제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems (ICROS)
 기타
Domain
 Machinery ＞ Robot/Automated Machinery
1989.10

For the design of synergistic hydraulic motion simulator, the load locus method is introduced. The given mass property of load and its velocity profile is resolved into the load locus of each actuator which decides the suitable valve and cylinder. This asymmtic cylinder and 4 way valve system have the pressure oscillation on zero velocity. The variable structure position controller which based on linearized flow equation makes elimination of the unstable pressure oscillation.

This paper describes the design and development of a PWM electronic controller for a high performance Pneumatic Actuation System. The task includes the design of a closed center valve circuit for minimum gas consumption, the selection of optimum values for key parameters in the PWM circuit, and the design of laglead compensation circuit. These were carried out through specific experiments using a prototype pneumatic actuation system. The final performance obtained with the actuation system confirmed the successful design of the developed PWM electronic controller.

The paper, introduce the real time controller Design method of heavy load 6DOF motion simulator. And also, introduce the Geometric design of 6DOF Motion generation, real time control A algorithm and the configuration method of real time controller H/W and S/W.

6DOE simulator system is designed to realtime processing for motion control, data acquisition, image generation and image processing etc.. In this paper, we introduce hardware and software design technologies for distributed processing, eventtrapping, system monitoring and time scheduling procedure in 6DOF simulator system design.

In this paper influences of disturbances and Modeling errors are qualitatively for the linear approximation model of turret servo system, and then LQG/LTR Control theory is applied to linear approximation model in order to design a controller which satisfies robustneas/stability for the modeling errors. Finally the performance and robustness of designed controller for the given plant are verified through the simulation.

In this paper, a DTG(Dynamically Tuned Gyroscope) and a DTGbased accelerometer designed and fabricated in the Seoul National University are described. For the purpose of the design, the functions and properties of DTG and accelerometer are investigated. The performance of the DTG is tested with the help of a single  degree  of  freedom rate table and a computer. The test result shows that the standard deviation of the DTG's random drift is 9.2 deg/(20min). The error model of the accelerometer is shown also.

This paper is about construction of Data Acquisition System for GyroSystem which obtains the information such as position, velocity, acceleration and attitude etc of Dynamic Vehicle System. We made up the Data Acquisition System using IBMPC and in connection with CYBER 180830 based on rate table, controller and IEEE 488 Interface etc.

This Paper addressed to some aspects of a multirate filtered strapdown INS which is aided by a tracking radar. A new method to determine the sample periods of a multirate filter has been described. The Monte Carlo simulation has been conducted with the optimum sample periods to determine the estimation precision capabilities in a realistic environment. The multirate filtered strapdown navigation system has advantages when the computation time is severely restricted.

The observability of an strapdown inertial navigation system(SDINS) is investigated. The piecewise constant systems are defined and the stepped observability matrix scheme is applied to observability analysis of SDINS theoretically, the results are compared with that of covariance simulation. It is found that SDINS is more observable than gimballed inertial navigation system (GINS) in the case of the variation of vehicle attitude, and is found that the stepped observability matrix theory is simple and useful for the analysis of the system observability but the results are not completely same as that of covariance simulation.

This paper presents the configuration and performance test results of a SDARS, which consists of three rate gyros and Zilog 8002 microprocessor. Real time hardwareintheloop simulation was performed by 3 axis flight motion simulator applying the assumed typical profiles of angular motion. Test results showed that the performance of SDARS was satisfactory. And, attitude errors was reduced by compensation of gyro errors.

The purpose of this paper is to develop a more accurate attitude algorithm with low grade gyro output. The proposed algorithm estimates attitudes by combining accelerometer and gyro output. For performance improvement of the algorithm, a method of velocity compensation is proposed for a better attitude estimation which is calculated from the accelerometer output. Velocity compensation is done by using Kalman Filter to estimate another velocity component.

In this paper, the launch trajectory of the Japan scientific satellite M3H3 from launch to orbit injection is investigated. For the terminal conditions at a guidance target point, a guidance and control system is used. An openloop and a closedloop guidance schemes are used simultaneously. For the closedloop guidance scheme, the velocity polynomial algorithm represented by the velocity difference between the target point and present velocity is used. A PD control system is used for activating gimbal type engines. The simulation result shows that all the terminal position and velocity conditions are satisfied and the trajectory for the M3H3 scientific satellite is reasonable.

Lately, at an epock of a fullscale satellite launching plan of Korea, T.T.C(Tracking, Telemetery & Command) is a indispensable part. In this paper, particular attention is given to orbit determination problem of the role of T.T.C. A nearearth satellite is modeled, batch and extended sequential estimation algorithm (ESEA) are compared using range data. As a result, ESEA show effectiveness.

Structural analysis of a satellite bus is carried out by using a finite element program NISA II. It is assumed that the bus is composed of bars, plates and shells made of CFRP composite materials and aluminum alloys. Displacements and stresses are calculated as static analysis under accelerated motion and frequencies and mode shapes are computed as dynamic analysis.

This paper represents the preliminary design process and the performance of the sounding rockets. At the design phase of the development, we selected rocket configuration according to results of aerodynamic weight and thrust analysis. And the payloadapogee performance of the rockets are determined with the variation of the launch angle and payload weight. Also the performance trajectory was calculated by a particle trajectory simulation. And the parameters which affect the system performance was analyzed.

In this paper, digital autopilot design methods are investigated and a new method is suggested in order to improve existing problems. The method is based on .delta. transform (1) and overcome numerical problems occurring in the process of discretization. We illustrate design procedures using .delta. transform and suggest a hardware and software structure for digital autopilot implemented by microprocessor.

An autopilot for the class of BankToTurn missiles is developed using a multivariable plant model & control design methodology. The rollpitchyaw cross coupling is included in the design considerations. Feedback system is designed using the Linear Quadratic Gaussian with Loop Transfer Recovery (LQG/LTR). Nonlinear simulations are presented to demonstrate the performances of the designed system.

Chong, Song;ha, InJoong;Hur, JongSung;Ko, MyoungSam;Song, TaekLyul;Ahn, JoYoung;Lee, JangGyu 93
This paper describes the application of the recently developed feedback linearization technique to designing a new Command to LineofSight (CLOS) guidance law. We show that the CLOS guidance problem can be formulated as a tracking problem. Then, using the feedback inputoutput linearization technique, we find a new 3dimensional CLOS guidance law that can assure zero miss distance for a randomly maneuvering target. It sheds light on the feedforward acceleration compensation terms used in the conventional CLOS guidance laws to improve the performance. To illustrate further the significance of our result, simulation results are given. 
A practical filter is suggested for groundDasea missile tracking in a capture guidance mode, utilizing angleonly measurements from a passive sensor and its performance is evaluated by a realistic system simulation study. Also suggested is a missile acceleration model that provides inputs to the filter. The suggested filter has a decoupled structure of independent azimuth and elevation channels with efficiency in commutation time and memory requirements.

This paper proposes a performance improvement to a control system with state feedback control loops and feedforward control loops proposed in a previous paper. The technique allows to solve the regulator problem and at the same time to make the system follow command signal. The scheme is implemented in a 16 bit microcomputer using a floating coprocessor. Tests on a DC machine have been conducted, comparisons with the previous results are made.

Gun system operation is represented as a firstorder Markov process, and an optimum linear filter is derived for closedloop control of mean square error. Potential improvement is then estimated by contrasting the variance in performance and the auto correlation for openloop system with that for the optimum linearly corrected process.

Generally, stabilization system is surely needed for the compensation of the ship motion. In this paper, the study investigated stabilizer design for the large driving system. We make a performance analysis for the stabilization scheme through the computer simulation.

This work deals with fasttocompute global control laws for timeoptimal motion of strongly nonlinear dynamic systems like resolute robots. the theory of celltocell mappings for dynamical systems offer the possibility of doing the vast majority of the control law computation offline in case of time optimization with constrained inputs. These cells result from a coarse discretization of likely swaths of state space into a set of nonuniform, contiguous volumes of relatively simple shapes. Once the cells have been designed, the bangbang schedules for the inputs are determined for all likely starting cells and terminating cells. the resulting control law is an openloop optimal control law with feedback monitoring and correction.

Inverse kinematic problem is a crucial point for robot manipulator control. In this paper, to implement the Jacobian control technique we used the Hopfield(Tank)'s neural network. The states of neurons represent joint veocities, and the connection weights are determined from the current value of the Jacobian matrix. The network energy function is constructed so that its minimum corresponds to the minimum least square error. At each sampling time, connection weights and neuron states are updated according to current joint position. Inverse kinematic solution to the planar redundant manipulator is solved by computer simulation.

The redundant manipulator extends the application fields of classical nonredundant manipulators. In this paper, we propose Premultiplier Model that describes the static behavior of redundant manipulator. This model provides insight and intuition about algebra and physics related to redundant manipulators. Active operational space stiffness control of redundant manipulators is proved to be always unstable and we propose a technique, based on our methodology, to make stiffness control stable.

The effect of kinematic model choice on robot calibration is examined. This paper presents a complete formulation to identify the actual robot kinematic parameters directly from position data. The method presented in this paper applies to any serial link manipulator with arbitrary order and combination of revolute and prismatic joint.

In considering the singularities of robot, singularity avoidance control of robot wrist is very important. Because it is more difficult structurally to exclude the wrist singularity than the arm singularity. Since control policies with Jacobian may bring about mathematical singularities, control policies with Euler parameters that never cause mathematical singularities are necessary. In this research, singular status of robot wrist was analyzed and control algorithms for 3 and 4 axes robot wrist were proposed. Application results of the proposed control algorithms to the path including singularity showed us usefulness and validity.

We solve the inverse kinematics problems in robotics by employing a neural network. In the practical situation. it is not easy to obtain the exact inverse kinematics solution, since there are many unforeseen errors such as the shift of a robot base the link's bending, et c. Hence difficulties follow in the trajectory planning. With the neural network, it is possible to train the robot motion so that the robot follows the desired trajectory without errors even under the situation where the unexpected errors are involved. In this work, BackPropagation rule is used as a learning method.

This paper investigates the possibility of applying fuzzy algorithms to the collision avoidance problem of a cylindrical robot moving in a 3dimensional workspace. The displacement information from the endeffector to the points via which the robot can avoid collisions is given by the human operator. Then this uncertain information is adopted for the fuzzy inference system for robot movements. The robot movement is simulated to verify the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy algorithm.

This paper presents a motion planning algorithm for conveyor tracking. We formulate the problem as the linear quadratic tracking problem in optimal control theory and solve it through dynamic programming. In the proposed algorithm, the steadystate tracking error is eliminated completely, and the joint torque, velocity, acceleration, and jerks are considered as some constraints. Numerical examples are then presented to demonstrate the utility of the proposed motion planning algorithm.

This paper deals with the robust controller design of robotic manipulator to track a desired trajectory in spite of the presence of unmodelled dynamics in cause of nonlinearity and parameter uncertainty. The approach followed in this paper is based on model reference adaptive control technique and convergence on hyperstability theory but it does away with assumption that process is characterized by a linear model remaining time invariant during adaptation process. A computer simulation has been performed to demonstrate the performance of the designed control system in task coordinates for stanford manipulator with payload and disturbances.

In the view of the fact that mobile robot in nuclear facilities should be able to turn in narrow space, go over obstacles, and climb stairs for the inspection and maintenance, a robot, named as KAEROT, is developed. It adopts 2DWIS (2Driving Wheels, 1Steering) and has three planetary wheels that are composed of two starlike arms and three small wheels. The experiments were carried out in two locomotion methods; (1) by controlling the rear wheel speed as a function of steering angle, and (2) by using inclination and stairdetection sensor to control the position of planetary and small wheel. The developed robot moved on the floor with stability. Results from the experiment on the rectangular obstacle as well as the computer simulation showed a feasibility on the stairs.

In this paper, a simple method for designing iterative learning control scheme is proposed. The proposed learning algorithm is designed based on series expansion of inverse plant model. The proposed scheme has simple structure and fast convergency so that it is suitable for implementing it on conventional micro processor based controllers. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is investigated through a series of computer simulations.

In this paper a new adaptive control algorithm is derived, with the unknown manipulator and payload parameters being estimated online. In practice, we may simplify the algorithm by not explicity estimating all unknown parameters. Further, the controller must be robust to residual timevarying disturbance, such as striction or torque ripple. Also, the reference model is a simple douple integrator and the acceleration input for robot manipulator consists of a proportion and derivative controller for trajectory tracking purposes. The validity of this control is confirmed in simulation where twolink robot manipulator shows the robust performances in spite of the existing nonlinear interaction and unknown parametrictings

This paper presents on approach to the position control of a robot manipulator by using a decentralized adaptive control scheme. The large scale system is regarded as the system which consists of many subsystems having interconnection. In each subsystem, a local control system is composed by feedforward and feedback component, one computes the nominal torque from the NewtonEuler equation, the other computes the perturbation equation which reduce the position error of the manipulator along the nominal trajectory. A computer simulation studies was conducted to evaluate and compare the performances of the proposed manipulator control scheme with those of the PD control and centralized control schemes.

This paper is proposed of multirate nonlinear controller for robot manipulator. The proposed controller is obtained by structure changes of feedback controller with C.T.M and for time differences commanded in caculating each term of controller, multirate sampling is used. And more robust controller is proposed by considering onestep ahead predictive action. In order to evaluate proposed controller, computer simulation is performed for a 3 D.O.F robot manipulator with varying load.

In this paper, using the direct drive arm for plant, the controller is developed to track the desired trajectory in high speed and precision. For the purpose of this, through extending selftuning poleplacement algorithm, we developed selftuning poleshift algorithm which is fast in response and good tracking for the reference tracking change. Developed controller is applied a threelink direct drive arm with the varing payload to track the desired tracking. And, through the computer simulation, the performance of developed controller is compared with the performance of the computed torque method and the selftuning pole placement algorith.

The performance of conventional robot arms is inhibited by tradeoff between speed and accuracy. Because these systems measure only joint angles, in spite of slow speed, they must rely on a stiff structure in order to attain positioning accuracy. Lightweight links would allow faster motion, but their flexibility would also produce positioning errors. This research is involved with the development and evaluation of an Endpoint Control System whose major goal is to compensate for link deflections and thus mitigate the speed versus accuracy conflict in conventional manipulator.

In automobile glass fitting the stud is welded on the window seating panel in order to insert the plastic molding onto the stud. Since this type of process is in general manually done, almost 50% of the output turns out to be failure resulted from work inefficiency and weld inferiority. Therefore, it is required to improve this process for the productivity elevation through the application of the robot.

This paper describes a dynamic robotic assembly system in which an industrial robot executes peginhole task in a moving state. As an effective means to synchronize the endeffector of the robot with the moving conveyor this work uses a control algorithm which is essentially a PID position control scheme combined with velocity feedforward loop. A RCC wrist is used for the inserting task and its force responses are investigated for various tracking conditions and inserting velocities through a series of experiments.

Most of industrial robots are reprogrammable for various operations. while the gripper is only used for on  off grasping. If the gripper has the intelligent ability to interact with its environment, it will be very useful in many fine motion application. For this pur pose, an electric gripper system is, developed through experiments and simulation. This paper describes a method of the contact position between the gripper and the grasped object by using strain gauge sensors, and presents the related experimental results.

A method is proposed to design a mobile teleexistence system, which can be remotely driven with the auditory and visual sensation of presence. The system consists of mobile robot with camera and two microphones. The effectiveness of the proposed system was evaluated by navigation experiments of the telerobot through an obstructed space.

This paper presents a navigation control method for a vision guided robot. The robot is equipped with one camera, an IBM/AT compatible PC, and a sonar system. The robot can either follow track specified on a monitor screen or navigate to a destination avoiding any obstacles on its way. The robot finds its current position as well as its moving direction by taking an image of a circular pattern placed on the ceiling.

This paper presents the design of a prototype robot and architecture of a distributed control system. The robot, named as KAEROT, has been developed for the purpose of the reduction of personal radiation exposure and the remote maintenance tasks in nuclear facilities. The mobile system with robotic manipulator has been designed to go up and down stairs. For the dextrous handling, this manipulator will be designed as a redundant type to act like a human arm. Manipulator control system is to be extended easily for further usage with a modular architecture to get independency and reliability by minimizing EMI effects.

Generally, Industrial robots are often controlled using joint processors and treating each joint as an independent servo loop. This paper presents a system architecture for robot control designed for realtime control of motion and sensory processing utilizing generalpurpose Personal Computer. And for easily use and system expendability, robot language is implemented with Clanguage as base language. Through this system user can easily update robot language by design of his own language primitives. This system also don't require another development tool and can be used as advanced algorithm simulator in robotics laboratories.

Control software development for direct drive arm robot using 32bit(MC68020) CPU with WHILE languageThis paper represents the control software development for Direct Drive Arm Robot with the WHILE language composed the 68000 assembly language and high level language modula2. Direct Drive Ann Robot needs the control program which is fast step and exactly position moving because Direct Drive Arm Robt depends on accuracy. We found that the selftuning algorithm for this robot control is very good for the real time control and the floating point operation using the 32 bit CPU(MC 68020) controller.

For the robot manipulator in performing precision tasks, it is indispensable that the robot utilize the various sensors for intelligence. In this paper, the hybrid position/force control method is implemented with a force/torque sensor, two personal computers, and a PUMA 560 manipulator. Two application S/W packages for edge following and peginhole tasks are developed by the proposed force control algorithm. The related experimental results are then presented and discussed,

This study is to develop the interactive program for workcell layout of SCAPA type robot using PC. To make the program interactively, we made use of the software which have the function of menu, dialog box, and graphic. By using the mouse, we can progress the program quickly and easily. It has 2 1/2 dimension and provides that one can layout the elements(robot, peripheral device, and etc.), create the work path, and calculate the robot cycle time. By comparing with cycle times of any number of workcell layout for the same work, we can evaluate workcell layout and select one workcell layout to be considered optimal one which has the least cycle time.

A suboptimal output feedback controller is designed and applied to a flexible rotor bearing system in order to control the unstable or lilghtly damped vibrations. The reduced order model is the truncated modal equation of the distributed parameter system obtained through the singular perturbation. The instability problem arising from the spillover effects caused by the uncontrolled high frequency modes is prevented through the constrained optimization by incorporating the spillover term into the performance index. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated experimentally with a flexible rotor by using a magnetic bearing.

The microcomputer based automatic control of the overhead crane system is designed. Two control methodologies were suggested; the one is the antiswing controller which improves poor damping characteristics of the crane and the other is the stopposition controller which minimizes the transportation position error. The input speed profile is automatically determined by the preprogrammed digital control algorithm. The experimental results show that these proposed controllers have excellent control performance as compared with those of the uncontrolled crane system.

In eliminating the nonliner charateristics such as piston displacement drift and difference in speeds of the reciprocating motion due to their nonsymetrical structure of single rod cylinder, modelling was carried out by additional outside disturbance, suggest the position control of single rod cylinder servosystem using VSS and compared with PD control of fixed structure system.

In this paper feedback linearization of valvecontrolled nonlinear hydraulic velocity control system is studied. The
$C^{\infty}$ nonlinear transformation T is obtained, and it is shown that this transformation is global one. Linear equivalence of nonlinear hydraulic velocity control system is obtained by this global nonlinear transformation, and linear state feedback control law is applied to this linear model. It is shown that this transformation method is to the linear approximation by simulation study.. 
Comparison 3port servo system with 4port is made to obtain optimal design for heavy and unidirectional hydraulic system, It is concluded that 3port servo system it more adequate than 4port for the heavy load system which is usually operated at lower frequencies. High performance electrohydraulic position controller is designed using 3port servo valve. It includes dynamic pressure feedback as a inner loop and position feedback as a outer loop.

This paper presents a new algorithm for position control of the BALLHOOP system driven by th D.C. servo motorthrough the micro computer simulation. The Stale Feed back + PID control algorithm is proposed. This algorithm performs that the settling time is faster and overshoot is decreased more remarkably than the PID and the State Feedback algorithm alone. In this simulation the difference equations are used to calculate the output of the control system.

The purpose of this paper is to design a job scheduling algorithm utilizing intelligent control technique. Rulebase is built through the evaluation of ruleset scheduling. 24 scheduling rulesets and metarules are employed. An appropriate scheduling ruleset is selected based on this rulebase and current manufacturing system status. Six criteria have been used to evaluate the performance of scheduling. The performance of sheduling is dependent on random breakdown of the major FMS components during simulation.

This paper proposes a Expert CAPP System for integrating CAD/CAM of rotational workpart by rule based approach. The CAD/CAPP integration is performed by the recognition of machined features from the 2D CAD data (IGES) file. Selecting functions of the process planning are performed in modularized rule base by forward chaining inference, and operation sequences are determined by means of heuristic search algorithm. For CAPP/CAM integration, postprocessor generates NC code from route sheet file. This system coded in OPS5 and C language on PC/AT, and EMCO CNC lathe interfaced with PC through DNC and RS232C.

As a cornerstone of assembly automation, the automatic part feeders are used to feed the various kind of the parts to the assembly workstation in the desired order and fashion. In this paper, EXPERT SYSTEM consisting of the data base for the feeding functions and part properties plus the rule base for the selection of feeder types is developed. The symbolic data of the part properties are used as basic factors in the selection rule of the suitable feeder types.

A pressure tracking control of hydroforming process is considered in this paper. To account for nonlinearities and uncertainties of the process, an iterative learning control scheme is proposed using Cerebellar Model Arithmatic Computer (CMAC). The experimental result shows that the proposed learning control is superior to any fixed gain controller in the sense that it enables the system to do the same work more effectively as the number of operation increases.

We developed a model of NC controller with IBMPC as a host cpu and integlligent NC servo controller for 2 axes that can be expaned to 4 axes. Basic conceptions, including hardware structure design, servo controller design, communication protocol, and interpolation hardware design was already publicated on '87 KIEE conference. Following this, we focussed on the emulation of tyhe controller with XY table as complete NC machine experimenting some drawings made by NC code program that can be edited and executed in automatic on single step mode. In addition we designed the M.S.T functions with PLC and tested for Mfunction timing. Finally, we designed NC interface to fit with Mfunction output and we contructed total system of NC controller with IBM PC host with the result of successful development of new NC model.

One of the main problems in modern factories is that most of the plants utilize programmable devices from a wide range of manufactures and each requires its own proprietary protocol and interface. To avoid this type of problems a Integrated Control System is proposed that prevents these multivendor environments. The paper describes the architecture of the system and discusses the benifits that from its implementation can be derived.

The FIC(Flat Integrated Circuits)is widely used for good productivity but very difficult for visual identification. The required position tolerance is 0.05mm and orientation tolerance is 0.25 degree for assembly. The research was performed to detect FIC defects and to estimate the placement of FIC within the tolerances. In this study an automatic visual system is developed, which can successfully perform a fine assembly operation using the cartesian robot.

This paper describes design procedure of suboptimal control to minimize a performance index which is represented as sum of square output error and the heat input power in arc welding process. Heat input and temperature of a fixed point on the surface of the material are concerned as input and output of the process, repectively. The suboptimal control law considered here in is a proportional plus integral type and is implemented by using only the output variables available from sensor which is also optimally located in a fixed point w.r.t. a moving weld touch.

Two recent nonlinear control methods of nonlinear geometric method and nonlinear optimal control method are applied to a pH control system with severe nonlinear characteristics. Simulations and experiments show that their performances are very good and robust for various realistic situations such as model parameter mismatches.

Under the condition of stable inverse a billinear model predictive control method for SISO and MIMO system with time delay is derived. For processes subject to a bounded disturbance the proposed control method with a classical recursive adaptation algorithm was shown to be stable in the sense of the convergence of parameter estimates and the boundedness of the control error. Several simulation results demonstrate the characteristics of the proposed bilinear model predictive control method.

The control of a pH value in radwaste treatment process is difficult due to the nonlinearity of the titration curve and its strong sensivity to disturbances. This paper describes an adaptive control strategy which is modelbased and allows for direct use of available measurements. This algorithm forces the nonlinear process to follow a desired linear system trajectory, and were applied to the control of a simulated pilotscale pH process. The simulation study showed that it has the potential advantage over the transformation methods that control effort saturation can be accomodated readily.

In this paper, predictive control method using actual applied input which is the weighted summation of past inputs is presented. In conventional predictive control methods, a set of control inputs is computed and in these only the first element is applied to the process at each time instant. But this predictive control method based on conventional methods considers all computed control inputs. Consequently, the characteristic of response and the reliability of the control scheme in the case of imperfact model are improved.

화학공정 비정상상태 모사에 있어서 계산상 불리한 특성인 불연속성과 stiff한 성질에 대처할 수 있도록 sequentialclustered구조를 기본으로 하는 모사기에 불연속 처리 루틴을, 구현하였고, stiff성질의 완화를 위해 공정의 동특성 차이에 기인하는 latency를 이용하여 적절한 clustering기법으로 cluster크기를 결정하는 preprocessor를 개발하였다.

음 함수(implicit function)의 미분관계를 고려하여, 유도한 본 연구의 판별기준을 통해 조작변수들과 제어변수들간의 pairing을 합리적으로 정할 수 있었으며, 기존의 기준이 해석하지 못한 대각선 이득에 대한 대각선에 있지 않은 이득의 영향을 효과적으로 고려할 수 있었다. 그리고 여러 경우에 대해 적응 예제들을 통하여 제시한 기준의 검증과 응용성을 알아보았다.

Reduced order steady state models for separation columns are developed. The accuracy and efficiency of the reduced order models are also demonstrated by comparing the simulation results obtained using the reduced order models with rigorous tray by tray calculations.

A linear form of reducedorder distillation model is proposed, which contains the physical properties of distillation process and can be used in real time applications. The proposed model is linear in terms of liquid mole fraction and contains some tuning parameters. To verify the applicability of the proposed model, the model identification using nonlinear filtering techniques was applied. As a result, it was found that this model represented the simulated distillation process very closely as the parameters were converged.

One of the major difficulties with modular approach model of separation process simulation is initial guess problem. Only accurate initial guess make the problem converge and large computer memory and calculating time are required. In this study, we use the initial bottom guess value same as given feed condition and update the value the .theta.method. So we examine;(1)the problem converges using initial guess with large range, (2)computer memory and calculating time are reduced considerably.

암모니아 합성을 위한 다단식급냉반응기를 대상으로 물질 및 에너지보존법칙을 적용하여 수식모델을 전개하였다. 실제 4단 반응기의 설계 및 운전자료를 기준으로 하여 정상상태의 다중성을 해석하고 각 촉매층의 체적비와 반응물의 공급유량비에 대한 최적화 연구를 수행한 결과 실제 조업조건하에서 3개의 서로 다른 정상상태가 존재하며 실제 설계 및 조업조건은 최적조건을 다소 완화한 조건에 상당한 것임을 확인하였다.

Fault트리를 기초로 하는 증상 트리 모델을 나프타 열분해로에 대한 지식 모델로 적용하여 이상 진단 전문가 시스템의 지식 베이스로 사용하였다. 이로서 전문가 시스템을 구현하여 실제 공정의 사고 사례와 가상 사고 사례에 적용한 결과 적절한 원인군의 신속한 제시와 각 원인들의 가능성 여부를 판단하는데 적은 시간이 소요되므로 실시간 이상 진단에 적합한 모델임을 확인하였다.

본 연구에서는 화학공정의 자동화와 관련된 실시간 나프타 분해로 이상진단 시스템의 한 부분을 구성하고 있는 지식기반의 구현을 위하여 공정변수 상호간의 관계를 나타낸 signed directed graph(SDG)를 기반으로 이상에서 파급되는 증상들을 순서대로 나타내는 faultconsequence digraph(FCD)를 지식모델로 사용했고, 이를 사고사례를 이용하여 검토해본 결과 초기에 정확한 이상원인 후보를 찾아내므로써 이상진단 전문가 시스템의 지식모델로 적합함을 알 수 있었다.

A two dimensional pseudohomogeneous model for the methanol reforming reaction was developed and its steady and dynamic states were studied by a computer simulation. The reactor tube diameter, the catalyst density in the fixed bed, the feed flow rate, the feed temperature and the external temperature were chosen to be adjusted to determine the length of the reactor. The dynamics of the reactor showed that the system was highly nonlinear and sensitive to the feed disturbances.

Utilizing an interconnected set of neuronlike elements, the present study is to provide a method of parameter estimation for a second order linear time invariant system of selftuning controller. The result from the proposed method is evaluated by comparing with those obtained by the recursive least square (RLS) identification algorithm and extended recursive least square (ERLS) algorithm, and it shows that, although the smoothness of system performance is still to be improved, the effectiveness of shorter computing time is demonstrated which may be of considerable value to real time computing.

Since the control parameters of classical PID controller are fixed for all control period, it is not easy to produce a desired transition phenomena. We incorporate an iterative learning scheme to the linear controller so that it has more flexibility and adaptation capability especially in the transition period. In this paper a hybrid type learning controller is proposed in which fixed linear controller guides learning at the beginning stage. Once a perfect learning is achieved, then the control action is performed by only the learning controller. A computer simulation result demonstrates better performance during transition time than that with only linear PD controller.

Using the knowledge base which contains the patterns and data of the past experience of a plant, a learning control method is suggested. The knowledge for controlling a plant is stored to the knowledge base and continually modified after performance evaluation of an applied control input. The performance of the resultant knowledge based control system is examined by an application to process.

The idea of expert control is to incorporate a rule based expert system in a feedback control system. In this paper, the expert system concepts are instead used as an element of the feedback loop in a single controller. The algorithms are coded in as pure form as possible and the heuristic logic is implemented as rules. This paper reports on effort to produce an implementation of an expert controller on microcomputer based system, including an industrial programmable controller.

Many complex industrial processes cannot be satisfactorily controlled using the results of modern control theory, mainly because their precise structure is unknown. However this is often balanced by a considerable amount of operator's heuristic knowledges for the process which is difficult to quantify and utilize. Fuzzy set theory is a relatively new concept which allows this qualitativeness to be expressed rigorously and therefore in this paper modified PI type fuzzy logic controller is introduced and its usefulness for control is assessed.

Many of semiconductor manufacturing companies persuit automation of wafer fabrication to improve the yields and quality of their products. Development of realtime control system for wafer fabrication and wafer/cassette automatic transfersystem is the most important part to achieve the purpose. In this paper, SECS protocol proposed by SEMI is briefly reviewed and an implementation method of realtime monitoring and control system is suggested as one of the possible ways for wafer fabrication automation. The system consists of process equipments supporting SECS.

For online ARMA spectral estimation, the fast transversal filter algorithm of extended least squares method(ETS FTF) is presented. The projection operator, a key tool for geometric approach, is used in the derivation of the algorithm. ELS FTF is a fast time update recursion which is based on the fact that the correlation matrix of ARMA model satisfies the shift invariance property in each block, and thus it takes 10N+31 MADPR.

A rulebased recognition system for Korean spoken place names using antiformants which is analyzed by ARMA model is presented. The recognition system is composed of three parts; the extraction, the recognition and the recognition support. As a result of experiment, the recognition rates of city place names was 90.9%.

In the paper a failure detection and diagnosis method of a stochastic system is proposed. It is based on the comparison of the moving averages generated from outputs of the real plant and a modeled normal plant. The proposed method allows us to locate the failed sensor and can be efficiently used for the failure detection and diagnosis of a plant with many sensors.

This correspondence presents a recursive estimation algorithm which, unlike conventional ones; updates the estimates only when a sufficient improvement can be obtained with a bounded noise assumption, the resulting sequence of estimates is a sequence of convex sets(ellipsoids) in the parameter space. For the cases studied, the algorithm use less than 20 percent of the. data to update, the estimate and still acquired good accuracy for spectral estimation.

In this study, a variety of method to diagnose a fault of rotatory machine is suggested. Apprehending the physical meaning of each techniques, computer simulation is performed. The result from this computer simulation and the signal of the faulted ball bearing is studied from all its aspect. It is found that this conditioning monitor system is effective.

New image coding system for facial images called 'Knowledgebased image coding' is described, in which input image is analyzed and output image is synthesized using analysis results. Analysis and synthesis method of facial expressions are presented. Synthesis rules are determined on the basis of facial muscles and are also used in analysis process to produce a faithful reconstruction of the original image. A number of examples are shown.

This note considers the problems of finding a pole assignment controller for a plant with parameter perturbations. Based on Kharitonov's theorem and its generalized results, we propose a design method of controller using linear transformations such that it guarantees the desired damping ratio.

This paper describes some properties of a discrete algebraic Riccati equation and its application to
$H^{\infty}$ control design. The conditions, under which an input weighting matrix can be found for a negative output weighting matrix in order that a solution P for a discrete algebraic equation may exist, are suggested in case of a stable A. This result is applied to a$H^{\infty}$ controller design for the special case of nonsingular B. It is based on a state feedback control law whose objective is to reduce the effect of input disterbances below a prespecified level. This law requires the solution of a modified algebraic Riccati equation, which provides an method for the$H^{\infty}$ optimization control problem approximately.ly. 
In this study, a design method to obtain a robust optimal regulator for linear multivariable system is presented. When assigning eigenvalues of linear multivatiable system , the feedback gain is not unique. So we can assign robustness index to optimality so that we can fully use the remained degree of freedom.

Quadratic weighting matrices have an effect on the transition and steady state responses in a LQ tracking problem. They are usually decided on trial and error in order to get a good response. In this paper a method is presented which calculates a steady  state deviation without solving Riccati equation. By using this method, a new procedure for selecting the weighting matrices is proposed when a tolerance on the steady  state deviation is given.

In this paper, the effect of coefficient quantization error is analyzed for digital PID controllers. Stability margins are used as peformance criteria, and the statistical wordlength concept is adopted for coefficient wordlength selection. Finally, an illustrative example is given.

In this paper, the concept of persistent excitation(PE) is examed and the model reference adaptive control of a linear plant subjected to bounded disturbances is considered. Computer simulation reasults of nonlinear differential equations shows that the global behavior of the adaptive system depends upon the PE of the reference input as well as the amplitude of the external disturbances. The sufficient conditions on the PE of the reference input for the signals in the adaptive system to be globally bounded has been derived.

In this paper a new approach to adaptive control using a combination of both direct and indirect methods has been proposed. Based on the estimates of the plant parameters and the current values of the control parameters, closedloop estimation errors .epsilon.
$_{\theta}$ (t) and .epsilon.$_{k}$ (t) are defined. These in turn are used in the adaptive laws for updating both identification as well as control parameters. The global uniform stability of the overall system is shown by constructing a Lyapunov function.n. 
This paper describes an efficient timevarying parameter estimation algorithm by resetting the parameter and P matrix of the RLS algorithm. The described algorithm is useful for estimating both jump parameter and drifting parameter which vary quite rapidly.

This paper is concerned with the stability analysis and the design of an auto pilot using direct model reference adaptive control for BTT missile with unknown dynamics when subjected to the longitudinal and lateral gusts. A motion of BTT missile can be separated into the longtudinal and lateral motione. The proposed algorithm is introduced different leakage terms about each motion into adaptation so as to prevent drift of the adaptive gain and alleviate gust effects and crosscoupling. The algorithm is applied to the 6DOF motion of an EMRAAT missile.

A new decentralized adaptive controller design is proposed. In large scale interconnected system with unknown parameters, nonlinearities and bounded disturbances, even though the interconnection is weak, the controller parameter drifts due to the interconnection, so the decentralized adaptive controller comes to be unstable. The proposed new decentralized adaptive controller guarantees exponential convergence of tracking and parameter errors to residual sets which depend on the bound for the local disturbances and interconnections as well as on some arbitrary design parameters.

A new control law of a VSCS is illustrated and put into an analytical form. Using the presented control law, a VSCS shows smooth response, low control input and high accuracy in comparison with those by typical control law.

Modeling of the network interface for MAP and its performance analysis is investigated in this study. The parameters for the network interface are selected and a special interest is concentrated on the parameters related to the performance of the network interface itself. A queueing model of the network interface is proposed and simulation is performed to validate the proposed model of the network interface.

MAP(Manufacturing Automation Protocol), Network Protocol for FA has 7 Layer Structure of OSI. Being an Application Layer Protocol for Communication Interfaced with the Actual Programmable Devices, MMS(Manufacturing Message Specification) Consists of Three Factors of Services, Interfaces, and Protocol. For Details, It Classifies with the Followings ; Connection/Context Management, Remote Variable Access, Semaphore Management, File transfer and Management, Program UP/DOWN Load, Remote Program Fxecution. In this Paper Designing MAP Network Station of Programmable Device, we Analyze the Protocol of MMS, and Realize the State Diagram of each Services and Propose the Model of MMS Function Call Instructions.

In this paper, an approximate sojourn time distribution is obtained for cyclic service systems. We consider symmetric and limited service systems in which each queue has an infinite capacity. The combined service time is defined which consists of the frame service time and server waiting time that is approximated by two cases of the uniform and exponential distributions. The approximate sojourn time distribution is obtained from the PollaczekKhinchine formula where the combined service time is used for the service time in the M/G/I model. And some numerical examples are given to validate the suggested approximate analysis.

In this paper we addressed the basic concept of microstepping, analyzed the combined effect of the motor detent torque and the current profile, and implemented a microstepping drive system using an onechip microprocessor, power MOSFET's, and a 1.8 degree bifilarwound hybridtype step motor excited by a bipolar drive. Experimental results show that microstepping produces greater resolution, eliminates resonant step loss, and reduces motor vibrations.

This paper presents an approach for designing a linear multivariable servo mechanism for the case of constant and time varying disturbances. In this paper, we use an "observerbased" approach to consider the disturbance vector as states of the system and the resulting servomechanism design involves the design of an asymptotic observer which estimates both the actual plant states and the disturbance states. The design makes use of switching dynamics instead of switching logics to obtain the sliding mode and from the switching dynamics we can remove the undesirable chattering phenomena.phenomena.

In case there are many points to be measured in the field, conventional measuring system requires a lot of manpower and is liable to miss applying the timely countermeasure because processing and analyzing the data obtained also takes much time. Therefore the purpose of this paper is focused on removing the above defects by introducing automatic multipoint measuring system by use of IBMPC or the compatibles easily at hand nowadays. Principal components of the system is composed of control box, A/D converter. 32 channel 4 wire switch boxes and strain amplifier. An application software was developed for multi point measurement system in order to efficiently evaluate the stability of the structures such as retaining walls.

Single mode optical fiber interferometeric sensors using phase tracking homodyne detection are typically susceptible to environmentally induced temperature fluctuations and other types of disturbances. In this paper compensator is described, which is a simple and effective phase tracking feedback electronic circuit must be output signal stabilized to achieve maximln sensitivity and linearity of MachZehnder fiberoptic interferomter in the presence of differential phase drift. The phase tracking range of the piezoelectric cylinder in the reference arm is .+.3.7.pi.rad, and the probe mass about 1 gram in the sensing ann was used for measurements of the gravity acceleration.

Nowadays in power plant feed water control, it is very important to retain the stable drum level though power changes very fast. For the stable drum level in power plant, we have to model our plants and get the system functions. We make the L.Q. controller by using these functions and apply it to these systems. And we get the more stable drum level which is controlled by feed water qualities.

This paper presents a new operation method on power distribution system by automated distribution system (ADS). A performance of this automation is established to operate the distribution system faster than earlier. We reduced the period and region of power failure by ADS.

The selection of control and indication joints effects the supervisory and control scope of SCADA system. This paper proposes the point selection for the noman substation. The points of noman s/s are 34times as many ad points of mansubstation. And also the considering points are described to implement total automation.

This paper describes the improvement of thermal power plant turbine control system by analyzing nonlinear characteristics. The turbine control depends on the frequency variation and boiler condition. The nonlinearity of turbine control is the result of governor/valve properties, steam condition and boiler thermal unbalance. Nonlinear analysis is divided into two; main steam valve position  turbine output anal governor response. Of course, every analysis must be done on considering plant operating condition. In this paper, after analyzing turbine control nonlinearity by numerical method and actual results, the sensitive operating load which corresponds to frequency is proposed, on guarranteed boiler stability. This idea is implemented at Pyung Tack thermal power plant, and the practical results are showed.

Transducer interfaces computer system with electric system. It is important in electric automation system. The characteristics, sorts, component of transducer is introduced in this paper. Previously, in order to support comprehension of transducer, we explain the necessity of computer system control, system components, the principle of operation.

This is a study of the translational endpoint control of a single link flexible armwith a tip mass. The beam is mounted on a translational mechanism driven by the ball screw, whose rotation is controlled by DC servomotor. The problem of shifting the endpoint from its initial position to the commanded position is studied analytically both for the openloop control subjected to some path functions and for the closedloop control using the feedback of the tip information.

In this paper, a modelling methodology for a robotic workcell is proposed and compared with the conventional Petri nets model. Also, a method for managing the cell operation is described through the knowledge base. The knowledge bases for state transition and assembly job information are obtained from the state transition map(STM) and the assembly job tree(AJT), respectively. Using the knowledge base, the system structure is discussed in both managing the cell operation and evaluating the various performance. Finally, a simulation algorithm is presented with the simulation results to show the effectiveness of the proposed modelling approach.

In this paper, a programming system for robotbased manufacturing cell which can control and simulate manufacturing devices as well as robots in workcell is proposed and developed. The system is based on world model, and modem textual and objectlevel robot programming language and interactive graphic world modeler are used to construct and exploit world model. Graphic simulation is used as an efficient and easy to use debugging or verifying tool for user written robot programs. Machine dependency is minimized by adopting the hierarchical control structure and by assuming all the workcell components as virtual ones.

A new simple method for controlling compliant motions of a flexible robot arm is presented. The method aims at controlling translational tip motion, force and moment by directly computing the base motion or torque. A numerical inversion of Laplace transform is used to obtain the results in the time domain. The results show the effectiveness of the method for the hybrid translational position/force control of a flexible robot arm.

A theoretical study is presented for the endpoint holding control of a onelink flexible arm, whose base is subjected to a lateral fluctuation. The arm is clamped on a rigid hub mounted directly on the shaft of d.c. servomoter. The tip position is measured by a gap sensor fixed in space isolated from the system vibration. The arm is controlled so as to make the end point stay precisely at its initial position even if the base is fluctuated.

Force/torque sensors are now providing widespread practical solutions to manufacturing problems, particularly in the area of automated assembly. The current state of the industry is discussed, including the evolution of transducer and controller design, and the trend of robot manufacturers to integrate force/torque sensors into their robot systems thereby greatly improving cycle time and simplifying the application development task for the enduser. Current and future application areas are discussed as well as the benefits of force/torque sensing.

A collision avoidance algorithm based on a heuristic graph search and subgoals is presented. The joint angle space is quantized into cells. The evaluation function for a heuristic search is defined by the sum of the distance between the links of a manipulator and middle planes among the obstables and the distance between the endeffector and the subgoals on desired trajectory. These subgoals reduce the combinatorial explosion in the search space. This method enables us to avoid a deadlock in searching. Its effectiveness has been verified by simulation studies.

Recently industrial robots are often used together with positioners to enhance the system performance for arc welding. In this paper, the redundancy control method is proposed for the robotpositioner system which is modeled as one kinematic model of 7 degrees of freedom. Also, the manipulability measure based on the Jocobian matrix is utilized to visualize the distribution of manipulability in a given section of the working space. An algorithm for the manipulability maximazation in a given task is developed and applied to the robot and positioner system. The simulation results are given in the case of straight line following.

An efficient algorithm for planning nearoptimum trajectory of manipulators is proposed. The algorithm is divided into two stages. The first one is the optimization of time trajectory with given spatial path. And the second one is the optimization of the spatial path itself. To consider the second problem, the manipulator dynamics is represented using the path parameter "s", then a differential equation corresponding to the dynamics is solved as two point boundary value problem. In this procedure, the gradient method is used to calculate improved input torques.t torques.

A collisionfree trajectory planning algorithm using the iterative learning concept is proposed for dual robot arms in a 3D workspace to accurately follow their specified paths with constant velocities. Specifically, a collisionfree trajectory minimizing the trajectory error is obtained first by employing the linear programming technique. Then the total operating time is iteratively adjusted based on the maximum trajectory error of the previous iteration so that the collisionfree trajectory has no deviation from the specified path and also the operating time is nearminimal.

We formulated the multirobot trajectory problem into a series of NLP problem, each of which is that of finding the optimal tip positions of the robots for the next time step. The NLP problem is composed of an objective function and three constraints, namely: a) Joint position limits, b) Joint velocity limits, and c) Collisionavoidance constraints. By solving a series of NLP problem, optimally coordinated trajectories can be determined without requiring any prior path information. This is a novel departure from the previous approach in which either all paths or at least one path is assumed to be given. Practical application of the developed method is for optimal synthesis of multiple robot trajectories in offline. To test the validity and effectiveness of the method, numerical examples are illustrated.

This paper presents a theoretic study and computer simulation of models and approaches for dynamical obstacle avoidance by mobile robots. The movement of obstacles in unknown environment is described by any one or a combination of three models. The control strategy of the mobile robots is formulated based on one of three approaches. A trajectoryguided control strategy for dynamical obstacle avoidance has been developed. The method greatly simplifies the control process of mobile robots, and is computationally attractive.

In this paper we outline an approach for the collisionfree trajectory planning of two robot arms which are modeled as connected line segments. A new approach to determine the collision between two robot arms and the boundary of the collision region in the coordination space is proposed. The coordination curve may then be chosen to avoid the collision region. For minimum time trajectory, time is assigned to this curve by dynamic time scaling under constraints such as maximum torque or maximum angular velocity of each actuator. A comparison of the proposed method and the graphical method of determining the collision region is also included. Finally, as an example, some simulation results for two SCARA type robots are presented.

Cerebellar Model Arithmetic Controller (CMAC) has been introduced as an adaptive control function generator. CMAC computes control functions referring to a distributed memory table storing functional values rather than by solving equations analytically or numerically. CMAC has a unique mapping structure as a coarse coding and supervisory deltarule learning property. In this paper, learning aspects and a convergence of the CMAC were investigated. The efficient training algorithms were developed to overcome the limitations caused by the conventional maximum error correction training and to eliminate the accumulated learning error caused by a sequential node training. A nonlinear function generator and a motion generator for a two d.o.f. manipulator were simulated. The efficiency of the various learning algorithms was demonstrated through the cpu time used and the convergence of the rms and maximum errors accumulated during a learning process. A generalization property and a learning effect due to the various gains were simulated. A uniform quantizing method was applied to cope with various ranges of input variables efficiently.

Control methods to achieve efficient and accurate deburring robots are proposed. For efficiency, cutting speed is controlled adoptively with the cutting load. For accuracy, it adopts repetitive control. Since usual repetitive control cannot afford dynamical speed changes, the proposed method controls in an interpolating manner using several waveforms stored in the controller. Successful experimental results axe shown.

Robot manipulators are highly coupled nonlinear systems and their motions are influenced by uncertain dynamics. In this paper a design methodology which is called model feedback control system or plant model control scheme is presented for the purpose of reducing the influence of the uncertain dynamics. This control system is applied to the trajectly control of the directly drived robot. Theoretically and experimentally performances resulting from use of this control scheme show that the influences of the uncertain dynamics are reduced obviously.

As an adaptive control function generator, the CMAC (Cerebellar Model Arithmetic or Articulated Controller) based learning control has drawn a great attention to realize a rather robust realtime manipulator control under the various uncertainties. There remain, however, inherent problems to be solved in the CMAC application to robot motion control or perception of sensory information. To apply the CMAC to the various unmodeled or modeled systems more efficiently, It is necessary to analyze the effects of the CMAC control parameters an the trained net. Although the CMAC control parameters such as size of the quantizing block, learning gain, input offset, and ranges of input variables play a key role in the learning performance and system memory requirement, these have not been fully investigated yet. These parameters should be determined, of course, considering the shape of the desired function to be trained and learning algorithms applied. In this paper, the interrelation of these parameters with learning performance is investigated under the basic learning schemes presented by authors. Since an analytic approach only seems to be very difficult and even impossible for this purpose, various simulations have been performed with prespecified functions and their results were analyzed. A general step following design guide was set up according to the various simulation results.

A new sufficient condition for the convergency of an iterative adaptive control algorithm is presented, in which a parameter estimator of the system together with an inverse system model to generate the control signal at each iteration. Also the result is extended to discrete time domain and a similar sufficient condition is derived.

A robust deterministic control for a class of singularly perturbed uncertain systems, where uncertainties are characterized deterministically rather than stochastically, is developed based mainly on information available on an uncertain reducedorder system. The deterministic control scheme is applied to the motion control of a n degree of freedom robotic manipulator. The parasitic actuator and sensor dynamics of the manipulator are explicitly considered in the stability analysis of the deterministic controller using a singular perturbation model. Simulation and experimental studies for a two degree of freedom, direct drive SCARA manipulator are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the derived control scheme.

This paper presents a technique for an autonomous mobile robot to locate its own position in a visual way. The developed mobile robot perceives its surroundings through an equipped TV camera and acquires the visual information necessary for its next behavior. The robot which is assumed to move in a laboratory environment identifies its position by recognizing three different marks in the environment and analyzing the positional relation between these marks and itself. This technique was examined by an experiment and a satisfactory result was obtained.

A robotic system with a 3dimensional profile measuring sensor is developed in order to measure the complicated shape of the target body. Due to this 3dimensional profile measuring sensor, a computer is able to adjust the posture of the robot hand so that complicated global profile of the target body can be recognized after several measurements from the variant directions. In order to enable fast data processing, a digital signal processor and a lookup table is introduced.

A practical method of identifying the inertial parameters, viscous friction and Coulomb friction of a robot is presented. The parameters in the dynamic equations of a robot are obtained from the measurements of the command voltage and the joint position of the robot. First, a dynamic model of the integrated motor and manipulator is derived. An off line parameter identification procedure is developed and applied to the University of Minnesota Direct Drive Robot. To evaluate the accuracy of the parameters the dynamic tracking of robot was tested. The trajectory errors were significantly reduced when the identified dynamic parameters were used.

Autonomous mobile robot Yamabico and his newly developed ultrasonic range finding module(URF) are described. Yamabico is a selfcontained autonomous robot for indoor environment. It has a modularized architecture, which consists of master module, ultrasonic range finding module, locomotion module, voice synthesizer module and console. Newly developed ultrasonic range finding module has a 68000 processor and Dualport memory for communication. It controls the ultrasonic transmitters and receivers and calculate the range distances for 12direction, simultaneously within every 60 milliseconds.

The individual control of machines or processors is subordinate to the management of the entire manufacturing production function. This distinction is necessary in order to provide the appropriate separation of and detailed focus on process activities while still providing acceptable interfaces for the upload of data and the download of instructions, recipes, or commands.

A control system was developed for raw material yards of the works of a metal industry. It is devoted to the automatic operations of the raw material yards stackers, and to the improvement of the stacking method to stack granular coal uniformly. The system automatically controls the stacking operations without human intervention, and also prevents any collision between cranes, stackers, jibloaders and the levelroughing cranes.

Tokyo dome is Japan's first air dome. The roof of the dome is supported by air pressure. The centralized control system (YOKOGAWA's DCS : CENTUM and YEWPACK) is applied to automatically regurate the air pressure. The control system acquires signals from sensors positioned throughout the stadium and operate 36 fans to blow air into the dome. Great emphasis is placed on the reliability and safety of the system.

RCC(Remote Center Compliance)[1][2] is a useful device for peg and hole insertion works. Two methods for smooth insertion of round peg and round hole are proposed. The idea of method 1 is to design the optimum position of the compliance center of RCC which is different from that of usual RCC in order to minimize the insertion force with the assumption of the known insertion angle. The idea of method 2 is to insert peg with rotation in order to decrease the friction coefficient between peg and hole. The two ideas are analyzed theoretically and are shown valid experimentally.

This paper deals with the control of system with controlled jump Markov disturbances. A such formulation was used by Boukas to model the planning production and maintenance of a FMS with failure machines. The optimal control problem of systems with controlled jump Markov process is addressed. This problem describes the planning production and preventive maintenance of production systems. The optimality conditions in both cases finite and infinite horizon, are derived. A numerical example is presented to validate the proposed results.

A newly developed Expert System (ES) for the tuning of thermal power plant control equipment is described. The system is furnished with the rules for controller tuning which were obtained by analysis and arranging the data and knowledge from the experts or tuning records. Based on these rules, automatic tuning or setting of the control parameters is performed in realtime base. The performance of the test equipment, a combination of ES and a boiler simulator, was examined in the automatic tuning test for steam pressure, steam temperature, and load controllers of a constantpressure oncethrough boiler model. It was confirmed from the test results that the system is quite promising for future application to actual plants, since the tuning results obtained by the proposed system were similar to those by tuning experts.

This paper describes a remote measurement method for estimating unsteady flowrate through a pipeline. By this method, instantaneous flowrate at the remote location along a pipeline (distance L) from flowmeters is measured by making use of dynamic characteristics between two cross sections of the circular pipeline. Using this method, instantaneous flowrate is accurately measured at a location where it is difficult to setup flowmeters. The estimated flowrate waveforms by the method are compared with directly measured ones by cylindrical choketype instantaneous flowmeter. The validity of the method is established.

This paper considers an active vibration control system based on pole placement incorporating the internal model principle when the system is subjected to disturbances which are generated by a linear dynamical system. Experimental results are presented which show the effectiveness of the method when the system is excited by a sine wave disturbance and system parameters are knwon. An adaptive control design is also discussed.

Digital control laws are implemented on an active magnetic bearing system with DSP. The results of tests using a experimental apparatus are (1) in a case that conventional PID, PIDD2 controls are employed, implemention of digital control law has similar characteristics to that of analogue control law. (2)The experiments reveal the results that the dynamic compensation based on the observer may be better than that of the other conventional controllers.

The authors tried to make experimentally clear the response of engine speed to stepwise increasing, decreasing or sinusoidally fluctuating load. Based on a simplified model devised from the standpoint of the control theory, analysis was carried out with digital computer and its results obtained coincide well with those of experiment, so that it could be confirmed that it is possible to simulate the speed response to variation of the load.

It is difficult to obtain a swingingup control sequence of a onelink pendulum analytically or numerically. In this paper, we obtain a proper control sequence through manual control experiments. However, no proper control sequence will be obtained if the rotational velocity of the pendulum is fast for the human operator. To overcome such a disadvantage, we propose a method for training the operator by using a pendulum simulator.

A constant torque dynamometer with associated instrumentation and control functions for the development of friction materials for automotivetype disc brakes, has been developed. Full scale disc pads are subject to a series of intermittent brake applications at a constant rotational speed of the brake disc and constant braking power. This paper gives a description of the dynamometer and an example of results obtained.

In the field of control technology, too, it is about time that the students should free themseleves from the paradigm of Newtonian mechanics. Otherwise, they might fail to grasp the essence of control. Now, let us consider the essence of control. Control consists of manipulating a particular object, matter, energy of environment on the basis of certain medium information. (measurement data, force, etc.) So, we shall look into the methods of manipulation. Here, we consider natural control, constraining control, and hybrid control as basic methods of manipulation. In this paper, we would like to put forward the daring proposal that it's called a Holontype hybrid control system. It is intended to control a plat with complicated or unknown characteristics where a conventional control theory is not easy to apply. A prototype system has been developed and applied to a real plant. The control system is a multilayer system. Each layer includes different control input. The important features of the system are as follows: 1) Each layer behaves autonomously and also cooperates with each other to optimize the whole plant. 2) The controller optimizes a plant without mathematical models when these models are not easy to obtain.

A nonlinear selftuning regulator for a neutralization process of a weak acid and strong base system is proposed. Rearranging the state equation of the process model, we first obtain equations which are linear for a manipulated variable or unknown parameters. Then to these equations we apply the standard procedure used in designing linear selftuning regulators. Simulation results show that the regulator provides very good performances for various realistic situations and traces variations of the unknown parameters. Since computations are simple and additional measurements except the effluent pH value are only flow rates of influent streams, it can be easily applied to real processes such as a waste water treatment process.

A novel control method involving an automatic tuning of digital PID controller parameters has been developed for better regulation of DO (dissolved oxygen) concentration in batch fermentation processes. Heuristic reasoning allows the PID controller to reach improved tuning decisions based upon the supervision of certain control performance indices in the same cognitive manner as in an expert control.

This paper presents some results of teleoperation R&D activities for radioactive work. Heavy power manipulator feature is integrated with vision system implementation of advanced type and tool adaptation to hand gripper. Some assodiated te datth activities of interests to the teleoperation and future directions are also presented.

A new method for measuring optical phase changes of reflection beam from optical mirror is proposed. The optical phase change is liable to change with varying atmosphere conditions. This optical phase changes are measured against air pressure, temperature, humidity and CO
$\_$ 2/ concentration variations. It is clarified that the optical phase changes are most effected by humidity change. 
An efficient diagnostic approach for realtime operation aiding expert system in chemical process plants is discussed. The approach is based on the hybrid of the simplified symptom tree(SST) and the fault consequence digraph(FCD), representation of propagation patterns of fault states. The SST generates fault hypothesis efficiently and the FCD resolve the real fault accurately. Frame based knowledge representation and objectoriented programming make diagnostic system general and efficient. Truth maintenance system enables robust pattern matching and provides enhanced explain facilities. A prototype expert system for supports operation of naphtha furnaces process, called OASYS, has been built and tested to demonstrate this methodology. Utilization of diversified process symbolic data, produced using dynamic normal standards, overcomes the problem of qualitative Boolean reasoning and enhance the applicability.

A two compartmented autoclave reactor for the polymerization of low density polyethylene is analyzed with respect to the effects of heat transfer and operation variables. Each compartment being considered as a completely mixed cell, two CSTRs model is proposed. The system shows various multiplicity features of steady state and periodic oscillatory motions. Heat removal efficiency and initiator supplement appear to have significant effect on the conversion of monomer with the temperature properly maintained, which should be taken into account in the reactor design.

This paper proposes a new method for the discovery and design of an optimal heat exchanger network. The method is based upon the concept of pinch, a problem reduction technique and the heuristics developed in this work. It generates subproblems in a logical way and solves the subproblems by the heuristics to synthesize an optimal network structure. It is thought that the heuristics can preserve the minimum utility consumption, the minimum number of heat exchanger units, and the minimum number of stream splittings needed for a given problem. The minimum heat exchanger area for the optimal network can then be obtained by adjusting the temperatures associate with the heat exchanger in the optimal network structure. The method is applied to the problems appeared in the literatures. The results show the reductions in the number of heat exchanger units for some problems.

A heuristic model which determines the scheduling of serial flowshops with minimization of the makespan is proposed for an idealized batch chemical plant. It generates an initial sequence by heuristic reasoning and improves it recursively until no improvement is possible. The heuristic reasoning is based on Johnson's Rule which gives the sequence with the minimum makespan for a twounit flowshop. The evolutionary step searches the neighborhood of the current sequence for sequences with lower makespan. The robustness of this model is also examined by comparing the minimum makespan of literature examples with the theoretical one.

OnLine optimization of process units has heretofore been restricted to the individual equipment level using linear approximate models. The advent of the low cost, high speed microcomputer coupled with the speed and robustness of an equation based exact simulator is making realtime optimization of entire process units a reality. The resultant implications for a decision system applied to daytoday operations, point to a significant change in the way process plants will be managed in the future.

We present new efficient interaction measures which can be used for control operability analysis and Control Structure selection in decentralized control systems. These measures can indicate not only the stability of decentralized control systems but also the true closedloop Performance of the decentralized control structure. Relationships between published measures and proposed ones are clarified. Some important characteristics of these. measures are rigorously analyzed. The significance and the usefulness of the proposed method have been illustrated through examples found in the literature.

Aspects of modelling, performance monitoring, control and optimisation are discussed, with particular reference to the application of SPEEDUP. A new facility is described which allows SPEEDUP to operate in conjunction with other systems and several examples are briefly given of its power and flexibility. In particular, its use in online applications alongside plant management and distributed control systems is described and how it can be used in scheduling/sequencing problems in investigating batch and cyclic problems.

This work describes an online method and procedure for calculating the fluid properties in real time while system is in operation. The method utilizes function blocks of distributed control systems. Thermodynamic relations of fluid from tables along with a fluid property formula are imbedded into the proposed signal processing block. Once the pressure and temperature measurements are entered the system provides other properties.

By structural comparison of process optimization strategies based on Simultaneous Modular Approach, they can be classified into two groups : the Sequential Module Based Approach and the TwoTier Approach. The Sequential Module Based Approach needs rigorous models and a set of accurate solutions are guranteed. However, it requires large amount of computation time. In the TwoTier Approach composed of rigorous and simplified models, optimization calculation uses simplified models, therefore comparatively smaller amount of computation time is required but the obtained solutions may not be accurate. These optimization problems were somewhat improved by the alternate application of the two strategies. In this study, improved optimization strategy is suggested, in which Jacobian Matrix is modified to accomodate the strong points of above mentioned strategies. The results of case study show that this approach is superior to the other strategies.

The control of a class of large scale systems formed by an arbitrary linear interconnections of linear timeinvariant subsystems with unknown parameters is investigated. An approach is developed for improving the robustness of such a large scale system. In doing so, the new parameter adaptation algorithm(PAA) is used and a sufficient condition of stability is discussed by using the sector theory.

The authors, in this paper, investigate the degree of tracking (i.e. the weak points of Samson) to this discretetime adaptive control system. A matter of course, the results of tracking is improved by using g given in 2.2, compared with the results of Samson. But it is a neck point that the calculation on g is very complex. So by giving the value of g suitably, it is shown that the result superior to one of Samson are taken.

Direct application of adaptive algorithm to the actual I/O is not a good strategy. The importance of using a kind of filter for estimation or control is strongly recommended. Simple prefiltering method and pseudoplant method is introduced. And, the properties of each methods are compared by analysis and/or simulations. A guideline for the choice of filters are proposed.

We propose a new algorithm to obtain the output feedback controller, which contains one dynamic element, for power system generators. The performance criterion of this controller is the integral of quadratic form of output differences between reference model and controlled system. with this criterion, we can easily compute the output feedback gains using Astrom's algorithm for the integral calculation of quadratic form.

Ikeda, Hiroaki;Li, Jinzhu;Miyashita, Masatoshi;Yoshida, Hirofumi;Andou, Minoru;Shinohara, Shigenobu;Tsuchiya, Etsuo;Nishimura, KenIchi 877
Described is a DC voltage regulator of new type where an optical fiber is used as a sense line to transmit the PFM signal, which represents the load voltage and its change, from the load to the controller so as to make the equivalent senseline length short. The prototype version provides a load voltage change rate of 2.3% over the current range of 0A to 5A at 15V DC, with an output impedance of 0.06ohm. 
Aperiodicity of interval polynomials is studied. Aperiodicity is normally defined as a property such that all the roots are simple and negative real, while interval polynomials are referred to as polynomials with coefficients lying within specified closed intervals on the real axis. Several conditions for aperiodicity, including an exact one, are derived. Comments on them are given in contrast to the work by Soh and Berger, who also considered the problem with a modified definition of aperiodicity.

In this paper, a new procedure for selecting weighting matrices in linear discrete time quadratic optimal control problem (LQproblem) is proposed. In LQproblems, the quadratic weighting matrices are usually decided on trial and error in order to get a good response. But using the proposed method, the quadratic weights are decided in such a way that all poles of the closed loop system are located in a desired region for good responses as well as for stability and values of the quadratic cost function are kept less then a specified value.

This paper discusses the regulator problem of minimizing the input energy for the multiinput linear timeinvariant discretetime system with the zero terminal state. The optimal inputs are expressed by the state feedback form and they are made up of three phases. The optimal feedback gains are independent of the initial state.


A robust stability problem for time delay systems is discussed by using a property of Lyapunov type operator equation. We propose a method to check the robust stability against the parameter perturbations occurring in both lumped parameter part and distributed delay element.

A new procedure is presented for optimally placing closedloop poles of multivariable continuoustime systems in specified regions via linearquadratic(LQ) statefeedback design. This method has the advantages of poleplacement and LQdesign. In addition, it provides minimum feedback gains in the control law.

In this paper, the selection method of weighting matrices in the discretetime LQ problem are suggested in order to improve the guaranteed stability margins, i.e. the gain and phase margins. The asymptotic properties of the solution of the algebraic Riccati equations are investigated by using the closed form solution of the difference Riccati equations. It is shown that the solution of the algebraic Riccati equations monotonically increases as the state weighting matrix Q or the control weighting matrix R increase. The increasing rate of the solution is shown to be much less than that of R for large R. It is also proven that the guaranteed stability margins increases as the ratio between Q and R decreases.

This paper presents a stability condition for Astrom's minimal variance control(MVC) with mismatch of time delay for a SISO ARMAX model containing time delay. The proof of the condition presented here is based on the characteristic equation in the feedback system and its magnitude. This condition, from easy numerical calculation, is able to find the stability of the feedback system without knowing the real time delay.

This paper presents the design of simple robust controller for a class of uncertain multivariable systems. We introduce switching dynamics instead of switching logics unlike variable structure control scheme. Also, we can construct the continuous control law from this switching dynamics and consequently remove the chattering motion. The dynamic equations of the rangespace of a switching surface matrix C and uniform ultimate boundedness in the presence of parameter uncertainties are described mathematically.

If the nonlinear term in a nonlinear control system equation can be deleted by state feedback control, the original system becomes a linear system. For this linear control system, many well known methods may be used to handle it, and then reverse it back to nonlinear form. Many problems of nonlinear control systems can be solved in this way. In this paper, this method will be used to transfer the identification problem of nonlinear systems into a linear control problem. The nonlinear observer is established by constructing linear observer. Then the state control of nonlinear systems is realized. Finally, the technique of the PID controller obtained by using bangbang tracker as a differentiator provides a stronger robust controller. Even though the method in this paper may not theoretically perfect, many numerical simulations show that it is applicable.

This paper considers the model predictive control (MPC) problems in nonlinear processes or systems. The MPC method determines the control law such that the predicted output based on the identified process model is equal to the reference output which consists of both the process output at current time and the setting value called as the command generator. In this paper, the nonlinear MPC software for a chemical reactor is developed and analized from the point of view of practical applications.

Most of systems are included nonlinear characteristics in practice. One might be faced with difficulties when problems of nonlinear systems are solved. In this paper we present a formal linearization method of nonlinear systems by using the trigonometric Fourier expansion on the state space considering easy inversion. An error bound, an application, and a compensation of this method are also investigated.

The channel irregularity of Successive Approximation ADC is very large in comparison with other type of ADCs. This characteristic makes it impossible to apply the Successive Approximation ADC to the field of radiation pulse height analysis or the measurement of probability density function. In this paper, an analysis of differential nonlinearity of this ADCis presented. It is made clear that the small deviation of resistance causes very large differential nonlinearity.

A Class of nonlinear distributed parameter control problems is first stated in a partial differential equation form in multiindex notion and then converted into an integral equation form. Necessary conditions for optimality in the form of maximum principle are then derived in Sobolev space W
$^{l}$ , p/(1 leq. p .leq. .inf.).. 
We experimentally investigated the mechanical and electrical characteristics of the poly vinyl alcohol(PVA) hydrogel which have attracted special interest as a mechanochemical material, and the applicability of the hydrogel membrane to a sensor for measuring large strain. As a result, the PVA hydrogel could be regarded as a Hookean elastic material and was treated as an electric resistance which was proportional to the tensile strain within a linearly elastic range.

This paper deals with testpattern generation and diagnoses of patternsensitive faults in RAM by use of simple pseudorandom Msequences with an emphasis to builtin structure of these schemes. The problems that may arise during their implementation are discussed and an approach to builtin testing of RAM by such a scheme is given not bothering too much about the silicon area required.

A Digital Signal Processor (abbreviated to DSP) is used not only for digital signal processing but also for kinematic controls[l]. Then applications to these fields are expected to be developed. We propose a function calculation method on DSP which occupies no table memory. By using these functions, more fast or more accurate control will be achieved without using function table.

A new system for automatic scoring of 'organization' of the EEG dominant rhythm was constructed and applied to 18 normal subjects and 15 patients. Organization parameters which best represented the 'organization' as judged by 5 neurologists' visual inspection were calculated and the automatic organization scoring was obtained by a linear regression of those organization parameters. Furthermore, values of the regression coefficients were used to study the characteristics of EEG interpretation by each neurologist, and this scoring technique can also be applied to the training of EEG interpretation.

Shinohara, Shigenobu;Andou, Minoru;Yoshida, Hirofumi;Ikeda, Hiroaki;Miyata, Masafumi;Yoshida, JunIchi;Nishide, KenIchi;Sumi, Masao 972
Proposed is improved compact selfmixing type semiconductorlaser range finder, which measures modehop time interval (MHI). Measurement error caused by the fluctuation of MHI is greatly reduced by averaging many contiguous MHI's. The main cause of measurement error 1.5% at ranges from 0.1m to 0.8m is attributed to the optical phase change of a returned light from a focusing lens. Accuracy improvement by stabilization of the returned light is suggested. 
This paper proposes a new concept, called merit factor Fr, for evaluating the randomness of binary random sequences. The merit factor Fr is obtained from the expected values of the autocorrelation function of the binary random sequence. Using this merit factor Fr, randomness of the binary random sequences generated by the random sampling method is evaluated.

101 coding scheme, one of sliding block coding techniques, provides practically attractive features in some compression applications for image sources such as facsimile. This paper presents a new simple model of 101 coder. The results show that the entropy of the output of the 101 coder can be reduced close to the rate distortion bound of a binary firstorder markov source.

A system for 3dimensional measurement of structures like buildings, pressure vessels and ships is presented. Two electric transits, which are latest surveying instruments, are controlled with a computer in order to scan the target surface of the object. An image processing unit relieves the operator of the burden of manual adjusting for forcusing the sighting telescope.

This paper describes a system which enables a fast 3dimensional measuring of a human head using a slitray projection method . One feature of our system is that almost all calculations are executed using a lookup table, so that, forty thousands of sample point scan be processed in a few seconds. The feasibility of our system for practical applications is demonstrated measuring a human head.

This paper discusses a new method of recognizing patterns employing consistent labeling. A consistent labeling problem is a generalized expression of constraint satisfaction problems. When a pattern is recognized by pattern matching, the matching between a reference pattern and an acquired pattern resolves itself into finding correspondence between the pixels on the former and those on the latter. This can be expressed as a consistent labeling problem. Pattern association, a variation of pattern recognition, is also described employing consistent labeling. The proposed technique is supported by experimental results, yet further studies need to be done before its practical use.

A refined version of automatic microorganism recognition and identification method, 'O.I.S.M.2' is proposed in this paper, using image processing based on an expert system. This proposed method is based on the segmentation of the organism image, characterizing segment features, which are independent of individual size and length. Complicated shapes of organisms are divided into basic shape segments defined in this paper such as lines, circles, ovals etc. Organisms can then be expressed simply in a set of segments, regardless their individual differences.

Time series satellite image data were used to discuss the possibility of the industrialization of the Kunsan area. The satellite observation was performed from 1979 to 1987 and it revealed a big change in the geographical features due to the rapid development of this area. From the previous experience regarding the industrialization of the coastal district of the Seto Inland Sea, the Kunsan area is very promising as an industrialized world trade center.

In this paper, we introduce a recursivelydefined natural join operation as well as wellknown object composition operations (union, intersection) for composing CAD database objects. Then, we will discuss how to realize these operations by the message passing computing mechanism. Next, we will discuss what kind of behaviours (methods) are preserved under our natural join operations. Finally, we investigate mathematical properties about the relationships among several object composition operations (natural join, union and intersection).

A COMPUTERAIDED DRAWING CHECK SYSTEM (PART 2: Dimension Check of A Single Plane Projection Drawing)CAD drawings contain drawing errors similar to manually produced drawings. This paper is concerned with a computeraided drawing check system for the drawing errors. The problem treated in this paper is the checking of dimension errors, deficiency and redundancy of dimension lines in the mechanical drawings made by a CAD system. Graph theory is used for the checking of the deficient and redundant dimensions. The feasibility of this system is confirmed for the checking items.

A method of analysis of the steadystate performance of induction motor with supply voltage controlled by cyclicallytriggered inline thyristors is presented. Phasevariable model and asymmetrical components are not used in this analysis. Instead, Fast Fourier Transform technique and the method of multiple reference frames are employed to obtain the constantspeed performance of I.M. easily.

This paper describes first Boxes algorithm as a good method to generate the pulse patterns for a pulse width modulated inverter which has a good characteristics and simple to excute. Second we present the motor analysis fed by P.W.M. inverter in steadystate operation. In this analysis we improve the MRF ( Multiple Reference Frames ) to can be easy apply to analyse all the induction motor parameters. Finally we presented all the results obtained for a 3phase induction motor.

In this paper, we attempt to control induction motors with high power efficiency as well as high dynamic performance by utilizing the recently developed theories: singular perturbation technique and noninteracting feedback control. Our controller does not need the transformation between a dq synchronously rotating frame and a xy statorfixed frame. It is computationally quite simple. Furthermore, it does not depend on the rotor resistance. To illuminate the practical significance of our results, we present simulation and experimental results as well as mathematical performance analysis.

A novel multipurpose monitoring platformLTA vehicle is presented with much improved kinetic performances together with its structural analysis and its scale model test data. This provides a useful mean of monitoring, exploring and remote sensing platform that flies over the wide range of atmosphere and can be used as a safe economic device.

This paper presents the preliminary studies on measurements of dynamic torque in the rotating shaft by utilizing the magnetic lattice. The intensity of torque can be detected as the phase differences between two magnetic sinusoidal signals recorded on magnetic tapes wound on the shaft. This research describes, from the data concerning with phase differences including noise, a method of signal processing to estimate the true value of the torque.

This paper describes a new method for twodimensional(2D) positioning system by use of crosscorrelation of vague Marrays. An Marray pattern is attached on an object to be positioned and it is observed by a TV camera in outoffocus condition. The crosscorrelation between the observed image data and the reference Marray gives us the information about the 2D position of the object.

In a twodimensional positioning system using Marray, the crosscorrelation between the observed Marray and the reference Marray is calculated. In this case, when the distance between the object and the camera is varied, the crosscorrelation value fluctuates. This paper investigates the effect of variation of size of Marray on the crosscorrelation values.

A discretetime learning control for robotic manipulators is studied using its pulse transfer function. Firstly, discretetime learning stability condition which is applicable to singleinput twooutputs systems is derived. Secondly, stability of learning algorithm with position signal is studied. In this case, when sampling period is small, the algorithm is not stable because of an unstable zero of the system. Thirdly, stability of algorithm with position and velocity signals is studied. In this case, we can stabilize the learning control system which is unstable in learning with only position signal. Finally, simulation results on the trajectory control of robotic manipulators using the discretetime learning control are shown. This simulation results agree well with the analytical ones.

In this paper a robust control design is developed for the control of a multijoint manipulators using sliding observer. The sliding observer is introduced to estimate the angular velocity of the links under the disturbance input. The feedback control is designed by the use of the estimated value of the angular velocity .theta.. The VSS control laws is introduced to ensure the robustness concerning the disturbance inputs. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a computer simulation is performed for a twojoint manipulator.

The motion of an workpiece to be manipulated is determined by the forces applied to the workpiece. During the contact between the robot hand and the workpiece, impulsive forces may dominate all other forces, and determine the ultimate success or failure of a task. Therefore, one of the important problems in the robot hands is the control of the initial impact force. In this paper, the problem of the force control of robot hand under system with contact force is presented. The principle of energy can be applied in the modelling of the impact force. In order to achieve stable contact and avoid bounces and vibrations, VSS is adopted in the design of the contact force controller. Some simulations are carried out for a pushing operation to control the contact force.

In this paper, an adaptive control method is presented to guarantee the ultimate boundedness of uncertain systems with partially known uncertainty bounds. This method, with a conventional linear compensator, is used to improve the performance of the trajectory tracking of a robotic manipulator with uncertainties. The proposed method is simulated under several different environments, and its performance is compared with the computed torque method. The simulation results show that the proposed method is well suited for highperformance operation of uncertain robotic systems.

All mechanical systems have saturation nonlinearity in actuators or in final control elements. When controllers have integral action, reset windup can cause instability as well as make the system performance unsatisfactory. In this study, an intelligent limiter which needs no tuning of parameters is tested with the PDF controller used for control of a second order plant. This paper presents analysis of the stability of the system using the describing function method and the Nyquist stability theorem. The improvement of the system performance by the limiter is illustrated by computer simulations.

An iterative learning control scheme is incorporated to the computed torque method as a means to enhance the accuracy and the flexibility. A learning rule is constructed by utilizing a gradient descent algorithm and data compressing techniques are illustrated. Computer simulation results show a good performance of the scheme under a relatively high speed and a heavy payload condition.

Neural network control has many innovative potentials for intelligent adaptive control. Among many, it promises real time adaption, robustness, fault tolerance, and selflearning which can be achieved with little or no system models. In this paper, a dynamic robot controller has been developed based on a backpropagation neural network. It gradually learns the robot's dynamic properties through repetitive movements being initially trained with a PD controller. Its control performance has been tested on a simulated PUMA 560 demonstrating fast learning and convergence.


In this paper, the inverse model of a servo system is realized in a PDPtype neural network. The neural network learns the mapping between the input and output of the servo system. Some simulation results show the effectiveness of this inverse model obtained here.

In this paper, we propose a neural network for learning to control semilinear dynamical systems. The network is a composite system of four threelayer backpropagation subnetworks, and is able to control inverted pendulums better than systems based on modern control theory at least in some ranges of parameters. Three of the four subnetworks in our network system process angles, velocities, and positions of a moving inverted pendulum, respectively. The outputs from those three subnetworks are input to the remaining subnetwork that makes control decisions. Each of the four subnetworks learns connection weights independently by backpropagation algorithms. Teaching signals are given by the human operator. Also, input signals are generated by the human operator, but they are converted by preprocessors to actual input data for the three subnetworks except for the network for control decisions. The whole system is implemented on both of 16 bit personal computers and 32 bit workstations. First, we briefly provide the research background and the inverted pendulum problem itself, followed by the description of our composite neural network model. Next, some results from the simulation are given, which are subsequently compared with the results from a control system based on modern control theory. Then, some discussions and conclusion follow.

Three layered neural network was applied for the pattern recognition problem of human spermatozoa in clinical test. The goodness of recognition rate was studied in relation to the number of hidden layer cells and of output layer cells. The proposed method provided better results than conventional template matching technique. Parallel processing of the back propagation learning algorithm was also studied using transputers and its performance was evaluated.

A general dynamic iterative learning control scheme is proposed for a class of nonlinear systems. Relying on stabilizing highgain feedback loop, it is possible to show the existence of Cauchy sequence of feedforward control input error with iteration numbers, which results in a uniform convergance of system state trajectory to the desired one.