Present situation and problems of environmental education in teacher education of 1079 kindergartens located in Seoul were investigated. More than 90% of kindergarten teacher recognized the need of environmental education in early childhood education of Korea. However, only 65% of kindergarten teachers had experiences of providing environmental education for their children. They complained that they had a poor knowledge about environmental problems and environmental education. They reported that kindergarten had no systematic programs and useful materials for environmental education. Firstly, the emphasis of environmental education in teacher education and on-the-job training programs for kindergarten teachers was discussed. And the development of environmental education programs and educational materials for young children on the basic of national policy was proposed.
This result showed that the middle school students' response for the environment condition was highly negative. The major findings of this study are as follows. 1. Students would become to know the environmental pollution through reading of newspapers and TV rather than school education. 2. Students' response for air and water pollution was seriously accepted in city areas than in country areas, and in large cities than in small cities. 3. Students' response for air pollution showed that the quality of air was getting worse and major factor of air pollution was the exhausts of automobiles. 4. It showed that students' concern for water pollution was increased and water pollution was being accelerated by the increase of domestic and industrial sewages, the overuse of the agricultural chemicals, the entrophication and acid rain. 5. Students thought that soil pollution was mainly due to factory sewage, life sewage, heavy metal and agricultural medicines and so on. But now they think it is due to the degenerated and inseparable things such as used vinyle for farm and plastics. 6. Most students thought of the pollution of our country as serious. But they thought it could be removed if we tried to get rid of pollution. 7. Now students' consciousness to protect the nature took an active interest turn and was strong. Putting these various findings together, I suggested that, the efforts to turn students affirmative consciousness for the environment and a powerful plan by the nation to take off pollution should be needed. Also the education to enforce the environment preservation had to be needed.
The international environmental activity and environmental education began in 1970's. Environmental education in Korea was emphasized since the Forth National Curriculum. The Environmental Curriculum was regarded as one of the most important part in the Sixth National Curriculum in Korea. Environment-related reference texts of Elementary school were already developed. Soon, 'Environment' of middle school and 'Environmental Science' of high school will be developed. The purpose of this study were to analyse environment-related texts in the Fifth National Curriculum and to measure how much environmental education has achieved. As a environmental text for regular class, selected the environmental part in 'Science Part 1' and as environment-related reference text, 'Survival and Environment'. The environmental part of 'Science Part 1' was unit [Life and Environment]. According to the analysis of objectives, most of unit objectives were not stated in a detailed and precise manner. When the goals of environmental education were divided into four fields as follows, knowledge and information, skill, thinking and attitude, behavior and participation, unit objectives were mostly emphasized on knowledge and information of environment, exactly 44.5% of unit objectives and 89.6% of subunit objectives. The degree of relationship between unit objectives and contents was low. All the Check up-problems were about knowledge and information of environment. Environment-related reference text, 'Survival and Environment' was the only reference text for high school students in Korea and was organized in the form of the regular curriculum text. It was developed in Korean Education Development, Center with support of Korean Environmental Ministry in 1990. According to the analysis of 'Survival and Environment', the objectives of units and subunits were less stressed on knowledge and information than those of unit [Life and Environment] in the environmental part of 'Science Part 1' On the other hand, they were a little more stressed on skill, thinking and attitude, behavior and participation. And fifteen of all the seventy subunit objectives were not related with contents. In organization, this text included Thinking problems, Experiments and Inquiries, Reading, Developed studies and Check up-problem etc. It was remarkable that Inquiries leaded to individual activities and Developed studies to group discussions or individual inquiries. And as Check-up problems were presented as a form of activities, students could achieve many various objectives at the same time by solving one problem. To measure the achievement of environmental education by questionnaire, 497 high school students in total were selected from five different schools. Scores in subtest 'behavior and participation' and subtest 'thinking and attitudes' were 13.19 and 18.18, respectively. Actually, most students had a positive thinkings and attitudes in their hearts about environmental problems, but many of them actually did not take actions to solve environmental problems and to protect environment. Scores in subtest 'knowledge and information' and subtest 'skill' were 10.76 and 10.81, respectively. The higher the score students got in 'knowledge and information', the higher the score in 'skill'. It implies that learning of skills is based on learning of knowledges and informations about environment has not always ensured positive thinkings and attitudes or active behaviors and participations to solve environmental problem.
The ultimate goal of environmental education can be said to change students' consciousness and attitude of environment. From this point of view, this study has examined the definition of environment, the necessity of environmental education, the basic principles of environmental education, and significance of teachers in environmental education by surveying previous studies as theoretical background. Then, we have investigated teachers' consciousness and opinion about the real state and problems of present environmental education in schools. The result of this study is as follows. First, though most teachers are conscious of the importance of environmental education in school, they actually cannot practice it because of various preventing factors. Second, for the improvement of teacher's quality, we need studies and trainings on environmental education, Third, as we lack materials and programs necessary for the lectures on environmental education, it is impending to develop and provide it. Fourth, the content and goal of environmental education should be reconstituted and systematized so that they may conform to the viewpoint of students.
The study was performed to investigate the present situation of sourceseparation, recycling of domestic waste and citizen's attitude to them. The selected study area were Dobonggu in Seoul, Siheung city, Kimpogun. The result showed that most of the citizen in the selected area is performing source separation effort by group activity basis. However, there is no strong economic incentives for continuous source separation effect since the price of the recyclables is relatively low. For the recycled products, most people appears to think that the diversification of the product should be necessary for a bitter market competativeness. For the disporsable product, most citizen feels that free that supply in the public facilities should be prohibited.
This study was conducted to develop and effective strategy for environmental education. At first, the environmental education strategy through personalization of environment was proposed. Then students in a middle school participated the program according to the strategy and its. effect was investigated. The strategy was designed in basis of the role of the limbic system in brain and involved field-oriented experience such as viewing the non-personal environment as the personal environment. Gokneung stream was selected as the site to conduct this environmental education. Students investigated water quality by senses and biological method. The same content was taught for the classroom group and simple outdoor group selected for the comparison by traditional instructional method. The pre- and post-test by the instrument to test environmental attitude, qualitative questionnaire, cognitive test, the pre- and post-interview were conducted to investigate the effect the program. The achievement of the classroom group(personalization group). But the change of the attitude toward environment of personalization group between pre- and post-test was significantly higher than the classroom group. In qualitative questionnaire and pre- and post-interviews, attitude toward environment differed between two group. The behavioral change to discover and to solve environmental problems was demonstrated in case the personalization group, but was unclear in the classroom group. These results indicated the environmental education strategy through personalization of environment was an effective strategy to change the awareness, attitude and behavior toward the environment compared with a traditional teaching strategy.
The Korean National Commission for Unesco has helped Korean Unesco Associated Schools undertake environmental studies within the framework of education for international understanding, cooperation and peace from 1991 - 1993. The environmental studies enjoyed participation by nine Associated Schools among 35 throughout the country, with each school on a different theme each year. Environmental studies by the Unesco Associated Schools are differentiated from those by the former continues to work on environmental or Provincial Boards of Education. The former continues to work on environmental education, longer than 1 - 2 years, and they can also capitalize on the international networks of the ASP, which may be instrumental to understanding the worldwide nature of the environmental issues these days. This paper contains a breif explanation of the cases of environmental studies by level of education from primary to teacher education level. It is argued that through the study, the students of Unesco Associated Schools well recognize the seriousness of environmental problems facing mankind and will have positive attitudes and values towards the preservation of our environment. It is also argued that the studies result in a variety of useful teaching/learning methods for environmental education: students visit to polluted areas. survey, composition of works with environmental themes such as posters, poems, organization of discussion by the students on environmental problems, exhibition, international correspondence, etc. The studies also have produced various helpful reaching/learning materials : photos, slides, scrapbooks of articles on environmental issues from newspapers, etc. However, several problems also emerged through the studies. A few of them are described here ; First, focus on the extra-curricula activity rather than regular curricula results in the neglect of the knowledge base of environmental education. Second, only a part of the all 35 Associated Schools have participated in the project. Third, primary and first secondary students have difficulty in using foreign language which is vital for international activities.
As the concern with the creation of environmental problems and regulations about them becomes internationally growing, environmental cooperations with countries concerned are emerging as the first item on the political agenda. In case of South Korea, cooperations with countries in the Asian region is needed urgently. In particular, cooperations with North Korea will be an important factor to reunify the Korean peninsula as well as to solve environmental problems in South Korea. Accordingly, it is necessary to seek feasible alternatives and possibilities of coping with international environment in South and North Korea. This study is limited to literature study based on collecting materials and the testimony of former residents in North Korea. The period of study ranges from May to December in 1992. The research findings show the following environmental problems and alternatives : It is recognized in South Korea that the creation of environmental problems is product of economic development. Currently, the Korean government makes an effort to revise environmental administration and law, to encourage environmental education, and to proceed with environmental technology policies by establishing environmental policies together with economic development plans. North Korea ascribes the cause of environmental problems to colonial exploitation by Japan and the U.S. Environmental pollutants in North Korea is relatively less than South Korea, provisions such as environmental conservation movement, environmental education, and environmental administration and law are not well organized in the country. However, North korea will speed up its economic development to solve economic crises. Therefore, it is expected that industrial wastes, corrosion of nature, and water pollution will result in serious environmental problems. The fields expected to cooperate with South and North Korea are in the following : South Korea may adopt the model of the former East and West Germany and proceed to cooperate with North Korea in public sector as well as private sector. The possible programs are such as academic exchange to conserve environment, joint research in the area of the Demilitarized Zone, conservation of ecosystems around Imjin and Pukhan Rivers, South Korea's support of advanced environmental technology and industrial and financial aid to North Korea. Conflicts between countries concerned in the North East Asian region will be caused by the responsibilities of pollutions because of the seashore development of the Yellow Sea by South Korea and increasing seashore industrial complexes around the Yellow Sea in China, Therefore, it is desirable that the two countries will participate in organizations related to environment. Joint projects between South and North Korea will be as follows : 1. Construction of long-range monitoring system : 2. Investigation of the state of pollutions around the Yellow Sea and alternatives : 3. Construction of joint monitoring system to regulate the movement of pollutants : 4. Cooperation of environmental technology and exchange of information ; and 5. Support of Cooperation of environment in private sector. Efforts to cooperate with North korea is expected to overcome differences between the two countries as well as to encourage unification of the korean peninsula, which will lead to reducing the cost of environmental recovery. These efforts will also contribute to the maintenance for peace and stability on the korean peninsula as well as in the North East Asian region.
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