This study analyzed and compared the number of students activities, contents scope, and organizing system of the three textbooks(A, B, and C) which had been developed and published for the 'Environment'subject in the 7th National Curriculum. The results of this study can be summarized as follows; There were differences in the size, the total number of pages and the quality of print between two groups of 'Environment'textbooks of the 6th and the 7th national curriculum. New textbooks were found bigger than the previous ones by 125%. The total number of pages increased by the average of 16.4%. A and C textbooks were composed of three parts, seven chapters, and 17 sections, whereas B textbook consisted of ten chapters and 23 sections. All of the three textbooks appeared to put an emphasis on the chapters of 'environment protection'and 'environmental problems of the Earth ' A comparative analysis on the number of data included in the three textbooks showed that almost half of data took a form of picture, averaging 48% of the total. A had 297 pictures, and 234 pictures for B, 194 pictures for C, respectively. In terms of the number of students'activities, C was found to include the largest number of activities that is 91, comparing to text A of 85, text B of 78. The number of students'activities in every content is found'environment awaiting protection', tile 'environmental problems of the earth'and'things to be done for the protection of environment'much more than any other parts. It should be noted that this study focused ell only a set of quantitative measures so that teachers are recommended to consider detailed contents that each textbook contains as well as environmental conditions of the school region.
The purpose of this study is to understand and compare the characteristics of the content organization system of three Environment textbooks currently used, and to examine its connectivity with the teaching & teaming methods included in the Environment subject part of the 7th Korean National Curriculum. For the analysis three Environment textbooks for middle school and their teacher's guide books by three companies. published(A, B, and C) The result of the taxonomic analysis showed that three Environment books had different steps to get to the lesson class unit in the way that A of six steps, B of five steps and C of seven steps. The amount of main text was different In the domains of'Human and Environment','Environmental Problems and its Counter-plan'and'Environmental Conservation'of three textbooks each. All of three textbooks had the biggest percentage in sub-domains of'Living Environment to Keep'and'Global Environmental Problem'in 'Environmental Problems and its Counter-plan'domain. Considering teaching & loaming methods all of three textbooks contained many activities as 55 in A, 66 in H and 91 in C. Among 9 teaching 8E teaming methods and others listed in the Environment subject part of the 7th Korean National Curriculum, the investigation method is most frequently used in all of three textbooks. The drama, the paly and the case study were used rarely as teaching & teaming methods in activities In the consideration of the content amount regarding academic fields, it was revealed that three textbooks overemphasized the aspect of natural sciences comparing the aspect of human & social sciences aspect as a whole. Generally the appendix section of all three textbooks were well organized to support the teaching and teaming activities in main text.
The purpose of this study is to understand the characteristics and the differences regarding the teaching & learning objectives of Environment textbooks for middle school students with the consideration of the 7th Korean National Curriculum. For this the teaching & teaming objectives of three Environment textbooks currently used categorized according to the domain frame of environmental education in the Report of UNESCO(1980). three Environment textbooks and their teacher's guide books are those printed by three companies(A, B, and C) and Joongahng co.. The five objective categories recommended by UNESCO are awareness, knowledge, attitude, skills and participation and six types of skills by National Curriculum Council of England are communication skills, numeracy skills, study skills, problem-solving skills, personal and social skills and information technology skills. It is showed that'Human and Environment'domain is emphasized roughly in the awareness and the knowledge section without any statement of the participation section, 'Environmental Problems and its Counter-plan'domain in the knowledge and the skills section, 'Environmental Conservation'domain in the skills and the participation section of objectives. It is revealed that the skills section of the teaching 8t learning objectives is mainly involved in 'Environmental Problems and its Counter-plan'domain and'Environmental Conservation' domain. According to the result of the analysis of the connectivity between the Environment Curriculum of the 7th Korean National Curriculum and the Environment textbooks regarding objectives stated in the sub-domain level, it says those are generally appropriate ones. But some objectives are emphasized weakly or not at all in several sub-domains such as'The living environment to keep','The environmental problems of the earth','Making environment pleasant'. It is proposed that the efforts to state objectives in the Environment textbooks evenly are needed to be paid (or the well-balanced teaching & teaming of the Environment subject.
To meet the objectives of environmental education, teachers especially have to perceive the importance of environmental education, comprehend various characteristics of teaching/learning methods, and be able to conduct classes by choosing proper teaching/leaming methods in accordance with a specific purpose and educational focus about environmental education. Therefore, it Bs necessary to investigate the current status of Korean environmental education and provide teachers with appropriate environmental teaching/leaming methods. To this end this study aims to examine Korean science teachers'perceptions'on environmental education and the kind of teaching/learning methods which can be utilized in environmental education. Teachers who completed the survey were 135 science teachers from middle and high schools in Seoul, and 126 social science teachers from Kyoungki province. The majors of the science teachers were in physics, chemistry, biology, geology, and earth science. Also, there was one teacher who majored in special education. For social science teachers two majors were common, geography and general sociology. After analysis of the data from the surveys the results are as follows. First, science and social science teachers in middle and high school recognized the necessity of environmental education in school education. Second, most teachers had applied environment related topics to their subject of study occasionally, but they mostly concurred that environment related contents should be included in their textbooks. Third, science teachers agreed that field trip, discussion, and the STS approach were the most proper methods for environmental education, and social science teachers agreed that field trips, inquiry, and discussion were the most appropriate methods for a teaching environment. They realized that they should decide good teaching-learning methods appropriate to the objectives and content needed for effective environmental education as they selected different teaching-learning methods according to detailed environmental objectives and contents in their textbooks.
In this study we developed a framework to evaluate environmental education programs through lived experience in nature and the framework was applied to a neat case,'2001 Green Camp'. The framework consists of 4 items; goals and objectives, instructional planning, teaching and learning, methods and learning operation and environment. Learning outcomes such as changes to the levels of knowledge, attitude, participation and environmental sensitivity are not included in the evaluation framework but evaluated through direct questions to students. Two researchers observed and evaluated programs with the framework. This study reflected various perspectives of researchers, teachers, students and staff members.
The purpose of study is to provide fundamental data for the improvement of the teacher inservice training for environmental education through analysis of current inservice training programmes. The subject of analysis are documents on training programmes which was conducted after 2000 by 10 training organizations. Based on the results of this study, inservice training programmes is classified with 6 organizations which consist of education training institute, education & scientific research institute, national · public organizations, colleges of an attached organizations, civil organizations, teacher research society. The strategies for improvement of proposed in this study can be summarized as follows: First,'60 hours training programmes for general competencies improvement of environmental teacher' have to reconsider about scarcity areas to analysis of programmes. Second, this training programmes need to establish in training programmes of nothing region for increase in training opportunity of teachers. Third,'the core training programmes'is continued to be complementing about this programmes and need to establish about training programmes of teaching method of environmental education, environmentally value and attitude, etc
Promoting positive values, attitudes, participation and personal actions on the basis of the acquisition of one's knowledge and skills is emphasized on teaching environmental education. To complete this purpose of environmental education, it is necessary not only to use various and practical educational resources, but also to develop information system, with multimedia and internet, which are effective for learning. This research attempts to assess the consistency of planning, organization and operation of integrated program for social environmental education which was developed for the necessities mentioned above. We surveyed about the accuracy of contents, usefulness, convenience and easiness of Integrated program for social environmental education. Also, we used a questionnaire to clarify the values and attitudes of respondents after they took environmental education. Then, technically, descriptive statistical method has been used to analyze the results of these surveys. Finally, we conduct an examination of the distribution of chi-square to verify the relationship between the learner's experience of using computer and one's concern about environmental issues. The results of this program, developed by research team, can be assessed by following five basic elements: usefulness, practicality, appropriation, efficiency and effectiveness. More than 90% of respondents said that this program is convenient and easy to loam. Also, more than 85% of whole respondents identified that after teaming this program they recognized more clearly what the main contents of environmental education are. In addition, we got positive response from 93% of respondents that they could understand environmental problems. On the other hand, values and attitudes of respondents have not improved a lot after the environmental education compared with the remarkable change in their recognition and understanding of environmental issues; only 34% of respondents responded that they changed their life style for making better environment after teaming this program. But it is clear that they understand much better about the environmental policy after they are educated. Developed by using information system, this integrated program for social environmental education may get different results according to a respondent's experience of using computer. Therefore, the more a respondent got a chance to use computer for a long period of time, the more he/she gave positive evaluation on the convenience and easiness of this program. However, there was no certain relationship between the frequence of using computer and one's understanding of environmental issues. Futhermore, a person who has constant concerns about environmental problems showed more positive attitudes against the understanding of environmental education. This integrated program for social environmental education, characterized by integrated, specialized and efficient educational system, can also be used as a curriculum or teaching materials for environmental education for adults; especially, it would be appropriate for teaching learners at all levels, who have different personal characteristics, to let them acquire virtual education by using information system.
Out-door learning activity in environmental education has been emphasized as an effective method in environmental education since the aims of environmental education emphasize students'value, attitude, actions as well as knowledge. In order to implement successfully out-door learning activity in environmental education classrooms, teachers'perceptions to environmental problems and experiences at fields are essential. An environmental education network among the metropolitan city and provincial office of education, nongovernmental organization of environmental movement and education and university was established and a teachers'in-service training program of out-door learning centered environmental education was implemented. The program was developed in order to 1) connect environmental education with the regional environmental situations, 2) provide teachers with opportunities to participate in an out-door learning program, and 3) train teachers to be environmental education leaders of out-door learning. For evaluation of the program, responses of participants to questionnaire were analyzed. Most of teachers responded that their perception of environment was changed positively after the participation in the program. This study suggested that a future planning of a teachers'in-service training program of out-door learning centered environmental education should be developed in considerations of arranging enough hours for out-door learning at regional environmental sites, applying performance assessment, providing teachers with multiple opportunities with programs in different levels including enriched programs, and establishing an environmental education network among nongovernmental organization of environment movement and education, university, and local offices and department of education.
So far, most of studies on environmentally responsible behaviors were based on the Hines et. al.(1987)'s behavior model which emphasized mainly personal causes of behaviors. This study was planned to investigate whether self-efficacy and conformity toward social norm could be good predictors for environmentally responsible behaviors or not. In the preliminary study, Several scales on environmental problems were made up for measuring the levels of knowledge, attitude, and behavior from usually used items of previous studies. And, some relevant items to self-efficacy scale and conformity toward social norm scale were selected through factor analysis and reliability analysis recursively. In the main study, Knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy, conformity toward social norm, and behavior of high school students were measured in urban and rural areas. Results showed that students in urban areas took environmentally responsible behavior more often than ones in rural areas, and there were no differences in attitude and sensitivity but significant differences in self-efficacy and confirmity toward social norm between them. According to regression analysis, self-efficacy was the best predictor for environmentally responsible behaviors, and confirmity toward social norm and knowledge were also good predictors. In conclusion, self-efficacy and confirmity toward social norm are better predictors for environmentally responsible behaviors than attitude.
The goal of the environmental education in High School is to make students survey and work out the issues on environment and to help them continue and improve the work. It is important that we should educate students the rational ability of decision-making. The more they can make decisions rationally, the more they participate actively in that. The purpose of this study is to develope the model of a new teaching-learning method coinciding with the goal of the environmental education of Social studies in High School. This study is backed up by the following developing processes. To begin with, the contents related to environmental problems in Social Studies Curriculum are being investigated. To urge the importance of STS(Science, Technology and Society), 1 will present the righteous understanding of Science in societal contexts, the development of rational decision-making abilities, and the cognitive connections between society and science. For this, 1'm representing a new model of learning-teaching method, backed up by Constructivism, especially Vygotsky's ZPD theory, giving 4 steps from everyday concepts to natural lingistic thought. Based on the above hypothesis, at last I will represent a STS whose topic is a problem of beach preservation because I intend to show the possibility of STS on the environmental education of Social Studies through this study. This study will help us lay a foundation stone of introducing STS in environmental education of Social Studies.
The purpose of this study was to verify the trends of Korean students'environmental science achievement in recent two international comparative studies, TIMSS-R and PISA 2000. Participants of TIMSS-R and PISA 2000 were 8th graders and 15-years-olds, respectively. The science items in TIMSS-R assess students'science concepts in the science curriculum and science items in PISA 2000 assess scientific literacy in the 21s1 daily life. To achieve this purpose, the 14 environmental knowledge items in TIMSS-R and 16 environmental knowledge items in PISA 2000 were analyzed. As a result of the comparison between Korean- and international percent correct, Korean students showed especially higher achievement in 'resources'or'ecosystem'items. On the contrary, Korean students showed relatively lower achievement in'biotechnology'or'environmental health'items. In general, Korean female students showed lower achievement than their male counterparts. The relationship among environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behavior should be examined more systematically.
The purpose of this stud)r was to critically review the trends of research methodologies of environmental education. We analyzed Journal of Korean Society for Environmental Education (vol. 1 ∼vol. 14(1)) and The Journal of Environmental Education(vol. 25∼vol. 31) to investigate the trends of methodology in EE research of Korean and other countries and to explore the tasks of it. The findings were as follows, 1) More than half of the character of the papers in Korea were actual condition (54.38%), substitute proposal (32.12%), and the papers in others countries were actual condition (39.35%), substitute proposal (33.55%). 2) The major parts of the method of the papers in Korea were literature review (26.05%), survey research (23.79%), on the other hand the papers in other counties were survey research (42.70%), literature review (25.84%). The results indicated that the research methodologies of environmental education in Korea were needed to be reinforced in the field of qualitative and quantitative research methods.
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