제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems (ICROS)
 기타
Domain
 Machinery ＞ Robot/Automated Machinery
1991.10

This paper is concerned with the design of a robust tracking controller using a state observer on a robotic manipulator under the disturbance. The controller is designed to follow a step or ramp reference input without steady state error in the presence of a disturbance and a system parameter variation. In most cases, since all the state vectors are not measured, unmeasurable state vectors must be estimated or reconstructed. A reduced order observer is proposed to estimate unmeasurable state vectors of the nonlinear system. Some problems are caused by the Coulomb friction, the disturbance, and the spring effect of a link between the drive motor and the manipulator arm. The state variables, directly measured and estimated by the reduced order observer, are fed back to the controller. When the robot system exhibits the 'limit cycle, the feedback gains initially obtained by optimal control theory are changed. As a result, the limit cycle is eliminated by the new controller gains,

The adaptive control of flexible joint manipulator is the focus of this paper. The full order flexible joint manipulator dynamic system does not allow the determination of a feedback linearization control as for rigid manipulators. This drawback is overcome by a model order reduction based on a singular perturbation strategy. The full order flexible joint manipulator dynamic model is adopted for derivation of the adaptive control law to damp out the elastic oscillations at the joints. It is shown that the joint position error will converge to zero asymptotically and that other signals remain bounded without precise knowledge of parameters of the manipulator and its joint flexibility.

In this paper, a variable structure system control method is proposed to the trajectory control of robot arm. A proposed method uses nonlinear switching function and saturation function. Furthermore, learning control method uses to decrease of the following error. The computer simulation results show that the chattering and the following error decrease and is improved the control the performance by a proposed method.

We need general developing environment to control robot with effect but less energy. So, software and hardware tools are very important. In this paper, we present a generalpurpose robot control language and its implementation on Real Time O/S and VME bus system. The system runs on the VMEexec Real Time Operating System and robot program is written in the "C" language. The developed program is linked with the robot control C library io produce an executable image. Under the developed robot control environment, the user can write a general highlevel control program leaving all the specific information about the robot in a robot specific file.ific file.

RCCL(Robot Control C Library) is general purpose robot control language. It is programmed with C language and composed of C library. So it is well portable and supports sensor integration control and high level force control algorithms. We implemented RCCL on PUMA. We developed servo controller of DDC(Direct Digital Control). We used intel 8097BH one chip micro controller as CPU. One digital servo board controls three motors. Host computer is IBM PC 386DX33 with RCCL.

The natural frequency of an onelink flexible robot manipulator may be varied due to many kinds of causes and this natural frequency is regarded as the uncertain element. Utilizing measured state the robust controller is designed for bounding every system response within a certain neighborhood of the zero state.

In this paper, we provide a treatment of the
$H^{\infty}$ mixed sensitivity optimization approach to feedback system design. With compromising between the effect of a disturbance at the plant output and the effect of plant perturbations, we propose an algorithm to design robust controller. A$H^{\infty}$ optimization problem is to be equivalent to a Hankelapproximation, this enables the problem to be solved using statespace methods based on balanced realizations.s. 
This paper deals with the design of feedback controllers which minimize the
$H^{\infty}$ norm of the weighted sensitivity function. Using the Lagrange multiplier method and the NevanlinnaPick interpolation theory, an algorithm which stabilizes a plant and makes the output to track the reference signal is proposed.. 
An algorithm of finding a solution to an
$H^{\infty}$ minimization problem is proposed, and the solution is obtained explicity in terms of closedform. We construct an optimal controller subject to the interpolation constraints such that$H^{\infty}$ norm and the minimized value of transfer function matrix are equal.l. 
In this paper, the robust stability, and the quadratic performance of linear uncertain systems are studied. A quadratic Lyapunov function candidate with timevarying matrix is derived to provide robust stability bounds. Also upper bounds of a quadratic performance is given under the assumption that the uncertain system is stable. Both the robust stability bounds and the upper bounds of a quadratic performance are obtained as solutions of a class of modified Lyapunov equations.

This paper presents a method for designing a full state feedback linear static control law. This will stabilize a given linear uncertain system and also guarantee the performance of the system. The uncertain systems are described by state equation which contains uncertain parameters in system and input distribution matrices. The method is based on the guaranteed cost control of Chang and Peng(1972). The controller gain can be obtained by the solution of a algebraic Riccati equation in which the input weighting matrices depend on the uncertainty bounds. The algebraic Riecati equation in this paper is same as that of weighted LQ regulator problem.

In this paper, robust controllers which guarantee the stability and the quadratic performance in the presence of the state and the input matrix uncertainties are presented. Modified quadratic performance indices which include the model uncertainties are proposed for continuous and discrete time linear systems. And it is shown that the solution of the proposed optimal performance problem is the robust controller.

A mixed
$H_{2}$ / H.inf. design methodology is suggested for a singleinputsingleoutput system. Suboptimal$H_{2 }$ controllers stabilizing the closed loop system under the additive uncertainty are obtained. An extended NevanlinnaPick algorithm is used to obtain the suboptimal. controllers.s. 
This paper deals with designing a realtime fault and accommodation system. The LQG controller is adopted in the normal state and the output of LQG controller is corrected using Separated Bias Estimator in the faulty state. The proposed scheme has been applied to the twotank control system and showed satisfactory performance.

This paper presents a merit of feedforward Dyamic Matrix Control(DMC) for electrolyzer process. The electrolyzer consists of anode part and cathode part that are separated by ion membrane. As the electolyzer process consumes a large amount of electricity, electric power change is inevitable in order to take advantage of the cheaper electricity during night. But the electric power change makes the electrolyzer control difficult because the electric power change affect the dynamics of the process. Feedforward DMC treats the electric power change as a load disturbance and gives the weighting value to the disturbance prediction part in the DMC algorithm. Feedforward DC shows better regulation performance than PID control and feedforwardfeedback control for electrolyzer process.

The iterative learning operation has been utilized in the temperature Control of a batch reactor. A generic form of feedbackassisted firstorder learning control scheme was constructed and then various design and operation modes were derived through convergence and robustness analysis in the frequency domain. The proposed learning control scheme was then implemented on a bench scale batch reactor with the heat of reaction simulated by an electric heater. The results show a great improvement in the performance of control as the number of batch operations progressed.

A naphtha reforming process treats the feed naphtha for the production of BTX and high octane gasoline. In this paper, the development of NAFOS (Naphtha Reformer SteadyState Simulator), which is the efficient tool for the wide range of reforming process studies, is presented. NAFOS system is based on the sequential modular approach and composed of unit computation routines, physical properties data base, numerical routines, flowsheet convergence routine and user interfaces for inputoutput control. The developed NAFOS system has been tested by computation of the UOP Platforrming process. Simulation results of NAFOS corresponded with that of established general purpose simulator (ASPEN PLUS), and faster for the same simulation case.

An improved and flexible matrix algorithm for solving interlinked separation problems which is based on the homotopy continuation method has been developed. A flexible model of the interlinked stream in standardized matrix form and JACOBIAN generation I algorithm for homotopy continuation are suggested. Also DOF analysis is performed for easyunderstanding of equation based simulation of complex column systems. The Algorithm is tested on several problems of interlinked separation processes and some of results are documented.

An adaptive predictive control method for SISO and MIMO plants is proposed. In this method, future predictions of process output based on a bilinear CARIMA model are used to calculate the control input. Also, a classical recursive adaptation algorithm, equation error method, is used to decrease the uncertainty of the process model. As a result of the application on distillation process, the ability of the setpoint tracking and the disturbance rejection is acceptable to apply to the industrial distillation processes.

A chemical process model represented by partial differential equations was studied as one of nonlinear distributed parameter control problems. Using an optimal control theory in the form of maximum principles based on nonlinear integral equations, an algorithm to solve the problem was developed and coded into a computer program.

In this paper, an improved method for tracking maneuvering target is proposed. The proposed tracking filter is constructed by combining the input estimation approach with the variable dimension filtering approach. In this approach, the filter also provides the estimated time instant at which target starts maneuver, when the target maneuver is detected. Using this estimated maneuvering time, the maneuver input is estimated and the tracking system changes to the maneuver model. Simulations are performed to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed tracking filter.

An input estimation technique for tracking filter(CHP algorithm) suggested by Y.T. Chan et. al. has bad performance for low maneuvering targets. In this paper, two maneuver detection algorithms are applied to Singer's target model. First, an CHP input estimation technique is applied to 9 state target model. Second, we construct a maneuver detection and correction technique using pseudo acceleration measurements, which are derived directly from measurements. These two filters have good performance for even the low maneuvering targets.

In this paper, we consider the maneuvering detection and target tracking problem in uncertain linear discretetime systems. The maneuvering detection is based on X
$^{2}$ test[2,71, where Kalman filters have been utilized so far. The target tracking is performed by the maneuvering input compensation based on a maximum likelihood estimator. KF has been known to diverge when some modelling errors exist and fail to detect the maneuvering and to track the target in uncertain systems. Thus this paper adopt the FIR filter[l], which is known to be robust to modelling errors, for maneuvering detection and target tracking problem. Various computer simulations show the superior performance of the FIR filter in this problem. 
This paper presents a tracking filter using pseudomeasurements in an estimated lineofsight Cartesian coordinate system(ELCCS) whose xaxis is on the lineofsight to an estimated target position. A target dynamics model and a measurement equation in the ELCCS are derived first and then a tracking filter in the ELCCS named moving coordinate tracking filter(MCTF) is proposed. It is shown that this MCTF is equivalent to a Kalman filter in the inertial Cartesian coordinate system which is widely used in the target tracking system. By approximating the MCTF for a pseudomeasurement noise and an error covariance matrix in the ELCCS, decoupling of three axes can be achieved. In this case, named decoupled moving coordinate tracking filter(DMCTF), computation time can be drastically reduced by utilizing its parallel structure. Finally, the stochastic properties of the MCTF and DMCTF are presented. Especially, a sufficient condition of nondestabilizing deviation for the DMCTF is proposed. The performance of the MCTF and DMCTF are compared with a conventional Kalman tracking filter.

A quantization error model is suggested for analog to frequency(A/F) converter in strapdown inertial navigation system(SDINS),which is characterized by some white noise exciting the state variables. Also, effects on the performance of SDINS by analog to digital(A/D) converter and A/F converter are analyzed and compared via covariance simulation. As a result, A/F converter turns out to be superior to the A/D converter with respect to the induced navigation error and the difficulty in circuit realization. The quantization error model developed in this paper appears to be useful for optimal filter design.

An Overlapping Decomposed Filter(ODF) accomplishing an initial alignment of an INS is proposed in this paper. The proposed filter improves the observable condition and reduces the filtering computation time. Its good performance has been verified by simulation. Completely observable and controllable conditions of INS error model derived from psiangle approach are introduced under varying sensor characteristics vary. The east components of gyro and accelerometer have to be the first order markov process and the rest of them are the characteristics of the random walk or first order markov process.

In order to develope transfer alignment algorithm which achieves accurate initial alignment of slave strapdown inertial navigation system(SDINS) of a missle using master SDINS of mobile launchers thirdorder suboptimal filter is constructed to estimate the transformation matrix between two SDINS coordinates. In Kalman Filter formulation, the measurement equation uses that of accelerometer when stationary, and is replaced by that of gyroscope when elevating the missle. This switching method is applied to increase the degree of observability and to remove the error generated by lever arm effect. Simulation results show that the azimuth transfer error is about 0.3 mrad, and confirm that this scheme has a potential for real application.

In this paper a timeoptimal path planning scheme for the multiple robot manipulators will be proposed by using hopfield neural network. The timeoptimal path planning, which can allow multiple robot system to perform the demanded tasks with a minimum execution time and collision avoidance, may be of consequence to improve the productivity. But most of the methods proposed till now suffers from a significant computational burden and thus limits the online application. One way to avoid such a difficulty is to rearrange the problem as MTSP(Multiple Travelling Salesmen Problem) and then apply the Hopfield network technique, which can allow the parallel computation, to the minimum time problem. This paper proposes an approach for solving the timeoptimal path planning of the multiple robots by using Hopfield neural network. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by computer simulation.

A solution to the problem of robot manipulator tracking of a smoothly moving object is given. It is shown that fuzzy prediction rule, fuzzy control can compensate the adverse effects of noise, time delay, unknown object trajectory, and robot modeling uncertainty. Simulations show that the fuzzy logic control results in acceptable precision,

It is difficult to realize precise control by a fuzzy control scheme alone because control signals are derived from fuzzy inferences. On the other hand, poleplacement control can offer a precise control to a known system. In this paper, a VSC(variable structure control)scheme is proposed, which is an attempt to take merits of poleplacement control and fuzzy control. On the vicinity of the reference point the poleplacement control scheme takes over the role of the fuzzy controller to improve the set point response.

The manipulability ellipsoid and the force ellipsoid for a single robot are extended to the case of a multirobot system. The force ellipsoid is applied to solve the optimal load distribution for the multirobot system. Two cases are considered in solving the optimal load distribution. In one case, there are no constraints on the joint torques, and the analytic solution ;a given. In the other case, the torque constraints are given in terms of the maximum power consumption, and the algorithm for the solution is proposed.

A neural optimization network is proposed to control the redundant robot manipulators in an environment with the obstacle. The weightings of the network are adjusted by considering both the joint dexterity and the capability of collision avoidance of joint differential motion. The fuzzy rules are proposed to determine the capability of collision avoidance of each joint. To show the validities of the proposed method, computer simulation results are illustrated for the redundant robot of the planner type with three degrees of freedom.

In this paper, we present a unified approach for the control of manipulator motions and active forces based on the operational space formulation. The endeffector dynamic model is used in the development of a control system in which the generalized operational space endeffector forces are selected as the command vector. A "generalized position and force specification matrix" is used for the specification of space of motions and forces in which manipulator is to be controlled. Flexibility in the force sensor, endeffector, and environment are discussed.discussed.

This paper will describe the application for variable structure control theory to the first order dynamic system and verify it's robustness. The study on the first order dynamic system control which has been essential part for the control of servo motor (AC, DC) systems has been excluded in the study of variable structure control system(VSCS) because this first order system was not applicable to the previous variable structure control theory. So, for the robustness control of first order dynamic system with variable structure control theory, we propose modified switching function synthesis which guarantees the advantages of conventional VSCS and removes reaching phase which regards as shortcomings in VSCS. And we demonstrate the practical potential of implementation about this theory by simulation results of AC motor variable speed control.

In this paper, we present a method of analising a system with nonlinear parameter by pole sensitivity defined by the rate of pole movement with respect of nonlinear parameter variation. Pole sensitivity give us not only the rate of pole movement but also the directional information. We present a method of design of a state feedback for a system with nonlinear system parameter by considering the pole sensitivity and show that the suggested method guarantee the stability robustness for a system with nonlinear parameter, parameter perturbation and urimodelled dynamics.

LQG/LTR method have a theoretical constraint that it cannot applied to nonminimum phase plant. In this paper, we suggest two methods of approximation of minimum phase plant for a given nonminimum phase plant to solve this constraint. Error is described by additive form which can reduce its magnitude in broad frequency range. A optimal approximation method was suggesetd by using Hankel operator theory and Nehari theory. It is showen by example that the methods suggested can resolve the frequency domain constraint arised in Stein and Athans approximation.

Recently, an output feedback variable structure control scheme(OFVSCS) is proposed to remove the assumption of full state availability and to make the application of VSC scheme to the high order systems with unmeasurable state variables possible. In this paper, a design method of an output feedback variable structure control system (IOFVSCS) that guarantees the invariance of the sliding mode against process parameter variation and external disturbance is proposed. The IOFVSCS is composed of two components; dynamic switching surface driven by measured I/0 informations and switching control input generator driven by switching surface information and measured output, where the two components are constructed by adopting unknown vector modelling approach. The invariance condition for the IOFVSCS is proved to be the same as that of the conventional VSCS. Simulation results show that the IOFVSCS can be designed to have robust properties better than that of the conventional VSCS in spite that the IOFVSCS is driven by small amount of measured information.

In this paper, a linear stocastic dynamic system with norm  bounded plant perpurbations and norm  bounded noise covariarice is studied. Instead of BellmanGronwall inequality used in previous study, Lyapunov stability theorem is used to derive stability condition. The new condition is of more compact form than the previous result.

LQG/LTR method cannot applied to nonminimum phase plant. In this paper, we present a new approximation method which guaratee the approximation error equal to zero and exact loop transfer recovery. Zero structure of plant and approximated plant are considered in approximation procedure. It is shown that the properties of plant and approximated plant at pole and zero frequency response are exactly same. It is shown by example that the suggested method can avoide the NMP plant constraint arised in designing LQG/LTR.

A new model which contains the dynamics of the motor system and the kinematics of the timing belt system is derived for an inverted pendulum system in FAPA Lab. Generalized standard compensator configuration(SCC) which contains the variable design parameters Kl, K2, .., K5 is proposed so that any desired design specification can be achieved. The robust controller which has robust property against the influence of sensor noise, system parameter variation and model uncertainty is designed minimizing the H
$_{\infty}$ norm of transfer function from exogenous input to controlled output. The method of solving the two Riccati equations in state space and determining the controller uses on iteration method where the unique stabilizing solution to two algebraic Riccati equation must be positive definite and the spectral radius of their product less than .gamma.$^{2}$ . Some cases are derived by varying the design parameter for simulation on a digital computer and experimenting the H$_{\infty}$  controller on an analog computer. The design parameters of controller which satisfies the desired control specification is selected on the basis of the simulation result and experimenting. The reasonableness and validity of the simulation and the robustness of the controller is established.d. 
The characteristics of a power plant changes as it operates for a long time and/or for different operating points. As a result, operators must retune gains of the controllers for better performance. In fact, skilled operators can retune the gains in reference to recorded data obtained by a test called dynamic test. The dynamic test, however, requires much time, and can be heavy burden for operators. In this paper, an expert knowledgebased autotuner is designed for drumtype boiler controllers of a fossil power plant using fuzzy logic. The performance of the proposed autotuner is shown via computer simulation and the simulation results show that the proposed autotuner is satisfactory for the desired performance.

A graphic control language using function block diagram approach is designed and implemented, applicable to realtime control for continuous process automation system. The procedure implementing the control language is composed of three parts, editor, compiler, and executer. The editor generates the control algorithm file, which contains function block information in the text form, by menudriven method on the color graphic screen. The compiler translates the contents of the control algorithm file to machine codes and their related data. Then, the executer generates a task that makes the machine codes executed at every sampling period in the target processor. The validity of the concept in its design and implementaion is assured by online simulation in the multifunction controller designed for continuous process automation.

Digital Variable Structure Controller(DVSC) is proposed to control variable speed recirculating pump for hotwater heating control system. In this study, nonlinear sliding line is used beyond output error boundary layer and PID sliding line is used within the layer. For long dead time compensation, constraint is added to Smith predictor algorithm. Steady state error is eliminated by using the proposed sliding line in spite of heating load change. By decreasing sampling time, good sliding motion is yielded but system output noise bv flow dynamics is amplified.

This paper presents an approach to selftuning PI control of dynamic plants, based on fuzzy logic application. A fuzzy logic composed of linguistic conditional statements is employed by defining the relations of inputoutput variables of the controller. In the synthesis of a fuzzy logic controller, one of the most difficult problem is the selection of linguistic control rules and parameters. To overcome this difficulty, selftuning fuzzy PI controller (STFPIC) with a hierarchical structure in which the fuzzy PI controller is assigned as the lower level and the rule modification and parameter adjustment as the higher level. The rules and parameters are generated by the adjustment of membership function through performance index(PE). In this paper, the algorithm for of the controller performance is estimated by means of computer simulation.

A roll eccentricity controller for a tandem cold rolling process is designed to attenuate the outlet thickness deviation due to roll eccentricity. In order to design the controller, the excess stability margin is maximized by solving a standard H.inf. optimization problem under the requirement that ensure disturbance rejection for a class of disturbance. Robust performance of the proposed controller is checked by a computer simulation.

A robust monitor AGC(Automatic Gauge Control) system for a hot strip mill plant of POSCO Is designed by minimizing the H.inf. norm of a so called mixed sensitivity function. In order to solve the mininizatlon problem, a polynomial approach proposed by Kwakernaak[5] is used. The controller performance is tested by a computer simulation under various circumstances.

This paper proposed that the eddycurrent measurement method can be used a means of inprocess measuring the hardening depth in Laser surface treatment process. Also, this paper deal with the numerical analysis of magnetic flux distribution and experimental result of measurement. In Laser heat treatment process of steels, a thin layer of the substrate is rapidly heated to austenitizing temperature and subsequently cooled at a very fast rate due to the selfquenching by heat conduction into the bulk body, to produce a martensite structure which have low magnetic permeability. The eddycurrent measurement method depends on the properties of material to be measured such as electric conductivity, magnetic permeability and geometry. In this paper, the hardening depth was measured by detecting relevant magnetic permeability changes caused by heat treatment of steels.

Optimal configurations for redundant TDOF (Two Degree Of Freedom) sensor systems are proposed. The determinant of error covariance matrix is used as the performance index, and optimal configurations for 2 TDOF sensor system and 3 TDOF sensor system are evaluated by minimizing the index.

In this paper, a new application method of the Kalman filter to desigin a gyro is proposed. The role of a gyro is the estimation of an input rate with minimal error covariance. The size of the error covariance depends on gyro's parameters, which makes it possible to use the parameters of gyro to minimze the estimation error covariance. Numerical analysis shows that the error covariance becomes smaller as the spin axis momentum becomes larger and the damping coefficient smaller, but production cost must be considered. Through numerical analysis the parameter set for an acceptable  performance gyro with small cost can be selected.

Missile and target closing velocity is used in the proportional navigation(PN) missile guidance loop. But it is difficult to estimate the closing velocity when passive seeker is used and only the LineofSight(LOS) rate is available in the guidance loop. In this study, new closing velocity estimation method is developed. This method uses LOS rate measurement only and uses some characteristics of PN guidance law. The Lyapunov method is used to analyze the stability of the developed estimation method.

The development of a guided weapon system, such as a tactical missile, requires a performance analysis of a nonlinear system. Generally, the Monte Carlo analysis method is used for this purpose. The limitation of this method, a large number of simulations, for a nonlinear system performance analysis strongly motivated the development of a more efficient analytic technique. In this paper, the statisfical linearization methods is used for the performance analysis to the guided weapon system with the help of covariance analysis technique. Because the statistical linearization methods cannot be used to the lookup table nonlinear form such as aerodynamic coefficients, the second order polynomial representations is obtained from the table using the Lagrange interpolating polynomial and linearized statistically. Simple simulations about initial state conditions and random component in guidance command shows the results of this technique.

Neural network control has many innovative potentials for fast, accurate and intelligent adaptive control. In this paper, a learning control architecture for the dynamic control of a robot manipulator is developed using inverse dynamic neurocontroller and linear neurocontroher. The inverse dynamic neurocontrouer consists of a MLP (multilayer perceptron) and the linear neurocontroller consists of SLPs (single layer perceptron). Compared with the previous type of neurocontroller which is using an inverse dynamic neurocontroller and a fixed PD gain controller, proposed architecture shows the superior performance over the previous type of neurocontroller because linear neurocontroller can adapt its gain according to the applied task. This superior performance is tested and verified through the control of PUMA 560. Without any knowledge on the dynamic model, its parameters of a robot , (The robot is treated as a complete black box), the neurocontroller, through practice, gradually and implicitly learns the robot's dynamic properties which is essential for fast and accurate control.

This paper discusses sliding made control of robot manipurators assuming that nonlinear terms, which are inertia term, Coriolis force term and centrifugal taffn, are external disturbances. We obtained the unknown parameter of its linear terms by Signal Compression Method. We propose a new control input algorithm to decrease chattering in the application of sliding mode control of manipulator whose nonlinear components are regarded as disturbances. In this experiments, we used DSP(Digital Signal Processor) controller to suppress chattering by obtaining a quick switching speed.

A new 6axis robot controller with a highspeed 32bit floatingpoint DSP TMS32OC30 has been developed in Samsung Electronics. The controller composed of Intel 80386 microprocessor for the main controller, and TKS32OC30 DSP chip for joint position controller. The characteristics of the controller are high sampling rate of 200us and fast reponsibility. The main controller supports MSDOS, kinematics, trajectory planning, and sensor fusion functions which are vision, PLC, and MAP. The one high speed DSP chip is used for controlling 6 axes of a robot in 200us simultaneously. The control law applied is PID controller including a velocity feedforvard in joint position controller. The performance tests, such as command following, CP, were conducted for the controller integrated with a 6 axes robot developed in Samsung Electronics. The results showed a good performance. This controller can also perform the system control with other controllers, the communication with high priority controllers, and visual information processing.

A novel approach based on a nonlinear compensator is proposed to prevent 'windup', which is caused by the saturation of the actuator and the integration action of the controller. The antiwindup compensator is located between the conventional linear controller, designed neglecting the saturation, and the actuator. It was proven based on the describing function method that, if the closed loop control systems are stable assuming no saturation, then there exist a range of compensator gain which prevents any limitcycle and hence, guarantees the system stability. The computer simulation results show that the compensator proposed in the manuscript can eliminate unstable limit cycle and improve the transient response.

In industrial multivariable plants, it is often the case that the plant outputs are detected in a similar components not simultaneously but serially. In this paper, the problem of estimating the state vector of the plant based on the data obtained from such a detecting scheme is considered, and a special type of observer (referred to as a "multiple serialsampling" type observer) which renews its internal states whenever a new group of data is obtained is proposed. It is proved that such an observer can be constructed for almost every sampling period if the plant is observable as a continuoustime multivariable system, and that the poles of the closedloop system using the serialsampling type observer consist of the poles of the observer and those of the state feedback system. The behaviors of the observer and the closedloop system are studied by simulation. The results of simulation indicate that a multiple serialsampling type observer can estimate the state of the plant more accurately than the ordinary type observers and improve the closedloop performance, especially, in the existence of dectecting noise.ing noise.

This paper deals with designing the PID autotuner. The system parameters are identified using the relay control, where the unidirectional relay with hysteresis is adopted. The digital PID tuning rule on Nyquist plot is derived, and the statistical wordlength is adopted for the coefficient wordlength. The experimental results of temperature control exhibit the satisfactory performance and the validity of the derived statistical wordlength.

In recent years, the discretedata and digital control systems have gained importance in all industies due in part to the advances made in microcomputers, as well as the advantages found in working with digital signals. So, the developments of the computer aided design packages to analysis, control law design and digital implementation of control systems are increasingly needed and those substantial technological improvements are now expected. In the paper, a real time control program package(RTCPP) for the implementation of digital control is developed by using C language. The digital controls for the feedfoward and feedback controllers such as PI(propotional and Integration) type, regulator and servo types can be implemented by an IBM PC compatible computer with some interface modules of AD/DA converter and RS232C. The effectiveness of RTCPP is illustrated by the application controls for motor and magnetic levitation systems.

A real time process control package was developed in an INTEL 80386 based PC and MS OS/2 environment using MSC and MSFORTRAN. RTACS(Real Time Advanced Control System), process control computer software for distributed or centralized architectures, is a package which meets functional requirements specified for typical continuous process applications like chemical processes. The package consists of 5 parts, which are DB(data base), OCF(Operator Console Functions), CL (Control logic Library), MSM(Multitasking and Scheduling, Manager) and UAI(User Applications Interface), based upon a table and function block architecture to improve the system performance.

This paper deals with the network schemes of the home appliance using the CEBus. Protocol schemes which are based on the OSI 7layer and CAL application were described. And also it was adapted for microwave oven as case study. As a result, it is shown that it operates well under CEBus protocol with only power line media.

Network management is responsible for gathering information on the usage of the network media by the network devices, ensuring the correct operation of the network, and providing reports. MAP network management must provide the high reliability of the media and signaling method, even in very harsh environments, providing a very low bit error rate and minimum number of retransmission. In this paper, we analysed the framework of OSI management and MAP network management and discussed the implementation method of fault management and remote management mechanism in the MiniMAP controller developed for IBMPC.

Fieldbus is a low level serial digital network which will be used for factory automation. This paper describes lower layer implementation of a Fieldbus network interface. Physical layer provides hardware interface between IBMPC and Fieldbus. Also, physical layer uses manchester coding, shielded twisted pair lines and RS485 electrical standard. Data link layer includes Intel's iDCX96 real time executive for 8797 one chip microcontroller and Fieldbus data link protocol software.

산업공정현장에서는 독립적으로 운영되고 있는 프로그램식 단위제어기기들에 대한 연계운영을 위하여 실시간 처리 소규모 네트워크가 도입되어 구축운영되고 있다. 특히 제조생산공정에서는 계층화된 분산 구조로서 공정정보처리를 위하여 공장환경에 적절한 네트워크 구축을 MAP등의 표준화된 규격에 의하여 권고되고 구현되어 운영되고 있다. 본 논문에서는 공장 환경에서의 표준규격으로 제안된 Mini MAP을 기준으로 하여 물리 및 데이타 링크계층을 Petrinet 기법을 활용하여 실시간 처리를 위한 개선된 모델을 제안하고 네트워크의 성능측정 및 시뮬레이션을 수행하였다. 또한 이 모델에 의하여 토큰버스 네트워크를 구성하여 전송 서비스시간과 메세지 처리율을 분석하고 Mini MAP 규격과 함께 성능을 해석하였다.

We propose a real time kernel chimera implemented under AT&T UNIX motorola versoin, Carnegie Mellon Univ. in U.S first developed chimera using SUN Worstation with Berkley UNIX based on VMEbus. The major differences between Canegie Mellon's and ours are downloading program and communication method between host and target. Original chimera used device driver but we used UNIX system call corresponding to shared memory when user downloads program and communicates. We modified kernel itself because the two different UNIX have different link editor.

MAP is a standard communication protocol for manufactoring automation. In this paper we implemented IEEE 802.2 LLC class 3 protocol, which consist of type l(unacknowledged connecionless data transfer) mode and type 3 (acknowledged connectionless data transfer) mode. This implemented protocol is verified by the test.

A method of autopilot gainscheduling is presented for missiles which have heavy aerodynamic coupling between pitch and yaw channels due to high maneuverability. Pitch and yaw, autopilot are crosscoupled, and their feedback gains are scheduled by total acceleration and bank angle for given Mach number and height. Bank angle information is obtained by using a simple estimator. By computer simulation, it is shown that the proposed method is superior to other existing methods.

A ground and airborne control system for remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) is described. 1) Ground control system 2) airborne control system 3) the method of measuring aircraft attitude and heading 4) autopilot 5) the method of treating emergency status 6) the method of transmitting and receiving communication data 7) the method of displaying aircraft status 8) the characteristics of the aircraft control system are discussed in some detail.

There are many kinds of drift source in angular velocity feedback stabilization system. We discussed and analyzed the source of drift, and suggest the drift compensation method for null drift system. In this paper, the performance of drift compensators is tested and proved by real 2 axis mirror stabilization system and computer simulation.

The purpose of this paper is the design of a controller of electric actuator for high speed underwater vehicle which is robust against hydro load torque. For this purpose, we design the controller of PD & VSC control schemes. Under proper assumption of the hydro load torque, the tracking performances of these schemes are analyzed through the computer simulation, and the results are presented.

In the analysis of constrained holonomic systems, the Lagange multiplier method yields a system of secondorder ordinary differential equations of motion and algebraic constraint equations. Conventional holonomic or nonholonomic constraints are defined as geometric constraints in this paper. Previous works concentrate on the geometric constraints. However, if the total energy of a dynamic system can be computed from the initial energy plus the time integral of the energy input rate due to external or internal forces, then the total energy can be artificially treated as a constraint. The violation of the total energy constraint due to numerical errors can be used as information to control these errors. It is a necessary condition for accurate simulation that both geometric and energy constraints be satisfied. When geometric constraint control is combined with energy constraint control, numerical simulation of a constrained dynamic system becomes more accurate. A new convenient and effective method to implement energy constraint control in numerical simulation is developed based on the geometric interpretation of the relation between constraints in the phase space. Several combinations of energy constraint control with either Baumgarte's Constraint Violation Stabilization Method (CVSM) are also addressed.

This paper analizes two numerical integration methods, both based on the Runge Kutta 4th order formula for deterministic systems, for digital simulation of a differential equation driven by white noise. It is shown that a "standard' Runge Kutta method for stochasitic systems yields solutions of Stratonovich differential equations, while Riggs and Phillips' method results in solutions of Ito differential equations. Therefore the white noise differential equation must be converted into the equivalent Ito equation before the latter method is used. Digital simulation results for a simple differential equation are also presented.nted.

The surfacetoair missile system using Command to LineOfSight (CLOS) guidance law is represented by complex nonlinear differential equations with 6 degreeoffreedom. This paper presents the characterictics of missile system and the effect of various error sources by MonteCarlo simulation method. By simulation the part of playing a main role in the surfacetoair missile system is radar. Therefore for the performance of missile system the development of the technique reducing the error of radar is required. And the effect of accelerometer error is a few large, too. But, because accelerometer costs cheap this problem is solved easily. And the main error source of missile system data is the thrust, which affects directly to acceleration. The result is the important information about designing and fabricating missile system. And this makes the missile system best because of sharing elaborate and expense effectively.

In spinning satellite, a gyrotorquer generates a control torquer along two orthogonal axes normal to the spin axis of the vehicle. Matrix Fraction Description(MFD) are used to obtain minimal realization of the transfer matrix relating the attitude angles and the rate of rotation of the gimbals of gyrotorquer. In this paper, the Linear Quadratic Gaussian with Loop Transfer Recovery and H.meihodologies are used to design controller for spinning satellite.

An integrated control design and modeling method of multibody space structures is presented as a tool to control an d describe the large rotational motions of the space structures. The structures representeed with three separated substructures have independent control systems but linked with joints interacting the dynamic motions of the substructures. The effect of the structural flexibility to the control performance was analyzed and the simulation results showed that effectiveness of the designed control logic in controlling the motions of the multibody space structures.

Two methods are applied to the problem of trajectory optimization for launch vehicles which burn solid propellant. One is 'Optimal Control' theory, the other is 'NonLinear Programming' method. Trajectory optimization for solid rocket motors has a special problem. The special problem is that the payload of launch vehicle is not the function of control variable. This paper deals with this special problem.

In this paper, a fuel minimizing closed loop explicit inertial guidance algorithm for the orbit injection of a rocket is developed. In this formulation, the fuel burning rate and magnitude of thrust are assumed constant, and the motion of a rocket is assumed to be subject to the average inversesquare gravity, but with negligible atmospheric effects. The optimum thrust angle for obtaining the given velocity vector in the shortest time with minimizing fuel consumption is first determined, and then the additive thrust angle for targeting the final position vectors is determined by using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle. To establish the real time processing, many algorithms of the onboard guidance software are simplified. Simulations for the explicit guidance algorithm, for the 2ndstage flight of the N1 rocket, are carried out. The results show that the guidance algorithm works well in the presence of the maximum .+.10 % initial velocity and altitude error. The effects of the guidance cycle time is also examined.

For satellite orbit determination, a satellite (K3H) which is affected by the earth's gravitational field and the earth's atmospheric drag, the sun, and the moon is chosen as a dynamic model. The state vector include orbit parameters, uncertain parameters associated with perturbations and tracking stations. These perturbations include gravitational constant, atmospheric drag, and jonal harmonics due to the earth nonsphericity. Early orbit was obtained with given the predicted orbital parameter of the satellite. And orbit determination, which is applied to Extended Kalman Filter(EKF) for real time implementation , use the observation data which is given by satellite tracking radar system and then orbit estimation is accomplished. As a result, extended sequential estimation algorithm has a fast convergence and also indicate effectiveness for real time operation.

A robust H
$_{\infty}$ control design methodology and its application to a Space Station attitude and momentum control problem are presented. This new approach incorporates nonlinear multiparameter variations in the statespace formulation of H$_{\infty}$ control theory. An application of this robust H$_{\infty}$ control synthesis technique to the Space Station control problem yields a remarkable result in stability robustness with respect to the momentsofinertia variation of about 73% in one of the structured uncertainty directions. The performance and stability of this new robust H$_{\infty}$ controller for the Space Station are compared to those of other controllers designed using a standard linearquadraticregulator synthesis technique.que. 
In the physical system, if we can precisely control an acceleration and force, we can improve the performance of their integral values, velocity and position. From this point of view, in this paper we try to use an obverser which is constructed by using Variable Structure System for estimating the acceleration in the system with the bounded unknown disturbance and the parameter mismatching. To obtain the robust control performance, the VSS with sliding mode is adopted in the design of the servo controller.

PID controller is popular but have defect inversing following reference input and noise elimination. Therefor, this paper focus on reducing rise time and robustness against noise. The result that is simulated with feedforward method and sliding mode show that rise time decrease and robustness increase.

A robust position control scheme for DC Motor is proposed based on Fuzzy Acceleration Control. Proposed control system has the similar structure that Y. Hori proposed. But the PI type acceleration controller of it is replaced by Fuzzy Logic Controller(FLC) which is known to be robust to the operating point and parameter variations. By the simulation study for a real DC Motor, we have slowed the superiority to the continuous PI acceleration controller in the view point of robustness to the operating point and parameter variations.

Recently, digital techniques have been applied to servo systems of the home VCR, which result in high accuracy, high stability and a small number of parts required. The servo systems are now becoming more compex because the latest home VCRs are stringly required to have many functions. Given these circumstances, software servo concepts were introduced to the VCR servo system with microprocessor. But there are some difficulties in the conventional digital PID controller, eg. caculating the exact gains or dynamics. In this paper, we introduce FLC(Fuzzy Logic Controller) to the speed/phase control for VCR drum motor. To show the usefulness of the proposed controller, some studies are discussed by simulation and experiment.

A continuous variable structure system control as a DC servomotor trackhig controller is proposed for the improvement of the chattering problems. The stability property of the proposed algorithms is analyzed. The prescribed trackfiig error is gauranteed in the existence of load variations based on the stability analysis.

The variablefrequency type water supply equipment, which adopts the variablevoltage and variablefrequency converter(VVVF converter) to govern automatically the rotating speed of a pump, can save 1520% of power, as compared with a throttlecontrolled pump device or an airpressurized water supply equipment, and is finding a wide application. However, it still has some disadvantages : greater pressure fluctuations during switching over the pump and prolonged loweffeciency running of the pump in the case of small consumption of water. Therefore, it is difficult to apply the equipment to the fire water supply system where the water should not be put into use unless a fire takes place, and the water pressure in pipelines should permanently remain constant. This paper introduces the automatic regulation principle of the variablefrequency type airpressurized water supply equipment (hereafter referred to as simply BFQS equipment) for dual purposes of daily life and fire control, which combined both technologies of speed governing by a converter and airpressurized water supplying, then discusses some problems related to automatic control, and finally gives the experimental results of an embodimentBPQS10050 water supply equipment.

Exact perturbation analysis technique and optimal buffer storage design for tandem queueing networksIn this paper, we suggest the exact perturbation analysis(Exact_PA) technique with respect to the buffer storage in tandem queueing networks, through which the optimal buffer storage design problem is considered. The discrete event dynamic equations for the departure time of a customer are presented together with the basic properties of Full Out(FO) and No Input(NI) with respect to the buffer storage. The new perturbation rules with respect to the buffer storage are suggested, from which the exact perturbed path can be obtained. The optimal buffer storage problem is presented by introducing a performance measure consisting of the throughput and the buffer storage cost. An optimization algorithm maximizing this performance measure is derived by using the Exact_PA technique. The proposed perturbation analysis technique and the optimization algorithm are validated by numerical examples.

This paper investigates the relationship between the two problems, supervisor reduction and observation function (projection) design, which arise in supervisory control of DEDS. It is shown through an example that a reduced supervisor of minimal size does not necessarily result in a maximal projection when a projection design method which uses the transition structure of a supervisor is applied. Also, if an Lrealizable projection P is available and if a supervisor has a special structural feature, a cover C for supervisor reduction can be easily obtained. By investigating the controlcompatibility of states of the reduced supervisor based on C, we can also check maximality of P in a simple manner.

The scheduling algorithm based on the hierarchical scheduling policy is presented for the Job Shop type FMC control, and the simulation results using this hierarchical scheduling policy are with the results which are based on the heuristic scheduling policy. The results show that the hierarchical ling policy is more efficient than the heuristic scheduling policy in either case that there exist machine failures in the FMC or not.

This paper deals with modeling and scheduling for flexible manufacturing systems(FMS). In modeling extended Petri nets are used to describe various and complex properties. To resolve multiple conflict without predefined properties, such as part selection, machine selection, rulebased scheduling method is introduced. This structure have a capability of online scheduling with systematic modeling description.

A problem of analysis and design of asymptotically reliable serial production systems, closed with respect to the number of carriers that transport parts between operations, is addressed. A case study of a paint shop operation at a modern automobile assembly plant is described. The results obtained indicate that optimization of the system with respect to the number of carriers available and the capacity of the feedback buffer leads to a substantial improvement in the production rate.

This paper presents a framework of a optimal supervisory controller, which consists of decision rules and the supervisory controller proposed by Ramadge and Wonham. From the presented framwork we obtain optimal control patterns minimizing the given cost functions. The properties of the presented optimal supervisory controller are discussed. Two examples are given to illustrate a designing method of the optimal supervisory controller.

SAMSUNG Electronics has developed a SCAR.A robot system, SM3, which is applicable to several assembly, inspection, and adjustment tasks. This robot system drives by AC servo motors has attained a .theta.1 and .theta.2 axis maximum composite speed of 5.4 m/sec, a repeatability of .+.05 mm, and a cycle time of 1.2 sea. The robot controller based on three 8086 and one 8087 processors consists of the main controller, the joint position controller, and the motor controller. The robot controller has plentiful selfdiagnosis and control capabilities, and can be interfaced to other external device. The robot language FARAL Is designed such that every task is easily programmed. In this paper, the main features of the body, controller, and FARAL of SM3 will be described. In particular, the control method designed for a stable and fast robot motion will be explained. Finally, the future development will be addressed.

A new endeffector has been devised and the problems resulted from using it with SCARA robots are discussed. The end effector has two modules: one composed of two ultrasonic motors and two encoders for controlling each finger, and the other module composed of two ultrasonic motors and two encoders for controlling the wrist. The wrist module adds two degrees of freedom to the SCARA type robot, which generally has four degrees of freedom. With independent finger actuation and touch sensors, the gripper under computer control can feedback information about part size and part presence. Ultrasonic motors with high torque and slow motion characteristics are used. The principle of ultrasonic motors is explained and the servo characteristics of ultrasonic motors are studied. They are controlled by the general motion controller (Hewlett Packard HCTL1000) which is linked to an IBMPC AT.

In this paper, robot's grasping poses are classified into three cases, and force/torque information in each grasping pose is analyzed. In the grasping process, error between the desired and the actual grasping poses can be generated because of uncertainty in the environment. A systematic algorithm is presented, that uses the force/torque information generated by grasping pose error to estimate robot's actual grasping pose.

A rubber pneumatic controlled actuator is a new actuator. It is very light With a high powertoweight ratio. In this thesis, a control method for a two link robot arm using the rubber actuator is developed. The structure of the servo control is made up of two sections. The position control is performed by PID feedback control. The air pressure is controlled by Servo Valve Unit driven by PWM and the control input is compensated by software operation. The numerical simulation of this control method to two link robot arm is presented to verify the performance of the closed loop system. The actual control of the real two link robot arm with rubber actuator is taken and its results are discussed.

Having very small linear displacement, piezoelectric actuators have been restricted in robotic application as positioning devices. In this paper, a mechanical amplifier was developed to enhance the displacement of piezoelectric actuator and the corresponding driving circuit was designed. This equipment was integrated as a robotic wrist having 2 D.O.F micropositioning capability. Each joint was analysed in mechanical and dynamic view points. Experimental result showed that this device has Some hysteresis but could be used as vibratory robotic wrist with relatively high frequency. For more fine positioning control, a closed loop approach must be taken into account.

In the design and operation of robot arms with flexible links, the equations of motion are required to exactly model the interaction between rigid motion and elastic motion and to be formulated efficiently. Thus, the flexible link is represented on the basis of the DH rigid link representation to measure the elastic deformation. The equations of motion of robot arms, which are configured by the generalized coordinates of elastic and rigid degrees of freedom, are formulated by using F.E.M. to model complex shaped links systematically and by eliminating elastic mode of higher order that does not largely affect motion to reduce the number of elastic degree of freedom. Finally, presented is the result of simulation to flexible robotic arm whose joints are controlled by direct or PD control,

In order to verify robot motions for a desired work, it is necessary to visualize it on a computer screen. This paper presents a simulation algorithm for robot manipulator motion. Kinematic description is based on the Denavit Hartenberg link representation. In order to be applied to various types of the robot manipulator, inverse kinematics make use of the NewtonRaphson iterative method with the least squares method. Joint variables are interpolated by the lowest polynomial segment satisfying acceleration continuity. The robot motions are generated and then animated on a computer screen in the form of skeleton type.

Recently, the use of robots for painting operations has received much attention, as it is a powerful means for automation and quality improvement. Collisionavoidance is a key issue in the path planning for painting operations. In this paper, we develop a computationally efficient algorithm for the generation of collisionfree path for two types of motion: a) Gross motion when the robot approaches the painting area, and b) Fine motion while spraying the surface. The former is a typical collisionavoidance problem, but the latter calls for special attention as the painting mechanics has to be incorporated into path planning. The developed algorithm is applied for the internal coating of the car body whose structure is the major source of collision.

This paper deal with the solution of kinematics and inverse kinematics of industrial FANUC robot by the bisection method with IBM PC 386. The inverse kinematics of FANUC robot cannot be solved by the algebraical method, because arm matrix T
$_{6}$ is very complex and 6joint angles are associated with the position and the approach of endeffector. Instead we found other 5joint angle by an algebraical method after finding .theta.$_{4}$ value by a bisection method.d. 
In this paper, we present new methods for solving the inverse kinematics associated with 6 degree of freedoms manipulator by the numerical method. This method will be based on tracking stability of special nonlinear dynamical systems, and differs from the typical techniques based by the NewtonGauss or NewtonRaphson method for solving nonlinear equations. This simulation results show that the new method is solving the inverse kinematics of PUMA 560 without the derivative of a given task space trajectories.

This paper discusses the possibility of applying fuzzy logic controller in a microprocessor  based servomotor controller, such as servomotor position controller, which requires faster and more accurate response compared with other industrial processes. According to the fuzzy control rule made by tie analysis of error and error change, one Lookup table that contains various quantized step is made and appropriate initial error change is selected to the good responses.

This paper proposes an algorithm of fuzzy model modification which improves fuzzy relation matrix for multiinput/single output dynamic systems. Zadeh's possibility distribution plays an important role in the proposed algorithm and in the use of fuzzy models which are constructed by the proposed algorithm. The required computer capacity and time for implementing the proposed algorithm and resulting models are significantly reduced by introducing the concept of the referential fuzzy sets. A nonlinear system is given to show that the proposed algorithm can provide the fuzzy model with satisfactory accuracy.

A stability analysis technique has been proposed for linear SISO system associated with fuzzy logic controller. An analysis technique using the concept of wellknown sector bound nonlinearity and its graphical interpretation, i.e., the circle criterion, is presented. Thus the use of classical Nyquist locus and the BODE diagram is brought into the picture. The aim of this present note is to represent a graphical approach based on sector bound nonlinearity and circle criterion for assessing the performance(degree of stability) of the linear SISO system associated with fuzzy logic controller. The degree of stability of the system is defined in terms of its gain and phase margins as defined in Section 3.

A fuzzy logic controller with rule modification capability is proposed to overcome the difficulty of obtaining control rules from the human operators. This new SOC algorithm modifies control rules by a fuzzy inference machine utilizing data base. Computer simulation results show good performances on both a linear system and a nonlinear system.

This paper presents a fuzzy adaptive controller which can improve the control policy automatically. Adaptation is achieved by the addition of online identification of the fuzzy inverse model using inputoutput data pairs of the process. Starting with an initial crude control rule, the adaptive controller matches the model to the process to selftune the controller. The control algorithm needs much less memory of computer than other SOC algorithms.

This paper proposes a compliance robot control algorithm using fuzzy adaptive controller and fuzzy compliance vector generator. In the compliance robot control, we need more adaptivity because the linear modeling in robot dynamics is getting more difficult by contact with external environment. Existing adapitive controllers have difficulty in realtime processing. So in order to overcome it, We adopt fuzzy adaptive controller and propose fuzzy compliance vector generator for flexible compliant motion. We analyze and confirm the proposed algorithm by surface processing experiment with a control system implemented by VME system.

Group Technology (GT) is a technique for identifying and bringing together related or similar components in a production process in order to take advantage of their similarities by making use of, for example, the inherent economies of flow production methods. The process of identification, from large variety and total of components, of the part families requiring similar manufacturing operations and forming the associated groups of machines is referred as 'machinecomponent grouping'. First part of this paper is devoted to describing a hierarchical divisive algorithm based on graph theory to find the natural part families. The objective is to form components into part families such that the degree of interrelations is high among components within the same part family and low between components of different part families. Second part of this paper focuses on establishing cell design procedures. The aim is to create cells in which the most expensive and important machinescalled key machine  have a reasonably high utilization and the machines should be allocated to minimize the intercell movement of machine loads. To fulfil the above objectives, 01 integer programming model is developed and the solution procedures are found. Next an attempt is made to test the feasibility of the proposed method. Several different problems appearing in the literature are chosen and the results air briefly showed.

A competitive automated manufacturing system integrates the various control processes and data used in service of products. design, manufacturing, and, sale. CIM is a way to achieve such integration through computers and computational techniques in manufacturing, planning, and design. Developing effective CIM architectures is hampered by integration problems. The key to resolving these problems lies in a better understanding of manufacturing function and how it is related to other manufacturing functions. Integration of CIM environment requires coordinated solutions to data management problems for individual application system as well as for exchange of data between these applications. This requires a common framework for data management throughout the CIM environment. This paper discusses the design paradigm as a framework for this purpose. Designing an organizational structure to meet those goals invloves 1) analyzing the functions through functional decomposition, 2) developing a data model to coordinate functions. As a result, we propose an objectoriented design methodology for manufacturing information system.

In this paper an approximate solution method for the largescale Traveling Salesman Problem(TSP) is presented. The method start with the subdivision of the problem domain into a number of clusters by considering their geometries. The clusters have limited number of nodes so as to get local solutions. They are linked to give the least path which covers the whole domain and become TSPs with start and endnode. The approximate local solutions in each cluster are obtained by using geometrical property of the cluster, and combined to give an overallapproximate solution for the largescale TSP.

A relay is the one of small electrical components for automobiles and used for industry widely. We have developed the automation system for relay assembly and test to make it improve the productivity and decrease the man power. In order to determine the objective process of automation, we investigated 6 small and medium sizedenterprises and 1 greate sizedenterprise producing relays. And, we selected 2 model enterprises of them. One of the two is the system to develop. The scope of our study is the analyse of the conventional workcell, the determination of the system specification, the design of the system layout, the determination of the system cycle time, the design of the system mechanism, and the development of the controller for the system. We think that the developed system may be solve the technical and the economical problems interrupted efficiential automation of domastic small and medium sizedenterprises, and improve the international competitive power.

Hydrodynamic coefficients identification of underwater vehicle by means of an extended kalman filterA technique for estimation of the hydrodynamic parameter of an underwater vehicle is presented. An extended, augmented Kalman Filter is used to extract the hydrodynamic parameter. Computer generated data were used for the measurement information in lieu of actual run data. The feasibility of identifying values of the hydrodynamic parameter of an underwater vehicle is studied. Computer simulation are done in order to validate the performance of the proposed algorithm.

This paper describes the design of fuzzy logic controller for underwater vehicle actuator with high hydroload torque disturbance. For realtime processing of the fuzzy rule, the lookup tables including coarse mode and fine mode are used instead of inference engine process. Computer simulations are done in order to analyze the performance of the proposed algorithm and the very useful results are shown to us by comparing with the existing controller.

For a Stationary movingtarget. the design technique of guidance system for underwater vehicle with a seeker of st type is developed. Using perturbation theory, a new method which linearizes the nonlinear intercept geometry is proposed. On the basis of the linearized system modeling, LQ and PID design technique is used to determine the structure and gain of the guidance system. Some simulation results applied underwater engagement are represented to show that the proposed guidance law is superior to the other guidance laws as pursuit, BangBeng, PN APN.

Load Variation effects on the system driving performance. Therefore, this paper presents as a application example of Antiwindup method using general incremental form for a gun servo system of load variation involved. Also, this method can be easily implemented compared to gain scheduling technique.

This paper describes the auto depth control system for underwater vehicle that can be used for both near surface and deeply submerged depthkeeping operations. This controller uses the fuzzy control algorithm and is implemented on the 16 bit microprocessor 8086 and coprocessor 8087. For verifying this system design, the digital simulator using PC386 based T800 transputer is protototyped and the real time simulations show us satisfactory results.

One of the most difficult problems in depth control for underwater vehicle is the effect of seaway disturbance. When a underwater vehicle operates in a near surface environment, the seaway generates essentially two types of stochastic disturbances that influence the boat notion. One component of the seaway forces is of large magnitude with a relatively narrowband, first order component. The other component is generally of somewhat smaller magnitude, second order component. Since the magnitude of the first order component is generally such greater than the compensating force that can be generating by the planes, it is undesirable for the controller to generate a control command. In this paper, we used LPC(Linear Predictive Coding) processing to uncontrollable seaway disturbance. This method can be used extensively in sensor signal processing of underwater vehicles.

This paper presents the results of research on hardware and software of the landmark tracking system to the positions of moving robot in real time. The landmark tracking system is composed of CCD camera, landmark, strobo system and image processing board. The algorithm calculates the position and direction by using the coordinate transformation fomula after calculating the centroid and rotation angle of landmark at fixed position using the image data. The experiment is performed with landmark tracking system is loaded on xyztable. XYZtable is used for identifying the true position in our experiment. The results shows that this system has high performance with maxima error of .+.1 pixels.

무인차량(ALV)이 옥외 주행시 자신의 위치를 알아내는 방법으로써 카메라 를 통한 입력 영상과 자신이 보유하고 있는 지도 정보를 이용하는 방법에 대하여 연구하였다. 이를 위하여 본 연구에서는 지도정보를 컴퓨터에 효율적 으로 표현하는 방법과 이 정보를 이용하여 필요한 투시도를 생성 시켜주는 "CADMAP" 시스템을 구현하였고 이를 이용하여 ALV의 위치를 계산하는 방법을 개발하였다. 개발된 방법의 유효성은 컴퓨터 모의실험을 통하여 검증 해 보였고, 실제 영상에 적용할 때 영상이 가지는 여러 가지 노이즈를 감안 위치 계산의 정확도를 높일 수 있는 방법에 대해서도 연구하였다.

Up to date, application areas of mobile robots have been expanded. In addition, Many types of LRF(Laser Range Finder) systems have been developed to acquire three dimensional information about unknown environments. However in real world, because of various noises (sunlight, fluorescent light), it is difficult to separate reflected laser light from these noise. To overcome the previous restriction, we have developed a new type vision system which enables a mobile robot to measure the distance to a object located 15 (m) ahead with an error than 2%. The separation and detection algorithm used in this system consists of pulse phase difference method and multistripe structured light. The effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed vision system are demonstrated by 3D maps of detected objects and computation time analysis.

In this paper, a realtime obstacle avoidance for mobile robot based on the readings of the ultrasonic sensors is presented. The twenty eight ultrasonic sensors are arranged in ring and controlled by microprocessor. The readings of the ultrasonic sensor is converted into the virtual forces called repulsive forces, which are the elastic and damping forces. Then, the direction and speed of mobile robot in the cluttered environment are determined by the virtual forces. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified from a series of simulation studies.

In order to navigate, mobile robot needs to avoid obstacles on his way. We describe a stereo vision method for detecting obstacles on the floor ground. With the knowledge of floor geometry, stereo images are transformed so that the relative views of obstacle to the floor are seen. After comparing the transformed images, obstacles information such as location and size are extracted and determined from the local disparities. Some experimental results are shown.

Based on process analysis as well as extensive operation experience, two fuzzy expert control algorithms, for startup and control, are proposed for a supercritical fluid extraction process which has high interacting multivariable structure. In the proposed algorithms, a new simple defuzzification method which only requires four fundamental arithmetic rules is also presented. Through numerical simulations, control performance using the proposed control algorithm is compared with that of a different fuzzy algorithm by an other researcher and that of conventional PIDtype controllers which are tuned by wellknown optimal criteria. Also, the proposed control algorithm has been tested to the bench scale supercritical fluid extraction process. As a consequence, the proposed fuzzy expert controller has shown fast and robust control performance while the other controllers show sluggish and/or highly oscillatory responses.

This paper proposes fuzzy control algorithms for a DC moter speed control. The proposed algorithms are constructed by the fuzzy controller and the fuzzy compensator. The fuzzy compensator used to overcome rapidly the effects caused by the disturbance and is mounted outside of the closed loop of the fuzzy controller. The fuzzy control rules are established from human operator experience and basic engineering knowledge about the process dynamics. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms compensate for parameter variation and disturbance.

A novel selforganizing fuzzy plus PID type controller with application to inverted pendulum controlIn this paper, a novel selforganizing fuzzy plus PID control algorithm is proposed and analyzed by extensive computer simulations and experiments with an inverted pendulum. Specifically, the proposed selforganizing fuzzy controller consists of a typical fuzzy reasoning part and self organizing part in which both online and offline algorithms are employed to modify the 'then' part of the fuzzy rules and to decide how much fuzzy rules are to be modified after evaluating the control performance, respecfively. And the fuzzy controller is replaced by a PID controller in a prespecified region near by the set point for good settling actions.

To reduce the complexity in constructing a fuzzy logic controller of multivariable systems, three major methods are presented. One is the method of constructing singleinputsingleoutput fuzzy logic controllers after decoupling the target system. Another is the method of using fuzzy relation matrices which indicate the relation between each input and output. The other is the method of using the hierarchically classified inputs which dominantly influence one output than other inputs. Using the last two methods, simulation results of fuzzy logic controller implemented on 160MW boilerturbine plant model are also shown.

This paper describes a fuzzy rulebased assembly algorithm for precision parts mating, The difficulties in devising reliable assembly strategies result from the complexity of the assembly process and the uncertainty such as imperfect knowledge of the parts being assembled as well as the limitations of the devices performing the assembly. To cope with above problems, we propose an assembly algorithm utilizing fuzzy set theory. The presented method allows us to represent the uncertainty by using fuzzy membership function and treat nonlinear sapping from measured force/torque to corrective motions using rules. Finally, the performance of this method is evaluated through a series of experiments. Experimental results show that the proposed method can be effectively used for chamferless and precision parts mating.

A magnetic levitation system with hybrid magnets, which is composed of permanent magnets and electromagnets, consumes less power than the conventional attraction type system. In this paper, we propose PID controller and PIDFuzzy controller for hybrid magnet. We first present "constant gap" control technology with PID controller. Secondly, "zero power" control technology with PIDFuzzy hybrid controller is presented.roller is presented.

In CAD/CAM system, many efforts are made to automate the converting process from drawling information to manufacturing Information. The most difficult step In this procedure is utilizing 2 dimensional drawing information In order to formulate 3 dimensional w&ling information. This paper emphasizes to mWe automatically series of convertirg steps which provide 3 dimensional wire frame, surface and solid modeling using feature recognition rules. With the standardization of design process and the recognition rule as preceding steps, it shows a good application tool to interface the design and manufacturing procedures in PCLevel CAD/CAM system.

In machining a part in CAD/CAM system, it is required that the drawing information should be automatically generated, modified, deleted, and thus be used as an general information throughout the entire manufacturing process. This research addresses basic entities(point, line, circle, arc) for design feature and combination of this features, based on GT concepts, with minimum user's manual input. This paper deals with the generalization of operating system which can cover the s parts which appears in mechanical part handbook and the basic constitutional part of sold base. The system developed shows a strong application impact on automatic process planning system of medium  size injection sold companies.

In manufacturing process, usually 2dimensional part drawing is used as a basic data. If a designer wants to recognize 2dimensional drawing and formulate 3dimensional shape, a proper feature recognition rule is required as a prerequisite step. These rules are converted Into knowledge base, should be ed separately in the recognition program and can be referenced In similar way of database application. In this paper, basic feature recognition rules are addressed in structure type knowledge base, and the application system is formulated which can be operated separately with existing data driven program.

This paper is concerned with the program of the automatic mesh generation for 2dimensional domain which contains the curved boundaries and holes. This program treats a new vertical  line drawing method. This method starts with 4subdivisions of problem domain and the classification of the cross points of grid lines and boundaries. And the new node is generated by the vertical line to the line connecting the two intersections of a boundary and two grid lines in general. The boundaries are piecewisecurves composed of lines, circles, arcs, and free curves. The free curves are generated by BSpline form. Although there were some bad elements for the complex boundary, it was possible to obtain the acceptable elements for the given boundaries. The results of automatic mesh generation can be verified directly by drawing on the computer monitor in executing the program. And it is possible to add the processes  that is, editing, hard copying, etc  using the script file in AutoCAD.

In this paper it is discussed about the program which makes automatically the preprocessing data on the graphic editor of PC monitor. Three kinds of colors are used in order to make know a boundary_element, in_element, out_element. By initial mesh generation, three kinds of elements are made; the element with three nodes, four nodes, five nodes. The node of boundary element draw a vertical line to the boundary. At that time the element with three nodes is removed and the element with four nodes is changed to the element with four nodes. The domain graphic on this paper is compose of piecewise curves which has many lines and a hole. The data of element is written on the memory of PC computer. The program controls the memory address according to the change of element's quantity; disappearance and addition of element. All this work is operated on the PC computer.

In this paper, a graphics system supporting PHIGS and PHIGS+ is suggested and its hardware structure and software are described. The developed graphics system is a multiprocessing system that uses 6 i860 RISC CPU's and supports PHIGS and PHIGS+ language in a hardware level. The developed system under tested is able to draw 160, 000 3D polygones in one second when each polygon has 100 pixels and is shaded with Gouraud shading.

EEG(Electroencephalogram) background signals can be represented as the sun of a conventional AR(Autoregressive) process and an innovation process, or a prediction error process. We have seen that conventional estimation techniques. such as least square estimates(LSE) or Gaussian maximum likelihood estimates(MLEG) are optimal when the innovation process satisfies the Gaussian or presumed distribution. But when the data are contaminated by outliers, or artifacts, these assumptions are not met and conventional estimation techniques can badly fall and be strongly biased. It is known that EEG can be easily affected by artifacts. So we suggest a robust estimation technique which considerably performs well against those artifacts.

This paper describes a feature extraction in digitized chest Xray image and CT head Image. There are Extraction, Thresholding, Region G rowing, SplitMerge and Relaxation in feature extraction technique. In this study, Region Growing System was realized and Fuzzy Set Theory was applied in order to extract the vague region which the conventional method has difficulties in extracting. The performance of proposed algorithm was proved by being applied to chest Xray image and CT head image.

Deafs train articulation by observing mouth of a tutor. sensing tactually the notions of the vocal organs, or using speech training aids. Present speech training aids for deafs can measure only single speech ter, or display only frequency spectra in histogrm or pseudocolor. In this study, a speech training aids that can display subject's articulation in the form of a cross section of the vocal organs and other speech parameters together in a single system Is aimed to develop and this system makes a subject to know where to correct. For our objective, first, speech production mechanism is assumed to be AR model in order to estimate articulatory notions of the vocal tract from speech signal. Next, a vocal tract profile mode using LPC analysis is made up. And using this model, articulatory notions for Korean vowels are estimated and displayed in the vocal tract profile graphics.

Recently, human body modeling with muscle deformation has become an attractive research area in computer animation. There are many modeling tools available for solids such as mechanical part. However, there are many limitations of these conventional methods in modeling flexible objects with delicate motions and shapes such as human bodies. In this paper we present a new modeling technique for human body with muscle deformation. Each muscle is represented as a generalized cylinder and its shape deformation is computed using simple algorithm. The human body is a union of muscles, bones, organs, etc. The modeling data are obtained from the information on the human anatomy. To demonstrate the feasibility of our method, we model several arm muscles and simulate the skin deformation. As a result we have obtained a realistic shape deformation.

Using one chip microcontroller 87Cl96 (On chip EPROM type) and EPLD (Erasable & Programable Logic Device), an implantable control system to drive pendulum type electromechanical total artificial heart was developed. This control system consists of 4 parts, main management system, motor driver with power regulator, state monitoring system and communication part. The main system has the functions for speed detection, PI(proportional and integration) control, PWM generation, communication and analog data processor. Two kinds of power system were used and separated by 8 photo coupler arrays to improve the system stability. The performances of each compartments were compared with our previous z80 microprocessor based control system and good correspondences was shown. Logic power consumption was reduced to a one third of our previous controller. Using mock circulation tests, the overall performances of control system are evaluated.

To make electromechanical total artificial heart implantable inside the body, transcutaneous energy transmission system was designed and simulated by using PSPICE program. The fabricated system was evaluated by using Mock circulation system and showed comparable performance with the D.C power supply

The Self Creating and organizing (SCO) is a new architecture and one of the unsupervized learning algorithm for the artificial neural network. SCO begins with only one output node which has a sufficiently wide response range, and the response ranges of all the nodes decrease with time. Self Creating and Organizing Neural Network (SCONN) decides automatically whether adapting the weights of existing node or creating a new node. It is compared to the Kohonen's Self Organizing Feature Map (SOFM). The results show that SCONN has lots of advantages over other competitive learning architecture.

In this paper we describe a road following method for an autonomous vehicle. From a road image in gray level, a road boundary is detected using a gradient operator, and then the road boundary is converted to orthogonal view of the road showing the vehicle position and heading direction. In this research an efficient road boundary search technique is developed to support real time vehicle control. Also, an obstacle detection method, using images taken from two different positions, has been developed.

The design of a control language of mobile robot system for autonomous operations is explained in this paper. The onboard controller consists of onechip microcontrollerbased system and communicates with the host computer. It decodes the received commands and controls the mobile robot. The control language is basically of interpreter type and is consisted of motion primitives and sensing primitives. The combinations of primitives are constructed for mobile robot operations.

Generally, The position of mobile robot moving on the plane is measured by the method of dead reckoning, using the encoder system coupled on a wheel axis. But it is noted that the encoder system cannot check the slip of a wheel, often occurring in tracking of the mobile robot. In this study, using velocity angular velocity sensor with a tuning fork vibration system, the system is developed which can measure the directional angle of positional variables on the mobile robot. By measuring the variations of tracking direction mobile robot equipped with this system, following result is found; In spite of the slip at a wheel when measuring the tracking directional angle, the error occurs in the range of .+. 1 (degree).

This paper proposes a steering control algorithm for nonholonomic mobile robots. The steering control algorithm is essential to navigate autonomous vehicles which employ comination of the dead reckoning and absolute sensor system such as a machine vison for detecting landmarks in order to estimate the current location of the mobile robot. The proposed algorithm is based on the minimum time BANGBANG controller and curvaturecontinuity curve design method. In the BANGBANG control scheme we introduce velocity/acceleration limiter to avoid any slippage of driving wheels. The proposed scheme is robotindependent and hence can be applied to various kinds of mobile robot or vehicles. To show the effectness of the proposed control algorithm, a series of computer simulations were conducted for twowheel driven mobile robot.

Implementation of AGVS (Automated Guided Vehicle System) in CIMS (Computer Integrated Manufacturing System) generally requires substantial study to optimize design and performance of the guide path. Traditional mathematical approaches have been used with limited success to analyze AGVS. These approaches, however, do not provide a practical opportunity to use by path designers. This paper presents a new approach based on Jules in designing and assessing AGV path to have better design of the closedloop layout. A framework for the approach is proposed and a case study is reported to demonstrate the framework. Deletion of seldom used paths and addition of bypasses to solve the congestion problem are conducted automatically through simulation expefiments. To visualize die results a graphic control program is developed and integrated with AutoMod/AutoGram simulation package.

This study proposes a CIM shell that is consisted with computers connected by a LAN. Since this system excludes production hardwares, physical movements of devices are represented by computer simulation. On the other hand, softwares that dictate system operation are real, and consu me physical time. Thus the shell becomes halfrealhalfsimulation that requires events synchronization mechanism. This study shows the building procedure of such shell as well as an example of application of the shell.

In a transfer line with mass production capability, calibration systems are included in the process as a separate dedicated station. However, this method is not appropriate in an unattended FMC with flexibility. As the FMC produces vesatile parts with small batch sizes, more flexible calibration systems are required. In this paper, a calibration/inspection system suitable for an unattended turning cell is introduced. The system has functions of dimension calibration of parts by touch probes, tool wear compensation, and quality monitoring of parts. Furthermore, characteristics of errors in the system are identified and corresponding compensation methodology is suggested. An operation software was developed for efficient use of the system.

기존의 CNC Controller를 재구성하면 제어성과 절삭성의 재고에 큰 효과를 낼 수 있다. 현실적으로 시스템의 재구성은, 가) 시스템의 재구성으로 2축 CNC 기계를 다축으로 전환시킬 수 있고, 나) 모터의 직접제어에 의한 Gcode 작성과정의 생략이 가능하며, 다) NC 동작의 제어가 소프트웨어로 (C 언어) 이루어 지기 때문에 사용자환경에 맞도록 고객화가 가능한 강점이 있다. 나아가서는 형상의 정의에서 NC 기계동작의 제어 및 온라인 모니터링에 이르는 전과정을 소프트웨어로 일식화 시킬 수 있는 통합 NC 시스템의 구현이 가능하다. 본 논문에서는 이러한 목적으로 연구되고 있는 INCS(Integrated NC System)의 개발현황을 소개한다. INCS는 PC286, NC Controller, Drive Amplifier, Sensing Device의 하드웨어 시스템과 CAD, CAM 및 CNC 기능을 수행하는 소프트웨어 시스템으로 구성되어 있다. 그래픽 시뮬레이션 및 실제 절삭을 통하여 개발된 방식의 유효성과 효율성을 설명한다.

4축 자유곡면가공에 있어서 공구간섭 문제는 가공형상의 취득성 뿐만 아니라 가공의 정밀도를 위하여 매우 중요한 고려사항이다. 공구의 접근자세가 고정된 3축 밀링가공의 공구 간섭에 관한 기존의 많은 연구가 있지만 이러한 연구는 공구의 접근자세가 변하는 4축 밀링가공에의 적용이 곤란하다. 왜냐하면 곡면의 형상에 따라 공구몸체의 곡면사이의 간섭문제가 부각되며, 이에 따른 공구자세의 창출문제가 해결되어야 하기 때문이다. 따라서 본 논문에서는 4축가공에서 발생할 수 있는 공구 간섭을 유형별로 분류, 각 간섭들을 발견하고 해결할 수 있는 방법의 전개와 이 방법을 이용하여 공구경로를 산출하고 그래픽 시뮬레이션과 실제의 시험절삭을 통하여 제시된 방법의 유효성을 검증한다.

This paper presents an architecture and control logic of a Flexible Manufacturing Cell (FMC) which is one of the important elements under Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) environment. To implement FMC, it is very important to develop a software which can control and monitor the overall system in an integrated environment. Our primary concern in this research is not to develop individual systems, but to integrate them in the hierarchical control level. Progress on the research of integrating CAD/CAM, Process Planning, Offline Robot Programming and Simulation module into FMC control system is reported. FMC hardware system used here has an Automated Storage & Retrieval System (AS/RS), a conveyor system, a transfer robot, a CNC milling machine, a barcode system, and an IBM PC/AT as Cell Control System (CCS). In order to demonstrate the operational result, the name plates, textcarved aluminium plates, are manufactured by this system.

Automated Storage and Retrieval System (AS/RS), which is an element of Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM), is a widely used material handling equipment with conveyors and Automatic Guided Vehicles (AGVs). Until now the evaluation of operational policies of AS/RS and control algorithms is done theoretically or by computer simulations. In this study, a realtime control and monitoring software of an AS/RS is also developed by making actually moving AS/RS miniature. A PCbased realtime monitoring program can control the AS/RS directly through the communication port. The monitoring program has additional functions such as storage/retrieval management, inventory management, and statistics management. The program can not only collect the necessary statistics but monitor the current action of the AS/RS concurrently.

After many years of proliferation, the nuclear industry is indebted for a formidable consequence, the safe management of spent fuel. Naturally, the high radioactivity involved with such process motivates the development of effective telerobotic systems. Nevertheless, the existing masterslave type of tele manipulators are limited in effectiveness by the human operator's limited sensory and manipulation capabilities. This paper presents the result of a research effort to resolve such problems by assigning the slave manipulator a certain degree of intelligence; sensing and actuation. In the presented system, a perceptionaction loop is achieved using ultrasonic range sensor and laser distance sensor interfaced with the PUMA 760 industrial robot system, and applied to automating impact wrenching task for unbolting the lid of nuclear spent fuel cask. The perceptionaction loop performs determination of the cask location, collision avoidance and centering of the impact wrench onto the bolt head. To aid the insertion task and to provide versatility a mounting module consisting of an RCC device and an automatic tool changer is designed and implemented. The performance of the developed system is tested on the model cask and the result is given.

A telemanipulator that reflects grasping force of the slave gripper to the human operator was implemented in order for manipulation to be more delicate and safe. An industrial robot gripper was used as the slave manipulator. The master manipulator was constructed to make it easy for a human operator to direct the slave and to feel the reflected gripping force. Reflected force was generated by the servomotor of the master. The force signal and position signals of the master and the slave was used to generate driving force signal. Basically positionposition type control was used. Miner force feedback is added to improve the performance of the system. Implemented system was tested by colliding two fingers of the slave manipulator, and here switching was used to archive more fast and easy manipulation.

A high speed control system for a telerobot using DSP is developed. The system is designed to resolve computational burden in advanced algorithms. The design is assumed to h ave no specific algorithm and robot configuration. The system is composed of a teaching box, a DSP board, a set of servo drivers and 16 bit microcomputer system. The teaching box is designed as a manmachine interface, which has two joysticks with three degrees of freedom for velocity generation in Cartesian space. The DSP board, i.e. DSP56000ADS based on a 10.25MIPS digital signal processor, DSP56001, computes the inverse Jacobian matrix which transforms Cartesian velocity into joint velocity. A resolved motion rate control algorithm for a 5 degrees of freedom manipulator was implemented. About 100 Hz sampling rate was achieved in this system.

In this paper, neural networkbased compliance control of telerobot is presented, This is a method to learn the compliance of human behavior and control telerobot using learned compliance. The consistency of human behavior is checked using Lipschitz's condition. The neural compliance model is composed of a multilayered neural network which mimics the compliant notion of the human operator. The effectiveness of proposed scheme ie verified by a simulation study.

This paper proposes a modified fuzzy controller using a neural network. This controller can automatically identify expert's control rules and tune membership functions utilizing expert's control data. Identificaton capability of the fuzzy controller is examined using simple numerical data. The results show that the network in this paper can identify nonlinear systems more precisely than conventional fuzzy controller using neural network.

In general, the fusion of neural network and fuzzy logic theory is based on the fact that neural network and fuzzy logic theory have the common properties that 1) the activation function of a neuron is similar to the membership function of fuzzy variable, and 2) the functions of summation and products of neural network are similar to the MaxMin operator of fuzzy logics. In this paper, a fuzzyneural network will be proposed and a force controller of the robot gripper, utilizing the fuzzyneural network, will be presented. The effectiveness of the proposed strategy will be demonstrated by computer simulation.

The multilayer neural network possesses the desirable characteristics of parallel distributed processing and learning capacity, by which the uncertain variation of the parameters in the dynamically complex system can be handled adoptively. However the error back propagation algorithm that has been utilized popularly in the learning procedure of the mulfiJayer neural network has the significant limitations in the real application because of its slow convergence speed. In this paper, an approach to improve the convergence speed is proposed using the fuzzy logic that can effectively handle the uncertain and fuzzy informations by linguistic level. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by computer simulation of PUMA 560 robot manipulator.

This paper presents the composite control method using fuzzy and neural network theory. Fuzzy theory is applied to make control rules and neural net is used to learn them and to generate proper control signals. The electric furnace is controlled to maintain the desired temperature and to minimize the fluctuation of the temperatures in various locations inside the furnace. This controller consists of three neural nets which deal with the average of the temperatures, variances of them and the temperature stabilizing mechanism. Experiments are performed with the target temperatures of 70.deg. C and 80.deg. C. Test results show that this simple method is very effective.

In this paper, we propose the fuzzyneural controller which is fuzzy controller with learning ability of neural network. The neural network in this controller is same as the membership function in current fuzzy controller and a parts of inference rules. And, it can be easily extend the control algorithm to multivariable systems. We can show effectiveness of the control algorithm through experiment of the inverted pendulum system.

이 글에서는 1990년 가을 개국하여 운용되고 있는 서울우편물집중국의 우편 물 처리의 자동화 시스템의 적용을 분석, 그의 특징 등을 서술코자 한다. 본 서울우편물집중국의 자동화는 프로그래머블콘트롤러(PLC)를 적용하여 모 든 자동제어기를 통합 NETWORK화하여 1) 계층적제어 SYSTEM을 확립하 였으며 관리용 SYSTEM별의 자율적인 단위 조작과 기능적 독립을 유지하 며, 3) 분산제어 시스템화하여 우편처리에 있어 자동 일관처리 공정을 이루 는데 성공적이였으며, 이는 전적으로 PLC를 적용 계층적 분산제어에 의하여 성취되었다고 본다. 프로그래머블콘트롤러(PLC)는 확장성이 크고 강력한 우 편물 처리의 자동화 장치로서 계속적으로 우편물처리의 자동화 및 기계화 산업에 적용될 것임을 확신하는 바이다.

This paper describe the mathematical model of helicopter rotor, which is suitable for the calculation of trim condition to develop the stability and control. The mathematical model is a nonlinear, total force and moment model of a single main rotor helicopter. The effects of fuselage, tail rotor, horizontal tail, and vertical tail are included. The phase angle and stick displacement are obtained and compared at the trim condition.

GRAFCET is the program language for a sequential control and utilized in the description of sequence of a process. This study is to implement GRAFCET editor and compiler for personnel computer. The GRAFCET editor module is developed to use as menudriven method based on the graphic screen and the graphic symbol. So, users can use it interactively. The GRAFCET compiler module analyzes the already drawed GRAFCET diagram, then translates it to Z80 assembly code. After generating Z80 machine code from assembly code, we can send the outputed machine code file to Z80 oneboard computer through RS232C. We have developed the GRAFCET programming tool to utilize under IBM PC/AT with the VGA monitor, and it may be contribute to low cost automation system.

It is important and difficult to control the steam temperature in the once through boiler. Generally, steam temperature of once through boiler not only is controlled by boiler spray water flow, but also is influenced by feed water flow and fuel flow. So we have to make the same gain of fuel flow controller and feed water flow controller. This paper is shown the design and test of steam temperature and feed water flow control system for once through boiler in pusan thermal power plant.

This paper presets a leakage detection method based on modeling the leakage in pipeline systems. For gas pipeline systems, a method based on the state space model is suggested. For liquid pipeline systems, an experiment based on the static model equation was performed. In the experiment, it was possible to detect the leak and to diagnosis the leak situation within the error of .+.3%.

Spent nuclear fuel is highly radioactive and requires remote operation due to radiation exposure. Motors which have been used in the highly radioactive environments are a DC type because of their easy implementation on control system. However there are some problems such as mechanical maintenance of brush and commutator, high cost, and heavy material control. AC servo motors are applied and tested on fuzzy and conventional control algorithms. Fuzzy logic controls of AC servo give adequate control accuracy and power for spent fuel handling in radioactive environments.

Hydraulic fitting impulse tester is equipment which produce impulse pressure waveform that specified foreign standard of SAE, JIS etc. Test conditions of SAE J1453 about waveform standard indicates frequency of 3570 cycle/min, pressure of 560 bar, oil temperature of 93 .+.3.deg. C etc. and required cycle is a million over. In additions, Test condition operated continuously equipment. This development item adopted new pattern method such as intensifier and rotary distributor is different from already established fitting impulse tester applied servo valve and high pressure direct directional control valve. Therefore, this development item which compares already established item is good reliability, low cost of manufacture and save of electric energy. especially, Domestic small and medium enterprise uses this tester because of economical cause. We develope appropriateness tester which conforms to demand of user.

This study is aimed to investigate a design problem of the fuzzy logic controller for the activated sludge process(ASP) in sewage treatment. The modeling technique proposed by Sugeno is used to express the ASP effectively and identification of a fuzzy model of the ASP is carried out utilizing actual operational data obtained from a metropolitan sewage plants. The modelbased fuzzy controller is designed by rules generated from the identified ASP fuzzy model. Feasibility of the designed controller is tested through computer simulations.

In this study, the authors developed a hydraulic motor performance test system which automatically accomplishes the procedure of basic performance test and represents the data obtained in the test as performance curves. The software is made as conversation style between a computer and a user, so even to novices it is very easy to use. The most important point of this study is to get desirable isoefficiency curves. As some defined number of data are obtained at actual test, additional data necessary for desirable isoefficiency curves are generated numerically by interpolation. Basis spline function is used to get more smooth representative performance curves.

We are developing an automatic adjusting system for ITC. ITC(Integrated Tube Components) has a large setbyset variability in its characteristics. And it also has nonlinearities. It requires not only a fast vision process but also an efficient control algorithm to meet the need for high productivity. In this paper, the description of an adjusting system and the modelling of ITC will be presented. And also the concept of a new rule based hierarchical algorithmic approaches will be suggested.

The dynamic behavior of a quickacting hydraulic fuse is investigated by analysis and experiment. In view of the short response time, a proper dynamic analysis of the entire hydraulic circuit is necessary, in addition to analysis of the fuse behavior. Dynamic models of the fuse and other hydraulic circuit elements used in the experimental setup are derived and used for computer simulation. Also, the experiments are performed under a variety of operating conditions. Experimental and analytical results are in very good agreement.

A method to design a robust servomechanism by continuously variable structure control is proposed. The state and control signal of this servomechanism do notchatter since a continuous control scheme is used. The inputoutput relation of this servomechanism is determined by prescribing a hyperplane in a state space of which the neighborhood is asymptotically attractive everywhere. This control mechanism was applied to a single rod cylinder servomechanism which has the nonlinerities due to their nonsymmetrical structure and its excellency was verified.

굴삭기 엔진 펌프시스템을 실험결과에 근거해서 모델링하여 수치적으로 시뮬레이션을 행하였다. 엔진.펌프시스템은 그 구성이 복잡할 뿐만 아니라 시스템자체의 비선형성,작업에 따라 시스템에 가해지는 불확실한 외란, 파라미터의 변동으로 인하여 정확한 모델링을 행하기는 다소 어려움이 있었다. 비례제어만을 사용시는 정상상태오차의 발생,초기의 회전수저하등으로 인하여 적합하지 않았다. 이를 개선하기 위하여 PID제어를 사용하였을 경우 정상상태오차는 제거할 수 있으나 정착시간이 길어지는 것을 볼 수 있었다. 슬라이딩모우드에 의한 제어법을 적용하였을 경우 정상상태오차,정착시간,최대회전수저하량을 모두 만족하였으나 과도상태에서 오실레이션이 발생하는 현상을 볼 수 있었다.

The parameters of electrohydraulic servo system are closely dependent on the variation of system characteristics. Especially the parameter sensitivity is incleased in the servo system with heavy load and wide operating range. This paper shows the effect of parameter variation and the experimental parameter values of high power servo system.

A counter balance valve is used as one part of hydraulic motor brake system. The function of this valve is to protect overrun or free falling of inertia load. But occasionally the brake system with counter balance valve makes some undesirable problems such as pressure surges or vibrations. In this study, for the purpose of easy estimation about dynamic characteristics of hydraulic system including counter balance valve, precise formulation describing fluid dynamics and valve dynamics under various boundary conditions were made. Dynamic characteristics were analysed by numerical integration using RungeKutta method, because the equations in this circuit with counter balance valve contain various nonlinear terms. Propriety of this analysis method is verified by experiment. For the purpose of obtaining fundamental data for preventing instability, this study experimented the effects of the spool taper, spring constant, cylindrical choke. And we developed double acting brake system integrated counter balance valve.

Seven axis modular type pneumatic manipulator is composed of electropneumatic automation system which contributes to factory automation by performing loading & unloading process successively which is simple routine work of dealing item of machine tool, catapult, assembly machine, welding machine and so on. In this study, we obtained soft and quick movement in a large space and good reliability motion of various function by combining several actuators which perform rotation movement as well as linear movement at the same time. Gripper which apply to rotary sensor transmitted a structure to demanded position. This development item of 5kgf load prevent stickslip phenomena of stroke end by designing high cushion internal. We develope flexible manipulator which conforms to demand of user by applying multiple sequence program.

Electropneumatic valve is an electromechanical device which converts electric signal into pneumatic flow mu or pressure. A measurement of dynamic response time is very important to evaluate valve performance. Dynamic response time of electropneumatic valve has a variation accordance with valve types, operating way and test standard. In this study, automatic measurement system of dynamic response time is composed based on test condition of dynamic response time test standard(CETOP, JIS). Also, in this study test pressure variation characteristics accordance with variation of solenoid excitation power, and we developed dynamic response measurement system enable to compare of and analyze these two characteristics.

A novel 2dimensional matched filter of the paralleljaw type using fuzzy logics is proposed for bin picking. Specifically, averaged pixel intensity of the windowed region for the filtering is considered to be fuzzy. Also membership function for darkness and brightness are designed by employing the intensite histogram of image. Then a rule is given to know how much a windowed region can be a possible holdsite. Furthermore eight rules are made to determine the part orientation, where Mamadi's resoning method is applied. To show the validities of our proposed technique. some experimental results are illustrated and compared with the results by conventional matched filter technique.

In this paper, a novel type of a visual servoing method is proposed for eyeinhand robots by employing a selforganizing fuzzy controller. For this is there defined a new Jacobian riot to be the function of a relative position of the object but to be a function of the only image features. Instead of obtaining an analytic form of the proposed Jacobian, a selforganizing fuzzy controller is then proposed to alleviate difficulties in realtime implementation. To show the validities, the proposed method is applied to a 2dimensional visual servoing task.

The integration of intelligent robots into manufacturing systems should positively impact the product quality and productivity. A new theory of object location and recognition using the supporting plane is presented. The unknown supporting points are determined by image coordinates, known camera parameters, and joint coordinates of the robot manipulators. This is developed by using the geometrical interpretation of perspective projection and the geometrical constraints of industrial environments. This can be applied to solve typical robot vision problems such as determination of position, orientation, and recognition of objects.

We consider the object recognition of industrial tools which have one degree of freedom. In the case of pliers, the shape varies as the jaw angle varies. Thus, a feature vector made from the boundary image also varies along with the jaw angle. But a pattern recognizer should have the ability of classifying objects without any regards to the angle variation. For a pattern recognizer we have utilized a backpropagation neural net. Feature vectors were made from Fourier descriptors of boundary images by truncating the high frequency components, and they were used as inputs to the neural net for training and recognition. In our experiments, backpropagation neural net outperforms the minimum distance rule which is widely used in the pattern recognition. The performance comparison also made under noisy environments.

It is important to express the specific growth rate of a fermentation reaction as a function of substrate and product concentration in developing bioprocess automation techniques such as modeling of the reactor and controlling it via an advanced control scheme. Typical methods of identification utilize graphical representation of the rate constant data or nonlinear regression with an appropriate noise filter. But the former method fails when the data are erroneous and the latter are mathematically complicated to apply in the field. Neural network is another candidate for the identification from time series data since it is insensitive to the random data error and easy to implement. In this study, we will develop a neural network method of specific growth rate estimation from the time series state variable data and test the performance.

In this paper, a neural network estimator which estimates the output of the wide range oxygen sensor is proposed, The neural network estimator is constructed to give the output of the wide range oxygen sensor from rpm, fuel injection time, throttle position, and output voltage of the exhaust gas oxygen sensor. And, using this estimator, PI controller for airfuel ratio control is designed. Experiment results show that the proposed method gives good results for SONATA engine under light load and constant rpms.

An effective visual servo control system for robotic manipulators based on neural networks is proposed. For this control system, firstly, one neural network is used to learn the mapping relationship between the robot's joint space and the video image space. However, in the proposed control scheme, this network is not used in itself, but its first and second derivatives are used to generate servo commands for the robot. Secondly, an adaptive Adaline network is used to identify the dynamics of the robot and also to generate the proper torque commands. Computer simulation has been performed indicating its superior performance. As far as the authors know, this is the first time attempt of the use of neural networks for a visual servo control of robots that compensates for their changing dynamics.

This paper is to explore the potential use of the modeling capacity of neural networks for control applications. The tasks are carried out by two neural networks which act as a plant identifier and a system controller, respectively. Using information stored in the identification network control action has been developed. Without supervising control signals are generated by a gradient type iterative algorithm.

A new method to control a robot manipulator by neural networks is proposed. The controller is composed of both a PD controller and a neural networkbased feedforward controller. MLP(multilayer perceptron) neural network is used for the feedforward controller and trained by BP(backpropagation) learning rule. Error terms for BP learning rule are composed of the outputs of a PD controller and the acceleration errors of manipulator joints. We compare the proposed method with existing ones and contrast performances of them by simulation. Also, We discuss the real application of the proposed method in consideration of the learning time of the neural network and the time required for sensing the joint acceleration.

This paper describes the design of a neural network estimator to estimate weld pool sizes for online use of quality monitoring and control in GMA welding processes. The estimator utilizes surface temperatures measured at various points on the top surface of the weldment as its input. The main task of the neural net is to realize the mapping characteristics from the point temperatures to the weld pool sizes through training, A series of beadon plate welding experiments were performed to assess the performance of the neural estimator.

A robot motion planning algorithm for timevarying obstacle avoidance is proposed. The robot motion planning problem is replaced with the optimization problem by using the distance function with the divided configuration space. To divide the configuration space, the polar coordinate system is used. For each divided configuration space, the admissible region where the robot can reach without collisions is obtained using the distance function. For an object moving in a plane, the admissible region is described by linear constraints on the polar coordinate system. A numerical algorithm that solves the optimization problem is shown and the computer simulation is carried out.

An approach to timevarying obstacle avoidance problem is pursued. The mathematical formulation of the problem is given in Cartesian space and in joint space. To deal with the timevarying obstacles, viewtime is introduced. A viewtime is the time interval viewing the timevarying obstacles to model equivalent stationary obstacles. For the analysis of the properties of the viewtime, avoidability measure is defined as a measure of easiness for a robot to avoid obstacles. Based on the properties, a motion planning strategy to avoid timevarying obstacles is derived. An application of the strategy to the collisionfree motion planning of two SCARA robots and the simulation on the application are given.

For the conveyor tracking application of a robot manipulator, a new control scheme is presented. The presented scheme is divided into two stages : the upper one is the motion planning stage and the lower one is the motion control stage. In the upper stage, the nominal trajectory which tracks the part moving in a constant velocity, is planned considering the robot arm dynamics. On the other hand, in the lower level, the perturbed trajectory is generated to track the variation in the velocity of conveyor belt via sensory feedback and the perturbed arm dynamics. In both stages, the conveyor tracking problem is formulated as an optimal tracking problem, and the torque constraints of a robot manipulator are taken into account. Simulation results are then presented and discussed.

페인팅작업에의 로보트응용은 열악환경의 극복, 자동화, 품질의 향상수단으로서 강력한 대안책이며 이에 관한 관심이 국내외에 고조되고 있다. 본 논문에서는 이전에 제시한 바있는 자동동작계획의 개념을 확장하여 통합페인팅시스템을 위한 Extended ATPS(Automatic Trajectory Planning System)를 개발하고, 이의 구현 및 검증을 위한 하드웨어 시스템의 개발현황을 소개한다. 개발될 시스템은 하드웨어 및 소프트웨어가 일식화된 로보틱페인팅 시스템으로서 동작계획의 자동화 뿐만아니라 측정 및 제어기능을 소프트웨어에서 일관처리하는 새로운 방식이다.

Recently, due to the development of new technology and products, FA has been accelerating for obtaining highquality and saving of resources and power. Introduction of automation to the field which has bad working condition is needed and welding is one of these field. In this study, solving algorithm for down hand control which requires in the automatic are welding system is proposed. For the verification of the algorithm, numerical examples are shown and visualization is carried out using developed graphic tools.

In this paper, we present a supervision and coordination level monitoring the adaptive controller and taking appropriate ,actions if malfunctions are detected. Supervision and coordination level are consist of startup part and runtime part. The startup part involves tasks for the configuration and the implementation of controllers, and the runtime part involves tasks for the supervision and coordination of the controllers in closedloop operation. Also, we show how a supervision level and a coordination level can be designed and what basic elements should be included. Finally, we show the robustness of this scheme by experimental results for task model.

This paper presents a decentralized model reference adaptive control scheme for an interconnected continuous linear system composed of a number of singleinput singleoutput subsystems in which outgoing interactions pass through the measurement channel and are subject to bounded external disturbance. The scheme can treat the unknown strength of interactions as well as the uncertainty of subsystems.

This paper presents a robust model reference adaptive controller for continuoustime singleinput singleoutput linear timeinvariant systems which are subjected to outputdependent disturbances as well as bounded external disturbances. In the derived controller form, an additional output error feedback term is included to override the destabilizing effects by the outputdependent disturbances.

It has been recognized as important subject by users that PIDControllers widely used in industrial processes must be welltuned, In this paper, We present an automatic tuning method for PIDControllers which is based on discrete parameter estimation and application of conventional tuningrules. The method is easy to implement on microprocessor because critical values are obtained by the mathematical computation. Also, it permits quick online tuning. Simulation results show that most processes are well tuned by the suggested tuning method in this paper.

A technique of indirect adaptive control based on certainty equivalence for input output linearization of nonlinear system is proven convergent by Teel. It incorporates an adaptive observer for identifying unknown system states and parameters and inputoutput linearizing controller for robust tracking. In this study, we show that robustness and tracking performances are improved considerably by using its normalized form of Teel's observerbased identifier. Simple examples are presented as illustration.

Chemical heat pump is a system to upgrade the low level energy such as industrial waste heat and solar energy by using coupled endothermic and exothermic chemical reactions. Dehydrogenation of 2propanol can absorb heat near 80.deg. C and is transformed into acetone and hydrogen. Hydrogenation of acetone can liberate heat near 200.deg. C. Dehydrogenation of 2propanol is difficult around 80.deg. C because .DELTA.G has positive value, but dehydrogenation reaction in liquid phase can overcome this problem because vaporized acetone and hydrogen can be rapidly eliminated. In this work, dehydrogenation of 2propanol was investigated in liquid phase with Raney nickel catalyst. The energy efficiency of the chemical heat pump was estimated by computer simulation.

A logical and systematic procedure to derive a mathematical model for magnetically levitation(maglev) systems with a combined lift and guidance is developed by using and graph. First, bond graph is constructed for the energyfeeding system with magnetic leakage flux. And, the overall maglev system in which lift and guidance dynamics are coupled is modeled by using the concept of multiport field in bond notations. Finally, the LQG/LTR control systems are designed for singleinput singleoutput and for multiinput multioutput maglev systems. In this paper, it has been shown that the bond graph is an excellent method for modeling multienergy domain systems such as maglev systems and the multivariable control system is required to improve the performance of the maglev system with a combined lift and guidance.

This paper discusses the training simulator designed to improve the skills of operators who handle the SCADA System of KEPCO. The system is composed of the simulation subsystem and database, and implemented on the 386 based P.C, It is linked to existing SCADA system (HARRIS computer and TADCOM) to work realistically for the situation of accidents and corresponding actions.

Recently, Pneumatic Actuation System (PAS) has been used increasingly as a high performance fincontrol servo actuation systems because of the special advantages of pneumatic units: primarily their low cost, small size, light weight, and tolerance to broad temperature extremes. In this study, a nonlinear model of PAS is derived through the detailed analysis of the major components in the typical system. The model includes nonlinear flowpressure relationships of the flow through the solenoid valve openings and orifices, PWM algorithm for driving two solenoid valves as a closedcenter 3way valve for minimum gas consumption, solenoid valve dynamics, saturation, and friction. Simulation results are compared with the experimental ones for square and sinusoidal inputs to see the validity of the model. Independent of the shape and magnitude of the input signals, both results are in good agreements with minor difference.

Tne mathematical modeling and analysis results of a dataflow logic solving processor(DFLSP) for programmable logic controller(PLC) are proposed in this paper. The logic program language is formalized using a dataflow graph model. From this dataflow graph, the instruction precedence relationship, and deadlock problems, which are major properties of a logic program, are described.

In this paper the feedback linearization of the valvecontrolled nonlinear hydraulic velocity control system and the Implementation of the digital state feedback controller is studied. The C.inf. nonlinear transformation to the electrohydraulic velocity control system, which transforms nonlinear system to linear equivalent one, is obtained. It is shown that this transformation Is global one. The digital controller to this linearized model is obtained by using the onestep ahead state estimator and implemented to real plant. The proposed method In this paper is easier to implement than other proposed methods and it is possible to control in real tine. The experiment and simulation study show that the implementation of the digital state feedback controller based on the feedback linearized model is successful.

As microcomputers have become widespread and the high speed solenoid valves have been developed, digitally controlled hydraulic systems are used in many applications. This study deals with position control of hydraulic cylinder operated by two port 3way high speed solenoid valve using a selflearning strategy. This was done by developing a control algorithm for the microcomputer which always automatically adjust the length of control pulse to the optimum value in accordance with the error regardless of changes in the operating condition and physical differences between components. Tests carried out in the laboratory indicate that a positional accuracy could be improved.

Pneumatic control system has been used mainly for endpoint position control because of the compressibility, viscosity and low output stiffness of air which causes nonlinear flow characteristics. In this paper, pneumatic position control algorithms using fuzzy rule were developed to achieve faster and more stable response than conventional PI control algorithm. The performances of the proposed algorithms were compared by computer simulations with them of PI controller. From those simulations it was shown that the proposed algorithms are more efficient about settling time, steady state error and overshoot than PI control algorithm.

A control of nonlinear system is motivated by the fact that all real plants are nonlinear systems and model identification introduces parameter errors. The purpose of this study is to design a Discrete Variable Structure Controller(DVSC) for singlerod hydraulic cylinder system. The model contains uncertain parameters which we known to lie upper and lower bounds. In the design of DVSC, the boundary layer concept was adopted to reduce cattering. The DVSC was evaluated through digital computer simulation and compared with a VSC (analog controller).

Using industrial robots and sensors, we developed an inline car body inspection system which proposes high flexibility and sufficient accuracy. Car Body Inspection(CBI) cell consists of two industrial robots, two corresponding carriages, camera vision system, a process computer with multitasking ability and several LDS's. As industrial robots guarantee sufficient repeatabilities, the CBI cell adopts the concept of relative measurement instead of that of absolute measurement. By comparing the actual measured data with reference data, the dimensional errors of the corresponding points can be calculated. The length of the robot arms changes according to ambient temperature and it affects the measuring accuracy. To compensate this error, a robot arm calibration process was realized. By measuring a reference jig, the differential changes of the robot arms due to temperature fluctuation can be calculated and compensated.

The problems occurred when developing a automatic wheel deburring system are to make effective flexibility in model change and the irregularity of the position/shape of the burr, to select optimal robotic manufacturing process and to develope optimal end effector. The locations where burr exists are on flange, rim and spoke. Here will be discussed the optimal solution for the removal of rim burr by using robot. The research can be summarized as the automatic robot path generation by recognizing rim contour and automatic deburring process technique. Various rim contour data is generated automatically when the sensor which is fixed to robot is moving with the parallel motion to the wheel center axis and this generated data is transferred to the data storage system and converted to the robot path data. The robotic tool system which is suitable to the rim deburring process is developed by integrating tool, compliance function and sensor. And factory automation system controlled by robot controller and PC is developed. This system shows good productivity and flexibility.

For a robotic workcell, which consists of multiple robots, several interconnection methods are presented in terms of the processor based architecture. Since few attempts have been made to formulate and analyze multiple robot system(MRS), we turn the knowledge of multiple processor system(MPS) or multiple computer system(MCS) to good account. The performance evaluation is achieved through queueing analysis, the aim being to compare their response time, utilization, probability of service failure under different workload. To verify the validity of the proposed analysis methods, a computer simulation is performed. The results together with comments presented here give some useful guidelines for the selection of an appropriate interconnection method.

Active part mating algorithm using 6axis force sensor data for the assembly automation and/or teletobotics is presented and experimented. Parts to be mated are cylindrical and have no chamfers. There are basically two modes. One is the normal mode with only a positional error, the other is the tilted mode with an orientational error in addition to a positional error. The used algorithm distinguishes a contact external to the hole from that of internal to the hole in order to perform partmating in spite of the relative tilt between the hole and the peg.

The purpose of this project is to develop an automatic cutting robot system of cast steel, which raise productivity with improvement of working circumstances, overcomming labor deficiency, reduction of process and cycle time by applying cutting automation at inferior working circumstances and condition of a foundry. This system consisted of a 5 DOF tool system, an improved conveyer system and the HR8608 ROBOT, makes it possible to get the reduction of 12 manpowers and 30% productivity up.

In conventional geographic mapping system, it is needed to input many already existing geographic map into computer system for secure and efficient maintence. Because of large map data, it is required to construct layers from map image for easy display, fast retreval and efficient storage. Thus this paper represents a method of the extracting features from contour map and constructing three layers. The layers are symbol, building, contour line. Experimental results are presented confirming the method's high extraction.

The purpose of this paper is to improve the matching accuracy in identifying corresponding points in the areabased matching for the processing of stereo vision. For the selection of window size, a new method is proposed based on frequency domain analysis. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed through a series of experiments. To overcome disproportionate distortion in stereo image pair, a new matching method using the warped window is also proposed. In the algorithm, the window is warped according to imaging geometry. Experiments on a synthetic image show that the matching accuracy is improved by 14.1% and 4.2% over the rectangular window method and image warping method each.

Unlike printed character, the recognition of Hand written one has various kinds of difficulties due to the existence of the huge pattern associated with the person who writes. Therefore, in general, recognition of Hand written characters requires an algorithm which takes into consideration of the individual differences. Hangul characters are basically made of straight lines and circles. They can be represented in terms of feature parameters such as the end point of the straight line, the length and the angle. Then all Hangul characters can be represented by the number of basic segments(, /, vertical bar, O) multiplied by the feature parameters respectively. In this study we propose a method for recognizing Hand written Hangul characters in terms of fuzzy inference.

This paper represents a new edge relaxation algorithm that enhances the noisy boundary informations in images. The proposed algorithm employes relaxation process that reduces or eliminates ambiguities of derivative operator response via contextual informations. The contextual informations are the neighborhood patterns of a central edge which are estimated using fuzzy pattern matching technique. The algorithm is developed on crack edges. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme is effective even for noisy images or low contrast images.

This paper describes a method of extracting the 3D coordinates of feature points of an object from two images taken by one camera. The first image is from a CCD camera before approaching the object and the second image is from same camera after approaching the object along the optical axis. In the two images, the feature points appear at different position on the screen due to image enlargement. From the change of positions of feature points their world coordinates are calculated. In this paper, the correspondence problem is solved by image shrinking and correlation.

A single w& optical fiber strain gauge subjected to the excited PZTplate is presented which was obtained using a MachZehnder interferometer. This paper has been performed the considerations to the experimental situation In which the dynamical behavior of a optical fiber strain gauge is illustrated. A comparison is reported between the dynamic response of a optical fiber strain gauge and the semiconductor strain gauge in the frequency range 550Hz. This result is shown in very good usage as the dynamical measurement of the low strain below l.mu..epsilon. by this system.

This paper describes the 2channel telemeter system using AM(Amplitude Modulation)  FM (Frequency Modulation) techniques suitable for measurement of spindle torque by strain gage. In order to evaluate the developed system, the model tests were performed for test specimens. The developed system was installed on the plate mill and it was possible to measure and analyze the torque signal of spindle,

This paper describes a new method for performance improvement ultrasonic ranging system using V40 controller. Detectable range of ultrasonic ranging system depends on transducer frequency and bandwidth of the receiver, and damping of the transducer, etc. Conventional ranging systems are somewhat inaccurate because they do not have capability of compensating changes in medium condition. The novel ranging system overcomes this disadvantage by placing in the same medium a dummy sensor functioning as a standard calibrating instrument and by providing data processing capability using V40 controller.

Recently, LASER is used in many industrial, military applications. In this study, digital filtering, correlation, differentiation techniques for CO
$_{2}$ LASER Range Finder System are introduced. This LASER Range Finder System can be realized by DSP algorithm suggested in this paper and high speed digital signal processors. 
This paper proposes the model order reduction with pass band error reduction in the frequency domain of discrete time linear systems. The algorithm is the new method of reduced order model which reduces passband error by changing controllability and observability gramian used with weighted functions. A numerical example shows that this algorithm has lower passband error than balanced w&l and weighted function characteristics in frequency domain.