This study was performed to determine appropriate teaching-learning and evaluation methods for Environmental Studies. To promote the relevance of our study to the needs of the schools and concerned educational communities of environmental education, we reviewed related literature, conducted questionnaire surveys, interviewed related teachers and administrator, held meetings with experts, and field-tested our findings. For selecting and developing teaching-learning methods of Environmental Studies, findings of educational research in general are considered. moreover, principles of environmental education, general aim of environmental education, orientations of environmental education, and developmental stages of middle school students in educational psychology were attended. In addition, relevance to the purpose of the Environmental Studies curriculum, appropriateness for value inquiry as well as knowledge inquiry, small group centered class organization, social interaction centered teaching-learning process, regional environmental situation, significance of personal environment, evaluation methods of Environmental Studies, multi- and inter-disciplinary contents of the Environmental Studies textbook, suitability to the evaluation methods of Environmental Studies, and emphasis on the social interaction in teaching-learning process were regarded. It was learned the Environmental Studies can be taught most effectively in via of holding discussion sessions, conducting actual investigation, doing experiment-practice, doing games and plate, role-playing and carrying out simulation activities, and doing inquiry. These teaching-learning methods were field-tested and proved appropriate methods for the subject. For selecting and developing evaluation method of Environmental Studies, such principles and characteristics of Environmental Studies as objective domains stated in the Environmental Studies curriculum, diversity of teaching-learning organization, were appreciated. We categorized nine evaluation methods: the teacher may conduct questionnaire surveys, testings, interviews, non-participatory observations; they may evaluate student's experiment-practice performances, reports preparation ability, ability to establish a research project, the teacher may ask the students to conduct a self-evaluation, or reciprocal evaluation. To maximize the effect of these methods, we further developed an application system. It considered three variables, that is, evaluates, evaluation objectives domains, and evaluation agent, and showed how to choose the most appropriate methods and, when necessary, how to combine uses of different methods depending on these variables. A sample evaluation instrument made on the basis of this application system was developed and tested in the classes. The system proved effective. Pilot applications of the teaching-learning methods and evaluation method were made simultaneously; and the results and their implications are as follows. Discussion program was applied in a lesson dealing with the problems of waste disposal, in which students showed active participation and creative thinking. The evaluation method used in this lesson was a multiple-choice written test for knowledge and skills. It was shown that this evaluation method and device are effective in helping students' revision of the lesson and in stimulating their creative interpretations and responces. Pupils showed great interests in the actual investigation program, and this programme was proved to be effective in enhancing students' participation. However, it was also turned out that there must be pre-arranged plans for the objects, contents and procedures of survey if this program is to effective. In this lesson, non-participatory observation methods were used with a focus on the attitudes of students. A scaled reported in general description rather than in grade. Experiment-practice programme was adopted in a lesson for purifying contaminated water and in this lesson, instruction objectives were properly established, the teaching-learning process was clearly specified and students were highly motivated. On the other hand, however, it was difficult to control the class when some groups of students require more times to complete their experiment, and sometimes different results. As regards to evaluation, performance observation test were used for assessing skills and attitudes. If teachers use well-prepared Likert scale, evaluation of all groups within a reasonablely short period of time will be possible. The most effective and successful programme in therms of students' participation and enjoyment, was the 'ah-nah-bah-dah-market' program, which is kind of game of the flea market. For better organized program of this kind, however, are essential, In this program, students appraise their own attitudes and behavior by responding to a written questionnaire. In addition, students were asked to record any anecdotes relating to self-appraisal of changes on one's own attitudes and behaviours. Even after the lesson, students keep recording those changes on letters to herself. Role-playing and simulation game programme was applied to a case of 'NIMBY', in which students should decide where to located a refuse dumping ground. For this kind of programme to e successful, concepts and words used in the script should be appropriate for students' intellectual levels, and students should by adequately introduced into the objective and the procedures of the lessons. Written questionnaire was used to assess individual students' attitudes after the lesson, but in order to acquire information on the changes of students' attitudes and skills, pre-test may have to be made. Doing inquiry programme, in which advantages in which students actually investigated the environmental influence of the areas where school os located, had advantages in developing students' ability to study the environmental problems and to present the results of their studies. For this programme to be more efficient, areas of investigation should be clearly divided and alloted to each group so that repetition or overlap in areas of study and presentation be avoided, and complementary wok between groups bee enhanced. In this programme, teacher assessed students' knowledge and attitudes on the basis of reports prepared by each group. However, there were found some difficults in assessing students' attitudes and behaviours solely on the grounds of written report. Perhaps, using a scaled checklist assessing students' attitudes while their presentation could help to relieve the difficulties.
This paper is to examine relative explaining power of socio-demographic variables, life style variables, environmental education, and environmental consciousness on the environmental behavior of housewives. Major results were as follows : As for life style, there different types such as socio-oriented, spare-life, fashion-oriented were examined. Spare-life style was most pervasive on Seoulite housewives. And spare-life style was emerged when housewives ages were old, education level was low, household income was low, hose type was Life-style were most influencing variables on environmental behavior. And environmental education was more powerful variables than environmental consciousness.
This study was conducted to investigate the concern of the primary school teachers and the teaching situation about the environmental education through questionnaire survey on the effective environmental education. The results of questionnaire were analysed and discussed to provide the effective teaching method for the environmental education. The result of this study is as follows. 1. It was found that teachers want to teach environmental lessons as a special subject, and the content of the environmental lessons in textbook was not enough in quantity, the living waste was the most serious ploblem. Owing to the lacking in materials for the lectures on environmental education, most teachers collect the material depending on the mass communication. Also they were more interested in the environmental lessons rather than the other lessons in textbook. But because of the lacking in administrative assistance, they have difficulty in conducting the effective environmental education. 2. The teaching method of the environmental education in most primary schools was a all together-type lecture in classroom. Owing to conducting the environmental education for the knowledge than the action through the extra activity, it was difficult to expect the effect of the environmental education. Also the rate of using the reflection materials which can be improved the studying effect was very low. 3. For the effective environmental education most teachers wanted the spot learnings and the case studies and teacher education and training to get an special knowledge for environmental education. The effective evaluation method for children's environmental education is to present the results by environmental experiences and practices and to formulate a system education is organized for the effective management and activation of environmental education. 4. By practising the seasonal spot learnings, students need to change of learning method and to realize the importance of environment through own self-experiences. 5. In the future, it is desirable that researching of an environmental education is offered the effective practising teaching method which is improving the development of customs and functions, cultivation of the sense of value, ability to solve the problem, to determine the intention as well as the survey on the real situation and the consciousness about environmental education.
Our country has been consuming a huge amount of energy in the course of industrialization and its demand is expected to increase enormously in the future. However, the deposits of energy resources are so limited that the settlement of energy problem comes up the essential subject. To solve the energy problem, it is requested that new resources to gain energy stably should be developed and also energy should be economized and used effectively. The effective use of energy and an the wisdom of economy in energy are requested to everybody and these things should be habitualized from very young age through education. Nevertheless, almost every school in our country hasn’t been concerned about energy education. Even though they have a concern, they are very short of the energy education materials and the quality of the materials is not so good. Therefore it is very meaningful to the settlement of energy problem of the country to make the students who will lead our country to make the students who will lead our country in the future realize the seriousness of energy problem and to provide them the necessary knowledge and methods to solve this problem so that they practice those things in everyday life. Having these necessities, this research, supported by The Korea Energy Management Corporation(KEMCO), was performed for 8 months from April 17, 1994 to December 17, 1994. Many peoples participated in this study such as 30 staffs of researchers and authors, 5 staffs of photographers and illustrators, and 3 VCR program producers developing an energy education material set for middle school students that includes a printed material for student, a diskette for computer simulation, a teacher's guidebook, VCR material and its guidebook. The following main development direction was established : First, the material for student should be consisted of units that let students know the seriousness of energy problem. Second, the focus should be put on the necessary method and practice to economize energy actually in real life based on the basic knowledge learned in elementary school. Third, material for student should be consisted of modules to be student activity-oriented teaching-learning rather than lecture-oriented one. The activity, to maximize student's interests, should be presented in various forms such as experiments, investigation, play, data interpretation, computer simulation, visits, expression and appreciation, etc. To develop the energy education materials for middle school students, a research plan was made first. After literature review about domestic and foreign energy education materials, several research trips home and abroad, and discussion meetings, the basic theory of energy education such as the principle, objective, contents, teaching-learning method, and evaluation method was established. Material for student was developed through the following procedures : The activities in the existing energy education materials were analysed and were divided into four categories related to energy using places of home, school, community, and country, and which were again divided into three categories related to time of past, present, and future, Considering these division, nine modules which are structure units of material for student were chosen, Each module comprises 2-4 activities. Totally 31 activities were designed in this way. The syllabi were made out for each activity and writing was asked for to experts related to each activity after several discussions and revision. To complement the draft, another several discussions and revision were also made on it and then pictures and illustrations were asked for. All these procedures complete the material for student, titled ; Energy Inquiry of Middle School Students', which totals 129 pages and is all in color. As the manuscript of material for student was fixed, writing for teacher's guidebook was asked for to the same writers. The draft of teacher's guidebook was also complemented through the several concentrated works and discussions. Teacher's guidebook focused on the teaching-learning principle and methods of energy education and on the concrete instruction cases for effective instruction of material for student. It is organized with two parts : the one is 'general outline' which introduces theoretical contents and the other is 'details' which are practically helpful to teaching-learning. It is totally 131 pages including both 'general outline' and 'details'. The VCR material and its guidebook consist of contents that cultivate the good attitude trying to economize energy and raise student's interests with a purpose of strong motivation to recognize the necessity of economy and practice it. After establishing development direction of VCR material through discussion meetings and research trips, its script was made by relevant experts. Then the script was also reviewed two times. The drafted VCR material made by a video material developing expert was examined and modified by previews twice. After completion of VCR material, the VCR guidebook was made. All these procedures led to the development of VCR material which runs 20 minutes in VHS type. The VCR guidebook shows a production purpose of the program, structure of contents, evaluation methods, and contents of the program in detail to give help to instructors when they use this VCR material, When these energy education materials are used, it is desirable that the VCR material should be presented first to induce student's motive, and then material for student is introduced Since the material for student is composed of activity-oriented modules and each module is independent one another in general, and each activity is, too. the necessary module or activity can be chosen and utilized in any order according to school or class conditions. This energy education materials will contribute to the development of student's ability to solve energy problem in everyday life and teacher's ability to teach the fundamental knowledge and method in solving energy problem.
Since the Rio Convention of 1992, the international community has displayed a heightened consciousness concerning the Earth environment and domestic attention on the said subject has also rapidly increased. An Ecological life style signifies the conscious efforts to preserve the environment interpreted into quotidien action. For the realization of conservation in action, an understanding of the specific details of environmental preservation must precede. The environmental conservation action in the homes was systematically approached in this study as an input-process-output and feedback cycle. The input phage is the consumer oriented buying stage, the while the process is the actual use of the products and the output stage consists of categorizing and producing wales, the feodbach being recycling of resources. At each stage the attitude which is devoted to environmental consciousness plays a big ride in the actual preservation of the Earth environment. in order to effectively conserve the environment, efforts displayed by the business sector is as important as implementation of environmentally conscious action at home. During the process of producing and distributing products, and attitude and action in preservation efforts are crncial and the responsibility ageat. For the business sector to effectively initiate environmental preservation into action, institutional support from the government and cooperation from the homes is of essence. Consolidated efforts to atter the superfrony life style into ecological life styles and ralues is essential to solve the most important socio-economic issue of the 90's of preserving the earth.
The purpose of this study to investigate the awareness of environmental management knowledge and behavior and the effect of independent variables (The environmental management behavior of housewives are composed of five activities-clothing, eating, housing, buying, family management. The independent variables are composed of objective variable and subjective variable). The Research Questions are as follows; 1. Are there significant differences in the housewife's awareness of the environmental management knowledge according to the objective variable and the subjective variable? 2. How much are the effects of related variables on the awareness of environmental management knowledge? 3. Are there significant differences in the housewife's environmental management behavior according to objective variable and subjective variable and awareness of environmental management knowledge? 4. How much are effects of related variables on the housewife's environmental management behavior? For these purpose, a theoretical framework was developed by literature review and applied to empirical test. The data was collected through the questionnaire those respondents were 477 housewives in seoul. It was analyzed by various statistical methods such as Frequency. Percentile, GLM, F-test, T-test, Duncan's Multiple Range Test, Pearson's Correlations Analysis Simple Regression Analysis, and Multiple Regression Analysis. The results of this research are as follows; 1. The awareness of environmental management knowledge had significant differences according to the variables such as housewife's age, husband's job, family number, education experience of environment, frequencies of contracting mass media, the perceived adequacy of resources, social-altruistic orientation. 2. Among all of these variables affecting the awareness of environmental management knowledge, the perceived adequacy of resources had the highest effects and the next were family number, social-altruistic, type of residence in order. 3. Total Environmental management behavior of housewives had significant differences according to the variables such of environment, frequencies of contracting mass media, the satisfaction of household labor, the perceived adequacy of resources, biospheric orientation, social-altruistic orientation, egoism orientation, the awareness of environmental management knowledge. The clothing, eating, housing, family management behavior had the high level, the buying management behavior had the average level. The clothing, eating, housing, buying, family management behavior had significant differences according to the variables such as the satisfaction of household labor, the perceived adequacy of resources, biospheric orientation, social-altruistic orientation, egoism orientation, the awareness of environmental management knowledge. In particular, the clothing, eating, housing, buying management behavior had significant differences according to the variables such as education experience of environment. And the housing, buying management behavior had significant differences according to the variables such as frequencies of contracting mass media. 4. Among all of theses variables affecting environmental management behavior, the most influence variables was awareness of environmental management knowledge and the next were influence of housewife's job, biospheric orientation, the satisfaction of household labor, education experience of environment, frequencies of contraction mass media, egoism orientation in order. Among all of theses variables effecting the clothing, eating, housing, buying management behavior the variables affecting the family management behavior, the most influences variables was housewife's job. In the result of analysing the housewife's environmental management behavior and awareness of environmental management knowledge, influences of education experience of environment had the highest effect and frequencies of contracting mass media may more influencial than other variables. And Concrete and systematic knowledge and technique of environmental education is requisite. The result of this study could be attributed to develop the efficient environmental information. More emphasis should be given to environmental education and a long range environmental policy. in particular, environmental education be effectively related to environmental behavior, life-education and systematic support must be provided. In addition, further study of environmental problem is needed for and application of various theoretical approaches and research method.
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