제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems (ICROS)
 기타
Domain
 Machinery ＞ Robot/Automated Machinery
1996.10

It is difficult that a nontranslational motion in a block is estimated by the block matching algorithm (BMA). In this paper, a nodaldisplacementbased deformation model is used for this reason. This model assumes that a selected number of control nodes move freely in a block and that displacement of any interior point can be interpolated from nodal displacements. As a special case with a single node this model is equivalent to a translational model. And this model can represent more complex deformation using more nodes. We used an iterative gradient based search algorithm to estimate nodal displacement. Each iteration involves the solution of a simple linear equation. This method is called the deformable block matching algorithm (DBMA).

We propose a triangulation method based on stereo vision angles. We setup stereo vision systems which extract the depth information to a moving object by detecting a moving object using difference image method and obtaining the depth information by the triangulation method based on stereo vision angles. The feature point of a moving object is used the geometrical center of the moving object, and the proposed vision system has the accuracy of 0.2mm in the range of 400mm.

In one VTR(Video Tape Recorder), two or more heads are used to record or reproduce video signals. To obtain a uniform quality of a VTR, video heads should have similar charcteristics such as geometrical shapes and electromagnetic performances. This research is aimed to develop a visual inspection system that can measure four geoemtrical parameters;HO, HI, Tw and Cw. To obtain a high realable results, DSP based image board and target based image processing algorithms were used. A series of experiments was performed for one thousands of video heads. From observation of the experimental results, the system is found to show good performance for inspection of video heads.

The purpose of image sequence coding is to reduce the spatiotemporal redundancies. The transform coding such as DCT is used for the spatial redundancies. In this paper, the optical flow method is applied to solve the problem of temporal redundancies. So far, pixel intensity conservation has been used to solve the optical flow. We used the neighborhood information as well as pixel intensity conservation. And we compared the merits and demerits of the conventional method and the proposed method in this paper.

The objective of this paper is to present a new adaptive nonlinear compensation method, which is based upon the Pthorder inverse theory and can be implemented in a systematic way, for weakly nonlinear systems that can be modeled by a Volterra series. In particular, employment of the proposed approach for the linearization of a given nonlinear system leads to the effective elimination of (up to a required order) nonlinearities in the overall system output. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method, simulation results using a satellite communication system model are also provided.

The block matching algorithm for the motion estimation is relatively simple to implement, and thus widely applied in image sequence coding such as H.261, MPEG I and MPEG2. Most techniques of the block matching method use fixedsize blocks for the motion estimation. And their success relies on the assumption that the motion within each block is uniform. But if the block size is increased to reduce the number of motion vectors for high data compression, the estimated image brings about many errors. In this paper, the variablesized blocks are used to solve this problem. And the top down method is used to select the block size.

The storage function method(SFM) is one of hydrologic flood routings which has been used most widely in Korea and Japan. This paper presents a storage function method using multiple model adaptive estimation(MMAE), in which a model set is generated by partitioning storage parameters over feasible range, and each storage function model is estimated, and then the weighted average of them is calculated. Finally, the future runoff is predicted in real time by means of observed data of water level at dam and rainfall. Simulation results applied to actual data show that the proposed method has much better performance than that of conventional SFM.

We propose an estimator design method of Stewart platform, which gives the 6DOF, positions and velcities of Stewart platform from the measured cylinder length. The solution of forward kinematics is not solved yet as a useful realtime application tool because of the complexity of the equation with multiple solutions. Hence we suggest an nonlinear estimator for the forward kinematics solution using Luenberger observer with nonlinear error correction term. But the way of residual gain selection of the estimator is not clear, so we suggest an algebraic Riccati equation for gain matrix using Lyapunov method. This algorithm gives the sufficient condition of the stability of error dynamics and can be extended to general nonlinear system.

In this paper, it is shown that the dominant errors of baroaltimeters can be characterized by bias and scale factor errors. Also an optimal filter for estimating both bias and scale factor is derived based on the concept of model transition. The optimal filter is, however, not realizable because the model transition hypotheses increase exponentially. Therefore a realizable suboptimal filter using the interacting multiple model(IMM) technique is proposed. Computer simulation results show that the estimation errors of the proposed filter are smaller than those of the conventional least squares algorithm with a forgetting factor when both the bias and the scale factor are varying.

In chemical processes, measurement errors reduce the credibility of information and cause inconsistency in material and energy balances. Because multicomposition flows and temperature measurements make material and energy balances nonlinear equations, data reconciliation becomes a nonlinear constrained optimization problem. In multicomposition processes, if we follow general optimization procedure, the number of measurement variables is so large that data reconciliation requires much computation time. We propose the decomposition procedure to reduce the computation time without the decrease of accuracy of data reconciliation. Decomposition procedure finds global variables, that can reduce the nonlinearity of constraints, and divides two suboptimization problems. Once we optimize the global variables at upper level, we can easily optimize the remain variables at tower level, We can obtain the short computational time and the same accuracy as SQP optimization method.

An offline programming, OLP, system is widely used in automation fines. To help an online robot system to carry out desirable tasks planned by the offline simulation, an approach to the realtime communication is presented. The OLP system developed consists of a software, a host computer(PC), a SCARA robot body, four servo drivers, and four independent joint controllers. This study focuses on the software where realtime communication is included. The software, can be used in teaching, trajectory planning, realtime running, and performance evaluation. The evaluation of different control algorithms is one of the merits of the software. The software can give servo commands for task running. A comparison of generated and corresponding actual trajectories provides the evaluation of task performance. The safety, of the OLP system is ensured by alarming malfuntions of the system. The OLP system developed can reduce the teaching time and increase the user's convenience.

Bangbang control law provides the optimal solution for a minimumtime control problem, but ignores the intermediate path except for the initial and final points. In this paper, a near minimumtime suboptimal fuzzy logic controller is introduced that can control the intermediate path. A dynamic model for a system is established using the average dynamics method of linearization. System model is continuously updated over the control time periods. This makes it suitable for high speed or variable payload applications. Bangbang control theory is modified and used to derive the preliminary control law. A fuzzy logic algorithm is then applied to adjust and find the best solution. The solution will provide the suboptimal minimumtime control law which can avoid obstacles in the workspace.

A 5bar structure with redundant actuators is proposed as a finger mechanism. It is shown that one additional redundant actuator greatly enhances the load handling capacity of the system. The actuator location should be carefully decided to maximize the performance enhancement. Furthermore, we develop stiffness and frequency control algorithms based on the internal loading created by redundant actuation. The effectiveness of these algorithms have been demonstrated by simulations.

In order to establish the robust current controller design technique of series wound motor driver system. This paper proposes a method of compensated BangBang current control using a series wound motor driver system under improperly variable load. To get minimum time torque control. A compensated BangBang current controller structure is simpler than the structure of PID plus BangBang controller. This paper shows that a general 8 bits microprocessor be used efficiently implementing such an algorithm. The calculation time of software is extremely small when compared with conventional PID plus BangBang a controller. Both nonlinear operating characteristics of Digital switching elements and Describing Function methods are used for the analysis and synthesis. Real time implementation of compensated BangBang current is achieved. Concept design strategy of the control and PWM waveform generation algorithms are presented in the paper.

This paper presents the initial results of development of a inertial navigation grade silicon pendulous accelerometer. This effort focused on developing a bulkmicromachined silicon pendulum and designing a PIservo controller. Performance data presented in this paper includes threshold, bias short term stability and nonlinearity of scale factor. This accelerometer developed is demonstrated the feasibility of meeting onenauticalmileperhour accuracy.

Bae, GilHo;Han, SungHyun;Lee, MinChul;Son, Kwon;Lee, JangMyung;Lee, ManHyung;Kim, SungKwon 61
This paper presents a new approach to the design of selftuning adaptive control system that is robust to the changing dynamic configuration as well as to the load variation factors using Digital signal processors for robot manipulators. TMS32OC50 is used in implementing realtime adaptive control algorithms to provide advanced performance for robot manipulator. In this paper, an adaptive control scheme is proposed in order to design the poleplacement selftuning controller which can reject the offset due to any load disturbance without a detailed description of robot dynamics. Parameters of discretetime difference model are estimated by the recursive leastsquare identification algorithm, and controller parameters are determined by the poleplacement method. Performance of selftuning adaptive controller is illustrated by the simulation and experiment for a SCARA robot. 
Robotic manipulators have become increasingly important in the field of flexible automation. High speed and highprecision trajectory tracking are indispensable capabilities for their versatile application. The need to meet demanding control requirement in increasingly complex dynamical control systems under significant uncertainties, leads toward design of intelligent manipulation robots. This paper presents a new approach to the design of neural control system using digital signal processors in order to improve the precision and robustness. The TMS32OC31 is used in implementing real time neural control to provide an enhanced motion control for robotic manipulators. In this control scheme, the networks introduced are neural nets with dynamic neurons, whose dynamics are distributed over all the, network nodes. The nets are trained by the distributed dynamic back propagation algorithm. The proposed neural network control scheme is simple in structure, fast in computation, and suitable for implementation of realtime, control. Performance of the neural controller is illustrated by simulation and experimental results for a SCARA robot.

In this paper robust tracking control scheme using the new threesegment nonlinear sliding mode technique for nonlinear rigid robotic manipulator is developed. Sliding mode consists of three segments, the promotional acceleration segment, the constant velocity segment and the deceleration segment using terminal sliding mode. Strong robustness and fast error convergence can be obtained for rigid robotic manipulators with large uncertain dynamics by using the new threesegment nonlinear sliding mode technique together with a few useful structural properties of rigid robotic manipulator. The efficiency of the proposed method for the tracking has been demonstrated by simulations for twolink robot manipulator.

This paper presents a dynamical antireset windup (ARW) compensation method for saturating control systems with multiple controllers and/or multiloop configuration. By regarding the difference of the controller states in the absence and presence of saturating actuators as an objective function, the dynamical compensator which minimize the objective function are derived in an integrated fashion. The proposed dynamical compensator is a closed form of the plant and controller parameters. The proposed method guarantees total stability of resulting system. An illustrative example is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

In this paper a nonlinear control strategy via feedback linearization and energy based Lyapunov function for underactuated mechanical systems is investigated. Underactuated mechanical system is a system of which the number of actuators is less than the number of degrees of freedom. Developed algorithm is applied to a crane system of grab operation. Positioning of the trolley as well as swingup of the pendulum to the upright position including maintaining the sway angle at some desired degree are demonstrated. Simulations are provided.

We propose the robust nonlinear controller design methodology, the
$H_{\infty}$ constrained quasi  linear quadratic Gaussian control (QLQG/$H_{\infty}$ ), for the statisticallylinearized multivariable system with hard nonlinearties such as Coulomb friction, deadzone, etc. The$H_{\infty}$ performance constraint is involved in the optimization process by replacing the covariance Lyapunov equation with the Riccati equation whose solution leads to an upper bound of the QLQG performance. Because of the system's nonlinearity, however, one equation among three Riccati equations contain the nonlinear correction terms that are very difficult to solve numerically. To treat this problem, we use simple algebraic techniques. With some analytic transformation for Riccati equations, the nonlinear correction terms can be so eliminated that the set of a linear controller to the different operating points are designed. Synthesizing these via inverse random input describing function (IRIDF) technique, the final nonlinear controller can be designed. 
We develop an efficient technique of controlling chaos using Mstep ahead prediction with the OGY method. It has smaller transient time than the OGY method, and prevents burst phenomena that occur in noisy environment. This technique is very simple and needs small memory compared with targeting algorithms. Numerical examples show that the proposed algorithm has good performance, especially in noisy environment.

In this paper, we developed visual tracking algorithm using double active bar. The active bar model to represent the object can reduce the search space of energy surface and better performance than those of snake model. However, the contour will not find global equilibrium when driving force caused by image may be weak. To overcome this problem. Double active bar is proposed for finding the global minimum point without any dependence on initialization. To achieve the goal, an deformable model with two initial contours in attempted to search for a global minimum within two specific initial contours. This approach improve the performance of finding the contour of target. To evaluate the performance, some experiments are executed. We can achieved the good result for tracking a object on noisy image.

Structured laser light is a widely used method for obtaining 3D range information in Machine Vision. However, The structured laser light method is based on assumption that the surface of objects is Lambertian. When the observed surfaces are highly specularly reflective, the laser light can be detected in various parts on the image due to a specular reflection and secondary reflection. This makes wrong range data and the image sensor unusable for the specular objects. To discriminate wrong range data from obtained image data, we have proposed a new algorithm by using the cross section of image block. To show the performance of the proposed method, a series of experiments was, carried out on: the simple geometric shaped objects. The proposed method shows a dramatic improvement of 3D range data better than the typical structured laser light method.

In this paper, we describe an algorithm which estimate road following direction using the vanishing point property and obstacle detection. This method of detecting the lane markers in a set of continuous lane highway images using linear approximation is presented. This algorithm is designed for accurate and robust extraction of this data as well as high processing speed. Also, this algorithm reckon distance and chase about an obstacle. It include four algorithms which are lane prediction, lane extraction, road following parameter estimation and obstacle detection algorithm. High accuracy was proven by quantitative evaluation using simulated images. Both robustness and the practicality of real time video rate processing were then confirmed through experiment using VTR real road images.

In nuclear power plants, workers are reluctant of works in steam generator because of the high radiation environment and limited working space. It is strongly recommended that the examination and maintenance works be done by an automatic system for the protection of the operator from the radiation exposure. In this paper, it is proposed a new approach to the development of the automatic vision system to examine and repair the steam generator tubes at remote distance. Digital signal processors are used in implementing real time recognition and examination of steam generator holes in the proposed vision system. Performance of proposed digital vision system is illustrated by experiment for similar steam generator model.

In this paper, we present an interpolation schema for image resolution enhancement using fuzzy logic. Proposed algorithm can recover both low and high frequency information in image data. In general, interpolation techniques are based on linear operators which are essentially details in the original image. In our fuzzy approach, the operator itself balances the strength of its sharpening and noise suppressing components according to the properties of the input image data. The proposed interpolation algorithm is performed in three step. First logic reasoning is applied to coarsely interpret the high frequency information. These results are combined to obtain the optical output. Using our approach, resolution of the original image can be applied to various kind of image processing topics such as image enhancement, subpixel edge detection, and filtering.

The more integrated and smaller SMD are needed, new solder joints packaging technologies are developed in these days such as BGA(Ball Grid Array), Flip Chip, Jlead etc. But, it's unable to inspect solder joints in those devices by visual inspection methods, because they are hided by it's packages. To inspect those new SMD packages, an Xray system for acquiring a crosssectional image of a arbitrary plane is necessary. In this paper, an analysis for designing Xray cross sectional imaging system is presented including the way for correcting the distortion of image intensifier. And we show computer simulation of that system with a simple PCB model to show it's usefulness in applying PCB solder joint inspection.

In this paper, an algorithm to generate the mounting position and orientation of SMD is proposed. For the proposed algorithm, we used the image captured from PCB and utilized image processing technique. Preprocessing technique, threshold level determination method, divided recognition of the SMD pattern on a PCB, calculating mounting position and orientation are related topics of this research. All of the related topics were reviewed and the results of this research were obtained from applying the algorithm to the real Surface Mounting Machine(model: MCU1 /CPM) made by Samsung Electronics Co.(Ltd.)

In this paper, a new approach to acquire the crosssentional image for automatic solder joint inspection of doublesided PCB using Xray source is presented. We designed the apparatus with fixed Xray source to realize the crosssectional image by tunning object and detector synchronously. The crosssectional images are captured at several view angle of Xray source, the geometric image distortions caused by view angle and the shape of image intensifier are compensated. The precision variation of crosssectional image by the change of view angle was investigated. Also we acquired the crosssectional image to the solder joint of doublesided PCB and reconstructed the shape of solder joint.

Recently, the importance of the network using Fieldbus is being increased in an implementation of factory automation system. In spite of expanding the concept and products of Fieldbus, it is not widely used yet. This is partly due to the lack of the standard specification and the relatively low performance with respect to the cost. So, in order to expand the usage of the Fieldbus, not only the standardization effort, but. also the increase of performance is needed. In this paper, the method which increases the performance of Fieldbus by reforming of the sensor and the actuator data is thoroughly estimated and evaluated when the assumptions about the realtime characteristics of a robot workcell as an example of the ICCS(Integrated Communication and Control System) are sustained.

This paper presents the haptic rendering algorithm which gives the feel information to the operator by manipulating a virtual tool with a haptic device in the simulated environment. The movement of a virtual tool grasped by the operator, which is modeled as a square is displayed in the graphic screen of a computer and the virtual environment is modeled as deformable thin film. When the tool contacts with the virtual environment, the operator is forced to feel the contact and the feature of the deformed virtual environment through the torque control of th haptic device. Contact situations are modeled as close as to the reality considering friction, elasticity and multiple contacts. Several experiments are conducted and the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is confirmed.

An exploration for an emotional intelligence paradigm has been delineated. Emotional intelligence is investigated in terms of composing machine as a modern abstract art. The system consists of interface, plan and performance modules. Design concepts of the system are modular, open, and user friendly to ensure the overall performance. The exploration of art in the view of intelligence, information and structure will restore the balanced sense of the art and the science seek the happiness of life. The investigations of emotional intelligence will establish the foundations of intelligence, information and control technologies.

Refuse incineration plant operations involve many kinds of uncertain factors, such as the variable physical properties of refuse as fuel and the complexity of the burning phenomenon. That makes it very difficult apply conventional control methods to the combustion control of the refuse. In this paper, an adaptive fuzzy model predictive controller is proposed for the combustion control of the refuse. In this paper, an adaptive fuzzy model predictive controller is proposed for the combustion control of the refuse. And computer simulation was carried out to evaluate performance of the proposed controller.

This paper presents a method of controlling contact force for deburring tasks. The cope with the nonlinearities and timevarying properties of the robot and the environment, a neural network control theory is applied to design the contact force control system. We show that the contact force between the hand and the contacting surface can be controlled by adjusting the command velocity of a robot hand, which is accomplished by the modeling of a robot and the environment as MassSpringDamper system. Simulation results are shown.

In this paper, we propose a hopfield model for solving the partmatching which is the number of parts and positions are changed. The goal of this paper is to minimize partconnection in pairs and net total path of partconnection. Therefore, this kind of problem is referred to as a combinatorial optimization problem. First of all, we review the theoretical basis for hopfield model to optimization and present two method of partmatching; Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) and Weighted Matching Problem (WMP). Finally, we show demonstration through computer simulation and analyzes the stability and feasibility of the generated solutions for the proposed connection methods.

This paper describes controller design and implementation method for controlling the temperature distribution in a thermal stratified wind tunnel(TSWT) by using a neural network algorithm. It is impossible to derive a mathematical model of the relation between heat inputs and temperature outputs in the test section of the TSWT governed by a nonlinear turbulent flow. Thus inverse neural network models with a multi layer perceptron structure are used in a feedforward control loop and feedback control loop to generate an arbitrary temperature distribution in the test section of the TSWT.

To automate an excavator the control issues resulting from environmental uncertainties must be solved. In particular the interactions between the excavation tool and the excavation environment are dynamic, unstructured and complex. In addition, operating modes of an excavator depend on working conditions, which makes it difficult to derive the exact mathematical model of excavator. Even after the exact mathematical model is established, it is difficult to design of a controller because the system equations are highly nonlinear and the state variable are coupled. The objective of this study is to design a multilayer neural network which controls the position of excavator's attachment. In this paper, a dynamic controller has been developed based on an error backpropagation(BP) neural network. Computer simulation results demonstrate such powerful characteristics of the proposed controller as adaptation to changing environment, robustness to disturbance and performance improvement with the online learning in the position control of excavator attachment.

An adaptive predictive control for steamreforming plant which consist of a steamgas reformer and a waste heat steamboiler was studied by using MIMO bilinear model. The simulation experiments of the process identification were performed by using linear and bilinear models. From the simulation results it was found that the bilinear model represented the dynamic behavior of a steamreforming plant very well. ARMA model was used in the process identification and the adaptive predictive control. To verify the performance and effectiveness of the adaptive predictive controller proposed in this study the simulation results of steamreforming plant control based on bilinear model were compared to those of linear model. The simulation results showed that the adaptive predictive controller based on bilinear model provides better performance than those of linear model.

This paper deals with MCMBPC(Multivariable Constrained Model Based Predictive Controller) for nonlinear boiler system with noise and disturbance. MCMBPC is designed by linear state space model obtained from some operating point of nonlinear boiler system and Kalman filter is used to estimate the state with noise and disturbance. The solution of optimization of the cost function constrained on input and/or output variables is achieved using quadratic programming, viz. singular value decomposition (SVD). The controller designed is shown to have excellent tracking performance via simulation applied to nonlinear dynamic drum boiler turbine model for 16OMW unit.

This paper presents an offline P.I.D parameter estimation method during normal operation in power plant. The process parameters are estimated using the recursive least square method. The controller parameters are estimated on the basis of desired characteristics of the dynamic model of the closedloop control.

In masterslave teleoperating system, it is important that the system has good maneuverability. In this paper, it is addressed an adaptive learning control method applicable to the masterslave system. This control scheme has the ability to estimate uncertain dynamic parameters included intrinsically in the system and to achieve the desired performance without the nasty matrix operation. The proposed method is applied to a masterslave teleoperating system composed of two SCARA robots and verified experimentally.

The transient behavior of the complexLMS adaptive filter is studied when the adaptive filter is operating on a fixed or sweeping complex frequency sinewave signal. The firstorder difference equation is derived for the mean weights and its closed form solution is obtained. The transient response is represented as a function of the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of input correlation matrix. The meansquare error of the algorithm is evaluated as well. An optimal convergence parameter and filter length can be determined for sweeping frequency sinewave signals as a function of frequency change rate and signal and noise powers.

Fuzzy control systems depend on a number of parameters such as the shape or magnitude of the fuzzy membership functions, etc. Conventional fuzzy reasoning method can not be easily applied to the multiinput multioutput(MIMO) system due to the large number of rules in the rule base. Recently Z. Cao et al have proposed a New Fuzzy Reasoning Method(NFRM) which turned out to be superior to Zadeh's FRM. We have extended the NFRM to handle the MIMO system. However, it is difficult to choose a proper relation matrix of the NFRM. Therefore, we have modified the evolution strategy(ES), which is one of the optimization algorithms, to do efficiently the tuning operation for the extended NFRM. Finally we applied the extended NFRM with the modified ES to tracking control of robot manipulator.

Generally, While position type fuzzy controller has good performance in transient period, it has uniform steady state error of response. While velocity type fuzzy controller is capable of reducing steady state error of response, it is hard to develop the performance in transient period. In order to have both good performance in transient period and ability to reduce the steady state error of response, weighting fuzzy controller, which is composed of these two fuzzy controllers, is proposed. For the decision of weight to each fuzzy controller, Weighting fuzzy set is established according to the system state variables and applied to each fuzzy controller. The proposed weighted fuzzy controller has the merits of both position type fuzzy controller and velocity type fuzzy controller simultaneously.

In this paper, an algorithm for tuning gains of a PID controller is proposed. The proposed algorithm is composed of two stages. The first is a stage for Lyapunov functionbased initial stabilization of an overall system and rough tuning gains of the PID controller. The other is that for fine tuning gains of the PID controller. All tunings are performed by using the wellknown fuzzy logicbased tuner. The computer simulations are performed to show the validity of the proposed algorithm and results are presented.

In this paper, we derive dynamic equation of double pole inverted pendulum using Lagrangian equation, and design the fuzzy sliding mode controller. We demonstrate that the designed controller regulates double pole simultaneously regardless of cart position by computer simulation.

This paper propose an optimal scaling gain tuning method of the fuzzy PI controller using Genetic Algorithm(GA). Scaling gains can reflect the control resolution and fuzziness of input/output variables. By the scaling gain method, the design of a fuzzy logic controller(FLC) can be simplified without affecting the system performance in comparison with multidecision table method. In designing a fuzzy logic controller, the analytic approach method for the optimization is unavailable. Therefore GA is excellent optimization algorithms for scaling gain tuning. Using this optimal scaling gain tuning method, a good performance can be achieved both in transient and steady state.

The control objective of drum level of boiler in thermal power plant is to maintain drum level at constant setpoint regardless of disturbance such as main steam flow. The initial response of the drum level loop process is in a direction opposite to the final response. The drum level loop shows inverse response when the power is changed abruptly. We adopt fuzzy controller using knowledge base considering system dynamics for controlling drum level. Finally, the simulation result using the digital simulator for boiler system in Seoul Power Plant Unit 4 shows the validity of fuzzy controller.

In this paper, we used the maximum likelihood method for 2point aerodynamic model to determine the parameters of the ChangGong91. Since the estimation from the flight test of real aircraft is the most reliable, we performed the flight test of ChangGong91 to get the parameters such as velocity, height, 3 axis acceleration, 3 axis angular rate, pitch angle, angle of attack, temperature and so on. We recorded the flight test data in SVHS tapes and stored them to personal computer using A/D(analog to digital) converter. Flight test was done in stall motion, and the acquired data was be processed with parameter identification method.

The purpose of this paper is to find how to determine the parameters of the basic control system design such as hinge moment coefficients and to display the controllability of the ChangCong91. Since the estimation from the flight test of real aircraft is the most reliable, we performed the flight test of ChangGong91 to get the various parameters such as velocity, height, control force, control surface deflection, 3 axis acceleration, 3 axis angular rate, pitch angle, angle of attack temperature and so on. We recorded the flight test data in VHS tapes and stored them to personal computer using A/D(analog to digital) converter. Flight test was done in various conditions, and the acquired data was processed with parameter identification method such as least square method. These data will be utilized for the development of Autopilot System design and Control Loading System design.

The software of the midclass commuter flight simulation is running on multiprocessor/multitasking environments The software is consist of tasks which are periodically alive at a given interval. Each task communicates via shared memory. The data shared by tasks is divided by several block. Only one task, called producer, can produce data for a data block but several tasks, called consumers, can read data from the data block. Double buffer and conditional flag are used to implement a mutual exclusion which prevents the producer and consumers from accessing the same data block simultaneously.

Random drift rate (i.e., random drift in angle rate) of a gyro represents the major error source of inertial navigation systems that are required to operate over long time intervals. It is uncorrectable and leads to an increase in the error with the passage of time. In this paper a technique is presented for analyzing random process from experimental data and the results are presented. The problem of estimating the a priori statistics of a random process is considered using time averages of experimental data. Time averages are calculated and used in the optimal dataprocessing techniques to determine the statistics of the random process. Therefore the contribution each component to the gyro drift process can be quantitatively measured by its statistics. The above techniques will be applied to actual gyro drift rate data with satisfactory results.

This paper studies a class of inparallel manipulators with special geometry where the forward displacement analysis problem can be solved easier than the fully parallel manipulators. Three horizontal links of this mechanism provide 3DOFs(Degrees of Freedom), which are one degree of orientational freedom and two degrees of translatory freedom. Three vertical links of this mechanism provide 3DOFs, which are two degrees of orientational freedom and one degree of translatory freedom. The main advantages of this manipulator, compared with the Stewart platform type, are the capability to produce pure rotation and to predict the motion of the moving platform easily. Since this manipulator has simple kinematic characteristics compared with the Stewart platform, controlling in realtime is possible due to less computational burden. The purpose of this investigation is to develope an analytical method and systematic method to analyze the basic kinematics of the manipulator. The basic kinematic equations of the manipulator are derived and simulation is carried out to show the performance of the mechanism.

In this paper, a fully geometrical method for the determination of the workspace of a 6DOF parallel manipulator is presented using the concept of 4bar linkage. The reachable and dexterous can be determined from the proposed algorithm. In order to evaluate the workspace, each leg is considered as an open chain, and two kinematic constraints are developed. The proposed method is verified by simulation.

Since impact phenomenon is highly nonlinear, the analysis and control of the contact motion has been a challenging subject. Various researches have been carried out mostly for the contact of a rigid robotic manipulator with a stiff and elastic environment. This paper is motivated by a new contact task: the incircuit test of a printed circuit board. In this process, high speed contact occurs between a rigid probing manipulator and a plastically deformable work environment. A new dynamic model of the impact controlled probing task has been proposed, considering contact with the plastically deformable object. Approaching velocity conditions to avoid an excess of the allowable penetration depth and control the generated impact force properly are derived from the proposed model. The results of the simulation studies are made for various probing conditions and show the validity of the proposed model.

This paper concerns a SCARA type robot with the second arm flexible. Its equations of motion are derived by the Lagrangian mechanics. For controller design, the perturbation approach is taken to separate the original equations of motion into linear equations describing small perturbed motions and nonlinear equations describing purely rigid motion of the robot. To effect the desired payload motion, open loop control inputs are first determined based on the inverse dynamics of the latter. Next, in order to reduce the positional error during maneuver, an active vibration suppression is done. To this end, a feedback control is designed for robustness against disturbance on the basis of the linear equations and the LQR theory modified with a prescribed degree of stability. The numerical simulations results show the satisfactory control performance.

The position control accuracy of the robot arm is decreased significantly when a long arm robot is operated at high speed. In this case, the robot arm must be modeled as a flexible structure, not a rigid one, and its control system will be necessarily designed with its elastic modes taken into account. In this paper, the vibration control of a onelink flexible robot arm is presented. The robot system consists of a flexible arm manufactured with thin aluminium plate, AC servomotor with a harmonic drive for speed reduction, optical encoder and accelerometer. The system is modeled with limited number of elastic modes, and its parameters are determined from the results of the experiments. The implemented control schemes are LQ control and sliding mode control. The experiments and digital simulations are carried out to test the validity of the system modeling, controller design, and active control implementation.

This paper describes a liner statespace model for a flexible stick balencer. The method employed to generate the model utilizes a separable formulation of assumed modes to represents the transverse displacement due to bending Lagrangian dynamics are applied to determine the kinetic and potential energies for the system. The resultant dynamic equations are then organized into a state space model and linearized using Taylor series expansion method. A minimum order observer is designed to estimate unmeasurable states.

Internal Force based control of dual redundant manipulator is proposed. One is resolved acceleration type control in the decoupled joint space which includes null motion space and the other is in the impedance control fashion in which the desired impedances are decoupled in three subspace, internal motion controlled space, orthogonal to that space, and the null motion controlled space. The internal force is formulated with its basis set meaningful. The object dynamics is also briefly evolved beforehand.

This paper discusses the general properties and the design procedures of Internal Model Control(IMC) scheme for nonlinear plants. Also we propose new nonlinear IMC(NIMC) design method using linear IMC. Although all IMC controllers can be thought simple 'inverse controller', its nonlinear realization is not easy. Propose NIMC is composed multiple linear models, IMC controllers, and switching scheme. The advantages of this method are we can use simple linear IMC design method and need not nonlinear modelings.

This paper suggests a new concept for missile guidance control, called linearized common curvature guidance law that enhances the probability to kill a target. The proposed guidance system is composed of two switching modes; one for the midcourse guidance and the other for the terminal guidance, which is switched by a specified critical value (.epsilon.). And the system and the commands are formulated and its simulations are provided in comparison with the conventional commanded line of sight guidance algorithm. Miss distance and angle of attack are denoted as performance of parameters. This new concept, common curvature guidance algorithm, revises the navigation guidance and accompanies, various considerations.

The inverted pendulum system is mechanical system which can handle the modern control theory and practical applications. In theoretical field, it is used as the experimental device identifying the effects of control method and in applicative field. There are difficulties in designing or linearizing the practical controller because it is so sensitive to the parameter variation and has the highly nonlinear characteristic. In this paper, we suggested the systems which compensate the nonlinearity throughout the internal control method and designed controller which is robust to the parameter variation using sliding mode.

In this paper, A new timevarying sliding surface design using eigenvalue locus is proposed to achieve fast and robust in a class of highorder uncertain dynamic system. A moving sliding surface(MSS) was proposed earlier for the secondorder variable structure control systems(VSCS). This methodology led to fast and robust control responses of the secondorder VSCS. However, the moving algorithm of the MSS was too complicated to be employed the highorder VSCS. To resolve this problem, we propose a new moving algorithm that switching surface moves such that the eigenvalues of equivalent system in the sliding mode have a predetermined locus. Using the proposed surface fast and robust behaviors are accomplished. The problem of chattering can be eliminated by using a boundary layer of switching surface. The efficiency of proposed algorithm is illustrated by an application to fourorder workbench.

This paper presents the active eye system for tracking a moving object in 3D space. A prototype system able to track a moving object is designed and implemented. The mechanical system ables the control of platform that consists of binocular camera and also the control of the vergence angle of each camera by step motor. Each camera has two degrees of freedom. The image features of the object are extracted from complicated environment by using zero disparity filtering(ZDF). From the cnetroid of the image features the gaze point on object is calculated and the vergence angle of each camera is controlled by step motor. The Proposed method is implemented on the prototype with robust and fast calculation time.

THe Purpose of this paper is to match the feature point of manmade structure and to obtain the DEM which are occluded in a image plane. We use the trinocular matching with epipolar lines and planes. If an occlusion appears at one of the trinocular images, the DEM mapping is used to estimate the height of feature points in it.

This paper is aimed to develop a very reliable method for automatic inspection of the solder joints on PCBS. There have been lots of previous works using vision technologies, but they can not be used for inspecting BGA, FCA or other newly used devices. Thus we adopt Xray technologies for solder joint inspection. We put our attention on reconstructing the 3D shapes of solder joints since it gives us the most detailed information on quality of solder joints. Laminography principle is used to reject the interferences from neighboring parts or leads. To verify the effectiveness of laminography, a simulation study is performed in the case of a solder joints on double sided PCB using.

Error correction effect for maladjusted stereo cameras with calibrated pixel distance parameter is presented. The camera calibration is a necessary procedure for stereo visionbased depth computation. Intra and extra parameters should be obtain to determine the relation between image and world coordination through experiment. One difficulty is in camera alignment for parallel installation: placing two CCD arrays in a plane. No effective methods for such alignment have been presented before. Some amount of depth error caused from such nonparallel installation of cameras is inevitable. If the pixel distance parameter which is one of intra parameter is calibrated with known points, such error can be compensated in some amount. Such error compensation effect with the calibrated pixel distance parameter is demonstrated with some experimental results.

We propose a new method to extract valid lines from a visual image. Unsupervised clustering method is used to assign each line to any of the line groups according to its orientation. During the lowlevel image processing we use an adaptive threshold method to reduce human supervision and to automate the processing sequence. To reduce the misclassification rate and to suppress the superiors line support regions at the clustering stage, the adaptive threshold method is consistently applied. Performing principal component analysis on each line support region provides an efficient method of obtaining line equation. Finally we adopt the theory of robust statistics to guarantee the quality of each extracted line and to eliminate the lines of poor quality. We present the experimental results to verify our method. With the proposed method, one can extract the lines according to the internal orientation similarities and integrate the whole process into one adaptive procedure.

The roof crane system is used for transporting a variable load to a target position. At this time, the goal of crane system is transporting to a goal position as soon as possible with no rope oscillation. Generally crane is operated by expert's knowledge, but recently automatic control with high speed and rapid transportation is required. In this thesis we developed fuzzy controller of crane which has simplified expert's knowledge base for antiswing and rapid tansportation to goal position.

In the water purification plant, the raw water is promptly purified by injecting chemicals. The amount of chemicals is directly related to water quality such as turbidity, temperature, pH and alkalinity. At present, however, the process of chemical reaction to the turbidity has not been clarified as yet. Since the process of coagulant dosage has no feedback signal, the amount of chemical can not be calculated from water quality data which were sensed from the plant. Accordingly, it has to be judged and determined by JarTest data which were made by skilled operators. In this paper, it is concerned to model and control the coagulant dosing process using jartest results in order to predict optimum dosage of coagulant, PAC(Polymerized Aluminium Chloride). The considering relations to the reaction of coagulation and flocculation, the five independent variables(turbidity, temperature, pH, Alkalinity of the raw water, PAC feed rate) are selected out and they are put into calculation to develope a neural network model and a fuzzy model for coagulant dosing process in water purification system. These model are utilized to predict optimum coagulant dosage which can minimize the water turbidity in flocculator. The efficacy of the proposed control schemes was examined by the field test.

Two servo control algorithms are suggested to reduce the tracking error of a computer hard disk drive. One is the repetitive control to reduce the repeatable tracking error which is not explicitly taken into account in the design of a conventional controller. This algorithm was successfully applied to a commercial disk using a fixed point DSP. The other is the multirate sampling control which generates the control output between each sampling times since the sampling time of hard disk drives is limited. These algorithms were shown effectively to reduce tracking errors.

In many application, LBLDCM is specialpurpose devices in that, unlike their rotary counterparts, LBLDCM is tailored to specific needs. Whereas a rotary machine or a rotary motor interface with the mechanical systm through the shaft, a linear motor often interacts with the moving member(of the "rotor"), which is the mechanical system itself. This paper focuses on the load characteristics of LBLDCM.of LBLDCM.

In this paper, a selftuning optimal control algorithm is proposed to retain the optimal performance of an active suspension system, when the vehicle has some time varying parameters and parameter uncertainties. We consider a 2 DOF timevarying quarter car model which has the parameter variation of sprung mass, suspension spring constant and suspension damping constant. Instead of solving algebraic riccati equation on line, we propose a neural network approach as an alternative. The optimal feedback gains obtained from the off line computation, according to parameter variations, are used as the neural network training data. When the active suspension system is on, the parameters are identified by the recursive least square method and the trained neural network controller designer finds the proper optimal feedback gains. The simulation results are represented and discussed.

Since a standard lens has small sight angle, a fisheye lens can be used in order to obtain wide sight angle for the robot vision system. In spite of the advantage, the image through the lens has variable resolution; the central information of the lens is of high resolution, but the peripheral information is of low resolution. Owing to this difference of resolution, the variable resolution image should be transformed to a uniform resolution image in order to determine the positions of the objects in the image. In this work, the correction method for the distorted image is presented and the performance is analyzed. Furthermore, the camera with a fish eye lens can be used to determine the real world coordinates. The performance is shown through experiments.

This paper presents a visual servoing combined by Neural Network with optimal structure and predictive control for robotic manipulators to tracking or grasping of the moving object. Using the four feature image information from CCD camera attached to endeffector of RVM2 robot manipulator having 5 dof, we want to predict the updated position of the object. The Kalman filter is used to estimate the motion parameters, namely the state vector of the moving object in successive image frames, and using the multi layer feedforward neural network that permits the connection of other layers, evolutionary programming(EP) that search the structure and weight of the neural network, and evolution strategies(ES) which training the weight of neuron, we optimized the net structure of control scheme. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed control scheme and predictive control of moving object will be verified by computer simulation.

This paper presents a method of landmark recognition in indoor environments using a neuralnetwork for an autonomous mobile robot. In order to adapt to image deformation of a landmark resulted from variations of viewpoints and distances, a multilabeled template matching(MLTM) method and a dynamic area search method(DASM) are proposed. The MLTM is. used for matching an image template with deformed real images and the DASM is proposed to detect correct feature points among incorrect feature points. Finally a feedforward neuralnetwork using backpropagation algorithm is adopted for recognizing the landmark.

In this paper, a neural control algorithm is proposed on the automation of adjustment process. The adjustment processes in camcoder production line are modelled, and the processes are adjusted automatically by means of offline supervisory trained multilayer neural network. We have made many experiments on the several adjustment processes by using the control algorithm. There are many unexpected troubles to achieve the desirable adjust time in the practical application. To overcome those, some auxiliary algorithms are demanded. As a result, our proposed algorithm has some advantages  simple architecture, easy extraction of the training data without expertises, adaptability to the varying systems, and wide application for the other resemble processes.

In this paper, we present a nonlinear adaptive controller for position tracking of induction motors. In constructing the adaptive controller, a backstepping approach is used under the condition of full state information, while a nonlinear observer is adopted for rotor flux estimation. The adaptive controller is shown to drive the state variables of system to the desired ones asymptotically and whose effectiveness is also shown via computer simulation.

In this study, a controller design method is proposed for controlling the discretetime chaotic systems efficiently. Our proposed control method is based on Generalized Predictive Control and uses NARMAX models as a controlled model. In order to evaluate the performance of our proposed controller design method, a proposed controller is applied to Henon system which is a discretetime chaotic system, and then the control performance of the proposed controller are compared with those of the previous modelbased controllers through computer simulations. Through simulations, it is shown that the control performance of the proposed controller is superior to that of the conventional modelbased controller.

In a simple system, the control schemes work well provided that the characteristic of the plant or the coefficients are known and fixed. But the condition is not met in the system like satellite, for example, varying over time and the coefficients of dynamic system change due to disturbance, etc, and the better precise model is required to control the given dynamic system well. Conversely, the fixed controller make the unmodel dynamic system with a wide class of modelling error be stable within the error tolerance limits. Also, a robust model reference adaptive control scheme is designed for the plant, paying attention to the derivation of the appropriate parametric model and the design of the normalizing signal to guarantee that it has the desired properties.

It is well known that the controller output limits have a signifiant effect on the closed loop system performance. Considering the input constraints in GPCF, an effective selection method of the control weighting(.gamma.) is proposed to reduce the amplitude and the rate of control signals so that control signals lie within the limits. It is based on the relation between control weighting(.gamma.) and optimal solution of the unconstrained GPCF. The GPCFIC algorithm chooses an .gamma. at each sampling time so that all unconstrained GPCF output over the control horizon satisfy the rate and the amplitude constraints. In order to evaluate the performance of the GPCFIC, the computer simulations have been done for level control of PWR steam generator in low power operation and shown satisfactory results.

It is a wellknown problem that the adaptive control has a poor transient response. In order to improve this problem, the scheme that modelreference adaptive control (MRAC) uses the genetic algorithm (GA) in the search for parameters is proposed. Use genetic algorithm (GA) in the searching for controller's parameters set and conventional gradient method for fine tuning. And show the reduction of the oscillations in transient response comparing with the conventional MRAC.

In this paper, we are going to design an iterative learning controller with the robust properties for initial error. For this purpose, the PIDtype learning law will be considered and the design guideline will be presented for the selection of the learning gain. Also, we are going to suggest a condition for the convergence of control input for a plant with input delay. Several simulation results are presented, which shows the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

In this paper, the method for controlling PUMA robot using F/T sensor is described. In the part of the setup automation, robot is used. The F/T sensor is located at robot endeffector and various experiments are executed such as peg in hole, gripping objects, tool changing, etc.

A new method for online induction motor fault detection is presented in this paper. This system utilizes unsupervisedlearning clustering algorithm, the Dignet, proposed by Thomopoulos etc., to learn the spectral characteristics of a good motor operating online. After a sufficient training period, the Dignet signals onephase ground fault, or a potential failure condition when a new cluster is formed and persists for some time. Since a fault condition is found by comparison to a prior condition of the machine, online failure prediction is possible with this system without requiring information on the motor of load characteristics.

With only the classical PID controller applied to control of a DC motor, a good (target) performance characteristic of the controller can be obtained, if all the model parameters of DC motor and operating conditions such as external load torque, disturbance, etc. are exactly known. However, in case when some of system parameters or operating conditions are uncertain or unknown, the fixed PID controller does not guarantee the good performance which is assumed with precisely known system parameters and operating conditions. In view of this and robustness enhancement of DC motor control system, we propose a PID learning controller which consists of a set of learning rules for PID gain tuning and learning of an auxiliary input. The proposed PID learning controller is shown to drive the state of uncertain DC motor system with unknown system parameters and external load torque to the desired one globally asymptotically. Computer simulation results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed PID learning controller, thereby showing whose superiority to the conventional fixed PID controller.

A new target adaptive guidance (TAG) algorithm is proposed to engage the aim point formed by adding a bias to the information from an infrared (IR) seeker for improving passive homing guidance effectiveness. The TAG algorithm utilizes an observability enhancing midcourse guidance algorithm to obtain convergent estimates of state variables involved particularly in range channel otherwise unavailable from passive sensors. Simulation results indicate that the TAG algorithm provides improved terminal effectiveness without computational complexities.

The primary objective of guidance system is to generate suitable commands so that the pursuer comes closer to its target. It is necessary, however, in the guidance of a certain pursuer that the attitude angle at impact should be within a prescribed range in addition to specification on the miss distance. These guidance requirements can not be satisfied by the general guidance laws developed for miss distance minimization. Compared with the demand in many applications, the guidance laws dealing with impact attitude angle constraint are not easily found. In this paper, biased PNG laws are proposed to obtain the guidance purposes. By Lyapunov method, it is shown that the pursuer can intercept the target with a prescribed attitude angle under the assumption that the pursuer is sufficiently fast and the target maneuver is negligible. The simulation results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the suggested guidance laws.

The guidance system which uses the lineofsight(LOS) rate to guide the missile towards its target has been used to the conventional differential game, such as the pursuerevader game. Proportional navigation guidance and its derivatives have been shown to be an effective LOS rate guidance system. In this paper, we have used the genetic algorithm to construct the guidance system for the pursuerevader type differential game. Also we have proposed the prediction model to obtain the informations about the intention of future actions of the pursuer and the evader.

A Reclaimer is used to dig raw material from a pile and transfer it to the blast furnaces. In this paper, we propose the method for trajectory landing position of bucket of reclaimer to fully automate the reclaimer. We use 3dimensional range finder to detect the shape of a pile. From the image which was detected by 3dimensional range finder, we extract the outline paths which has same height, and then determine digging height. Finally, we compute the landing point from the outline path. We can prevent overload which can occur on the bucket wheel and guarantee maximum production rate by using the algorithm for determining the landing position on the piles.

This study deals with the motion modeling by the unit motion of robots and the work measurement through classification of robot motions and standardization. The proposed approach is to scrutinize the Predetermined Time Standards(PTS) methods for measurement of manual tasks performed by people and the basic motions for accomplishing that tasks. And then, it constructs the unit motion models as subsets composed with the basic motions. It apply together with movements distance as a time variable, too. These results are used for the work measurements of robots by the unit motion models.

This paper presents the kinematic and dynamic analysis of parallel manipulators with redundant joints, obtained by putting additional active joints to an existing parallel manipulator. We develop the kinematic and dynamic models of a parallel manipulator with redundant joints. The redundancy in serial chain, due to the increased number of joints per limb, is considered in the modeling. Based oh the derived models, we define the kinematic and dynamic manipulabilities of a parallel manipulator with redundant joints. The effect of the redundant joints on the performance of parallel manipulators is analyzed in terms of kinematic and dynamic manipulabilities.

Robot control software is a hard realtime system that must output the planned trajectory points within an explicit short time period. In this paper, we present a design and implementation method for robot control software using commercial realtime operating systems, RTKemel 4.5. Therefore, various robot motions, efficient user interface, and system failure check are easily implemented by using multitasking function, intertask communication mechanism, and realtime runtime libraries of RTKernel. The performance analysis of commercial realtime operating system for robot control is presented based on Timed Petri net(TPN) and we can use these results to design an optimal system.

Evolution Strategy is used as an effective search algorithm in optimization problems and Sliding Mode Control is well known as a robust control algorithm. In this paper, we propose a Sliding Mode Control Method for robot manipulator using Evolution Strategy. Evolution Strategy is used to estimate Sliding Mode Control Parameters such as sliding surface gradient, continuous function boundary layer, unknown plant parameters and switching gain. Experimental results show the proposed control scheme has accurate and robust performances with effective search ability.

In this paper, we propose a design method and control law for plannar type twolink flexible manipulator. In designing flexible links, we use Rayleigh's principle. To control flexible manipulator, input distribution controller is used, which is primarily on the basis of nonlinear variable structure control(VSC). The simulation results are also shown.

In this paper, A new PItype reaching law for variable structure control is proposed to alleviate the chattering and improve the robustness properties in the presence of matched uncertainty. The proposed reaching law consists of a proportional term and an integral term. And the dynamics of switching function can easily be specified by using the secondorder system analysis method. And also the proposed scheme has the advantages of alleviating the chattering than Gao's one and reducing the influence of uncertainties by band pass filter characteristic. The efficiency of the proposed method has been demonstrated by simulations for Dutch Roll damping in a light aircraft.

The effects of timesampling on nonlinear output regulation problem is investigated. Output regulatedness is preserved under time sampling as in linear systems, however output regulatability is not robust with respect to timesampling, and thus one needs to seek an approximate nonlinear sampleddata output regulator.

In this study, when the nonlinear overhead crane which allows simultaneously travel and traverse motion moves a desired transport route, the object suspended the end of rope does undesirable swing motion. Nonlinear overhead crane pertubes in the vicinity of an operating point, therefore the nonlinear overhead crane is modified to linear overhead crane for the operating point. The linear overhead crane was controlled to swing angles of the object by the ratio of torque inputs to motors of the girder and the trolley. As a basis for the result of the linear overhead crane, the nonlinear overhead crane was controlled swing angles of the object and positions of the overhead crane without collision with environmental equipment by partial state feedback control.

The electrodynamic loudspeakers should have a wide dynamic range to reproduce various sound levels. When the input signal is small, the radiated sound from the loudspeaker is not so much distorted. However, for large input signal with low frequency component the radiated sound is significantly distorted due to the nonlinearities of the loudspeaker. The suspension, damping, and magnetic flux of loudspeaker are the main sources of the nonlinearity. Such electromechanical parameters related to harmonic distortion have been represented by a polynomial model for diaphragm displacement, while each of the polynomial coefficient is evaluated by using the principle of harmonic balance experimentally. Based on the polynomial model, we designed a compensator for nonlinear harmonic distortion of direct radiator loudspeaker. Than observer is used to estimate the displacement of the loudspeaker diaphragm, which is rather difficult to measure directly in the conventional setting. The usefulness of the designed compensator is demonstrated by numerical simulations. Simulation results show about 30db decrease at the second and third higher harmonic distortions. We carry out an experiment on speaker to verify designed controller and nonlinear observer.

In this paper, the geometry between horizontal and vertical movement of lens is studied for automatic vergence control of horizontal moving axis stereo camera. When the disparity of stereo remains contant, the horizontal movement of camera lens for image disparity and the vertical movement for image focus have linear geometry. Using this linearity, we can control the vergence of stereo camera only by focusing of stereo camera lens.

The Direct Arm(DDA) is a SCARA typed direct drive manipulator with three degree of freedom(DOF) using the direct motor of the NSK company. In the paper, we propose a convenient interface for the SCARAtype robot which is practical to use. The proposed Visual Robot Teaching Mode using 3D graphics replaces the current teaching box. And besides this graphical teaching software can be implemented on the PC which is company used as a robot controller. This program was developed for the Windows 95 OS.

A visual servoing algorithm is proposed for a robot with a camera in hand. Specifically, novel image features are suggested by employing a viewing model of perspective projection to estimate relative pitching and yawing angles between the object and the camera. To compensate dynamic characteristics of the robot, desired feature trajectories for the learning of visually guided lineofsight robot motion are obtained by measuring features by the camera in hand not in the entire workspace, but on a single linear path along which the robot moves under the control of a, commercially provided function of linear motion. And then, control actions of the camera are approximately found by fuzzyneural networks to follow such desired feature trajectories. To show the validity of proposed algorithm, some experimental results are illustrated, where a four axis SCARA robot with a B/W CCD camera is used.

Etching Process, one of the most important process in semiconductor fabrication, has input control part of which components are pressure, gas flow, RF power and etc., and plasma gas which is complex and not exactly understood is used to etch wafer in etching chamber. So this process has not realtime feedback controller based on inputoutput relation, then it uses EPD(End Point Detection) signal to determine when to start or when to stop etching. Various type EPD controller control etching process using EPD signal obtained from optical intensity of etching chamber. In development EPD controller we concentrate on compensation of this signal intensity and setting the relative signal magnitude at first of etching. We compensate signal intensity using neural network learning method and set the relative signal magnitude using fuzzy inference method. Potential of this method which improves EPD system capability is proved by experiences.

In this paper, we consider variable structure controller design of a active magnetic bearing(AMB). In particular, we design a switching hyperplane, considering coupling characteristic among each magnet. This method is designed by applying decentralized control method. Controller design consist of two factors that is, one is linear control part to drive state variables to zero asymptotically and the other is a nonlinear controller part to maintain within neighborhood of switching hyperplane. Finally, A control method designed here is checked by simulation, which shows good results.

The conditions to be satisfied with SOC(StateofCharge) indicator installed on the electric vehicle were that it should be used under frequent loading conditions and that it should enable the monitor to adjust to the aging effect. But, the stateofcharge test requires a lengthy stabilization period after discharge cycles and the amperehour test requires the knowledge of the battery capacity in terms of amphours. However, a monitoring technique combining the stateofcharge test to enable the monitor to adjust to the aging effect with the amperehour test to use under frequent loading condition is studied and implemented on a microcontrollerbased circuit in this paper. Specially, optical fiber is used to realize hydrometer which is immune to electromagnetic interference and toxic environment and makes it possible to be used in a wide temperature range.

The MRAS proposed by Schauder [8] is modified to improve robustness to the change of load torque and/or the variation of the stator resistance. The difference between the voltage and the current model is fed into the current model via proportional and integral gains. In order to generalize the MRAS, supposing that the rotor speed is time varying, we add a compensating term to the current model. It does not alter the Popov's integral inequality condition. Also, the asymptotic stability of the modified MRAS (MMRAS) is shown with the stability proof technique as in the original paper. By the simulation works, it is verified that the MMRAS obtains improved performance than the original MRAS.

The performance of onecolumn isothermal PSA process is assessed by dynamic simulator, gPROMS. The fourstep and fivestep processes are compared. A fivestep process is employed in order to show the effect of the addtional cocurrent depressurization step on the fourstep PSA process. Two processes parameters, purity and recovery of SO
$_{2}$ are used for the performance comparison. The results of dynamic simulation show that fourstep process is superior to fivestep process in recovery, but not in purity. 
In this study, underdeveloping heavyload driving servo control system, which are composed of controller, electrohydraulic servovalve, hydraulic motor, reduction gear box, turret slew bearing and turret structure, are investigated to simplify the control system. To estimate the effect of each component, modeling and simulation of linear and nonlinear system are carried out. In the first stage, to prove the reliability of performance estimation program, simulation results are compared with experimental results. In the second stage, the effect of each component of control system is evaluated and then a simplified control system is suggested.

Objectoriented programming goes on increasing in many areas, as its advantages of flexibility and ease of maintenance have been recognized. As in usual programmings, the productivity and flexibility of CACSD package can be improved by adopting objectoriented programmin. This paper describes our efforts to implement an OOCACSD(Object Oriented CACSD) package for control system design and simulation. Since the proposed OOCACSD is based on the modularity, portability, reuseability, and matrixoriented data structure, a control system can be not only modeled and simulated but also maintained easily.

For a lightly damped system, IIR based filter can have better performance than FIR filter as an adaptive filter in ANC algorithm. IIR based filter which has an infinite impulse response can model a lightly damped acoustic system with a small number of weights compared that of FIR filter and has no nonlinearity and instability problems on weight updating process which are associated to the conventional IIR filters. There are, however, some drawbacks such as design parameters to be determined earlier to get better performance and much increased computational power especially in the presence of error path. In this study, base filter parameters are determined in systematic manner, with the knowledge of the nominal impulse response of the system which should be identified, by Prony's method. Three methods reducing the computational load are proposed and their performance and application limits are discussed. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

In this paper, a robust.adaptive control scheme is presented for precise trajectory tracking of nonholonomic mobile robots. In the controller, a set of desired trajectory is defined and used in constructing the control input which constitutes the main part of the proposed controller. The stable operating characteristics such as precise trajectory tracking, parameter estimation, disturbance suppression, tec., are shown through experiments as well as computer simulation.

In this paper, the direct adaptive control using neural networks is presented for the control of chaotic nonlinear systems. The direct adaptive control method has an advantage that the additional system identification procedure is not necessary. In order to evaluate the performance of our controller design method, two direct adaptive control methods are applied to a Duffing's equation and a Lorenz equation which are continuoustime chaotic systems. Our simulation results show the effectiveness of the controllers.

An adaptive pH control is developed to manipulate the nonlinearities and timevarying properties of pH systems. In this research, we estimate two adjustable parameters by using the recursive least squares method and a nonlinear PI controller is used to control pH systems based on the estimated two parameters.

Position and rate control modes arc the two common modes for controlling remote manipulators with joysticks or hand controllers. Generally, position mode is easier for teleoperation than rate modes, when the manipulation work space is small or comparable to the human operator's control space. When the telemanipulator's work space is very large, human operator's control motion range must be large to allow telemanipulator's full range of motion resulting poor control resolution. One way to solve the poor resolution problem is to use indexing. However, rate mode can provide any higher degree of resolution without use of indexing. If two modes are mixed, master controller will be more convenient. The mixed mode algorithm, changes operating mode from position mode to rate mode or vise versa using fuzzy logic. The fuzzy logic algorithm, which has been designed to recognize the teleoperator's intended motion properly, provides an intelligence to a master controller.

In this paper, we present the global minimization condition by an informal analysis of the Langevine competitive learning neural network. From the viewpoint of the stochastic process, it is important that competitive learning guarantees an optimal solution for pattern recognition. By analysis of the FokkerPlank equation for the proposed neural network, we show that if an energy function has a special pseudoconvexity, Langevine competitive learning can find the global minima. Experimental results for pattern recognition of handwritten numeral data indicate the superiority of the proposed algorithm.

This paper presents an iterative learning control scheme for industrial manipulators. Based upon the frequencydomain analysis, the input update law of the learning controller is given together with a sufficient condition for the convergence of the iterative process in the frequency domain. The proposed learning control scheme is structurally simple and computationally efficient since it is independent joint control depending only on locally measured variables and it does not involve the computation of complicated nonlinear manipulator dynamics. Moreover, it is capable of canceling the unmodeled dynamics of the manipulator without even the parametric model. Several important aspects of the learning scheme inherent in the frequencydomain design are discussed and the control performance is demonstrated through computer simulations.

In this paper, a numerical method is developed to solve the 2 dimensional missile/target persuitevasion game. The numerical solver for the problem is composed of two parts: parametrization of the kinematic equations of motion using collocation and optimization of the parametrized minimax problem using a nonlinear programming. A numerical example is solved to verify the performance of the proposed numerical scheme.

Tracking a target of versatile maneuver recently demands a stable adaptation of tracker, and the multiple model techniques are being developed because of its ability to produce useful information of target maneuver. This paper presents the way to apply the multiple model method in a movingtarget and movingplatform scenario, and the estimation and prediction results better than those of single Kalman filter.

We design a homing guidance law based on the proportional navigation for the fastrolling, singleaxis control missiles and analyse the misdistance of the designed guidance system. The guidance law includes a compensation scheme which compensates for the phaseshift between the commanded and achieved acceleration which is peculiar to the fast rolling airframe with singleaxis control. In the error analysis of the guidance system, we calculate the misdistance with respect to the target maneuver on the 3dimensional space via direct simulations. Also, we conduct adjoint simulation on the 2dimensional plane in case that phaseshift is perfectly compensated. Finally we approximate the linear timevarying dynamics of the missile with autopilot to a linear timeinvarient system, and as a result we can find the misdistance as a closedform.

The objective of this paper is to design a force feedback controller for bilateral control of a masterslave manipulator system. In a bilateral control system, the motion of the master device is followed by the slave one, while the force applied to the slave is reflected on the master. In this paper, a fuzzy logic controllers applied to the system. Using the fuzzy logic controller, the knowledge of the system dynamics is not needed. Simulations and experimental results show the performance of the proposed controller.

This paper presents a control scheme for the motion of a 2 DOF robot manipulator. Robot manipulators are multivariable nonlinear systems. Fuzzy logic is avaliable humanlike control without complex mathematical operation and is suitable to nonlinear system control. In this paper, Implementation of fuzzy logic control of robotic manipulators shows. Algorithm has been performed with simulation packages MATRIXx and SystemBuild.

Three fuzzy input space partitoining methods, which are grid, tree, and scatter method, are mainly used until now. These partition methods represent good performance in the modeling of the linear system and nonlinear system with independent modeling variables. But in the case of the nonlinear system with the coupled modeling variables, there should be many fuzzy rules for acquiring the exact fuzzy model. In this paper, it shows that the fuzzy model is acquired using transformed modeling vector by linear transformation of the modeling vector.

In this paper, we propose a fuzzy iterative learning controller(FILC). It can control fully unknown dynamic plants through iterative learning. To design learning controllers based on the steepest descent method, it is one of the difficult problems to identify the change of plant output with respect to the change of control input(.part.e/.part.u). To solve this problem, we propose a method as follows: first, calculate .part.e/.part.u using a similarity measure and information in consecutive time steps, then adjust the fuzzy logic controller(FLC) using the sign of .part.e/.part..u. As learning process is iterated, the value of .part.e/.part.u is reinforced. Proposed FILC has the simple architecture compared with previous other controllers. Computer simulations for an inverted pendulum system were conducted to verify the performance of the proposed FILC.

An integrated Robot control system for SCARA robot is developed. The system consists of an offline programming(OLP), software and a robot controller using four digital signal processor(TMS32OC50). The OLP has functions of teaching task, dynamic simulator, three dimensional animation, and trajectory planning. To develop robust dynamic control algorithm, a new sliding mode control algorithm for the robot is proposed. The trajectory tracking performance of these algorithm is evaluated by implementing to SCARA robot(SM5 type) using DSP controller which has conventional PIFF control algorithm. To make SCARA robot operate according to offline teaching, an interface between OLP and robot controller in the integrated system is designed. To demonstrate performance of the integrated system, the proposed control algorithm is applied to the system.

In this paper we present the multiagent robot system developed for participating in micro robot soccer tournament. The multiagent robot system consists of micro robot, a vision system, a host computer and a communication module. Mcro robot are equipped with two mini DC motors with encoders and gearboxes, a R/F receiver, a CPU and infrared sensors for obstacle detection. A vision system is used to recognize the position of the ball and opponent robots, position and orientation of our robots. The vision system is composed of a color CCD camera and a vision processing unit. Host computer is a Pentium PC, and it receives information from the vision system, generates commands for each robot using a robot management algorithm and transmits commands to the robots by the R/F communication module. And in order to achieve a given mission in micro robot soccer game, cooperative behaviors by robots are essential. Cooperative work between individual agents is achieved by the command of host computer.

A remote controlled mobile robot system has been developed and tested to monitor the radiation area in the nuclear power plant. The mobile robot system operates according to cardrivinglike commands and is capable of radiation measurement and visual inspection in unmanned situations under radiation. The robot system is equipped with a radiation sensor and two cameras with appropriate illumination setups. The camera with autofocus function and 8times zoom lens is mounted on the pan/tilt rotational base and the other is mounted on the front panel of the robot system. All commands regarding the motion of the mobile robot and various sensors are given through the monitoring system which is designed to provide an integrated manmachine interface.

Subassembly in ship manufacturing is a sequence of filet joint welding of stiffeners on metal panels and the process is different depending on companies. In this paper, we introduce a new intelligent robotic system of the subassembly process in Samsung Heavy Industry, where one shift of 22m * 9m workspace includes one to ten panels and each panel includes up to 10 stiffeners. The inherent problems such as several hundreds of different panels, unstructured task environment and the large scale do not allow a fixed automation, but needs highly intelligent versatile automation. The robotic system is composed of four 14DOF macromini robots and a task recognition system. Application of this system has verified the task specification such as low temperature environment(10.deg. C) and productivity is satisfied successfully.

The Direct Drive Arm(DDA) is a SCARA typed direct drive manipulator with two degreesoffreedom(DOF) using the direct drive motor of the NSK company. A controller system for the SCARA robot of DDA is designed using a DSP (TMS32Oc3O), which has the highest performance among the third DSP chips in the TI company. The design objective of the system is to implement dynamic control algorithms and neural control algorithms for real time learning which require a lot of calculations and large memory and have been tested only by simulations so far. The controller uses a DSP, a high speed D/A, 32bit Counter and a large DRAM to implement advanced robot control algorithms.

In this paper, robot endeffector tracking using sensory information from structured laser pattern diode, is described. In order to track robot endeffector robustly irrespective of translation, scaling and rotation of robot working tool, structured laser pattern is used as track feature. Structured laser patterns of crosshair, concentric circles, dot matrix, and parallel lines are illuminated to robot endeffector. Illuminated laser patterns are held invariently and coherently irrespective of various motions of robot endeffector. Extracting and tracking these invariant structured laser patterns as track feature, the whole system keeps tracking of the robot endeffector robustly and effectively provided that structured laser pattern is always assumed to aim at robot endeffector.

The Kalman filter has been used as a selflocalization method for the mobile robot. To satisfy the assumptions inherent in the Kalman filter, we should calibrate the sensors of the robot before use of them. However, it is generally hard to find exact sensor parameters, and the parameters may change during the robot task as the environment varies. Thus we need to perform online sensor calibration, by which we can obtain more credible location of the mobile robot. In this paper, we present an online sensor calibration scheme which estimates the unknown sensor bias and the current position of the robot. To this end, first we find out the calibration errors of the sensor from redundant sensory data using the parity vector and recursive minimum variance estimation. Then we calculate the current position of the robot by weighted least square estimation without internal encoder data. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated through computer simulation.

In this work, we investigate the characteristics of output compliance matrix of a planar 3 degreeoffreedom parallel mechanism when joint compliances are attached to the mechanism redundantly. It is shown by simulation that by attaching redundant joint compliances symmetrically to the mechanism, the translational and rotational compliances can be arbitrarily modulated within some ranges. This property could be effectively used in the control of the compliance characteristics of actively adjustable RCC devices.

This paper presents the kinematic and dynamic analysis of parallel manipulators with actuation redundancy, obtained by replacing the passive joints of an existing parallel manipulator with the active ones. We develop the kinematic and dynamic models of a parallel manipulator with actuation redundancy. The multiplicity in selecting the controllable active joints among the increased number of active joints is considered in the modeling. Based on the derived models, we define the kinematic and dynamic manipulabilities of a parallel manipulator with actuation redundancy. The effect of the actuation, redundancy on the performance of parallel manipulators is analyzed in terms of kinematic and dynamic manipulabilities.

The forces exerted on an object by the endeffectors of multimanipulators are decomposed into the motioninducing force and the internal force. Motioninducing force effects the motion of an object and internal force can't effect it. The motion of an object can't track exactly the desired motion because of internal force component, therefore internal force component must be considered. In this paper using the resolved acceleration control method and the fact that internal force lies in the null space of jacobian matrix, we construct independently the position, motioninducing force and internal force controller. Secondly we construct the robust controller to preserve the robustness with respect to the uncertainty of manipulator parameters.

We propose a new visual tracking system for grasping which can find grasping points of an unknown polygonal object. We construct the system with the image prediction technique and Extended Kalman Filter algorithm. The Extended Kalman Filter(EKF) based on the SVD can improve the accuracy and processing time for the estimation of the nonlinear state variables. By using it, we can solve the numerical unstability problem that can occur in the visual tracking system based on Kalman filter. The image prediction algorithm can reduce the effect of noise and the image processing time. In the processing of a visual tracking, we can construct the parameterized family and can found the grasping points of unknown object through the geometric properties of the parameterized family.

In this paper, robust vibration control of a onelink flexible robot arm based on variable structure system is discussed. We derive dynamic equations of it using a Lagrangian assumed modes method based on BernoulliEuler Beam theory. The optimal sliding surface is designed and the problem of chattering is also solved by the adoption of a continuous control law within a small neighborhood of the switching hyperplane.

In this paper, we present a force control of a fiveaxes robot, using an impedance model. Tasks such as assembly, grinding, and deburring, which involve extensive contact with the environment, are better handled by controlling the forces of interaction between the manipulator and the environment. The fivelink articulated robot is equipped with a wrist force sensor which consists of an array of strain gauges and can delineate the three components of the vector force along the three axes of the sensor coordinate frame, and the three components of the torque about these axes. For the precise control of the contact force, impedance models of a robot and the environment are defined. Experimental results are shown.

In this paper, we suggest a H center .inf. generalized predictive control(H center GPC) which guarantees
$H_{\infty}$ norm bounds. THe suggested control is obtained by solving the minmax problem in nonrecursive forms. The stability conditions of the suggested control are derived in a somewhat simple form and it is not required for the derived solution to be a saddle point solution. It is also shown that the suggested control guarantees the$H_{\infty}$ norm bounds under the same conditions of stability. 
A mixed H
$^{2}$ /$H^{\infty}$ controller design method for linear systems with time delay in all variables and parameter uncertainties in all system matrices is proposed. Robust$H^{\infty}$ performance and H$^{2}$ performance condition that accounts for modelmatching of closed loop system and disturbance rejection is also derived. With expressing uncertain system with linear fractional transformation form, we transform the robust stability and performance problem to the H$^{2}$ /$H^{\infty}$ optimization problem and design a mixed H$^{2}$ /$H^{\infty}$ controller. Using the proposed method, mixed H$^{2}$ /$H^{\infty}$ controller for underwater vehicle with time delay and parameter variations are designed. Simulations of a design example with hydrodynamic parameter variations and disturbance are presented to demonstrate the achievement of good robust performance.t performance.ance. 
In this paper, a solution method is proposed to calculate the optimum solution to discrete optimal H
$_{.inf}$ control problem for feedback of linear timeinvariant system states and disturbance variable. From the results of this study, condition of existence and uniqueness of its solution is that transfer matrix of controlled variable to input variable is left invertible and has no invariant zeros on the unit circle of the zdomain as well as extra geometric conditions given in this paper. Through a numerical example, the noniterative solution method proposed in this paper is illustrated. 
Explicit statespace formulate for an H
$_{.inf}$ based twodegreesoffreedom robust controller are derived in discretetime. The controller provides robust stability against coprime factor uncertainty, and a degree of robust performance in the sense of making the closedloop system match a prespecified reference model. It is shown that the controller consists of a plant observer, the chosen reference model, and a generalized state feedback law associated with the plant and model states. The controller structure is shown to be relatively simple and thus may reduce the computational load on the digital control processor. 
We propose robust control scheme for flexible joint manipulator in the presence of nonlinearity and mismatched uncertainty. The control is designed based on Lyapunov approach. The robust control which is based on the computed torque scheme and state transformation via implanted control is introduced. The design procedure starts with the construction of linearized subsystems via the computed torque method and then uses state transformation. With this approach we do not impose an upperbound constraint on the inertia matrix in case it is known. Thus, this control can be applied to arbitrary manipulators. The resulting robust control guarantees practical stability for both the transformed system and the original system. The transformation is only based on the possible bound of uncertainty.

LQservo is a stabilityrobustness guaranteed multivariable controller design method based on the LQR structure to improve command following performance with output feedback. In this paper, a new type of PI controller based on LQservo is introduced. Then, Command following performance is improved using the limiting behavior of the control gain and weighting factors on the low frequency part of design parameter Q that is the state weighting matrix in the cost function.

This paper presents the robust control of robot manipulators using a decentralized control scheme. The control scheme decouples the coupling dynamics between the joints and compensates the joint variable errors without any computation of the dynamics. The performance of the control scheme is compared with that of other control schemes such as the computed torque scheme and the adaptive control scheme by simulation.

The conventional output feedback robust control designs are very useful for systems under parameter perturbation and uncertain disturbance. However these designs are very complicated and not easily implemented for industrial applications. So, this paper proposes a robust PID controller design method via genetic searching algorithm.

It is well known that robust compensators designed by the blockdiagonal Lyapunov function approaches are conservative while they are popular in practice because of their computational easiness. In this note, we develop a systematized version of conventional blockdiagonal Lyapunov function approaches by deriving two separated optimizations based on the guaranteed cost control method. The proposed method generates reasonable robust compensators in practice.

A seam tracking control system with a tool position control and a camera orientation control, has been developed here. For the camera orientation contro, SOFNN was used to learn the expert control signal. The SOFNN algorithm can adjust the fuzzy set parameters and determine the fuzzy logic structure.

This study has compared the two types of systems which measure the temperature of coal powder in feeder lines of boiler and analyzed operating data. We used RTD(Resistance Temperature Detector) and optic sensors to measure the temperature. From the characteristic comparison of data, field test and system operation, we confirm that the latter is more efficient than the former.

It is well known that steam generator water level control at low power operation has many difficulties in a PWR (pressurized water reactor) nuclear power plant. The reverse process responses known as shrink and swell effects make it difficult to control the steam generator water level at low power. A new automatic control logic to remove the reverse process responses is proposed in this paper. It is implemented in PLC (programmable logic controller) and evaluated by using test equipment in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The simulation test shows that the performance requirements is met at low power (below 15%). The water level control by new control logic is stabilized within 1% fluctuation from setpoint, while the water level by YGN 3 and 4 control logic is unstable with the periodic fluctuation of 25% magnitude at 5% power.

The aim of this thesis is to develop a SMTcomponents placement inspection system equipped with a visual sensor. The visual sensor, which consists of a camera and 2layer LED illuminator, developed to inspect the component placement state such as missing, shift, flipping, polarity and tombstone. on PCB in the reflowprocess. In practical applications, however, it is too hard to classify component from images mixed pad on PCB, cream solder paste and component. To overcome the problem, this thesis proposes the 2layer illumination method and the heuristic image processing algorithms according to inspection type. To show the effectiveness of the proposed approach, a series of experiments on the inspection were conducted. The results show that the proposed method is robust to visual noise and variations in component conditions.

ZeroCross Detector makes pilot signal to control the power to CEDM(Control Element Drive Mechanism). Existing ZeroCross Detectors has had a problem which can cause unexpected reactor trip resulted from fluctuating frequency of input signal coming from M/G Set. The existing ZeroCross Detector can't work properly when power frequency is varying because it was designed to work under stable M/G Set operation, and produces wrong pilot signal and output voltage. In this report the ZeroCross Detector is improved to resolve voltage fluctuating problem by using new devices such as digital noise filtering circuit, variable cycle compensator and alarm circuit. And through the performance verification it shows that new circuit is better than old one. If suggested detector is applied to plant, it is possible to use it under House Load Operation because stable voltage can be generated by new ZeroCross Detector.

In the continuous casting process, molten metal contacts the mold wall and the molten metal surface is subject to the mold oscillation. The mold oscillation results in the oscillation marks on the surface of solidified steel, which has undesirable effects on the quality of slabs. In order to reduce the oscillation marks by achieving soft contact of molten metal with the mold surface, alternating magnetic field is applied to the surface of molten metal. However, if the magnetic field strength becomes too strong, the melt flow induced by the magnetic field. causes the instability of the molten metal surface, which has also the bad influence on the slab quality. Therefore, it is very important to choose the optimal position of the inductor coil and the optimal level of electric power to minimize the surface defects. In the present work, as a first step toward the optimization problem of the process, numerical studies are performed to investigate the effects of coil position and the electric power level on the meniscus shape and the flow field. As numerical tools, the boundary integral equation method(BIEM) is used for the magnetic field analysis and the finite difference method (FDM) with orthogonal grid generation is used for the flow analysis.

This paper presents the configuration methodology of Distributed Control System(DCS)s for process plant and their performance evaluation. Performance evaluation is specified both in terms of operational and installation aspects of system. In order to evaluate performance criteria of operational aspect, a simulation method is proposed. Modeling of system components including process computer, database, process controllers and LANs, etc, is implemented for simulation. Based on these characteristics, different system configurations are evaluated and compared through results about evaluation criteria in order to select the best DCS for particular process. The results, in abbreviated form, of the performance evaluation of DCS controlling a CAL(Continuous Annealing Line) plant of iron process are presented.

POSCO has been developed a general purpose dynamic simulator of the hot strip steel mill. The simulator is a tool for developing the process control system in an industrial system solution business, by making the most use of control and simulation techniques fostered in steelmaking business. This simulator has, not only a powerful numerical analysis function, but an easytouse graphic user interface which readily enables to simulate dynamic system. This paper presents the features of the simulator and steel rolling process simulator as its application.

To provide pleasant building environment and the ease of maintenance and facility management, many new office buildings are being built as intelligent buildings. Building control systems which are employed in intelligent buildings require advanced types of controllers and varieties of control schemes. Designing and installation of these types of advanced building control systems take a lot of effort and also they are costly. In order to design these systems, it is necessary for the designers to have means to analyze and estimate the performance of control systems. The simulator which is presented in this paper is composed of three parts, HVAC simulation module, elevator simulation module, and evacuation modeling module for the outbreak of fire or similar disasters. In this paper, the functions and modelling method for each module are explained and simulation results are presented.

This paper proposes a surface recognition algorithm which determines the types of contact surfaces by fusing the information collected by the multisensor system, consisted of the optical tactile and force/torque sensors. Since the image shape measured by the optical tactile sensor system, which is used for determining the surface type, varies depending on the forces provided at the measuring moment, the force information measured by the f/t sensor takes an important role. In this paper, an image contour is represented by the long and short axes and they are fuzzified individually by the membership function formulated by observing the variation of the lengths of the long and short axes depending on the provided force. The fuzzified values of the long and short axes are fused using the average Minkowski's distance. Compared to the case where only the contour information is used, the proposed algorithm has shown about 14% of enhancement in the recognition ratio. Especially, when imposing the optimal force determined by the experiments, the recognition ratio has been measured over 91%.

Flexible parts can be deformed by the contact forces during assembly on the con to rigid parts and thus their successful assembly requires informations about their deformation as well as a misalignment between mating parts. However, because of the nonlinear and complex relationship between parts deformation and assembly reaction forces, it is difficult to acquire all required informations from only the reaction forces during assembly. In this paper, we propose a sensing system consisting of a camera and multiple mirrors for flexible parts assembly. Simulation results show that the system can be effectively used for detecting parts deformation and a misalignment between mating parts.

We have developed a part of hydraulic stroke sensing cylinder using magnetic sensor that can detect each position under severe construction fields. In this paper, for evaluating the developed cylinder under various environment condition, thermal control systems and two hydraulic systems to be coupled consist of. The former is composed of an heater case, temperature sensor, and interface circuits which include SCR(silicon controlled rectifier) for the control of the voltage's phase. The latter is composed of an hydraulic cylinder for position control with solenoid valve (ON/OFF motion) and a load cylinder with proportional reducing valve. To obtain the various performance evaluation, it is carried out under high temperature condition in thermal system controlled by using ZieglerNichols PID tuning method and artificial disturbances such as impulse or constant force. The results show that the developed cylinder has good performance under the various environment condition.

In this paper, a sensitivity of the fiber optic pressure sensor in water is demonstrated. A single mode optical fiber MachZehnder interferometer used to detect the change in optical path length produced by the change of fiber optic strain in water. The sensitivity with this system measured 100.mu.psia through an experiment in the static response.

In this study the theoretical minimum resolution analysis of an active vision system using laser range finder is performed for surrounding recognition and 3D data acquisition in unknown environment. The laser range finder consists of a slitted laser beam generator, a scanning mechanism, CCD camera, and a signal processing unit. A laser beam from laser source is slitted by a set of cylindrical lenses and the slitted laser beam is emitted up and down and rotates by the scanning mechanism. The image of laser beam reflected on the surface of an object is engraved on the CCD array. In the result, the resolution of range data in laser range finder is depend on distance between lens center of CCD camera and light emitter, view and beam angles, and parameters of CCD camera.

Samsung Electronics has developed high performance velocity and position controller for induction motors, and succeeded in mass production for the first time in Korea. Dynamic performance and final control accuracy of the controller are equivalent to those of AC servo motor controller. At present, we adopted the controller as spindle motor drive for Samsung CNC systems, and expect its wide use in industry as general purpose velocity and position controller for induction motor.

This paper develops an AC motor controller for applications. The AC motor controller is designed based on the variable structure control method and a variable structure disturbance observer is added to reduce the effects of exogenous disturbances. The designed controller is installed on the zaxis of a CNC machining center and milling experiments were performed. The results show improved performance on both position and speed tracking, when compared to the factorydesigned servo controller.

An universal NURBS interpolation for an open architectured CNC controller is proposed in order to unify internal data structure and algorithm of different interpolations such as linear, circular and spline, and to intelligently interface CAD database of the various workpiece contour. Furthermore, NURBS interpolation may result in better surface roughness and high speed machining due to the continuous generation of cutter movement. The mathematical manipulation of NURBS is presented and the practical implementation on the CNC controller of a lathe is discussed for real machining. The comparison between a computer design and workpieces machined on a lathe shows the feasibility of the NURBS interpolation format as an universal interpolation scheme.

There has been many activity to increase accuracy in machining center by reducing tracking error. The tracking error can cause bad effect in high speed rigid tapping in which syncronization servo motor with spindle is relatively important. To reduce tracking error, feed forward control has been used, but no method is provided knowing motor dynamics, force variation, etc. In this paper, we observe that, despite of tracking error of relevant axis, high speed tapping could be possible by reducing contour error of axis to be syncronized. We present the method to increase accuracy in high speed tapping to minimize contour error by automatically fitting gains of servo and spindle.

This paper presents the error parameter estimation technique for IMU(Inertial Measurement Unit) which is core sensor of INS(Inertial Navigation System) and verifies it via laboratory test. Firstly the error characteristic of gyroscope and accelerometer which is contained in IMU is examined and the error modelling is executed. The error of IMU can be divided into deterministic and random part, and the deterministic error can be divided into static and dynamic part. This paper consider the random part as constant. Secondly the error parameter estimation technique and following procedure for laboratory test is explained. Thirdly according to the test procedure the IMU test for static error is executed using 2axis rate table and estimation result is presented with discussion about its validity.

Two expressions for the inertial navigation system error equations are derived using a perturbation method; one in navigation frame, and the other in geographic frame. The equivalence between two expressions is shown by explicit equations and computer simulation.

This paper presents algorithm including Kalman filter for transfer alignment of velocity and quaternion matching method, when master inertial navigation system is a gimbled type and slave inertial navigation system is a strapdown type on a cruising ship which is naturally in motion of horizontal axis attitude. And relative attitudes are considered on a measurement equation for quaternion matching between master INS and slave INS.

In this paper, the uniform observability and the error characteristics for stationary SDINS error are analyzed. The use of the Lyapunov transformation is proposed for transforming te conventional SDINS error model and the sufficient conditions for the uniform observability of SDINS error model are analytically derived. A complete characterization for the SDINS error characteristics during two position alignment is presented which allows us to predict the performance of two position alignment in SDINS.

The dynamics of the vehicle system has highly nonlinear components such as an engine, a torque converter and variable road condition. This thesis proposes a Fuzzy Logic Algorithm that shows better control performance than Antiwindup PI in the highly nonlinear vehicle system. Traction Control System(TCS), which adjusts throttle valve opening by Fuzzy Logic Algorithm improves vehicle drivability, steerability and stability when vehicle is starting and cornering. When a throttle valve is opened at large degree, Fuzzy Logic Algorithm shows better performances like a small settling time and a small oscillation than Antiwindup PI in simulation. The decreased desired slip ratio improves steerability in the simulation when a vehicle is cornering. The Fuzzy Logic Algorithm has been tested by a 1/5scale vehicle for tracking the constant desired velocity.

In this paper, to overcome drawbacks of variable structure control system a selftuning fuzzy sliding mode control algorithm using gradient descent method is proposed. The proposed method has the characteristics which are viewed in conventional VSC, e.g. insensitivity to a class of disturbance, parameter variations and uncertainties in the sliding mode. To demonstrate its performance, the proposed control algorithm is applied to a onedegree of freedom robot arm. The results show that both alleviation of chattering and performance are achieved.

The aim of this work for 5 years from 1994 is to develop a multifingered robot hand and its control system for grasp and manipulation of objects dexterously. Since the robot hand is still being developed, a commercialized robot hand from Barrett Company is utilized to implement a hand controller and control algorithm. For this, VME based motion control and interface boards are developed and multisensors such as encoder, force/torque sensor, dynamic sensor and artificial skin sensor are partly developed and employed for the grasping control algorithm. In oder to handle uncertainties such as mechanical idleness and backlash, a fuzzy rule based grasping algorithm is also considered and tested with the developed control system.

A novel neural network control scheme is proposed to identify the inverse dynamic model of robot manipulator and to compensate for uncertainties in robot dynamics. The proposed controller is called reference compensation technique(RCT) by compensating at reference input trajectory. The proposed RCT scheme has many benefits due to the differences in compensating position and learning algorithm. Since the compensation is done outside the plant it can be applied to many control systems without modifying the inside controller. It performs well with low controller gain because the operating range of input values is small and the output of the neural network controller is amplified through the controller gain. The backpropagation algorithm is used to train and simulations of three link robot manipulator are carried out to prove the proposed controller's performances.

Recently, induction motors are used more widely because of their low cost and simple structure. Therefore, the importance of fault detection and isolation of induction motors significantly increases. In most case the line current is used for fault detection and isolation. But in case that an induction motor has an inverter for control, it distorts the information of faulty state included in the line current. This paper proposes a new method for fault detection and isolation of induction motors that is speed controlled by the inverter using frequency analysis of the reference current instead of the line current for fault detection and isolation.

In this paper, an algorithm for PLC(Programmable Logic Controller) fault diagnosis system is proposed and experimentation is conducted with a PLC and a virtual plant. Wrong output backward tracking algorithm is proposed in order to find the external faults of PLC. And query with keywords of the fault systems and specially designed test sequence programs are used. We lay emphasis on the backward tracking algorithm to diagnose the faults of PLC. It is shown experimentally that the proposed algorithm can find the faults which a typical self diagnostics in thecommercially available PLC cannot.

This paper deals with the fault detection problem in uncertain linear multivariable systems having both model mismatch and noise. A robust detection presented by Kwon et al.(1994) for SISO systems has been here extended to the multivariable systems are derived. The model mismatch includes here linearization error as well as undermodelling. Comparisons are made with alternative fault detection method which do not account noise. The new method is shown to have good performance.

This paper presents a fault detection and diagnosis methodologies based on weighted symptom model and pattern matching between the coming fault propagation trend and the simulated one. At the first step, backward chaining is used to find the possible cause candidates for the faults. The weighted symptom model(WSM) is used to generate those candidates. The weight is determined from dynamic simulation. Using WSMs, the methodology can generate the cause candidates and rank them according to the probability. Secondly, the fault propagation trends identified from the partial or complete sequence of measurements are compared to the standard fault propagation trends stored a priori. A pattern matching algorithm based on a number of triangular episodes is used to effectively match those trends. The standard trends have been generated using dynamic simulation and stored a priori. The proposed methodology has been illustrated using two case studies and showed satisfactory diagnostic resolution.

In this work, an effective stiffness generated by internal loading for a planar 3 degrees of freedom RCC mechanism is investigated. For this purpose, the internal kinematic analysis and antagonistic stiffness modeling for this mechanism are performed. It is shown that the antagonistic stiffness could be effectively created at the center of the mechanism in its symmetric configuration.

This paper presents a new control strategy for the position and force control of a flexible manipulator. The governing equation of motion of a twolink flexible manipulator which features a piezoceramic actuator is derived via Hamilton's principle. The control torque of the motor to command desired position and force is determined by a sliding mode controller. This controller is formulated to take account of parameter uncertainties and external disturbances. During the commanded motion, undesirable oscillation is actively suppressed by applying a feedback control voltage to the piezoceramic actuator. Consequently, an accurate compliant motion control of the flexible manipulator is achieved. Computer simulations are undertaken in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control methodology.

A weighted impact ellipsoid normalized by maximum allowable angular velocity changes is defined and compared with conventional impact ellipsoids and impact polytopes. The results shows that the conventional impact ellipsoid may give false solution as far as the optimal direction of motion is concerned.

This paper presents the kinematic and dynamic analysis of parallel manipulators with redundant limbs, obtained by putting additional limbs to an existing parallel manipulator. We develop the kinematic and dynamic models of a parallel, manipulator with redundant limbs. The redundancy in parallelism due to the increased number of limbs and the redundancy in actuation due to the increased number of active joints are considered in the modeling. Based on the derived models, we define the kinematic and dynamic manipulabilities of a parallel manipulator with redundant limbs. The effect of the redundant limbs on the performance of parallel manipulators is analyzed in terms of kinematic and dynamic manipulabilities.

An adaptive output feedback controller is designed for tracking control of an nlink robot manipulator with unknown load. Highgain observers with same structure as error dynamic systems are used to estimate joint velocities. The parameter adaptation is achieved by the smoothed projection algorithm. The control inputs are saturated outside a domain of interest. Simulation results on a 2link manipulator illustrate that when the speed of the highgain observer is sufficiently high, the proposed controller recovers the performance under state feedback control.

Several figures representing velocity transmission from joint space to task space are analyzed and compared with each other. The figures include velocity ellipsoid derived from Jacobian matrix, scaled velocity ellipsoid derived from normalized joint velocities, polytope derived by numerical scaling, and polytopes derived by linear combinations of Jacobian column vectors. The results show that the optimal directions given by the measures are not the same and the conventional velocity ellipsoid is not good choice as optimization measure as far as the moving direction is concerned. Simulation examples for 3 d.o.f. redundant robot manipulators in 2dimensional task space are given for comparison study.

A hybrid control scheme to regulate the force and position by dual arms is proposed, where two arms are treated as one arm in a kinematic viewpoint. Our approach is different from other hybrid control approaches which consider robot dynamics, in the sense that we employ a purely kinematic based approach for hybrid control, with regard to the nature of positioncontrolled industrial robots. The proposed scheme is applied to sawing task. In the sawing task, the trajectory of the saw grasped by dual arms is planned in an offline fashion. When the trajectory of the saw is planned to follow a line in a horizontal plane, 3 position parameters are to be controlled(i.e, two translational positions and one rotational position). And a certain level of contact force has to be controlled along the vertical direction(i.e., minus zdirection) not to loose the contact with the object to be sawn. Typical feature of sawing task is that the contact position where the force control is to be performed is continuously changing. Therefore, the kinematic mapping between the force controlled position and the joint actuators has to be updated continuously. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is experimentally demonstrated. The proposed hybrid control scheme can be applied to arbitrary dual arm systems, regardless of their kinematic structure and the number of actuated joints.

This paper considers the problem of robust H
$_{\infty}$ control with regional stability constraints via output feedback to assure robust performance for uncertain linear systems. A robust H$_{\infty}$ control problem and the generalized Lyapunov theory are introduced for dealing with the problem, The output feedback H$_{\infty}$ controller makes the controlled outputs settle within a given bound and the control input not to be saturated. The regional stability constraints problem for uncertain systems can be reduced to the problem for the nominal systems by finding sufficient bounds of variations of the closedloop poles due to modeling uncertainties. A controller design procedure is established using the Lagrange multiplier method. The controller design technique was illustrated on the trackfollowing system of a optical disk drive.ve. 
The
$H_{2}$ /$H_{\infty}$ robust controller is designed by using polynomial approach. This controller can minimise a$H_{2}$ norm of error under the fixed bound of$H_{\infty}$ norm of mixed sensitivity function by employing the Youla parameterization and using polynomial approach at the same time. It is easy to apply this controller to adaptive system. 
In this paper, a new method of position synchronizing control is proposed for multiaxes driving system. The proposed synchronizing control system is constituted with speed and synchronizing controller. The structure of synchronizing control system is varied by sign of synchronizing error. When a disturbance input becomes added to one axis, this axis becomes slave axis. The other axis is master axis. Therefore, master axis is not influenced by the disturbance. The speed controller of the first axis is designed by
$H_{\infty}$ control theory. The speed controller of the second axis is designed by inverse dynamics of speed control system of the first axis. The speed control system designed with$H_{\infty}$ controller guarantees low sensitivity for the disturbance as well as robustness against model uncertainties. Especially, the synchronizing controller is designed to keep position error to minimize by controlling speed of slave axis. The effectiveness of the proposed method is successfully confirmed through several experiments. 
In previous work Kwon and Yoo [5] have shown that the FIR tracking algorithm using the input estimation technique. However, it has not solved the problem of systems with parameter uncertainties. Therefore, in this paper we propose a new robust
$H_{\infty}$ FIR tracking filter to solve the target tracking problems under systems with parameter uncertainties. Also, we use here the input estimation approach to account for the possibility of maneuver. Simulation results show that the robust$H_{\infty}$ FIR tracking filter proposed here still has good tracking performance for a maneuvering target tracking problem even under all system parameter uncertainties. 
A model helicopter is an unstable, multiinput multioutput nonlinear system exposed to strong disturbances and its system parameters change continually. In this paper, Time Delay Control(TDC) is adopted for these reasons. TDC uses past observation of the system's response and the control input to directly modify the control action rather than adjusting the controller gains leading to a model independent robust controller. TDC can force the plant to follow an appropriate reference model, but the reference model cannot be chosen arbitrarily. In this paper the procedure of choosing a reference model and the performance of the controller are presented.

A H
$\_$ .inf./ contro theory was applied to motor speed control of twomass system to get controller which acts effectively with control object including uncertainties. The H$\_$ .inf./ control problem was composed and solved. After that, numerical simulation were executed to confirm ability of the controller which compared with PI controller. 
This paper presents a continuous time varying sliding surface that allows faster tracking and really guarantees robust contro land smooths control inputs. And this method is evaluated by applying to robot manipulator.

In this research, the robustness of a seam tracking for the automatic welding system is studied. The laser displacement sensor is used as a seam finder. XY moving table drived by ac servo motor controls the position and velocity of the torchandsensor part. However, dc servo motor is used to control the position and velocity of the torch. The sensor locates ahead of torch to preview the weld line, and brings about the inaccuracy on the torch tracking. To enhance the robustness on this system against the influence of disturbances and model uncertainty, H
$\_$ .inf./ control is applied to the angular motion of torch. The simulation shows that the tracking accuracy improved significantly. Also, experimental results give a good performance of H$\_$ .inf./ control strategy to the automatic seam tracking system for the welding. 
Repetitive control is a proposed control strategy in view of the internal model principle and achieves a high accuracy asymptotic tracking property by implementing a model that generates the periodic signals of period into the closedloop system. Since the repetitive control system contains a periodic signal generator with positive feedback loop, which reduces the stability margin, in the overall closedloop system, the stability of the closedloop system should be considered as an important problem. In case that a real system has plant uncertainties which are not represented through modeling, the robust stability problem of the repetitive control system has not been considered sufficiently. In this paper, we propose the robust stability condition for the system with modeling uncertainty. The proposed robust stability condition will be obtained using the robust performance condition in the H
$_{\infty}$ control. Moreover, by use of the proposed robust stability condition, we propose a procedure that designs a repetitive controller and a feedback controller simultaneously which can stabilize the overall closedloop system robustly and which can also do the closedloop system without repetitive controller.. 
The rapid growth of air conditioning load has become a main reason of peak load increase in summer. In connection with this, we surveyed the load management projects of utilities world wide and their detailed activities. This study is to develop a remote load control system using computer and radio communications. We finished the fieldtest of this system on August 1995 in Seoul area. During the fieldtest, the remote load control of air conditioners was proved to be welltimed. Two control modes, group control and all control, are available for the user to select. The transmission reliability of the load control signal was very good and the functions of system hardware as well as the software were excellent. So we confirmed the applicability of the load control system including the pager communication network. In this paper, detailed information on the system functions and experimental results are described.

A mathematical model is developed for thermal solution copolymerization of styrene and acrylonitrile in a continuous stirred tank reactor(CSTR). Computational studies are carried out with the continuous copolymerization system model developed in this work to give the monomer conversion, copolymer composition and the average molecular weights of the copolymer. By performing the dynamic analysis of the reaction system, the polymer properties against the changes in the operating conditions are determined quantitatively. The cascade PID and fuzzy controller show satisfactory performances for both set point tracking and disturbance rejection. Especially, the fuzzy controller is superior to the PID controller.

In TIG welding of pipe, back bead size monitoring is important for weld quality assurance. Many researches have been performed on estimation of the back bead size by heat conduction analysis. However numerical conduction model based on many uncertain thermal parameters causes remarkable errors and thermomechanical phenomena in molten pool can not be considered. In this paper, filler wire feeding force in addition to weld current, wire feedrate, torch travel speed and orbital position angle is monitored to estimate back bead size in orbital TIG welding. Monitored welding process variables are fed into an artificial neural network estimator which has been trained with the monitored process variables (input patterns) and actual back bead size (output patterns). Experimental verification of the proposed estimation method was performed. The predicted results are in a good agreement with the actual back bead shape. The results are quite promising in that estimation of invisible back bead shape can be achieved by analyzing the welding parameters without any conventional NDT of welds.

광섬유는 코어(Core), 클레드(Clad), 그리고 1,2차 코팅(Coating)으로 구성되어 있다. 본 연구에서는 광섬유의 코팅에 생기는 결함의 유무 및 종류와 크기를 분류하는 Vision System을 구현하였다. 전처리 과정으로, CCD Camera를 이용하여 얻은 화상에 대하여 Sobel 연산자로 경계선을 추출하고, 문턱값(Threshold Value)을 적용하여 이진 화상을 만든다. 외경 정보 추출을 위하여, 투영 정보, 수리 형태학(Mathematical Morphology)적 연산을 수행하고, 결함의 종류와 크기를 효율적으로 분류하도록 Tree Classifier를 설계하였다. 실험 결과로서 각 결함 별 오차율, 전체 오차율(Total Error Rate)등을 제시하였다.

Because of using electrical technologies in the automobile system. It is difficult to detect and recover malfunction of the automobile system. Only the skillful repair engineers could find and repair their problems in these days, but their inconsistent knowhow make it hard to accumulate their knowledge. This paper presents the relations between the engine ignition line and the malfunction of the automobile.

In this paper, a new model of TDF(two degree of freedom) spinstabilized platform has been suggested. The platform driving signal modulated in the spinning frequency is described in demodulated form keeping its precession angular velocity. When a strong spinning torque exists, the crossaxis spring constant cannot be neglected in modelling of the platform precession dynamics. A linearized dynamic model of spinstabilized platform pointing loop is derived and validated through the comparison between simulation and experimental results.

A mathematical model was developed for the simulation of a Pressure Swing Adsorption process with dehydrogenation reaction. The minimum number of beds and optimum operating sequence were determined using MINLP under the given operating conditions. Based on these results, we estimated the minimum annual cost.

In this paper, we consider the optimal control problem based on Discrete Event Dynamic Systems(DEDS) in the Temporal Logic framework(TLF) which have studied for a convenient modeling technique. The TLF is enhanced with objective functions(event cost indices) and a measurement space is also defined. Our research goal is the design of the optimal controller for DEDSs. This procedure could be guided by the heuristic search methods. For the heuristic search, we suggested the Stochastic Ruler algorithm, instead of the A algorithm with difficulties as following; the uniqueness of solutions, the computational complexity and how to select a heuristic function. This SR algorithm is used for solving the optimal problem. An example is shown to illustrate our results.

This paper focuses on development of simulation model for SAE J1850 and performance evaluation of a J1850 network. The simulation model has been developed by using discrete event simulation language. SAE J1850 is one of Class B network protocol for general data sharing applications. Through numerous simulation experiments, several important performance factors such as the probability of a successful transmission, average queue delay, and throughput have been evaluated.

In contrast to parts of relatively simple shapes, it is important to match their crosssectional shapes during mating parts of complicated shapes. It requires the 2.pi. information along their matching boundary to figure out their relative geometrical shapes. In this paper, we propose a method measuring a misalignment at the interface during mating parts with the complicated shapes by using the omnidirectional image sensing system(OLSSA). Also we carried out experiments in order to prove the method, and the results show the feasibility.

Most autonomous mobile robots view things only in front of them. As a result, they may collide against objects moving from the side or behind. To overcome the problem we have built an Active Omnidirectional Range Sensor that can obtain omnidirectional depth data by a laser conic plane and a conic mirror. In the navigation of the mobile robot, the proposed sensor system makes a laser conic plane by rotating the laser point source at high speed and achieves two dimensional depth map, in real time, once an image capture. The experimental results show that the proposed sensor system provides the best potential for navigation of the mobile robot in uncertain environment.

Radiation monitoring system is needed at nuclear power plant and nuclear facility. Manual survey techniques are commonly used, but they are time consuming and somewhat inaccurate. Automatic radiation surveys are very important because it provides significant savings in menrem and wages. Unmanned, remote automatic radiation measurement system should be small and lightweighted in order to mount on robotic system. The system we have developed consists of detection parts, signal processing part, interface, and software part. Position information is provided by using of a collimator. The measurement process is achieved by the scanning of detector and image processing techniques are used to display radiation levels. We designed collimators, detectors, signal processing circuit, and constructed prototype system. The goal of this system is the mapping of camera image and radiation level distribution.

The main purpose of this study is to achieve the effective port works by using of containercrane, to disposer of many containers rapidly by using of vision sensor in order to control the swing of spreader. It is examined the possibility of automation in containercrane through a test in the field.

Throughout CGL (Continuous Galvanizing Line) in steel works, zinccoated steel sheets are produced which are used where longrunning corrosion resistivity is required. During the galvanizing process, top dross is created and floated on the zinc pot. Because the dross leaves ill patterns on the coated sheets, a robot system is developed to automatically collect and remove the top dross. It consists of a robot and its carriage system, a pot level sensor, a system controller, and special robot tools. For the first time the level of zinc pot must be measured and fed back to the robot controller to avoid submersion of the robot hand into the hot zinc pot. In this paper, acoustic distance sensor is tested as a candidate for the pot level sensor in the view point of hot environment. Some considerations on the use of the acoustic distance sensor will be denoted.

This paper presents an adaptive cutting force controller for milling process, which can be attached to most commercial CNC machining centers in a practical way. The cutting forces of X,Y and Z axes measured indirectly from the use of currents drawn by AC feeddrive servo motors. A typical model for the feeddrive control system of a horizontal machining center is developed to analyze cutting force measurement from the drive motor. The pulsating milling forces can be measured indirectly within the bandwidth of the current feedback control loop of the feeddrive system. It is shown that indirectly measured cutting force signals can be used in the adaptive controller for cutting force regulation. The robust controller structure is adopted in the whole adaptive control scheme. The conditions under which the whole scheme is globally convergent and stable are presented. The suggested control scheme has been implemented into a commercial machining center, and a series of cutting experiments on end milling and face milling processes are performed. The adaptive controller reveals reliable cutting force regulating capability under various cutting conditions.

This paper describes the servo position control for the 2axis positioning table the servo controller consists of conventional feedback loops, disturbance observer. To reduce the contour error, which occurs in the multidimensions machines, crosscoupled controller(CCC) is suggested. A weak point of the CCC is their low effectiveness in dealing with arbitrary nonlinear contour such as circles and parabolas. This paper introduces a new nonlinear CCC that is based on control gains that vary during the contour movement The gains of CCC and adjusted in real time according to the shape of nonlinear contour. The feedback controller based on the disturbance observer compensated for external disturbance, plant uncertainty and bad effectiveness by friction model. Suggested servo controller which improve the contouring accuracy, apply to the 2axis system. Simulation results on 2axis table verify the effectiveness of the proposed servo controller.

Based on the minimum cutting time criteria, the tool path generation algorithm of a pocket machining is developed as a form of a builtin cycle for the WOP(workshop oriented programming) of a CNC controller. Based on the given CAD database and tool information, an optimal cutting depth and geometric properties can be generated, then six different tool paths will be generated internally and automatically. Finally, the G code which commands tool movements is generated for CNC machining.

A variable structure controller is developed for an AC servo motor used in CNC milling machines. The designed controller is implemented as an outer loop controller to a factory designed motorservopack system. The robustness parameter is tuned for a fast response when the speed tracking error is large, while it is tuned for small oscillations when the speed tracking error is small. The designed controller is installed on a CNC machine using a PC. Cutting experiments show improved performance over the factorydesigned controller.

In this paper, a coarse alignment algorithm for strapdown inertial navigation system is proposed and evaluated analytically. The algorithm computes roll and pitch angles of the vehicle using accelerometer outputs, and then determines yaw angle with gyro outputs. It is referred, as twostep coarse alignment in this work. With the geometric relation between sensor outputs and roll, pitch and yaw angles, the algorithm error is analytically derived and compared with the previous coarse alignment algorithm introduced by Britting. The results show that the proposed twostep coarse alignment algorithm has better performance for pitch angle computation.

In this paper, we formulate the extended Kalman filter for calibration of gimballed inertial navigation system (GINS) at a pure navigation mode with 1500 ft/sec initial velocity and compare its performance to the linear Kalman filter's by using MonteCarlo analysis method. It has been shown that estimation performance of the extended Kalman filter is better than that of the linear Kalman filter.

The attitude error is expressed using four kinds of quaternion errors. And the explicit relation equations between them are derived four kinds of nonlinear error models of SDINS using the their explicit relation are also proposed for a nonlinear filter which may be available for a system in the presence of a large attitude error the concept of the proposed nonlinear error model is applied to the velocity aided SDINS using a linear Kalman filter and an extended Kalman filter the simulation results reveal a improvement of performance using the nonlinear error model.

Often an INS has to be aligned in navigation. In these cases it is necessary to obtain some reference information on the state of the aligned INS(Slave) such as its position, its velocity of its angular rate. Usually the reference information is velocity which is supplied by another reference INS. In the alignment state the velocity computed by the reference INS(Master) is compared with that computed by the slave INS and the difference which is indicative of the slave misalignment with respect to the master, is processed by a Kalman filter which estimates misalignment as well as the slave gyro and accelerometer error states. The operation of aligning a slave INS with a master INS comparing quantities computed by both INS is known as transfer alignment. The delivery vehicle performs error these maneuvers enable the TA Kalman filter to separate between the tilt errors and the accelerometer biases which otherwise are unobservable. The basic objective this paper is to study the observability enhancement by ship's maneuvering and matching methods during transfer alignment at sea.

The Output feedback linear quadratic regulator control is applied to the design of active suspension system using 7 DOF full car model. The performance index reflects the vehicle vertical movement, pitch and roll motion, and minimization of suspension stroke displacements in the rattle space. The elements of gain matrix are approximately decoupled so that each suspension requires only local information to generate the control force. The simulation results indicates that the output feedback LQ controller is more effective than purely passive or full state feedback active LQ controllers in following the road profile at the low frequency range and suppressing the road disturbance at the high frequency ranges.

The vibration of an attractive magnetic levitation(Maglev) vehicle transportation system is caused by the irregularity of the guideway track and the performance of the suspensions of the Maglev system. It is essential for us to give attention to the secondary suspension of the vehicle system as it determines the ride quality. In order to improve the ride quality and running stability, active secondary suspensions have been developed and applied to the vibration problems. This paper analyzes the performance of the active secondary suspension which is applied to an attractive magnetic levitation vehicle system running on a rough track. The dynamics of the suspension system and the optimal control problems are studied. According to the transient and frequency response analyses to the track disturbance, the ride quality of an attractive Maglev vehicle has been improved by applying the designed LQR active controller, and it has been confirmed that this improvement was also influenced by the configuration of the system.

This paper suggests a speed control algorithm for the ICC(Intelligent Cruise Controller) system. The speed controller is designed using the fuzzy controller which shows the good performance in nonlinear system having the complex mathematical model. The fuzzy controller was equipped with the capability of a selflearning in real time in order to maintain the good performance of the speed controller in a timevarying environment the selflearning properties and the performance of the fuzzy controller are showed via computer simulation. The suggested fuzzy controller will be applied to the PRVIII which is our test vehicle.

This paper describes a GPS/DR integration filter for a car navigation system. A new GPS/DR integration filter is derived for obtaining more accurate and reliable position data. The covariance analysis results and simulation results are shown for evaluating the performance of the proposed GPS/DR integration filter.

The objective of a mixed H
$_{2}$ /H$_{\infty}$ controller of active suspension system is to achieve not only the general performance improvement(H$_{2}$ ) but also the worst case disturbance rejection(H$_{\infty}$ ). In this paper, a mixed H$_{2}$ /H$_{\infty}$ controller for an active suspension system, comparing the performance with that of an H$_{2}$ controller and of an H$_{\infty}$ controller.ler.EX> controller. 
An unknown input observer is proposed that can be used in wheelbase preview control of commercial vehicles. The preview and state information, required to calculate actuator force, are reconstructed from the measurement variables such as heave and pitch acceleration. Gain matrix of observer is optimally selected so that influence of system and measurement noises on the estimation error can be minimized. Estimated preview information requires low pass filtering to eliminate high frequency components resulting from differentiation of noisy output signals. Effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by numerical simulation of half car model.

A new algorithm for planning a collision free path is developed based on linear parametric curve. A collisionfree path is viewed as a connected space curve in which the path consists of two straight curve connecting start to target point. A single intermediate connection point is considered in this paper and is used to manipulate the shape of path by organizing the control point in polar coordinate (.theta.,.rho.). The algorithm checks interference with obstacles, defined as GM (Geometry Mapping), and maps obstacles in Euclidean Space into images in CPS (Connection Point Space). The GM for all obstacles produces overlapping images of obstacle in CPS. The clear area of CPS that is not occupied by obstacle images represents collisionfree paths in Euclidean Space. Any points from the clear area of CPS is a candidate for a collisionfree path. A simulation of GM for number of cases are carried out and results are presented including mapped images of GM and performances of algorithm.

The objective of this paper is to make the weighted graph map for path planning using the ultrasonic sensor measurements that are acquired when an A.M.R (autonomous mobile robot) explores the unknown circumstance. First, The A.M.R navigates on unknown space with wallfollowing and gathers the sensor data from the environments. After this, we constructs the occupancy grid map by interpreting the gathered sensor data to occupancy probability. For the path planning of roadmap method, the weighted graph map is extracted from the occupancy grid map using morphological image processing and thinning algorithm. This methods is implemented on an A.M.R having a ultrasonic sensor.

In this paper, we propose an efficient collisionfree path planning method of two cooperating robot manipulators grasping a common object rigidly. For given two robots and an object, the procedure is described which constructs the reduced dimensional configuration space by the kinematic analysis of two cooperating robot manipulators. A path planning algorithm without explicit representation of configuration obstacles is also described. The primary steps of the algorithm is as follows. First, we compute a graph which represents the skeleton of the free configuration space. Second, a connection between an initial and a goal configuration to the graph is searched to find a collisionfree path.

본 논문은 작업공간을 공유하는 두 대의 스카라 로봇으로 이루어진 DualArm SCARA 로봇 시스템과 여러 대의 로봇을 제어할수 있는 로봇제어기로 동시에 독립적인 작업을 하는 경우 두 로봇의 동작에 따른 로봇 ARM의 모델링을 실시간으로 처리하여 상대 로봇과의 충돌이 예상되는지를 실시간 검색하여 두 로봇간의 충돌이 발생하지 않도록 하는 충돌검출 방법과, 두 대의 로봇이 충돌가능성으로 인하여 원하는 작업을 수행할수 없는 상태가 되는 경우 작업을 원활하게 이루어지도록 하는 충돌회피를 위한 로봇의 궤적을 생성하여 로봇을 이동시키고 다시 원래의 위치로 돌아 올수 있는 방법을 구현하였다.

The computedtorque method (CTM) shows good trajectory tracking performance in controlling robot manipulator if there is no disturbance or modelling errors. But with the increase of a payload or the disturbance of a manipulator, the tracking errors become large. So there have been many researches to reduce the tracking error. In this paper, we propose a new control algorithm based on the CTM that decreases a tracking error by generating new reference trajectory to the controller. In this algorithm we used the concept of sliding mode theory and fuzzy system to reduce chattering in control input. For the numerical simulation, we used a 2link robot manipulator. To simulate the disturbance due to a modelling uncertainty, we added errors to each elements of the inertia matrix and the nonlinear terms and assumed a payload to the endeffector. In this simulation, proposed method showed better trajectory tracking performance compared with the CTM.

An realtime active beacon localization system for mobile robots is developed and implemented. This system permits the estimation of robot positions when detecting light sources by PSD(Position Sensitive Detector) sensor which are placed sparsely over the robot's work space as beacons(or landmarks). An LSE(Least Square Estimation) method is introduced to calibrate the internal parameters of a model for the beacon and robot position. The proposed system has two operational modes of position estimation. One is the initial position calculation by the detection of two or more light sources positions of which are known. The other is the continuous position compensation that calculates the position and heading of the robot using the IEKF(Iterated Extended Kalman Filter) applied to the beacon and deadreckoning data. Practical experiments show that the estimated position obtained by this system is precise enough to be useful for the navigation of robots.

This paper presents a new algorithm for the selflocalization of a mobile robot using perspective invariant(Cross Ratio). Most of conventional modelbased selflocalization methods have some problems that data structure building, map updating and matching processes are very complex. Use of the simple cross ratio can be effective to the above problems. The algorithm is based on two basic assumptions that the ground plane is flat and two parallel walls are available. Also it is assumed that an environmental map is available for matching between the scene and the model. To extract an accurate steering angle for a mobile robot, we take advantage of geometric features such as vanishing points(V.P). Point features for computing cross ratios are extracted robustly using a vanishing point and the intersection points between floor and the vertical lines of door frames. The robustness and feasibility of our algorithms have been demonstrated through experiments in indoor environments using an indoor mobile robot, KASIRIII(KAist SImple Roving Intelligence).

In this work, we investigate the quasistatic crawling of the fourbar mechanism. Since the crawling of the mechanism is based on sliding of contact points of the mechanism with the ground, interaction forces and friction forces at contact points of the mechanism with the ground should be computed. For this purpuse, we introduce the concept of imaginary joints to find these forces. Therefore, we are able to treat the closed mechanism as a serial one. Also, sliding conditions of the mechanism in quasistatic equilibrium are examined. Lastly, the required torques for the mechanism to crawl with respect to various configurations of the mechanism but with a fixed ground friction are investigated.

It is necessary to develop the simulator for the test of stability and torque before the walking experiment of biped robot, because a robot may be damaged in an actual experiment. This thesis deals with the development of threedimensional simulator for improving efficiency and safety during development and experimentation. The simulator is composed of three partssolving dynamics, rendering pictures and communicating with the robot. In the first part, the DH parameter and parameter of links can be loaded from the file and edited in the program. The results are obtained by using the NewtonEuler method and are stored in the file. Through the above process, the proper length of link and driving force can be found by using simulator before designing the robot. The second part is organized so that the user can easily see a specific value or a portion he wants by setting viewing parameters interactively. A robot is also shown as a shaded rendering picture in this part. In the last part, the simulator sends each desired angle of joints to the robot controller and each real angle of joints is taken from the controller and passed to the second part. The safety of the experiment is improved by driving the robot after checking whether the robot can be actuatable or not and whether the ZMP is located within the sole of the foot or not for a specific gait. The state of the robot can be easily grasped by showing the shaded rendering picture which displays the position of the ZMP, the driving force and the shape of robot.

This paper proposes position estimation and pathtracking of a wheeledmobile robot(WMR). Odometry and two distance measuring sensors are used to measure distance between guide wall and body and to locate its own position. And extended Kalman filter is introduced to fusion sensors and reduce noise. State feedback controller using the estimated position and pathtracking miles guidance control system. The computer simulation shows that proposed algorithm is well coincide with theoretical approach.

In this paper, two specially designed associative mapping memories, called Associative Mapping Elements(AME) and MultipleDigit Overlapping AME(MDOAME), are presented for learning of nonlinear functions including kinematics and dynamics of robot manipulators. The proposed associative mapping memories consist of associative mapping rules(AMR) and weight update rules(WUR) which guarantee generalization and specialization of inputoutput relationship of learned nonlinear functions. Two simulation results, one for supervised learning and the other for unsupervised learning, are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed associative mapping memories.

In teleoperating, as seeing the monitor screen obtained from a camera instituted in the working environment, human operator generally controls the slave arm. Because we can see only 2D image in a monitor, human operator does not know the depth information and can not work with high accuracy. In this paper, we proposed a traded control method using an visual sensor for the purpose of solving this problem. We can control a teleoperation system with precision when we use the proposed algorithm. Not only a human operator command but also an autonomous visual sensor feedback command is given to a slave arm for the purpose of coincidence current image features and target image features. When the slave arm place in a distant place from the target position, human operator can know very well the difference between the desired image features and the current image features, but calculated visual sensor command have big errors. And when the slave arm is near the target position, the state of affairs is changed conversely. With this visual sensor feedback, human does not need coincide the detail difference between the desired image features and the current image features and proposed method can work with higher accuracy than other method without, sensor feedback. The effectiveness of the proposed control method is verified through series of experiments.

Realization of autonomous agents that organize their own internal structure in order to behave adequately with respect to their goals and the world is the ultimate goal of AI and Robotics. Reinforcement learning gas recently been receiving increased attention as a method for robot learning with little or no a priori knowledge and higher capability of reactive and adaptive behaviors. In this paper, we present a method of reinforcement learning by which a multi robots learn to move to goal. The results of computer simulations are given.

Highspeed/highaccuracy control of robot manipulator becomes more and more stringent because of the external disturbance and nonlinear characteristics. To meet this ends, lots of control strategies were proposed in the past such as the computed torque control, the nonlinear decoupled feedback control, and adaptive control. These control methods need computations of the inverse dynamics and require much computational effort. Recently, a disturbance observer with unmodeled robot dynamics and simple algorithms to motion control have been widely studied. This paper proposes a motor control strategy based on the disturbance observer which estimate the disturbance of each joint from inputoutput relationship of the actuator and eliminate the estimated disturbance including the torque due to modeling errors, coupling force, nonlinear friction, and so on. To apply the disturbance observer to closedloop system like velocity servo pack, the modified control structure was constructed and shown that it is equivalent to a disturbance observer in openloop system. Finally, using the proposed approach, simulation and experiments were carried out for a twodegreeoffreedom SCARA type direct drive robot, and show some results to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

It is difficult to determine the feeding rate of coagulant in water treatment process, due to nonlinearity, multivariables and slow response characteristics etc. To deal with this difficulty, the fusion of genetic algorithms and fuzzy inference system was used in determining of feeding rate of coagulant. The genetic algorithms are excellently robust in complex operation problems, since it uses randomized operators and searches for the best chromosome without auxiliary information from a population consists of codings of parameter set. To apply this algorithms, we made the look up table and membership function from the actual operation data of water treatment process. We determined optimum dosages of coagulant (PAC, LAS etc.) by the fuzzy operation, and compared it with the feeding rate of the actual operation data.

In this study, we propose a neurogenetic controller combined with a linear controller in parallel to improve the tracking performance of the Line of Sight(LOS) stabilization system and reject the effect of disturbances. A Genetic Algorithm(GA) is used to optimize weights of the neurogenetic controller since this algorithm can search a global minimum without derivatives or other auxiliary knowledge. The LOS system is very complex and has limited measurable output data. Under these specific circumstances GA solves many problems that other training methods have. Computer simulation results show that the, proposed controller makes better tracking response and rejection of disturbance than a linear controller.

In this paper, the optimization of a fuzzy controller using genetic algorithm is studied. The fuzzy controller has been widely applied to industries because it is highly flexible, robust easy to implement and suitable for complex systems. Generally, the design of fuzzy controller has difficulties in determining the structure of the rules and the membership functions. To solve these problems, the proposed method optimizes the structure of fuzzy rules and the parameters of membership functions simultaneously in an offline method. The proposed method is evaluated through computer simulations.

In this paper, we present a fuzzysliding controller design using genetic algorithm. We can suppress chattering and enhance the robustness of controlled system by using this controller and do that genetic algorithm can easily find out a nearly optimal fuzzy rule performance of this controller is tested by simulation of car system with two pole.

In this paper, feedback controller is designed for ballbeam system using genetic algorithms. A genetic algorithms are implemented for optimizing gain parameters of feedback controller. We can find optimal point in multidimensional search space by using genetic algorithms. Performance of controller is tested by simulation of ballbeam system.

This paper presents a sufficient condition for robust stability of discretetime systems with delayed nonlinear perturbations. Using state evolution method, the bound on the norms of nonlinear perturbation which guarantees the exponential stability of the systems, is found. The numerical example is given to illustrate the results.

Teleoperation is the extension of a person's sensing and manipulation capability to a remote location. Teleoperators generally can be modeled as linear transfer function indecently including modeling uncertainty. Modeling uncertainties can make the system unstable and its performance poor. Thus I'm studying about a design framework for a bilateral controller of teleoperator systems with modeling uncertainties. In this paper, a method based on the H
$_{\infty}$ optimal control and .mu.synthesis frameworks are introduced to design a controller for the teleoperator that achieves stability and performance in the presence of the modeling uncertainties..ties.inties. 
A new version of the discretetime optimal FIR (finite impulse response) filter utilizing only the measurements of finite sliding estimation window is suggested for linear timeinvariant statespace models. This filter is called the BLUFIR (best linear unbiased finite impulse response) filter since it provides the BLUE (best linear unbiased estimate) of the state obtained from the measurements of the estimation window. It is shown that the BLUFIR filter has the deadbeat property when there are no noises in the estimation window.

We consider a feedback control system including interval plant where uncertain parameters expressed in the hyperrectangular box X. Here we define the maximum value of the integral of the error(ISE) as the worst performance index(WPI) due to the plant parameter uncertainty. Suppose that the closed loop system retains robust stability and it belongs to type I. Then we show that the WPI occurs only on the exposed edges of Q. In particular, it is also shown that if ISE is a convex function relative to X, the WPI is attained at one of vertices of X. Some examples are given.

The purpose of this thesis is to develop methods of designing robust LQR/LQG controllers for timevarying systems with real parametric uncertainties. Controller design that meet desired performance and robust specifications is one of the most important unsolved problems in control engineering. We propose a new framework to solve these problems using Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMls) which have gained much attention in recent years, for their computational tractability and usefulness in control engineering. In Robust LQR case, the formulation of LMI based problem is straightforward and we can say that the obtained solution is the global optimum because the transformed problem is convex. In Robust LQG case, the formulation is difficult because the objective function and constraint are all nonlinear, therefore these are not treatable directly by LMI. We propose a sequential solving method which consist of a blockdiagonal approach and a fullblock approach. Blockdiagonal approach gives a conservative solution and it is used as a initial guess for a fullblock approach. In fullblock approach two LMIs are solved sequentially in iterative manner. Because this algorithm must be solved iteratively, the obtained solution may not be globally optimal.

The major roles of Power SCADA System are continuous monitoring of electrical equipments state, realtime data processing and dispatching. Especially, SCADA system demands fast response time in heavy load condition, high reliability, fault tolerance, expansion capacity for the future. According to developing computer system technology, SCADA system is changing system configuration from centralized processing system to distributed processing system. This paper describes operational benefits, problems and improvement (which is studying in theory) in the application of Open System Architecture SCADA which has been installed since 1994, Seoul regional control center in KEPCO.

This paper introduces prototype design of 765kV Substation control system based on fiber optics LAN and distributed network protocol. Two major important facts, immunity of any surge which frequently occurs in Ultra High Voltage Substation and the most suitable communication protocol for substation control system, are considered on the system design conception. To meet the first fact, use of fiber optics cable and isolation transformer are considered, and to satisfy the second fact, DNP3.0(Distributed Network Protocol) which is IEC8705 compatible is adopted.

Nonlinear unified predictive control(UPC) algorithm was applied to the temperature control of a batch polymerization reactor for polymethylmethacrylate(PMMA). Before the polymerization reaction is initiated, the parameters of the process model are determined by the recursive least squares(RLS) method. During the reaction, nonlinearities due to generation of heat of reaction and variation of heat transfer coefficients are predicted through the nonlinear model developed. These nonlinearities are added to the process output from the linear process model. And then, the predicted process output is used to calculate the control output sequence. The performance of nonlinear control algorithm was verified by simulation and compared with that of the linear unified predictive control algorithm. In the experiment of a batch PMMA polymerization, nonlinear unified predictive control was implemented to regulate the temperature of the reactor, and the validity of the nonlinear model was verified through the experimental results. The performance of the nonlinear controller turned out to be superior to that of the linear controller for tracking abrupt changes in setpoint.

Various autotuning methods using relay feedback are presented recently. They are composed of the consecutive procedures identifying Nyquist critical point using relay feedback and designing PID controller by one point of Nyquist plot mapping. This paper suggests a strategy to get the knowledges of Nyquist critical point and the neighborhood point of it using relay feedback. The parameters of PID controller are established by dominant pole approximation based on these knowledges. Designers can make use of the damping ratio as a time domain specification. So design flexibilities are taken in view of stability and performance of the system response considering practical system condition.

Most control systems of power plants are using classical PID controllers for their process control. In order to get the desired control performances, the correct tuning of PID controllers is very important. Sometimes, it is necessary to retune PID controllers after the change of system operating condition and system design change, etc. Commercial autotuning controllers such as relay feedback controller can be used for this purpose. However, using these controllers to the safetycritical systems of nuclear power plants may be cause of unsafe operation, because they are using test signals for tuning. A new system identification autotuning method without using test signal has been developed in this paper. This method uses process input/output signals for system identification of unknown control process. From the model information of control process which was obtained from system identification approach, the optimal PID parameters can be calculated. The method can be used in the safetycritical systems because it is not using test signals during system modeling process.

This study focuses on the optimal operation and control strategy of the fuel cell process. The control objective of the Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) is established and dynamic modeling equations of the entire fuel cell process are formulated as discretetime type. Online optimal control of the MIMO system employs the direct decompositioncoordination method. The objective function is modified as the tracking form to enhance the response capability to the load change. The weight factor matrices Q,R, which are design parameters, are readjusted. This control system is compared with LQI method and the results show that the suggested method is better than the traditional method in pressure difference control.

This paper discribes automobile processes and introduction for process monitoring and control system for engine plant, truck automobile industries using the MES(Manufacturing Execution Systems) functions.

Fieldbus provides realtime data communication among field devices in the process control and manufacturing automation systems. This paper presents an implementation method of Profibus in the experimental model of manufacturing automation system. The manufacturing automation system considered in this paper consists of robots, NC machines, sensors, conveyers and PCs. The application task programs are developed on the basis of FMS/FMA7 communication services which are provided by Profibus application layer. The communication and application programs are developed in the realtime environment.

The cyclic production lines have the first machines starved and the last machine blocked due to the lack or the excess of empty pallets in the feedback buffer. A workpiece in the cyclic production lines is transported on a pallet, and the total sum of pallets in the system does not changed during the system operation time. Therefore, the production rate of the cyclic production lines are dependent on the total number of pallets in the system. In this paper, we suggest the performance analysis method for the cyclic production lines with inspection machines and the optimal total number of pallets in the system that maximizes the production rate of the system. Finally, we validate the suggested methods by simulations.

Dynamic scheduling is very important in constructing CIM and improving productivity of chemical processing systems. Computation at the scheduling level requires mostly a long time to generate an optimal schedule, so it is difficult to immediately respond to actual process events in realtime. To solve these problems, we developed dynamic scheduling algorithms such as DSMM(Dynamic Shift Modification Method), PUOM(Parallel Unit Operation Method) and UVVM(Unit Validity Verification Method). Their main functions are to minimize the effects of unexpected disturbances such as process time variations and unit failure, to predict a makespan of the updated dynamic schedule and to modify schedule desirably in realtime responding to process time variations. As a result, the algorithms generate a new pertinent schedule in realtime which is close to the original schedule but provides an efficient way of responding to the variation of process environment. Examples in a shampoo production batch process illustrate the efficiency of the algorithms.

While Ethernet and TCP/IP are the most widely used protocol, for Realtime system, it is not applicable because it doesn't guarantee the deterministic transmission time. Furthermore, the TCP acknowledgement scheme and sliding window algorithm enforce to collide packets. Although various CollisionFree CSMA protocol was presented, it is very difficult to implement in well known OS(UNIX, WilidowsNT) because we have to modify network kernel. This paper presents another transmission protocol based on modified UDP. The colliding probability can be minimized by avoiding successive packet transmission and decreasing competition duration. The proposed algorithm can be used for the soft realtime industrial automation network.

The performance of realtime systems depends upon how well the tasks are scheduled within a cycle time and how fastly the response is made according to the occurrence of an external event. This paper presents the design of an effective realtime data acquisition system in order to gather the data from an automobile engine. This paper investigates an estimation and a restriction method of execution for aperiodic data. Also, the guarantee problem of realtime constraint is presented for periodic data. Through the experiments, the hard realtime guarantee problem of periodic data is studied and the damage problem of periodic data according to the increase of aperiodic tasks is analyzed.

The accuracy of the servo control in CNC system has a great influence on the duality of machine product. Tracking performance of the servo control is deteriorated mainly by the time delay of the servo system and the inertia of the work table or bed. Contouring errors occur in every interpolation steps by the effect of the tracking performance. In this paper,
$H_{\infty}$ twodegreeoffreedom(TDF) controller is designed for improvement to improve the tracking performance. The designed controller is applied 3axis machining center model and the cutting accuracy is simulated in case of corner cutting, circular and involute interpolation. Simulation results show that$H_{\infty}$ TDF controller designed in this paper has a good effect to improve tracking performance in CNC system. 
In this paper, GMDH(Group Method of Data Handling) algorithm, which is based on heuristic self organization to predict and identify the complex system, is applied to the control system of DC servo motor. The mathematical relation between input voltage and motor speed is obtained by GMDH algorithm. A design method of model following control system based on GMDH algorithm is developed. As a result of applying this method to DC servo motor, the simulation and experiment have shown that the developed method gives a good performance in tracking the reference model and in rejection of disturbance, in spite of constant load and changing load.

In this paper, we present realtime S/W architecture and techniques such as realtime scheduling, synchronization, and etc. for implementation of a realtime control system for driving multimotors. Simulation shows feasibility of realtime S/W techniques presented here.

Piezoelectric actuator is widely used in precision positioning applications due to its excellent positioning resolution. However, serious hysteresis nonlinearity of the actuator deteriorates its precise positioning capability. Evenworse, its hysteresis nonlinearity changes as the actuator input frequency varies. In this study, a simple feedforward scheme is proposed and tested through experiments for precision position control when the variance of the system input frequency is significant.

In this paper, we analyzed the effect of the change of the rotor time constant on the performance of the indirect vector control system. By employing indirect field orientation technique, we have also suggested an optimal control algorithm that allows an induction motor to maintain the maximum torque under the changing environment of rotor time constant. A computer simulation on the transient response of the output torque was demonstrated. To verify the validity of the method that has been proposed in this paper, an experiment has been performed utilizing TMS32OC31(40MHz) DSP chip which is capable of performing floatingpoint arithmetic in real time.

Remote Cask Grappling and Lid Unbolting Device (RCGLUD) is developed as a dedicated device capable of performing complete procedure of handling nuclear spent fuel transport cask. Since RCGLUD is suspended to an overhead crane, its body should undergo prolonged vibration upon actuation in rotational direction and it becomes difficult to achieve precise grappling of the cask. Therefore, this paper presents an adaptation of input shaping technique to effectively suppress the rotational vibration of RCGLUD and achieve precise positioning in rotational direction. This technique has a practical merit in that it requires only the information on the system natural frequency and the damping ratio. Its performance is verified by both simulation and experimental studies, and revealed that the method is also insensitive to modeling error.

This paper describes the design and implementation of an intelligent controller for continuous casting process. The proposed controller adopted a fuzzy control with feedback linearization. The simulation result shows that proposed intelligent controller is superior to the conventional PID controller.

Good shape on flat rolled product is necessary to meet today's customer quality requirement. To meet the increasing demand in quality of strip shape from downstream customers, POSCO has replaced the Automatic Shape Control(ASC) system with the existing one that had used noncontact type measuring system at No.2 Cold Rolling Mill, Pohang works in October, 1995. The strip shape is influenced by the profile, roll crown, bending control, skew control system, as well as work roll cooling system. We have used ASC to adjust those factors in Cold Rolling Mill that could get a satisfactory result, almost less than .+.5 1unit deviation from the target shape. However, the downstream customer(i.e. Continuos Annealing Line) wants a good shape not only at the moment of exit of roll bite, but after rolling without tension. In this investigation, the difference will be discussed and how deal with this problem.

In hot rolling process at steel plant, cooling of the rolled strip at the exit of the rolling mill is one of the most important processes that would decide the quality of products. To guarantee the thermal equity over the strip, the device called an edgemasking unit is being used. That is installed between the strip and the sprayers to cover the side edge of the strip from spraying water. The accuracy of positioning the bracket is the key to this operation. A machine vision technique can be applied to measure the position of the side edges before an asrolled strip enters into the cooling facility to rectify the error of preset position of the bracket. This paper shows the simulation result of applying the machine vision technique to measuring the position of a strip and suggests the solution for the target.

According to ascending needs for quality assurance of plate by customer and automated measurement of dimension for slab, in plate mill, project is on preceeding to install measuring system to measure width, length and camber of slab and plate using laser distance meter. In this document, I will describe not technical point of view but idea of design for installation system.

Automatic control systems for warehouse composed of unmanned crane system and vision system. Unmanned crane system is introduced to reject oscillations of a load suspended from a trolley at a moment of its arrival at its target position. And vision system is applied to find out the coordinates of coils on trucks using image processing.

Cold rolling mill process in steel works uses stands of rolls to flatten a strip to a desired thickness. At cold rolling mill process, precalculation determines the mill settings before a strip actually enters the mill and is done by an outdated mathematical model. A corrective neural network model is proposed to improve the accuracy of the roll force prediction. Additional variables to be fed to the network include the chemical composition of the coil, its coiling temperature and the aggregated amount of processed strips of each roll. The network was trained using a standard backpropagation with 4,944 process data collected from no.1 cold rolling mill process from March 1995 through December 1995, then was tested on the unseen 1,586 data from Jan 1996 through April 1996. The combined model reduced the prediction error by 32.8% on average.

The objective of this paper is to present a new input torque shaping method for slewing and vibration suppression of flexible structure based on Fourier series expansion. Vibration energy of the structure with shaped control input is investigated with respect to the shaping parameter of the reference torque, maneuver time and the number of trigonometric functions to be included in the series. Analytic expressions of the performance indices and their derivatives are derived in the modal coordinates. Numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach to design the openloop control law that modifies the shape of input torque for simultaneous slewing and vibration suppression.

The Object of this study is to find the relations between LQR and eigenstructure assignment regulator. Algorithms for computing weighting matrices are proposed for the case that (i) closedloop eigenvalues are specified, and (ii) closedloop gain matrix is given. We also present a new eigenstructure assignment algorithm that minimizes a linear quadratic performance index.

In this work, attitude determination with Inertial Reference Unit as attitude sensor is considered. Usually, the attitude error from IRU increases because of gyro rate bias and noise. Therefore, other attitude sensors(sun sensor, horizon sensor, star tracker) are needed to compensate for error from IRU. In this paper, we use the extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation of spacecraft with IRU and star tracker.

In this paper, roll/yaw attitude control of spacecraft using a double gimbaled wheel is discussed with two feedback controllers designed. One is a PD controller with no phase difference between roll and yaw control input. The other is a PD controller with a phase lag compensator about the yaw control input. The phase lag compensator is designed as a first order system and a lag parameter is designed for the yaw angle control. There are two case simulations for each controller ; constant disturbance torques and initial errors of nutation at motion. We obtain the results through simulations that steadystate error and rising time of yaw angle are determined by the compensator. Simulation parameters used in this study are the values of KOREASAT F1.

Disturbance Accommodating Attitude control logic for 3axis stabilized spacecraft is designed and compared with PIID control logic. PID controller provide the zero steady error for constant disturbances. PIID controller detect and cancel disturbances upto the ramp input. PID control logic is designed as the main control logic. We designed the disturbance observer to detect the effect of disturbance using the sinusoidal function. The detected disturbance are compensated by the additional control logic. The comparison simulation is conducted between PIID and PIID with DAC. The simulation results show that PIID with DAC shows the better attitude pointing accuracy.

A semiactive suspension system with continuously variable damper is greatly expected to be mainly used in the future as a highperformance suspension system due to its costeffectiveness, light weight, and low energy consumption. To develop the suitable control logic for the semiactive suspension system, the hardwareintheloop simulation is performed with the experimental continuously variable damper combined with a quartercar model. The hardwareintheloop simulation results are compared for passive, on/off controlled, and continuously controlled dampers in the aspects of ride comfort and driving safety, assuming each damper to be installed on a vehicle.

We describe an algorithm to control an autonomous guided vehicle with 2diagonal driving wheels, which navigates in the clean room.

The objective of this paper is to study on the idle speed control sing the fuzzy logic controller under load disturbance. The inputs of the fuzzy controller are error of rpm and rpm variation. The output of fuzzy controller is an ISC motor step. The airflow is controlled by the ISC motor movement and the idle speed is controlled by the airflow control. During the control, air to fuel ratio was checked by LAMBDA sensor. All experiments were carried in real vehicle.

DMC(Dynamic Matrix Control) algorithm has been successfully used in industries for more than a decade. It can handle constraints and easily extended to MIMO case. The application of DMC, however, is limited to the open loop stable process because it uses the FIR(Finite Impulse Response) or FSR(Finite Step Response) model. Integrating process widely used in chemical process industry, is the representative open loop unstable process. The disturbance rejection of DMC is relatively poor due to the assumption that the current disturbance is equivalent to the future disturbance. We propose the IDMC(Improved Dynamic Matrix Control) for the integrating process, as well as nonintegrating process. IDMC has shown better disturbance rejection using multistep ahead predictor for the disturbance.

Asymmetric cylinders are usually used as an actuator of active suspensions. Since the force is influenced not only by the control but by the road roughness, force control is needed to track the desired force. But the conventional error feedback control treats the valvecylinder dynamics at its operating point and many use the symmetric model which differ in all respects. We adopt an asymmetric cylinder model and apply a feedback linearization method for the force control to compensate both the valve nonlinearities and the effects of the road roughness.

The collisionfree path planning presented here uses linear parametric curve with one intermediate connection point between start and target points. The algorithm, in which connection point is organized in elliptic chord.(.theta., .delta.), maps objects in Euclidean Space into images in CPS through intersection check between path and obstacles a process defined as GM. Elliptic locus has special property that the total distance between focus points through a point on ellipse is the same regardless of .theta.. Hence by locating the start and target points to focus points of ellipse, and organizing connection point in elliptic coordinate, the .delta.axis of CPS represents length of path. The GM of EWS requires calculation of interference in circumferential direction only. The procedures for GM is developed which include categorization of obstacles to reduce calculation amount. Simulations of GM of EWS, on a PC with Pentium/90MHz, is carried out to measure performance of algorithm and the results are reported on a table. The simulations are done for number of cases with different number of obstacles and location of start/target points.

The objective of this paper is to make a modelbased map for the localization of an autonomous mobile robot(AMR) from ultrasonic sensor measurements, that are acquired when the AMR explores unknown indoors. First, the AMR navigates on unknown space by wallfollowing and gathers range data from the ultrasonic sensor. Then, the range data are converted to a wallmarked gird map, from which lines representing the walls are extracted using the Hough transform. This process is implemented on an AMR having an ultrasonic sensor, and a preliminary experimental result is presented.

For online trajectory planning such as teleoperation it is desirable to keep good manipulability of the robot manipulators since the motion command is not given in advance. To keep good manipulability means the capability of moving any arbitrary directions of task space. An optimization process with different manipulability measures are performed and compared for a redundant robot system moving in 2dimensional task space, and gives results that the conventional manipulability ellipsoid based on the Jacobian matrix is not good choice as far as the optimal direction of motion is concerned.

A new approach based on artificial potential function is proposed for the obstacle avoidance of redundant manipulators. Unlike the socalled "global" path planning method, which requires expensive computation for the path search before the manipulator starts to move, this new approach, "local" path planning, researches the path in realtime using the local distance information. Previous use of artificial potential function has exhibited local minima in some complex environments. This thesis proposes a potential function that has no local minima even for a cluttered environment. This potential function has been implemented for the collision avoidance of a redundant robot in Simulation. The simulation also employ an algorithm that eliminates collisions with obstacles by calculating the repulsive potential exerted on links, based on the shortest distance to object.

This paper presents WMR modelling and path tracking algorithm using Inertial Navigation System. The error models of gyroscope and accelerometers in INS are derived by GaussNewton method which is nonlinear regression model. Then, to test availability of error model, we pursue the fitness diagnosis about probability characteristic for real data and estimated data. Performance of inertial sensor with error model and Kalman filter is pursued by comparing with one without them. The computer simulation shows that position error remarkably decrease when error compensation is applied.

Recently visual servo control is an important feature of an intelligent robot system. In this paper, we presents a Kalman filter approach for estimation of the linear optic flow model which is utilized in the visual servoing of a mobile robot. The proposed method is also compared with the conventional least mean square method via computer simulation.

본 논문은 새로운 지역 경로 계획 알고리즘으로 DPH(Distance Profile Histogram)방법과 뉴럴네트워크를 사용한 주행 방법을 제안한다. DPH방법은 격자형 환경 모델을 기반으로 장애물의 존재 유무와 거리정보와 같은 장애물의 기하학적 배치정보를 사용하게 된다. 또한 긴 장애물이나 막힘상황(Dead end)과 같이 지역 경로 계획만으로는 회피하기 어려운 상황에서는 뉴럴네트워크에 의해 학습된 정보에 의해 주행하는 방법을 사용했다.

Control of a biped robot which has compliant ankle joints is dealt in this paper. Simulated version of a human ankle joint is built using springs and mechanical constraints, which gives a flexibility of joint and compliance against the touching ground. The biped robot with compliant ankle joints proposed here gives a good contact between its sole and the ground and makes foot landing soft. As a result, installing force sensors for measuring the center of gravity of the biped becomes easier. A motor to drive an ankle joint is not needed which makes legs light. However, the control problem becomes more difficult because the torque of the ankle joint to put the biped in a desired walking gait cannot be provided from the compliant ankle joint. To solve this problem, we proposed a dynamic gait modification method by adjusting the position of a hip joint. Simulation results for the mathematical model of the SD2 biped in the Ohio State University are given to show the validity of the proposed controller.

In this paper, a parameter optimization technique for a mobile robot navigation is discussed. Authors already have proposed a navigation algorithm for mobile robots with sonar sensors using fuzzy decision making theory. Fuzzy decision making selects the optimal viapoint utilizing membership values of each viapoint candidate for fuzzy navigation goals. However, to make a robot successfully navigate through an unknown and cluttered environment, one needs to adjust parameters of membership function, thus changing shape of MF, for each fuzzy goal. Furthermore, the change in robot configuration, like change in sensor arrangement or sensing range, invokes another adjusting of MFs. To accomplish an intelligent way to adjust these parameters, we adopted a genetic algorithm, which does not require any formulation of the problem, thus more appropriate for robot navigation. Genetic algorithm generates the fittest parameter set through crossover and mutation operation of its string representation. The fitness of a parameter set is assigned after a simulation run according to its time of travel, accumulated heading angle change and collision. A series of simulations for several different environments is carried out to verify the proposed method. The results show the optimal parameters can be acquired with this method.

The neural network approach has been shown to be a general scheme for nonlinear dynamical system identification. Unfortunately the error surface of a Multilayer Neural Network(MNN) that widely used is often highly complex. This is a disadvantage and potential traps may exist in the identification procedure. The objective of this paper is to identify a nonlinear dynamical systems based on Radial Basis Function Networks(RBFN). The learning with RBFN is fast and precise. This paper discusses RBFN as identification procedure is based on a nonlinear dynamical systems. and A design method of model follow control system based on RBFN controller is developed. As a result of applying this method to inverted pendulum, the simulation has shown that RBFN can be used as identification and control of nonlinear dynamical systems effectively.

A timeoptimal control law for quick, strongly nonlinear systems has been developed and demonstrated. This procedure involves the utilization of neural networks as state feedback controllers that learn the timeoptimal control actions by means of an iterative minimization of both the final time and the final state error for the known and unknown systems with constrained inputs and/or states. The nature of neural networks as a parallel processor would circumvent the problem of "curse of dimensionality". The control law has been demonstrated for a velocity input type motor identified by a genetic algorithm called GENOCOP.

Multilayer feedforward networks may be applied to identify the deterministic relationship between input and output data. When the results from the network require a high level of assurance, considering of the stochastic relationship between the data may be very important. The variance is one of the useful parameters to represent the stochastic relationship. This paper presents a new algorithm for a multilayer feedforward network to learn the variance of dispersed data without preliminary calculation of variance. In this paper, the network with this learning algorithm is named as a variance learning neural network(VALEAN). Computer simulation examples are utilized for the demonstration and the evaluation of VALEAN.

In this paper, we propose an algorithm that realizes cooperative behavior by construction of autonomous mobile robot system. Each robot is able to sense other robots and obstacles, and it has the rule of behavior to achieve the goal of the system. In this paper, to improve performance of the whole system, we use Genetic Programming based on Natural Selection. Genetic Programming's chromosome is a program of tree structure and it's major operators are crossover and mutation. We verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme from the several examples.

As usual systems, robot manipulators have also physical constraints for operating. It is a difficult problem that we operate manipulator in the minimal time under these constraints. In this paper, we solve this problem dividing it into two steps. In the first step, we find the minimal time trajectories by optimizing qubic polynomial joint trajectories using evolutionary algorithms. In the second step, we optimize controller for robot manipulator to track precisely trajectories optimized in the previous step.

In this paper we present a genetic approach for trajectory control algorithm of balancing weight for IWR biped walking robot. The biped walking robot, IWR that was made by Automatic Control Lab. of Inha University has a trunk which stabilizes its walking by generating compensation moment. Trunk is composed of a revolute and a prismatic joint which roles balancing weight. The motion of balancing weight is determined by the gait of legs and represented by two linear second order ordinary differential equations. The solution of this equation must satisfy some constraints simultaneously to have a physical meaning. Genetic algorithm search for this feasible motion of balancing weight under some constraints. Simulation results show that feasible motion of balancing weight can be obtained by genetic algorithm.

Navigation is a science of directing a mobile robot as traversing the environment. The purpose of navigation is to reach a destination without getting lost or crashing into any obstacles. In this paper, we use a genetic algorithm for navigation. Genetic algorithm searches for path in the entire, continuous free space and unifies global path planning and local path planning. It is the efficient and effective method when compared with navigators using traditional approaches.

Genetic algorithm(GA) is useful to find optimal solution without any special mathematical modeling. This study presents to search optimal path of Autonomous Mobile Robot(AMR) by using GA without encoding and decoding procedure. Therefore, this paper shows that the proposed algorithm using GA can reduce the computation time to search the optimal path.

This paper is concerned with the design of robust state feedback controller for a class of linear timedelay systems with normbounded nonlinear uncertainties. Under the proposed delayindependent criterion, asymptotic stability for the system is investigated using the conventional Lyapunov method. Moreover, the robust controller can be obtained by solving the linear matrix inequality which is equivalent to the suggested conditions.

The previous results on LTR methods for time delay systems need the solution of the operatortype Riccati equation. In addition, it can be difficult to make the target loop shape representing the design specification. This paper proposes a new LTR method for inputdelayed systems using wellestablished LTR method for nondelay systems. For doing this, a time delay margin is derived and the time delay of the inputdelayed systems is assumed less than equal to the time delay margin. A simple example is presented for illustrations.

This paper proposes balanced model reduction of nonminimum phase plant. The algorithm presented in this paper is to convert highorder nonminimum phase plant into lowoder minimum phase plant using balanced model reduction. Balanced model reduction requires the error bound that Hankel singular value produces. This algorithm shows the tolerance that admits the method of this paper.

In this paper, we design a stabilizing controller with disturbance rejection properties for multirate sampleddata systems which have periodic output measurement scheme. We assume that the plant is openloop unstable and the disturbance consists of a sum of finite number of sine waves with different frequencies. A sufficient condition for maintaining observability in multirate sampleddata systems is derived. The proposed controller has an IMC structure and can be decomposed into the filtereddisturbance estimator and the inverse of the fast uniform sampled model of the prestabilized plant. An example is presented for illustrations.

This paper describes a precise temperature control method for refrigerating and air conditioning systems. The control technique is based on the optimal servo control design method and the control algorithm is implemented on a personal computer. To control the precise temperature, two actuators such as an inverter for the compressor speed control and a stepping motor for regulating the expansion valve are used. The superheat and evaporator temperatures are chosen as the system output. So a multivariable system which has two inputs and two outputs to be controlled. The complicative model is identified by using an ARX(Auto Regressive eXogenous) model and the controller is designed by using the Matlab software.

For the purpose of the good tracking to variable load demands of the thermal power plant, a decentralized multilevel control(DMC) scheme is presented. It is applied to the drum type boilerturbine system which is simplified from Boryung T/P #1,2 model[4]. A linearized model is decomposed into three subsystems by means of linear transformation. Then the DMC based on such subsystem is designed. Simulation using MatlabSimulink shows that the proposed algorithm works very well to the large step change of power demand.

As in most industrial processes, the dynamic characteristics of an electric power system are subject to changes. Amongst those effects which cause the system to be uncertain, faults on transmission lines are considered. For the stabilization of the power system, we present an indirect adaptive control method, which is capable of tracking a sudden change in the effective reactance of a transmission line. As the plant dynamics are nonlinear, an inputoutput feedback linearization method is combined with an identification algorithm which estimates the effect of a fault.

This paper describes the application area of the multimedia conference system for the electric power system operation. A variety of multimedia systems which are to be installed in the existing information communication network of KEPCO are introduced.

This paper proposes the passive redundancy algorithm of multicontroller structure applicable to the steam generator level control system in the low power operating range. In the passive redundancy scheme of multicontroller structure, two suitable controllers exist if the plant is strongly stabilizable. One of the two controllers can be selected arbitrarily only if it is stable. In particular, this paper shows that the passive redundancy scheme can be efficiently used with PID and GPC control algorithms through simulation studies on the control of the steam generator.

Attitude Control System for a Hydrofoil type catamaran in wave is designed using a Decentralized Adaptive Control technique which is announced already by authors. This automatic attitude control system is designed for its good seaworthiness and for robustness on the variation of center of gravity. The performance is compared with a PID controller and the results show that the Decentralized Adaptive controller has better stability on the variation of the center of gravity.

This paper proposes a heuristic algorithm for performing the line balancing of PCB assembly fine including multiple surface mounters efficiently. We consider a PCB assembly line including the multiple surface mounters arranged serially as a target system. We assume that the number of heads of surface mounters can be changed. Also, the conveyor is assumed to move at a constant speed and have no buffer. Considering the minimum number of machines required for the desired production rate is a discrete nonincreasing function which is inversely proportional to the cycle time, we propose an optimization algorithm for line balancing by using the binary search method. Also we propose an headchanging algorithm. The algorithms are validated through the computer simulation.

This paper present a performance evaluation method for Timed Place Petri Nets modeled by LiveandBounded Circuits (LBcircuits) through a bottomup approach. The method can handle the case for the nets having common resources(CR). The target system is divided into the subsystems by disconnecting the common TransitionTransitionPath(TTP) or PlacePlacePath (PPP) between subsystems. The common PPP pattern is classified into Parallel Common Resource (PCR) and Sequential Common Resource (SCR) in detail for handling common resources. We evaluate the performance of each divided subsystem, and calculate the subsystems affect on the performance of the whole system. The facts are generalized as a theorem. The developed theorem are applied into the performance evaluation of an automated assembly system shown in an example. All the results are verified by simulation.

This paper describes a cell programming environment that deals with problems associated with programming Flexible Manufacturing Cells(FMCs). The environment consists of the cell programming editor and the automatic generation module. In the cell programming editor, cell programmers can develop cell programs using task level description set which supports taskoriented specifications for manipulation cell activities. This approach to cell programming reduces the amount of details that cell programmers need to consider and allows them to concentrate on the most important aspects of the task at hand. The automatic generation module is used to transform task specifications into executable programs used by cell constituents. This module is based on efficient algorithm and expert systems which can be used for optimal path planning of robot operations and optimal machining parameters of machine tool operations. The development tool in designing the environment is an objectoriented approach which provides a simple to use and intuitive user interface, and allows for an easy development of object models associated with the environment.

With the expansion of research and development for the CIM and the IMS, the importance of introducing the communication network is being increased. This paper presents an implementation of robot workcell by using Fieldbus and investigates data operation of the robot workcell. Through experiments, the operations of periodic and realtime data, and nonperiodic realtime data are studied. Also, the relationship between the network transmission rate and the monitoring results from the sensor is analyzed.

In this paper, a new nonlinear feedback linearization control scheme for induction motors is developed. The control scheme employs a fuzzy nonlinear identification scheme based on fuzzy basis function expansion to adoptively compensate the parameter variations, i.e. rotor resistance, mutual and self inductance etc. An important feature of the proposed control scheme is to incorporate the sliding mode controller into the scheme to speed up convergence rate. Simulation tests show the robust behavior of the proposed controller in the presence of the parameter uncertainties of the machine.

This paper describes a fully digitalized driver for BLDC motors and the driver is realized by a single chip microprocessor. The speed change can be done by using the signal obtained from the position detecting sensor and adjusting the pulse width at the input channel of power module. In order to verify the effectiveness, an repetitive control method is adopted in the speed control tracking a periodic reference change in the BLDC motor system. The experimental results are shown for the reference tracking accurately according to the design parameter variation in the repetitive controller design.

This paper presents the design of a neural network based PWM technique for a three level inverter of electric trains. A threelevel inverter has several advantages compared with a twolevel inverter in this application. In viewpoint of correcting unbalance of DClink voltage, a novel method is developed and verified in computer simulation.

This paper describes a new pulse width modulation (PWM) scheme suitable for microprocessorbased PWM inverters. Optimal switching patterns minimizing the performance index corresponding to the distortion factor are decided in real time by numerical calculation using the microprocessorimplemented control system. This PWM method is compared with conventional methods, such as the natural PWM and the direct PWM. Harmonic analysis using digital simulations shows that the proposed PWM scheme has much less loworder harmonics than the other methods. The validity of this method is verified in experiments using a microprocessorbased control system, where a 16bit singlechip microcontroller, Intel 80c196kc is used.

Several input shaping techniques are suggested to reduce the vibration of a flexible manipulator. The theories of typical 4 methods(Singer, Tuttle, Feddema, Zuo) are explained and are tested by the experiment of one link flexible manipulator. Zuo's method is the best of all with respect to its robustness.

Moisture measurements of s intering materials were performed using the simulator which can simulate various conditions taking place at the beltconveyor of sintering process. The moisture sensor used in this experiment is NIR moisture meter(JE330, KETT Electric Lab.). Using the simulator, we measured the moisture contents of sintering materials at different conditions. We found that the moisture content decreased as the rotation speed increased and the size of the sintering materials became smaller.

Reclaimer in the raw material yard is being used to dig iron and coal so that they transfer to main blast furnace. A newly automatic system was developed and tested in the raw yard of Kwangyang iron making. The concept of the proposed system is based on the 3dimensional detection of pile and autolanding on the surface it.

The labels are used for products configuration of the labeling in hot coil. Robot system is constructed to labeling in hot coils automatically, so we achieve the confidence of labeling work and the promotion of operation efficiency.

전기도금공장 ANODE 투입 및 추출 자동화 사업은 ANODE 자동투입 Robot이 개발되어 적용되기전까지는 국내에서 적용된 사례가 전혀 없었고 선진제철소에서 일부 적용된 사례가 있는 것으로만 알고 추진되었던 사업이다. 이번에 개발하여 현장에 적용한 ANODE 자동투입 robot은 가반중량이 300kg이나 되는 이동형 특수 robot으로 국산화개발품이지만 성능의 신뢰성이 입증되지 않는 상태에서 추진되었기 때문에 위험 부담성이 컸으며 완전자동화가 되기까지 많은 시행착오를 겪었다. 시행착오의 주요원인으로는 현장여건 즉 설비의 간섭, FUME에 의한 robot의 고장 또한 robot 자체의 설계 miss등 무수히 많았다. 이번 ANODE 자동투입 robot 개발 및 현장 적용으로 향후 확대 적용시 시행착오에 의한 문제점을 최소화 할수 있는 대책을 수립할수 있는 좋은 기회가 주여져 96.12.E 준공을 목표로 2차분 ANODE투입 자동화 사업이 진행중에 있으며 1차분과 시스템을 통합하여 보다 완벽한 자동화시스템을 구축할 예정이며 97년도에는 포항제철소로 확대 적용할 예정이다.

The submaterials are used for restoration of the impurities involved in iron ore. Robot system is constructed to measure the content of moisture in submaterials automatically, so we achieve the confidence of measuring work and the promotion of operation efficiency.

This paper proposes an adaptive control technique for the autopilot design of STT missile. Dynamics of the missile is highly nonlinear and the equilibrium point is vulnerable to change due to fast maneuvering. Therefore nonlinear control techniques are desirable for the autopilot design of the missile. The nonlinear controller requires the exact model to obtain satisfactory performance. Generally a lookup table is used for the dynamic coefficients of a missile, so there must be coefficients error during actual flight, and the performance of the nonlinear controller using these data can be degraded. The proposed adaptive control technique compensates the nonlinear controller with modeling error resulting from the error of aerodynamic data and disturbance. To investigate the usefulness, the proposed method is applied to autopilot design of STT missile through simulations.

This paper proposes a design automation method for the flight control system of an aircraft based on optimization. The control system design problem which has many specifications is formulated as multiobjective optimization problem. The solution of this optimization problem should be considered in terms of Paretooptimality. In this paper, we use an evolutionary algorithm providing numerous Paretooptimal solutions. These solutions are given to a control system designer and the most suitable solution is selected. This method decreases tasks required to determine the control parameters satisfying all specifications. The design automation of a flight control system is illustrated through an example.

In this paper a typical problem is examined that a light, general aviation airplane, such as Cessna or Navion, in gliding turn flight shows helicaldive phenomenon when pilots try to stop the descent by using elevator only. It is known from pilot's experience that in a certain flight trim it is impossible to recover from helicaldive by using elevator only. From this study it is shown that helicaldive phenomenon is involved with longitudinal/lateral dynamics coupling to airplane's aerodynamics. Also this phenomenon consists of three parts of flight dynamics; first of all, fast longitudinal motion occurs, then is followed by a little slow lateral motion, and finally logitudinal/lateral coupled motion is fully developed.

In this paper, we present a robust Two Degree of Freedom (TDF)
$H_{\infty}$ controllers for a missile system. The feedback controller is designed to meet robust stability and disturbance rejection specifications while the prefilter is used to improve the robust model matching properties of the closed loop system. As the perturbed model, we use the normalized coprim factor perturbations. These controllers are designed using$H_{\infty}$ optimization procedures, and applied to a missile model via simulation. 
We propose a new linearized model which can be used very efficiently for the design and analysis of the autopilot of aerodynamically controlled skidtoturn missiles. Proposed model is based on the linearized equations of the missile dynamics derived in the aerodynamic frame where xz plane contains the missile longitudinal axis and velocity vector. However, to take the effect due to the small perturbation of the missile body into consideration, we introduce a new frame which is identical to the aerodynamic frame in the trim state but after small perturbation it moves fixed with the missile body, and finally, the proposed model is set up in this frame. It is shown by nonlinear simulations and stability analysis of a numerical example that the new model describes the missile motion better than the conventional one linearized in the body frame with a certain amount of simplification.

Polishing work for a curved surface die demands simple and repetitive operations and requires much time while it also demands high precision. Therefore it is operated by skilled worker in handiwork. But workers avoid polishing work gradually because of the poor environments such as dust and noise. In order to reduce the polishing time and to alleviate the problem of shortage of skilled workers, researches for automation of polishing have been pursued in the developed countries such as Japan. In this research we develop a polishing robot with 2 degrees of freedom motion and pneumatic system, and attach it to machining center with 3 degrees of freedom to form an automatic polishing system which keeps the polishing tool vertically on the surface of die and maintains constant pneumatic pressure. The developed polishing robot is controlled by real time sliding mode control using DSP(digital signal processor). A synchronization between machining center and polishing robot is accomplished by using M code of machining center. A performance experiment for polishing work is executed by the developed polishing robot.

This paper proposes the algorithm for the correction of a position and orientation of small object such as chip in the precise construction process. In the past, it is general to correct position and orientation of object using human sight and simple vision sensors. But recently, researches using image processing devices have been studied to improve the corrective precision of a position and orientation of object. In this piper, maximumaxis moment and ptheta algorithm are used to correct the position and orientation. Algorithm of maximumaxis moment is widely applied to heteroobject except being applied to a perfect rectangle. This is reason that moments of the X and Yaxis are equal. Therefore, being the shape of a perfect rectangle, the object is applied to other algorithm. In the light of time problem, realtime control is as important as correction of object. To solve it, we use the DSP(Digital Signal Processing) which is far more fast than PC.

This paper describes an interpolation method for a parametric surface. A parametric surface is approximated to triangular mesh surfaces and then the basic paths are achieved. As the generated path is a series of linear segments, this algorithm can be easily adapted to general NC controllers. The generated paths have minimal transfer length and are gougefree within the approximation tolerance. The problems, induced when the paths are represented by linear segments, are overcome without making any path deviation by this algorithm. This algorithm saves machining time by eliminating overdetermined tool paths and keeping the desired average feedrate, which improve productivity and lead to lower production costs.

This paper presents an open architecture controller (OAC) for machining systems and describes the OAC testbed at Seoul National University. Because our OAC is designed for fully open systems, it does not depend on any specific hardware or software components. This openness includes software reusability which enables integration of a wide range of monitoring and control features. In addition to openness, our OAC system provides guaranteed realtime performance, an important requirement for advanced manufacturing.

The importance of training for NC, CNC and Machining Center has been greatly increased. This paper presents implementation of a DNC system and operating software for educational purpose. This system is able to connect 832 CNCs to Control PC with RS232 multiport serial card. Therefore, it allows much efficiency in training even after costs are considered. The KISCO DNC S/W for above system includes various communication function, communication parameter setting, program editor, tool management and userfriendly environment.

It is very important to predict the future position for the heavy vehicle with evasive maneuvering. In this paper, we considered for the manual image tracking system. The vehicle images are received from gyro stabilized mirror system, pass through the optical lens, processed, and displayed on the TV monitor. The operator try to lay the reticle to the center of vehicle image. When the vehicle is moving, the mirror platform (actually the line of sight) should follow the vehicle and the angular rate information is picked up from the mirror stabilized system. This rate signal should be used to predict the future vehicle position. The problem is that the visual system of the human operator is in the closed loop system. The rate signals are disturbed by the operator. In addition, there are some non linearities concerned with the control handle bar and the servo control system. The proposed Kalman filter, combined with some modifications for operator disturbance rejection, improved the predication of the future vehicle position when compared with the conventional passive filter used.

In this paper, we design implement an ObjectOriented Graphic System Configuration Editor for Access Control Systems. 'Visual Builder', with such functions as graphic drawing, system configuration, graphic management, processing of user input through graphics. Visual Builder is designed to be well separated from and independent of S/W parts closely coupled with the underlying H/W and thus to improve its reusability and maintainability.

In this study, we developed the drowziness prevention system to detect the driver's drowziness and relieve the driver. A computer vision method was proposed to detect the driver's drowziness. We extracted the eyes and mouth in the face image and tracked the positions from the image sequencies in real time. The eye blink duration and yawning was used as the parameters of drowziness. Wehn the drowziness state of a driver is detected, the driver is refreshed by the scent generator and the alarm. Also, the driver's biosignal is acquired and analysed the vigilance state.

A general procedure for motion capture and mimic system has been delineated. Utilizing sensors operated in the magnetic fields, complex and optimized movements are easily digitized to analyze and follow. Design concepts of the system are modular, open, and user friendly to ensure the overall system performance. The system consists of motion capture, visualization, plan, mimic and GUI modules. This procedure is currently being implemented on a virtual cyber cube.

In field bus network, field device are connected with a medium. Because a medium must be shared for transmitting data, there are random delay time when data arrive destination station. It is difficult that all data packets are guaranteed synchronization and realtime restriction. In this paper, we show an algorithm that makes network utilization to maximum, guarantees realtime restriction, calculates sampling time at all control loop.

The control of diamond turning is usually achieved through a laserinterferometer feedback of slide position. If the tool post is rigid and the material removal process is relatively static, then such a noncollocated position feedback control scheme may surface. However, as the accuracy requirement gets tighter and desired surface contours become more complex, the need for a direct tooltip sensing becomes inevitable. The physical constraints of the machining process prohibit any reasonable implementation of a tooltip motion measurement. It is proposed that the measured force normal to the face of the workpiece can be filtered through an appropriate admittance transfer function to result in the estimated depth of cut. This can be compared to the desired depth of cut to generate the adjustment control action in addition to position feedback control. In this work, the design methodology on the admittance modelbased control with a conventional controller is presented. The recursive leastsquares algorithm with forgetting factor is proposed to identify the parameters and update the cutting process in real time. The normal cutting forces are measured to identify the cutting dynamics in the real diamond turning process using the precision dynamometer. Based on the parameter estimation of cutting dynamics and the admittance modelbased nanodynamic control scheme, simulation results are shown.

The paper studies design of a decentralized supervisory controller with 2level hierarchical structure for complex discrete event systems. Hierarchical structure with strict outputcontrolconsistency(SOCC) gives a more abstract model for highlevel control. The decentralized controller for a simple and abstract highlevel system is designed more easily if the decentralized supervisory control problem in 2level hierarchical structure systems(DSCP2) is solvable.

EPD(End Point Detection) is used to decide etching degree of layer which must be removed at wafer etching process in plasma etching process which is one of the most important process in semiconductor manufacturing. In this thesis, the method which detects malfunction of etching process in realtime will be discussed. Several EPD signal traces are collected in normal plasma etching condition and used as reference EPD signal traces. Critical points can be detected by applying differentiation and zerocrossing techniques to reference EPD signal. Mean and standard deviation of critical parameters which is memorized from reference EPD signal are calculated and these determine the lower and higher limit of control chart. And by applying statical control chart to EPD signals which are collected in real etching process malfunctions of process are detected in realtime. By means of applying this method to the real etching process we prove our method can accurately detect the malfunction of etching process and can compensate disadvantage of current industrial method.

Recently, direct rolling process, called as strip casting process, has been interested in to save production cost by reducing forming processes. In direct rolling process, since a steel strip of thickness 15(mm) can be produced directly from molten metal, it can eliminate secondary hot rolling process. On the other hand, since many process variables are existed in this process and relation of these variables is very complex, it is difficult to realize the process design and the quality control. In this paper, as first step to overcome above difficulties, the quantitative relationship of the process variables affected to quality of the strip has been carried out through the numerical analysis. Also, we determined the process variable to monitor the quality in the direct rolling process. As a result, we show that the solidification final point, called as Nip point, was related directly to quality of the strip.

This paper presents an automatic calibration technique for piezoelectric low pressure transducer, which is useful to measure a pressure within 500 psi. This system with automatic calibration function and error correction algorithm generates standard dynamic pressure for the calibration of sensor. With the compensation for the offset voltage and the pressure error, the accuracy and the usefulness of the proposed scheme is validated.

In this paper, we developed and ERMS, which monitors radiation continuously in the vicinity of the nuclear power plant not only to intend health and security of the adjacent residents but also to prevent environmental pollution. Especially, applying digital DCU and SCA which are easy to control and accurate, we obtained good results.

In this paper a GPS receiver is developed using commercial chipsets. GP2010 RF front end and GP2021 Multichannel correlator of GEC PLESSY are adapted in designing the receiver hardware. MC 68340 is used for controlling the correlator GP2021 and implementing the navigation processing. Also presented are some test results of the developed receiver whose software has an interrupt driven structure rather than common realtime kernel based structure.

This paper presents a recoil and counter recoil(R&CR) motion measurement method using linear variable differential transformers(LVDT). The output of a LVDT is obtained from the differential voltage of the 2nd transformers. As a sensor core is attached at the motion body, the output is directly proportional to the core motion. Displacement, velocity and acceleration are measure from the core length. With a comparison between the measurement result and the known value which is obtained by the precision steel tape, the accuracy and the usefulness of the proposed scheme is validated.

SCPI(Standard Commands for Programmable Instrument) is a standard command sets designed for controlling various types of instruments. In order to control FFT(Fast Fourier Transform) analyzing device using SCPI it is required to support sweep measurement function. We defined SCPI command set for FFT analysis and developed parser of defined command set using lex(Lexical Analyzer Generator) and yacc(Yet Another Compiler Compiler). After developing FFT analyzing test was performed with that parser. Up to audible signal frequency the result of FFT analysis was accurate and that result was agree with that of conventional FFT analyzer. As a result it is proved that various types of instruments including sweep measurement instrument can be controlled with appropriate SCPI command sets. Also when developing new instruments the method used in this experiment will contribute to reducing the time required to develop the SCPI parser and increasing reliability.

This paper presents the structure and functions of the differential beacon receiver for receiving DGPS error correction data. The differential beacon receiver is designed using commercially available components. Its functions are being implemented and tested in laboratory. Filed test is scheduled for the end of this year.

Nonlinear PID controllers have increasingly used in current industrial practice because it is robust and is easy to operate. Little guideline and tuning method, however, has been recommended for the nonlinear PID controllers while a lot of result is available for the linear PID controllers. Application guideline and tuning formulae are presented for error square type nonlinear controllers, which are most popular currently, are presented.

With the progress in process automation, it becomes necessary that a robot should have various sophisticated capabilities. A robot programming language is a tool that can give a robot such capabilities without any change in robot architecture. Especially a task level automatic programming system enables a robot able to perform a job intelligently. Therefore anyone who is not an expert on welding or robot programming can easily use it. In this research, basic automatic welding program is combined with workspace information, which makes users do an arc welding job automatically.

In this study, we applied the model predictive control(MPC) to Multiloop control structure. Since MPC has many advantage for MIMO process and constraints handling, it induces the better performance to apply MPC to multiloop control. And we suggest the advanced method to reduce the calculation load using the wavelet transform. It shows the possibility to substitute the existing PID control based structure with MPC.

A quality monitoring system in butt welding process is proposed to estimate weld pool sizes. The geometrical parameters of the weld pool such as the top bead width and the penetration depth plus half back width are utilized to prove the integrity of the weld quality. The monitoring variables used are the surface temperatures measured at three points on the top surface of the weldment. The temperature profile is assumed that it has a gaussian distribution in vertical direction of torch movement and verify this assumption through temperature analysis. A neural network estimator is designed to estimate weld pool size from temperature informations. The experimental results show that the proposed neural network estimator which used gaussian distribution as temperature information can estimate the weld pool sizes accurately than used three point temperatures as temperature information. Considering the change of gap size in butt welding, the experiment were performed on various gap size.

In arc welding processes, because of the complexity and nonlinearity of heat transfer phenomena, it is often difficult to design an effective control system based upon an exact mathematic model. In this paper, we simulated the welding process for various welding conditions and positions to investigate the variations of temperature distribution for those cases. Those will be used as a preinformation for developing quality control system for arc welding process.

In this paper, a new identification method of the cascade control system is proposed which can overcome the weak points of Krishnaswamy and Rangaiah(1987)'s method. This new method consists of two steps. One is online process identification using the numerical integration to approximate the two process dynamics with a high order linear transfer function. The other is a model reduction technique to derive out low order transfer function(FOPTD or SOPTD) from the obtained high order linear transfer function to tune the controller using usual tuning rules. While the proposed method preserves the advantages of the Krishnaswamy and Rangaiah(1987)'s method, it has such a simplicity that it requires only measured input and output data and simple leastsquares technique. Simulation results show that the proposed method can be a promising alternative in the identification of cascade control systems.

현재 많은 공장에서 사용중인 사출기나 프레스를 중앙 집중식 제어를 위한 다양한 시도가 있었다. 이러한 시도는 많은 공장 자동화와 이를 기본으로 한 생산관리 시스템을 구축함으로서 제품의 품질을 향상시킬수 있을 뿐만 아니라 장비의 오동작을 중앙에서 감시, 감독하여 장비의 효율을 최대화함으로 생산성을 증대하여 기업의 이윤을 최대화 할수 있다는 장점이 있다. 그러나 공장 자동화의 단계는 초기 단계로 여러가지 문제점을 안고 있으며 현 상태의 시스템으로 위의 여러가지 장점을 얻기에는 어려운 실정에 있으며 그 시스템의 운영에도 많은 문제점이 발견되어 운영 불가능 상태로 방치된 이 시점에서 이러한 문제점을 분석하여 최대한으로 현재 개발된 시스템의 오류를 수정 및 보완하여 효과적인 공장 자동화를 위한 시스템을 완성함으로서 생산의 향상과 기업의 원활한 생산 활동을 지원하고자 한다.

This paper presents the implementation of network for automation using fieldbus. The RS485 and twisted pair are used in layer 1 and medium, respectively. We implement FDL(Fieldbus Datalink Layer) using Clanguage and use tokenbus network. The network consists of polling system and token passing system. The amount of transmitted data frames is evaluated with various transmission speeds that affect the system stability.

OTS(Operator Training System) requires computation for the systematic training in realtime. So we have developed a distributed operator training system that is composed of workstation based server and PC based user modules. Sever and OM(OTS Manager) modules are located in the workstation server and user modules are located in PCs. User modules have DCSlike user interfaces and transfer data with OM over the coaxial ethernet. This paper delineates a total system architecture and definition of data transferring between OM and User module. Having applied this system to a batch process, we could analyze operator's tasks.

This paper proposes an antiswing control law for a 2 degrees of freedom overhead crane. The dynamic model of a 2 degrees of freedom crane is highly nonlinear and coupled. The model is linearized and decoupled for each degree of freedom of the crane for small motions of the load about the vertical. Then a decoupled antiswing control law is designed for each degree of freedom of the crane based on the linearized model. The control law consists of a position control loop and an swing angle control loop. The position loop,. is designed based on the loop shaping method and the swing angle loop is designed via the root locus method. Finally, the proposed antiswing control law is implemented and evaluated on a 2 degrees of freedom prototype crane.

This paper obtains maximum allowable delay bounds for stability of networkbased control systems and presents a network scheduling method which makes the networkinduced delay be less than the maximum allowable delay bound. The maximum allowable delay bounds are obtained using the Lyapunov theorem. Using the network scheduling method, the bandwidth of a network can be allocated to each node and the sampling period of each sensor and controller can be determined. The presented method can handle three kinds of data (periodic, realtime asynchronous, and non realtime asynchronous data) and guarantee realtime transmissions of realtime synchronous data and periodic data, and possible transmissions of non realtime asynchronous data. The proposed method is shown to be useful by examples in two types of network protocols such as the token control and the central control.

The wear mechanism of material is an important mechanic property to select a material's life and a optimum work condition. Although there are many researches about a wear mechanism of material, the pinondisc type tribotester is widely known to us. It is difficult to add a variable and heavy load in the existing pinondisc type tribotester to estimate this wear mechanism. And due to a rotation of a disc, it is impossible to add a constant force. But we can solve this problem by using a hydraulic servo system. Therefore, in order to investigate a wear mechanism of materials, it is necessary to design a hydraulic pinondisc type tribotester and construct a controller against a variable disturbance.

This paper presents the position control of a doublerod cylinder system activated by an electrotheological(ER) valve unit. Following the composition of a silicone oilbased ER fluid, theological properties of the ER fluid are experimentally tested as a function of imposed electric fields to determine appropriate design parameters of the ER valve. The ER valves are then designed and manufactured. Subsequently, the pressure drop of the ER valve is evaluated with respect to the intensity of the electric field. Four ER valves bridgecylinder system is formulated, and the governing equations for the system are derived. A neural network control scheme is then synthesized to perform the position control of the cylinder system. Tracking control responses are experimentally evaluated and presented in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

To evaluate of active suspension, it is necessary for special equipment  so called Test Rig which can perfectly realize the road condition and the impact from the road. And most of the test rig systems controlling force accurately and rapidly consist of electrohydraulic servo mechanism, and they need robust controller which can endure outer road change. But in the case of PID controller, we should choose its best gains by trial and error method, and once its gains are fixed, they cannot get changed, so we should reset PID controller gains respectively when the road is changed. Therefore based on the load pressure feedback compensation method, our aim at constructing electrohydraulic test rig is not affected by various road disturbance.

Even though digital control type high speed solenoid valve is a little inferior to analog control type servo valve and proportional control valve in performance, it is cheap and has secure performance against pollutant and simple control circuit. But high speed solenoid valve is hardly used for heavy machinery instead of servo valve or proportional control valve that is used in severe condition because the valve itself is small capacity and it shows wide dead zone during onoff control and chattering of hydraulic cylinder by chattering of pressure. It is desirable to use lowpriced and strong pollutant resistant high speed solenoid valve for obtaining reliability of operation from severe working condition because it isn't necessary to acquire response characteristic of high frequency when we consider the characteristic of heavy machinery operation. In this study, PWM control algorithm for pilot pressure control of large capacity pilot operating valve will be used for precision position control of heavy machinery hydraulic cylinder. Not only cost reduction of main control valve but also high reliability of heavy machinery in severe condition can be obtained by using this pilot operating spool valve with high speed solenoid valve.

In this paper trajectory tracking control problems are described for a robot manipulator by using pneumatic actuator. Under the assumption that the socalled independent joint control is applied to the control system, the dynamic model for each link is identified as a linear secondorder system with input timedelay by the step response. Then, an optimal servo controller is designed by taking account of such a timedelay. The effectiveness of the proposed control method is illustrated through some simulations and experiments for the robot manipulator.

The most important parameter for hydraulic active suspension system is to sustain desirable vehicle maneuvering stability and ride comfort without increasing consumption power. The performance of hydraulic active suspension system depends on damping force of body damping valve and piston damping valve. Hydraulic actuator design and damping valve parameter selection are essential and basic procedure to design hydraulic active suspension system. This paper is on computer simulation with use of mathematical model that was delivered from dynamic characteristic of hydraulic actuator, as know basic damping characteristics of hydraulic active suspension system. The aim of this paper is to select the system parameter that affect mainly hydraulic active suspension, and identify the validity on the system parameter selection.

In this paper, we suggest tele operation system of reclaimers and some side technologies for performing easy operation. The reclaimers in the raw ore yard are being used to dig ironstone and transfer it to the blast furnaces. The side technologies are to determine the minimum stacking distance between piles, collision avoidance of reclaimers and stackers. For simplicity, the pile and the boom of the reclaimer are mathematically modeled as a cone and a line in the 3dimensional space respectively. The minimum stacking distance is obtained using the condition that the cone and the line never met. The modeling errors for the pile and reclaimers are compensated by considering the width of their reclaimer. We have also proposed a 2stage collision detection method for the moving machines. The reclaiming heights of the pile are set to predetermined ones to make teleoperation easy.

Hydraulic Hot Strip Mill (HHSM) rolls materials whose size and stiffness are various. So a roll gap controller for HHSM was designed using TDC(Time Delay Control) method. The performance of the roll gap control was evaluated through computer simulations. The simulation results indicate that TDC method show excellent robustness and tracking properties against PID control method in various rolling conditions.

In this paper, we propose the method to find the active region of flame which is produced within the gap between an oxygen blown converter and a skirt. For realtime image processing, basic region segmentation algorithms such as thresholding and XORing are used to segment the active region of flame. The result of this processing may be useful to clear the relationship between hood pressure and flame.

발전설비나 자동차 그리고 항공우주분야에 사용되는 각종 bearing, 원형부품들에 사용되는 ring을 생산하는 방법중, 가장 효과적이고 경제적인 방법은 ring rolling (ring 압연)이다. 이 방법은 직경 50cm에서 2m이상의 원형 ring을 연속적으로 짧은 시간내에 (한 ring당 약 1분) 생산 가능하다. 이제까지의 수학적 모델을 사용한 제어시스템은 ring의 단면적이 사각형인 제품에는 최소한의 오차로 생산 가능하였으나, plant의 생산성과 제품의 다양성을 위하여 ring의 단면적이 복잡한 것을 생산시에는 문제점이 노출되었다. 왜냐하면 기존의 수학적모델이 roll gap 또는 metal forming zone에 근거하여 modelling하였기 때문이다. 본 논문에서는, 이러한 문제점을 고전적인 수학적 모델을 기초로한 adaptive control system의 방법대신에, 축적된 control system설계와 운용 경험을 이용하여 설계한 퍼지제어기 및 그것의 실적용 그리고 그 결과를 소개한다. 실적용 결과는, 제조된 단면적이 상대적으로 복잡한 bearing의 형상이 (filling grad)이 제어기의 제어정도 판단기준이었는데, 99.5%의 형상도를 보임으로서 industry에서 요구하는 제품기준을 만족시켰다. 또한 짧은 제어기 설계 및 online optimization 기간 또한 이 제어기의 장점이었다.

A set of approaches suggested to control the eccentricity is discussed in this paper. Among these, filterintegrator method is used to design the controller, which also includes the input signal synchronization, stabilizing filter and eccentricity source discrimination. Using the S/W that is coded for real time application of that controller, we simulated the operations of that one. The simulation results show the characteristics of eccentricity compensation and eccentricity discrimination. However, from these results, we can see that only proper stabilization strategy certificates the safe eccentricity control.

An Automatic coking control system was developed to achieved substantial energy and labor savings through the stabilization and optimization of coke oven operation. With the aim of saving energy and labor, the coke department has been advanced automation and systematization. A typical examples of automation is Center Position Control System(CPCS) for coke oven. This system is proved effective in improvement of center position accuracy.

Throughout CGL(Continuous Galvanizing Line) in steel works, zinccoated steel sheets are produced which are used where longrunning corrosion resistivity is required. During the galvanizing process, top dross is created and floated on the zinc pot. Because the dross leaves ill patterns on the coated sheets, it is removed manually with shovellike tools in about twenty minutes. Because, however, the working environment is very noisy, hot and harmful to human workers, a robot system is developed and implemented on a real plant to automatically remove the top dross. It consists of a robot and its carriage system, a pot level sensor, a system controller, and special tools to collect, pick up, and put the top dross into a dross waste basket. A system software is developed to monitor the system status. A series of tests were performed to verify the robot motion and adaptation to working conditions, and proved successful work.

In this paper, an approach to autopilot design based on the robust nonlinear dynamic inversion method is proposed. Both unknown parameters and uncertainty bounds are estimated and parameter estimates are used in the fast inversion. Furthermore, to get more robustness slow inversion is incorporated with MRAC(Model Reference Adaptive Control) and sliding mode control where the estimates of uncertainty bounds are used. The proposed method is applied to the pitch autopilot design of a missile system and excellent performance is shown via computer simulation.

A nonlinear tracking control technique developed for the control of nonlinear systems has been applied to the autopilot design of missile system. The difficulties in the application of inversion based control methods such as inputoutput feedback linearization and sliding mode control due to nonminimum phase characteristics are discussed. To avoid the stability problem associated with unstable zero dynamics, the inputoutput feedback linearization is applied with outputredefinition method to normal acceleration control. The outputredefinition method gives an indirect way to apply the nonlinear controls to nonminimum phase plants by redefining the plant output such that the tracking control of the modified output ensures the asymptotic tracking of the original output. The numerical simulation shows satisfactory results both for nominal and for slightly perturbed missile systems adopting the sliding mode control technique. However, the robustness problem in this method is briefly investigated and verified with the simulation.

This paper combines the disturbance accommodating control(DAC) and nonlinear model inversion control for a skidtoturn(STT) missile. The missile autopilot may be designed to be robust with respect to a variety of uncertainties. We proposes the two step control design method. Nonlinear model inversion control is used as the main design method. Due to the model uncertainties and external disturbances, the exact nonlinear model inversion can not be achieved. DAC is designed to detect, to identify, and to compensate these uncertainties. DAC's disturbance observer is linear. Thus it is easy to implement. It does not cause the convergence problem due to coexistence between the modeling uncertainties and external disturbances. 6 DOF simulation results show that the proposed method may improve the missile tracking performance.

In this paper, we derive dynamic equation of helicopter and design controller based on variable structure system. It is difficult to control helicopter because it has nonlinear coupling between input and output of system and is MIMO system. The design of control law is considered here using variable structure methodology giving the robustness to parameter variations and invariance to some subsets of external disturbance. However we derive dynamic equations of helicopter and design stabilizing variable structure controller. Also, simulation results are given in this paper.

This paper presents an intelligent autopilot for STT missiles with multiple controllers. The mixed H
$_{2}$ /H$_{\infty}$ control technique is applied for each controller and implemented by using the genetic searching algorithm. To facilitate automatic switching of multiple controllers under different operating conditions, an error based switching scheme is also combined with the multiple controllers at the higher level, which constitutes a hierarchical intelligent control system. It is shown via computer simulation that the proposed autopilot outperforms the conventional one.. 
A force reflecting hand controller can be used to provide more realistic information to the operator of a teleoperation system such as kinesthetic feedback from a slave robot. In this paper, a new design concept of a force reflecting 6DOF hand controller utilizing the kinematic structure of a Stewart Platform is presented. Based on the optimal design technique of a Stewart Platform, a force reflecting hand controller has been designed and constructed to verify the technical feasibility of proposed design concept. In order to provide an operator with kinesthetic feedback information, a force mapping algorithm based on a reciprocal product of screws has been introduced. Finally, the technical feasibility of the design concept has been demonstrated through some of experimental results of the device under virtual environment on a realtime graphic system.

In this paper, we have developed a telerobotic system for nozzle dam installation/removal works and tube relating maintenance works inside unclear power plant steam generator. Developed telerobotic system consists of many hardwares including robot and a control system. Based on the 3 dimensional graphic simulation, a 6 D.O.F. hydraulic actuated robot and a 2 D.O.F. robot install/removal device have been developed. And also we deviced special tools for nozzle dam carry and bolting. For the telerobot and other devices to be controlled at the nonradioactive area outside reactor containment building, we developed a telerobot control system consisting of supervisory controller and remote controller.

This paper presents a new method of force reflection in the teleoperated mobile robot control: artificial force feedback. Generally it is well known that force feedback from slave to master increases the reality with which the operator interacts with the environment. In the applications of the teleoperated mobile robot, however, such a force feedback control algorithm has rarely appeared in the literature because the contact force between the environment and the mobile robot is not available. In this paper, a method of artificially generating the feedback force for the teleoperated mobile robot is presented in order to improve the task performance. The computed artificial force feeds into the new designed joystick so as to increase the telepresence of the environment. Through simulations, we confirm the validity and effectiveness of our algorithm.

Telerobot system is being developed for the application to nuclear power plants by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. Humanmachine interaction and interface are very important elements of telerobotic systems. The main purpose of this study is developing a control system based on 3D graphic techniques for the easy user interface and realistic visual I information supply. This system possesses the abilities for (1) virtual work, environment modelling and simulation, (2) kinematic animation include redundant behavior (3) interfacing with a real robot system, (4) transformation between real and virtual mode within the same graphics system. This system is especially focused on enhancing the overall efficiency and reliably of nozzle dam installation task inside water chamber of steam generator in nuclear power plant.