. This study, however, suggested possibility of alternative interpretations of the results from the perspective of social- and cultural pscyhology.
There are some considerations that must take into account in environmental education in the aspect of the difference of value clarification between ecological and economic viewpoint on environment. Although we have a tendency to think that the differences are unavoidable because we are on the economy-oriented life, we should realize that such emphasis to economics comes from the differences between ecological and economic view point on environment. We have lived and thought on the basis of Economic view point, especially, environmental policies are established on the basis of economic efficiency. But this tendency has become great obstacles to environmental ethics education because it dilutes the reason of natural preservation and removes the fundamental reasons why the nature should be preserved. Therefore it is very difficult to balance the value clarification between economic and ecological viewpoint in actual life. Furthermore, environmental problems can not be solved only through economic approach, because of their limits to belief solving from providing incentives. It is very important to make people have a way of thinking which economic activities and debates can be made on the ecological resources. Therefore we can compare this relation to CHAE-YONG founded on Buddism and Chinese philosophy. CHAE means essence of every reaction in the cosmos, and YONG means the reaction itself. CHAE is regarded to ecological resources, and YONG is thought to every-day economic activities. YONG is not able to existwithout CHAE. If economic activities can be done on the basic limit of ecological resources, we can build suitable environment to living condition. We call this appropriate environment as SANG. In other words, the connection of CHAE-YONG-SANG means ecological resources - economic activities - sustainable environment. It is realized that the relations between economics and ecology should be equalized for the balanced environmental ethics education. This study tries to get out of unbalanced relations between economics and ecology from the persepectives of CHAE-YONG-SANG and it was done to suggest an alternative environmental ethics education program
The purpose of this study was to investigate and evaluate the state of School Forest Movement by the School Forest Committee of the ‘Forest for Life’, and to provide schools and social communities with alternative, for activation through foreign and domestic case studies. School Forest Movement is very important and has great effect on many aspects, such as the improvement of school environment, the expansion of environmental education in school, the enhancement of local membership and increasing participation of school community. School Forest Movement has expanded from 10 schools in 1999 for pilot implementation to 20 in 2000. Now, it Is broadly recognized that the movement should be expended nationally A few problems were observed through pilot implementation. School community has little consensus away member and hardly participates in the movement, and the process is often underestimated, comparing to the result. For activation of School Forest Movement, school community should be cooperate to local community. Especially, the stepwise execution of School Forest Movement should be well organized and School Forest Movement should be changed into a process-oriented movement for more participation of school community including students, teachers, parents and.
The purpose of this study is to survey and analyze the environmental awareness and attitude of elementary school students, adapting the CHEAKS(Children's Environmental Attitude and Knowledge Scale) for Korean elementary students, which is the valid-tested tools for children's environmental awareness and altitude. The subjects are 580 students from 6 elementary schools. The differences of the environmental attitude are surveyed and analyzed by environmental education activities, such as environmental activities in school and “the school forest movement”, and environmental awareness and concern. The results are as followings: First, the subjects replied that the environmental problems are very serious, such as atmospheric pollution(37.6%), water pollution(22.2%) and food waste(16.3%), but they are relatively optimistic of the future environment. Second, the verbal commitment subdomain and the affect domain are evaluated higher than the actual commitment subdomain, and the environmental issues of water, energy and recycling are considered more importantly than other issues such as environmental generals, pollutions and animals. Third, the grade and the sex have little effect on the environmental attitude, but the environmental education activities have great positive effect, such as the experience of environmental camping, the education of saving resources, waste separation and the experience of raising plants and flowers. Fourth, the students with high awareness and concern about the environmental problems have high environmental attitude. Especially, the awareness and concern on the flowers and plants have very strong correlation with environmental attitude, regardless of the subdomains. Finally, the students from the school participating “the school forest movement” have relatively positive environmental attitude. Particularly, the participation of students and the positive approach of the school have positively great influence on the students' environmental attitude in all of 3 subdomains and 6 environmental issues.
This study was designed for middle school students in Su-Won City to find out their level of hope in environmental education and who had not been introduced to environmental skills and knowledge as a separate subject in their school curriculum. Additionally, the result of the study was expected to provide basic environmental education material to teachers who are on the front line in our environmental education efforts. The mother used to be very influential on her children's thinking and behavior to a large degree. Acknowledging these facts, students and their mothers were chosen for this study The questionnaire from each of the two groups were compared and studied. The questionnaire, comprised of 23 questions, was completed during the period of time from March 6 through March 11, 2000. The schools that participated in the study were 5 junior high schools in Su-Won City and the participants were students and their mothers. The questionnaires were given to 450 students and their mothers to be completed and returned. A total of 379 student questionnaires and 323 mother questionnaires were received for examination. The results of questionnaire were analyzed by using SPSS/PC 8.0 software program with Frequencies Analysis, Mean Analysis, Reliability Analysis, Correlation Analysis, Paired Samples T-test, and $\chi$$^2$-test. The questionnaires generated the following results. The reliability coefficient was 0.847 from the students and 0.895 from the mothers. The level of interest in an environmental education curriculum was 24.3% from students and 86.0% from mothers. Interestingly, the gender difference of level of interest in an environmental education curriculum was 25.7% from male and 23.1% from female. The difference in the environmental function levels between female and male students was statistically significant(t=-4.109, p<0.001). For mathematical skills in environmental functions, the students and mothers thought trash, air pollution, and lack of forest were problems however they showed inactive support and unreasonable attitudes toward the problems that they themselves pointed to for solving the problems. Under the environmental problems solving issue, the significance between two groups was 0.014(P<0.001) and the result dictates there was no correlation. The t-test showed no difference in environmental knowledge level between student genders. The knowledge level between students and mothers was related each other. The Paired Sample t-test between students versus mothers on environmental skills and knowledge was 0.000*(*P<0.001) and it showed there was correlation between the two groups. With this study, educating mothers should be noticed as a great priority in environmental education that will lead to a more positive environmental outlook from our students.
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