제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems (ICROS)
 기타
Domain
 Machinery ＞ Robot/Automated Machinery
1999.10

This paper presents a design scheme of robust parallel compensator for plants with multiple uncertainty, which realizes strict positive realness of the closedloop system by using static output feedback. Further, an approximate relation between the static output feedback control system with the proposed compensator and the PID
$.$ ‥D$\^$ r1 control system is shown. 
The main stream of researches on the mobile robot is planning motions of the mobile robot under nonholonomic constraints while only considering kinematic model of a mobile robot. These researches, however, assume that there is some kind of dynamic controller which can produce perfectly the same velocity that is necessary for the kinematic controller. Moreover, there are little results about the problem of integrating the nonholonomic kinematic controller and the dynamic controller for a mobile robot. Also the literature on the robustness of the controller in the presence of uncertainties or external disturbances in the dynamical model of a mobile robot is very few. Thus, in this paper, the robust adaptive controller which can achieve velocity tracking while considering not only kinematic model but also dynamic model of the mobile robot is proposed. The stability of the dynamic system will be shown through the Lyapunov method.

This paper presents the development of a control architecture for the autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) with VARIVEC (variable vector) propeller. Moreover this paper also describes the new technique of controlling the servomotors using the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The AUVs are being currently used fur various work assignments. For the daily measuring task, conventional AUV are too large and too heavy. A small AUV will be necessary for efficient exploration and investigation of a wide range of a sea. AUVs are in the phase of research and development at present and there are still many problems to be solved such as power resources and underwater data transmission. Further, another important task is to make them smaller and lighter for excellent maneuverability and low power. Our goal is to develop a compact and light AUV having the intelligent capabilities. We employed the VARIVEC propeller system utilizing the radio control helicopter elements, which are swash plate and DC servomotors. The VARIVEC propeller can generate six components including thrust, lateral force and moment by changing periodically the blade angle of the propeller during one revolution. It is possible to reduce the number of propellers, mechanism and hence power sources. Our control tests were carried out in an anechoic tank which suppress the reflecting effects of the wall surface. We tested the developed AUV with required performance. Experimental results indicate the effectiveness of our approach. Control of VARIVEC propeller was realized without any difficulty.

An active contour model, Snake, was developed as a useful segmenting and tracking tool lot rigid or nonrigid (i.e. deformable) objects by Kass in 1987 In this research, Snake is newly designed to cover this large moving case. Image flow energy is proposed to give Snake the motion information of the target object. By this image flow energy Snake's nodes can move uniformly along the direction of the target motion in spite of the existences of local minima. Furthermore, when the motion is too large to apply image flow energy to tracking, a jump mode is proposed for solving the problem. The vector used to make Snake's nodes jump to the new location can be obtained by processing the image flow. The effectiveness of the proposed Snake is confirmed by some simulations.

In this paper, we consider on hard contact transition control strategies. Hard contact transition phase can be divided into two definitely different phases,“PreTransition Phase”and“Transition Phase”. Here we focus on the“PreTransition Phase”and we propose three control methods. First, we propose a novel controller named as “Suppression Controller”which is not only stable but also simple to implement. Second, we present passive damper named as“FlexibleDamped Joint”Which is good solution in Circumventing pretransition Phase. Third, We suggest a stable and simple controller which can maximize joint damping and minimize recontact velocity in flexibledamped joint. It is named as“Joint Damping Controller”.

Therehave been many control strategies for the enact joint position tracking of flexible manipulators, but direct cartesian space tracking control methods an not developed well. In this paper, we propose a PD control method based on the cartesian error in the end point trajectory tracking. the proposed controller is composed of PD control combined with nonlinear saturation term hut has a very simple form. the effect of this term is continuous suppression of vibration which is induced by the coupling of rigid motion. This control works both on the regulation and on the tracking cases. The performance and validity of this control method is shown by simulation examples.

In this article, a new performance index is proposed to reduce the collision impulsive force by controlling the null motion of redundant manipulators. First, we define the normalized impact ellipsoid in the viewpoint of instantaneous velocity change. Then, we propose a new impact performance index based on velocity direction for null motion to reduce initial impulsive effects. It gives some advantage for the case of unknown environment. The optimization of this index is that the successional impact forces are reduced. The performance of the proposed index is demonstrated by simulation study.

Korea MultiPurpose SATellite(KOMPSAT) is scheduled to be launched by TAURUS launch vehicle in November, 1999. Tracking, Telemetry and Command(TT&C) operation and the flight dynamics support should be performed for the successful Launch and Early Orbit Phase(LEOP) operation. After the first contact of the KOMPSAT spacecraft, initial orbit determination using ground based tracking data should be performed for the acquisition of the orbit. Although the KOMPSAT is planned to be directly inserted into the Sun synchronous orbit of 685 km altitude, the orbit maneuvers are required fur the correction of the launch vehicle dispersion. Flight dynamics support such as orbit determination and maneuver planning will be performed by using KOMPSAT Mission Analysis and Planning Subsystem(MAPS) in KOMPSAT Mission Control Element(MCE). The KOMPSAT MAPS have been jointly developed by Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute(ETRI) and Hyundai Space & Aircraft Company(HYSA). The KOMPSAT MCE was installed in Korea Aerospace Research Institute(KARI) site for the KOMPSAT operation. In this paper, the orbit determination and maneuver planning are introduced and simulated for the KOMPSAT spacecraft in LEOP operation. Initial orbit determination using short arc tracking data and definitive orbit determination using multiple passes tracking data are performed. Orbit maneuvers for the altitude correction and inclination correction are planned for achieving the final mission orbit of the KOMPSAT.

The KOMPSAT, which is scheduled to be launched by Taurus launch vehicle in late November of 1999, will be in a sunsynchronous orbit with an altitude of 685km, eccentricity of 0.001, inclination of 98deg and local time of ascending node of 10:50 a.m. Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute and Daewoo Heavy Industry had jointly developed a KOMPSAT Simulator as a component of the KOMPSAT Mission Control Element. The MCE had been delivered to Korea Aerospace Research Institute for the KOMPSAT ground operation. It is being used for training of KOMPSAT ground station personnel. Each of satellite subsystems and space environment were mathematically modeled in the simulator. To verify the overall function of KOMPSAT simulator, a Launch and Early Orbit Phase(LEOP) operation simulations have been performed. The simulator had been verified through various tests such as functional level test, subsystem test, interface test, system test, and acceptance test. In this paper, simulation results for LEOP operations to verify flight software adapted into simulator, satellite subsystem models and environment models are presented.

ETRI has successfully completed and delivered to KARI the KOMPSAT Mission Control System. This system was designed to work in the conventional TT&C modulation scheme with the preassigned frequencies. As a way to accelerate in catching up with future TT&C technology evolutions, a preliminary study needs to be carried out to prepare for the development of a spread spectrum applicable to TT&C. A brief study was carried out to review some points to be considered in designing and implementing spread spectrum schemes to the ground TT&C system intended for a LEO spacecraft. Also a simulation and link design revisit was performed to see the operational and technical benefits with the KOMPSAT TT&C parameters. An experiment concept is proposed to test as many functions at a time once the prototype is developed. In this configuration, a groundmodel TT&C transponder is connected via LAN to the ETRIdeveloped KOMPSAT S/W simulator and linked to the KOMPSAT TM/TC processing s/w via spread spectrum signals through a GEO satellite bentpipe link. A satellite data relay link simulation could be carried out in this configuration.

Nonlinear sliding surface design in variable structure systems for spacecraft attitude control problems is studied. A robustness analysis is performed for regular form of system, and calculation of actuator bandwidth is presented by reviewing sliding surface dynamics. To achieve nonsingular attitude description and minimal parameterization, spacecraft attitude control problems are considered based on modified Rodrigues parameters(MRP). It is shown that the derived controller ensures the sliding motion in predetermined region irrespective of unmodeled effects and disturbances.

Model predictive control algorithm requires a relevant model of the system to be controlled. Unfortunately, the first principle model describing a polymerization reaction system has a large number of parameters to be estimated. Thus there is a need for the identification and control of a polymerization reactor system by using available inputoutput data. In this work, the polynomial autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models are employed as the inputoutput model and combined into the nonlinear model predictive control algorithm based on the successive linearization method. Simulations are conducted to identify the continuous styrene polymerization reactor system. The input variables are the jacket inlet temperature and the feed flow rate whereas the output variables are the monomer conversion and the weightaverage molecular weight. The polynomial ARMA models obtained by the system identification are used to control the monomer conversion and the weightaverage molecular weight in a continuous styrene polymerization reactor It is demonstrated that the nonlinear model predictive controller based on the polynomial ARMA model tracks the step changes in the setpoint satisfactorily. In conclusion, the polynomial ARMA model is proven effective in controlling the continuous styrene polymerization reactor.

A subspacebased identification method of the Wiener model, consisting of a statespace linear block and a polynomial static nonlinearity at the output, is used to retrieve from discrete sample data the accurate information about the nonlinear dynamics. Wiener model may be incorporated into model predictive control (MPC) schemes in a unique way which effectively removes the nonlinearity from the control problem, preserving many of the favorable properties of linear MPC. The control performance is evaluated with simulation studies where the original firstprinciples model for a continuous MMA polymerization reactor is used as the true process while the identified Wiener model is used for the control purpose. On the basis of the simulation results, it is demonstrated that, despite the existence of unmeasured disturbance, the controller performed quite satisfactorily for the control of polymer qualities with constraints.

The control performance of a chemical process is determined by process structure as well as the performance of controllers. Therefore, the concept of“controllability”should be introduced in the early design stage. Structural information makes controllability assessment possible by giving insights on the pathways of disturbances in the process. In this study, a simple procedure to evaluate controllability is suggested to screen out design alternatives using relative order analysis and structural decomposition. The effectiveness of the proposed method was validated by comparing the results with the case of dynamical simulation.

An optimal control technique designed for simultaneous tracking and quality control for batch processes. The proposed technique is designed by transforming quadraticcriterion based iterative learning control(QILC) into linear quadratic control problem. For realtime quality inferential control, the quality is modeled by linear combination of control input around target qualify and then the relationship between quality and control input can be transformed into timevarying linear state space model. With this state space model, the realtime quality inferential control can be incorporated to LQ control Problem. As a consequence, both the quality variable as well as other controlled variables can progressively reduce their control error as the batch number increases while rejecting realtime disturbances, and finally reach the best achievable states dictated by a quadratic criterion even in case that there is significant model error Also the computational burden is much reduced since the most computation is calculated in offline. The Proposed control technique is applied to a semibatch reactor model where seriesparallelreactions take place.

In this paper, a technique to expand the Input and Output (I/O) of the programmable logic controller (PLC) using remote I/O module is presented. The controller and the remote I/O module should have the same protocol and are interfaced through RS 485. Each remote I/O module consists of 16 digital input and 16 digital output, and the maximum of 32 remote I/O module can be linked to one controller. The remote I/O is programmed for interrupt request to controller independently. Therefore, there is no affect to the scan time of the controller. Using this technique, the PLC can be efficiently applied to the several hundred meters different control points such as the ONOFF control fur the agriculture farm, the building automation system, a multi group of machine control.

In this study, an offline automatic teaching method using vision information for robotic assembly task is proposed. Many of industrial robots are still taught and programmed by a teaching pendant. The robot is guided by a human operator to the desired application locations. These motions are recorded and are later edited, within the robotic language using in the robot controller, and played back repetitively to perform the robot task. This conventional teaching method is timeconsuming and somewhat dangerous. In the proposed method, the operator teaches the desired locations on the image acquired through CCD camera mounted on the robot hand. The robotic language program is automatically generated and transferred to the robot controller. This teaching process is implemented through an offline programming(OLP) software. The OLP is developed for the robotic assembly system used in this study. In order to transform the location on image coordinates into robot coordinates, a calibration process is established. The proposed teaching method is implemented and evaluated on the assembly system for soldering electronic parts on a circuit board. A sixaxis articulated robot executes assembly task according to the offline automatic teaching.

In this paper, the implementation method for the extending realtime execution in MMS Implementation is proposed. For this, the method of MMS over ATM(Asynchronous Transfer Mode) and IEEE 802.12 network is analyzed. By the analysis of service response time, making the ASIC of encoding and decoding parts are proposed for one of the real time extension in MMS. The main goals of this paper to analyze and propose suitable methods to meet the real time requirements in MMS applied system.

This paper presents an effective construction method of adaptive multiple control systems utilizing some knowledge upon the plants. The adaptive multiple control system operates plants under widely changing environmental conditions. The adaptive multiple control system is composed of a family of candidate controllers together with a supervisor. The system does not require any identification schemes of environmental conditions. Monitoring outputs of the plant, the supervisor switches from one candidate controller to another, The basic ideas of adaptation are as follows: (1)each candidate controller is prepared for each environmental condition in advance; (2)the supervise. applies a sequence of speculative controls to the plant with candidate controllers just after the start of control or just after the detection of a change in the environmental condition. Each candidate controller can keep the system stable during onestep period of the speculative control and the most appropriate candidate controller for the environmental condition to which the system is exposed can be selected before the last trial of speculative control step comes to an end. We proposed a construction method of adaptive multiple control system without any knowledge of plant dynamics and applied the method to a cartpole balancing problem and a vehicle anti skid braking system. In real applications, as we can often easily obtain a piece of knowledge upon plant dynamics beforehand, we intend to extend the method such that multiple control systems can be efficiently designed using the knowledge. We apply the new idea to the cartpole balancing problem with variable length of the pole. The simulation experiments lead us to the conclusion that the new attempt can reduce the manpower to design the candidate controllers for adaptive multiple control systems.

The right half plane (RHP) zeros may cause severe problems, such as undershoots, oscillations and time delay in the transient response of the systems. In this paper, we formulate a linear quadratic type problem to deal with the effects of the RHP zeros in the nonminimum phase systems. Based on the LQ formulation, this paper shows the tradeoff relation between undershoot and rising time performances in nonminimum phase systems by using a new performance index which consists of new state and tracking error. And performances of the proposed method are shown via computer simulations.

The purpose of this study is to provide the new method for selection of a close to optimal scalar control of linear timeperiodic system. The case of scalar control is considered, the gain matrix being assumed to be at worst periodic with the system period T. The form of gain matrix may have various kinds but must have same period, for example, one of each element being represented by Fourier series. As the optimal gain matrix I consider the matrix ensuring the minimum value of the larger real part of the Poincare exponents of the system. Finally we present a pole placement algorithm to make the given system be stable. It is possible to determine the stability of the given periodic system without get the analytic solution. The application of the method does not require the construction of the Floquet solution. At present state of determination of the gain matrix for this case will be done only by systematic numerical search procedures.

The purpose of this paper is to propose an approach to design a robust servo controller based on the Mixed H
$_2$ /H$\sub$ $\infty$ / theory. In order to do this, we first modify the generalized plant for the usual H$\sub$ $\infty$ / servo problem to a structure of the Mixed H$_2$ /H$\sub$ $\infty$ / minimization problem by virtue of the internal model principle. By doing this, we can divide specifications adopted for robust servo system design into H$_2$ and H$\sub$ $\infty$ / performance criteria, respectively. Then, the mixed H$_2$ /H$\sub$ $\infty$ / problem is solved in order to find the best solution, by which we can minimize H$_2$ norm of the transfer function under the condition of H$\sub$ $\infty$ /norm value, through Linear Matrix Equality (LMI). 
The design problem of the control system is the ability to synthesize controller that achieve robust stability and robust performance. The paper explains the Finite Inclusions Theorem (FIT) by the procedure namely FIT synthesis. It is developed for synthesizing robustly stabilizing controller for parametrically uncertain system. The fundamental problem in the study of parametrically uncertain system is to determine whether or not all the polynomials in a given family of characteristic polynomials is Hurwitz i.e., all their roots lie in the open lefthalf plane. By FIT it can prove a polynomial is Hurwitz from only approximate knowledge of the polynomial's phase at finitely many points along the imaginary axis. An example shows the simplicity of using the FIT synthesis to directly search for robust controller of parametrically uncertain system by way of solving a sequence of systems of linear inequalities. The systems of inequalities are solved via the projection method which is an elegantly simple technique fur solving (finite or infinite) systems of convex inequalities in an arbitrary Hilbert space. Results from example show that the controller synthesized by FIT synthesis is better than by H
$\sub$ $\infty$ / synthesis with parametrically uncertain system as well as satisfied the objectives for a considerably larger range of uncertainty. 
In this paper, a sliding node controller guaranteeing finite time error convergence is proposed jot uncertain systems. By using a novel sliding hyperplane, it is guaranteed that the output tracking error converges to zero in finite time.

In this paper, a method for the efficient implementation of the PICNET network configurator for a distributed control system(DCS) is proposed. The network configurator is composed of the time parameter estimator and the period scheduler, the file generator. The main role of network configurator estimates time parameter, the prerun time scheduling of the user input and make the period transmission table for operating the PICNET based distributed control system.

Tracking control of an arbitrary reference has been discussed for 7Th order 2input 2output nonminimum phase EGR/VGT diesel engines. To meet strict emission regulations and customer demands, the desired set points, the airfuel ratio and the ERG flow fraction, determined from a static engine data based on engine speed and the desired fueling rate are transformed into the set points for the two sensor measurement outputs. Applying the sliding mode tracking control theory proposed by Jeong and Utkin, two step design was carried out using the bounded solution of an unstable zero dynamics for the given reference signals. This paper shows through simulations how stabilization of unstable zero dynamics and reference tracking can be accomplished simultaneously.

In this paper, we develope a composite control law for linear systems with normbounded timevarying parameter uncertainties, which consists of a basic linear robust control dosigned so as to generate a desired transient timeresponse for the worstcase parameter variation and a nonlinear modification term designed so as to reduce cautiousness of the linear robust control in an adaptive manner. The proposed controller is established such that the reduction of cautiousness of the linear robust control is well incorporated into the achievement of a good transient behavior.

A new method to solve a Lyapunov equation for a discrete delay system is proposed. Using this method, a Lyapunov equation can be solved from a simple linear equation and Nth power of a constant matrix, where N is the state delay. Combining a Lyapunov equation and frequency domain stability, a new stability condition is proposed. The proposed stability condition ensures stability of a discrete state delay system whose state delay is not exactly known but only known to lie in a certain interval.

The step response of the Manabe standard form[1］has little overshoot and shows almost same waveforms regardless of the order of the characteristic polynomials. In some situations it is difficult to control the rise time and settling time simultaneously of the step response of the Manabe standard form. To control its rise time and settling time efficiently, we develop the generalization of the Manabe standard form: we try to find out the SRFS(Slow Rise time & Fast Settling time) form which has the slower rise time and faster settling time than those of the Manabe standard form. we also consider the other three forms: FRSS(Fast Rise time & Slow Settling time), SRFS(Slow Rise time ＆ Fast Settling time) and SRSS(Slow Rise time & Slow Settling time) forms. In this paper, by using the genetic algorithm, we obtain all the coefficient of the four forms we mention above. Finally, we design a controller for a given plant so that the overall system has the performance that the rise time is faster, the settling time is slower than those of the Manabe standard form.

Subspacebased state space system identification (4SID) methods have been demonstrated to perform well in a number of applications, but the properties of these have not been fully analyzed or understood yet. For applying the methods, no assumptions on structure of realization are needed and any coordinate transformation is allowed for the estimates. This is one reason why many kinds of properties expected for identification procedures have not been clarified yet. We illustrate, by using Schur complement, an interpretation of the R matrix yielded by the QR factorization in the 4SID procedure. The results in this paper can be useful for analysis of properties of parameters obtained by 4SID methods.

A linear timeinvariant model can be described either by a parametric model or by a nonparametric model. Nonparametric models, for which a priori information is not necessary, are basically the response of the dynamic system such as impulse response model and frequency models. Parametric models, such as transfer function models, can be easily described by a small number of parameters. In this paper aiming to take benefit from both types of models, we will use linearcombination of basis fuctions in an impulse response using a few parameters. We will expand and generalize the Kautz functions as basis functions for dynamical system representations and we will consider estimation problem of transfer functions using Kautz function. And so we will present the influences of poles settings of Kautz function on the identification accuracy.

This paper deals with the optimal filtering problem constrained to input noise signal corrupting the measurement output for linear discretetime systems. The transfer matrix H
$_2$ and/or H$_{\infty}$ norms are used as criteria in an estimation error sense. In this paper, the mixed$H_2/H_{\infty}$ filtering Problem in lineal discretetime systems is solved using the LMI approach, yielding a compromise between the H$_2$ and H$_{\infty}$ filter designs. This filter design problems we formulated in a convex optimization framework using linear matrix inequalities. A numerical example is presented. 
Many researches on the identification of a system have been carried out using a least square method, an adaptive filter, and so on. However, it is difficult to apply these methods in a nonlinear system. In the case of a nonlinear system, it is known that the signal compression method is able to estimate uncertain parameters of linear element in a nonlinear system because it is able to separate linear element and nonlinear element in a nonlinear system. However, the signal compression method cannot be applied to a motion simulator because actuators of the simulator is singlerod cylinders which includes expansion and compression dynamic properties. Therefore, this paper proposes a modified signal compression method which is able to estimate uncertain parameters of the motion simulator dynamics. The dynamic properties of this system are identified by separating expansion and compression properties when applying the signal compression method. And then, the identified parameters are applied to design a sliding mode controller for the simulator. The performance of the designed sliding mode controller is evaluated experimentally.

A lot of researcher have proposed a method of kernel identifying nonlinear system by use of Wiener kernels[67] or Volterra kernel[5] and so on. In this research, the authors proposed a method of identifying Volterra kernels for nonlinear system by use of pseudorandom Msequence in which a crosscorrelation function between input and output of a nonlinear system is taken[4]. we can be applied to an MISO nonlinear system or a system which depends on its input amplitude[2]. But, there exist many systems in which it is difficult to determine a Volterra kernel having the same time coordinate on the crosscorrelation function. In those cases, we have to estimate Volterra kernel by using its neighboring points[4]. In this paper, we propose a new method for not estimating but obtaining Volterra kernel having the same time coordinate using calculation between the neighboring points. Some numerical simulations show that this method is effective for obtaining higher order Volterra kernel of nonlinear control systems.

The authors have recently developed a new method for identification of Volterra kernels of nonlinear systems by use of pseudorandom Msequence and correlation technique. And it is shown that nonlinear systems which can be expressed by Volterra series expansion are well identified by use of this method. However, there exist many nonlinear systems which can not be expressed by Volterra series mathematically. A nonlinear system having backlash type nonliear element is one of those systems, since backlash type nonlinear element has multivalued function between its input and output. Since Volterra kernel expression of nonlinear system is one of the most useful representations of nonlinear dynamical systems, it is of interest how the method of Volterra kernel identification can be ar plied to such backlash type nonlinear system. The authors have investigated the effect of application of Volterra kernel identification to those nonlinear systems which, accurately speaking, is difficult to express by use of Volterra kernel expression. A pseudorandom Msequence is applied to a nonlinear backlashtype system, and the crosscorrelation function is measured and Volterra kernels are obtained. The comparison of actual output and the estimated output by use of measured Volterra kernels show that we can still use Volterra kernel representation for those backlashtype nonlinear systems.

It is known that Volterra kernel models can represent a wide variety of nonlinear chemical processes. Also, it is necessary for Volterra model identification to excite the process to be identified with a signal having wide range of frequency spectrum and high enough amplitude of input signals. Kashiwagi[4 ∼ 7] has recently shown a method for measuring Volterra kernels up to third order using pseudorandom Msequence signals. However, in practice, since it is not always possible to apply such input sequences to the actual chemical plants. Even when we can apply such a pseudorandom signal to the process, it takes much time to obtain higher order Volterra kernels. Considering these problems, the authors propose here a new method for practical identification of Volterra kernels by use of approximate open differential equation (ODE) model and simple plant test. Simulation results are shown for verifying the usefulness of our method of identification of nonlinear chemical processes.

The aim of the work described in this paper is to develop a complex underground acoustic system which detects and localizes the origin of an underground hammering sound using an array of hydrophones located about loom underground. Three different methods for the sound localization will be presented, a timedelay method, a powerattenuation method and a hybrid method. In the timedelay method, the cross correlation of the signals received from the way of sensors is used to calculate the time delays between those signals. In the powerattenuation method, the powers of the received signals provide a measure of the distances of the source from the sensors. In the hybrid method, both informations of timedelays and powerratios are coupled together to produce better performance of position estimation. A new acoustic imaging technique has been developed for improving the hybrid method. For each method the sound localization is carried out in three dimensions underground. The minimum distance between the true and estimated origins of the source is 28 m for a search area of radius 250m.

The technique is reported of identifying parameters in offline process. The technique demands that closedloop system consists of a reference and twodegreeoffreedom controllers (TDFC) in real process. A model process is the same as the real process except their parameters. Deviations are differences between the reference and the output of the plant or the model. The technique is based on minimizing identification error between the two deviations. The parameter differences between the plant and the model are characterized of mean value and of variance which are derived from the identification error. Consequently, the algorithm which identifies the unknown plant parameters is shown by minimizing the mean value and the variance, respectively, within double convergence loops. The technique is applied to course change of a ship. The plant deviation at the first trial is shown to occur in replacing the nominal parameters by the default parameters. The plant deviation at the second trial is shown to not occur in replacing the nominal parameters by the identified parameters. Hence, the identification technique is confirmed to be feasible in the real field.

A prediction method of conditional event matching prediction (EMP) for a purpose of predicting nonlinear phenomena of insulator pollution was proposed in this paper. The EMP was used if the conditional probability for increase of insulator pollution exceeded a threshold value. A performance of the EMP was strongly related to selection of database of events and a closeness function. By use of the prediction of the insulator pollution based on the conditional EMP, reliable decision making for the washing timing of the polluted insulators was evaluated based on actual data in Kasatsu substation, Japan.

An effective approach to lane detection in driver assistance system (DAS) is proposed, based on the decomposition of lane markings. The properties of the decomposed lane markings are discussed, and analyses on lane curvature are given. The current lane on road is detected quickly, the neighboring lane regions are also extracted for lane planning of the vehicle, and the parameters of lane structure are accurately estimated.

The support or automation of various kinds of intelligent work is urged at large, integrated control centers. Given this demand, a decision making system for wash timing of polluted insulators, applying the Bayesian rule theory, has been developed in order to support maintenance work in the power system. The results of this system application revealed that exact wash timing of the insulators could be determined automatically, equivalent in precision to judgement by skilled operators, thus contributing to further work efficiency.

In this paper, piecewise quadratic Lyapunov functions are used to analyze the stability of fuzzymodelbased controller. We represent the nonlinear system using a TakagiSugeno fuzzy model, which represent the given nonlinear system by fuzzy inference rules and local linear dynamic models. The proposed stability analysis technique is developed by dividing the whole fuzzy system into the smaller separate fuzry systems to reduce the conservatism. Some necessary and sufficient conditions for the proposed method are obtained. Finally, stability of the closed system with various kinds of controller for TS fuzzy model is checked through the proposed method.

This paper shows a self tuning fuzzy inference method by the genetic algorithm in the fuzzysliding mode control for a Polishing robot. Using this method, the number of inference rules and the shape of membership functions are determined by the genetic algorithm. The fuzzy outputs of the consequent part are derived by the gradient descent method. Also, it is guaranteed that .the selected solution become the global optimal solution by optimizing the Akaike's information criterion expressing the quality of the inference rules. It is shown by simulations that the method of fuzzy inference by the genetic algorithm provides better learning capability than the trial and error method.

Nowadays, one of the major technical issues in manufacturing is to create an environment to promote collaboration among diverse engineering activities. Collaborative engineering is an innovative approach integrating widely distributed engineering activities through promoting information sharing and actual collaboration. It requires close interactions among developers, suppliers and customers, and consideration of entire product life cycle from concept to disposal. A carefullydesigned operating system is crucial for successful collaboration of many different activities in a Networked Virtual Manufacturing System(NVMS). High extensibility, flexibility and efficiency ale the key characteristics requested of an operating system to handle the complexity of the NVMSs. In this paper, we propose a model of the operating system for collaborative engineering using concurrent quasiprocedural method(QPM). QPM is a goaldriven data management technique for distributed and parallel computing environments. It is to be applied to the evaluation of activities to be executed, validities of input data, execution path of activities for a needed output, and expected to greatly improve the productivity of operations by preventing redundant evaluations. Collaboration among many different engineering activities in NVMSs is to be performed by the network of agents that encapsulate the capabilities of both users and their tools.

Leading vehicle states are useful and essential elements in adaptive cruise control (ACC) system, collision warning (CW) and collision avoidance (CA) system, and automated highway system (AHS). There are many approaches in ACC using Kalman filter. Mostly only distance to leading vehicle and velocity difference are estimated and used for the above systems. Applications in road vehicle in curved road need to obtain more informations such as yaw angle, steering angle which can be estimated using vision system. Since vision system is not robust to environment change, we used Kalman filter to estimate distance, velocity, yaw angle, and steering angle. Application to active tracking of target vehicle is shown.

An estimation algorithm for vehicle driving load has been proposed in this paper. Driving load is an important factor in a vehicle's longitudinal motion control. An approach using an observer is introduced to estimate driving load based on inexpensive RPM sensors currently being used in production vehicles. Also, a torque estimation technique using nonlinear characteristic functions has been incorporated in this estimation algorithm. Using a nonlinear full vehicle simulation model, we study the effect of the driving load on longitudinal vehicle motion, and the performance of the estimation algorithm has been evaluated. The proposed estimation algorithm has good performance and robustness over uncertainties in the system parameters. An accurate estimate of the driving load can be very helpful in the development of advance vehicle control systems such as intelligent cruise control systems, CW/CA systems and smooth shift control systems.

For a video data terminal (VDT) operator, visual strain was caused by continuous VDT operations was found id be recovered by watching the picture of virtual far point with the background of the complementary color when the treatment to recover from visual strain was carried out. When the VDT operator watches the picture of virtual far point with the condition of the complementary color stimuli on the CRT display in 60 or 120 minutes after the start of the VDT operation, the visual strain is recovered and the VDT operator is kept healthy.

Automatic weld bead removal system is consisted of bead removal tool, bead profile measurement system and tool motion control system. In this paper, design of weld bead profile measurement system which is used for automatic weld bead removal system is described. The system measures the weld bead position, normal vector of the autobody and weld bead profile. The optical sensor with structured laser beam is used as a sensor and comparison of the sensor that can be used for this purpose is discussed in detail. The measurement process and the related software developed for this purpose are also described. A median filter, average filter and long line filters are used and their effects in bead profile measurement are discussed. The measurement system is integrated into automatic bead removal system and is used to remove weld bead in rear pillar of automotive body. The whole system operates well in automotive body assembly line and thus the system is proved to be good for this purpose.

An automated storage and retrieval machinery for high rack warehouse systems is developed in order to stack the various kinds of productions. However, according to increase in the rack height, the long lead time should be taken. In stacker crane systems, the variations of the lifting height and the load generate the vibration of lifting machine, and it makes a Position control to be difficult Therefore, the reduction of vibration will be important factor for saving the lead time and the damage of Productions. This paper deals with a position control of stacker crane in automated high rack warehouse system by using a gainscheduled control algorithm via a LMI method, where the variations of elastic coefficient of the stacker crane's post are considered.

Both the physically handicapped people and the people of advanced age drive the electromotive cart of tricycle type the every day. When the public electromotive cart of tricycle type has inclined on the slant road or the bumpy road, the viewing angle of driver is changed at the same time. So the risk of traffic accident is increased. For the improvement of the above problem, the present study has made the electromotive cart installed to the new drivers seat on the basis of the 2
$\pi$ control theory. 
Conventional target tracking techniques are primarily based on Kalman filtering or probabilistic data association(PDA). But it is difficult to perform well under a high cluttered tracking environment because of the difficulty of measurement, the problem of mathematical simplification and the difficulty of combined target detection for tracking association problem. This paper deals with an analysis of target tracking problem using fuzzylogic theory, and determines fuzzy rules used by a fuzzy tracker, and designs the fuzzy tracker by using fuzzy rules and Kalman filtering.

Anyone observes that information processing in animal brains is depended on neural networks. On the other hand, engineering models for the neural networks are well known now, and they have been studied, and learning facility is found in the model. We are sure there is a potential in order to create a non Neumanmachine in the engineering models. We studied iteration forms including the engineering neural network models, taking a first step for the creation.

In this paper, genetic algorithm (GA) is implemented to search for the optimal structures (i.e. the kind of neural networks, the number of inputs and hidden neurons) of neural networks which are used approximating a given nonlinear function. Two kinds of neural networks, i.e. the multilayer feedforward [1] and time delay neural networks (TDNN) [2] are involved in this paper. The synapse weights of each neural network in each generation are obtained by associated training algorithms. The simulation results of nonlinear function approximation are given out and some improvements in the future are outlined.

Forecasting and extrapolation for time dependent phenomena by using Multi layer neural network has been studied. We calculated values of a function at short intervals, and made one dimensional vector whose elements were a partial gather of the values. If there is anything same as the future of the functions exists in the fragment set, it is possible for us to have an advanced precision extrapolation. Otherwise, if the approximate function of the primitive function can be constructed by teaming the short interval in the network, the precision of extrapolation also can be well realized.

We discuss the symmetry for computergenerated figures based on complex dynamics. The figures have not continuous lines, and they axe plotted on a specific region in the complex plane. They have different properties from classical figures. But we believe that they are variety of figures. The symmetric discussions are necessary because of their properties.

We have been developing a method to build models for time series using Genetic Programming. The proposed method has been applied to various kinds of time series e.g. computergenerated chaos, natural phenomena, and financial market indices etc. Now we apply the prediction method to time histories of seismic ground motion i.e. onestepahead prediction of seismographic amplitude. Waves of earthquakes are composed of Pwaves and Swaves. They propagate in different speeds and have different characteristics. It is believed that Pwaves arrive firstly and Swaves arrive secondly. Simulations were performed based on real data of Hyuganada earthquake which broke out at southern part of Kyushuu Island in Japan. To our surprise, prediction model built using the earthquake waves in early time can enough precisely predict main huge waves in later time. Lots of experiments lead us to conclude that every slice of data involves Pwave and Swave. The simulation results suggest the GPbased prediction method can be utilized in alarm systems or dispatch systems in an emergency.

This paper is concerned with the design method of a decentralized linear control system and its application to vibration control of multi degree of freedom structures. The method is based on the partial model matching on frequency domain by minimizing the relative model error functions between the diagonal elements of the open loop transfer function matrix of the control system and these of the reference model. The method is examined and evaluated by both simulation and experiment of a multi degree of freedom structure(MDFS).

In this paper, a new method for identification of twodimensional(2D) impulse response is presented. As is well known, identification of 2D impulse response is an important and necessary theme for image processing or signal processing. Here, the authors extend Mtransform which has been proposed by some of the authors to 2D case where an image is used instead of signal, and Marray is used instead of Msequence. Firstly, we show that 2D impulse response can be obtained by use of Marray. Next 2D Mtransform is defined where any 2D image can be considered to be the output of 2D filter whose input is 2D Marray. Simulation results show the effectiveness of identification of 2D impulse response by either using Marray or by 2D Mtransform.

Minimumfuel and time orbit transfer are two major goals of the satellite trajectory optimization. In this paper, we consider satellites in two coplanar elliptic orbits when the apsidal lines coincide, and analytically find the conditions for the twoimpulse minimumtime transfer orbit using Lambert's theorem. The transfer time is a decreasing function of a variable related to the transfer orbit's semimajor axis in the minimumtime case. In the minimumtime case, there is no unique minimumtime solution, but there is a limiting solution. However, there exists a unique solution in the case of minimumfuel transfer, fur which we find analytically the necessary and sufficient conditions. As a special case, we consider when the transfer angle is one hundred and eighty degrees. In this case, we show that we obtain the classical fueloptimal Hohmann transfer orbit. We also derive the Hohmann transfer rime and deltavelocity equations from more general equations, which are obtained using Lambert's theorem. We note the tradeoff between minimumtime and  fuel transfer. An optimal coplanar orbit maneuver algorithm to trade off the minimumtime goal against the minimumfuel goal is proposed. Finally, the numerical simulation results are given to demonstrate the derived theory and the algorithm.

This paper presents a methodology of the technique for controlling DC motor drive by implementation of 2quadrant operating mode which can ensure the torque controlling and speed with response time less than 2 seconds at all loading conditions. By implementation of BRM technique, energy is fed with definite values of BRM 256 bits, with different patterns of high accuracy, and fixing scan time at 0.667 ms, the ripple is less than 1%, thus high efficiency can be achieved, from the consequence of the accuracy of energy feeding at low current. The stability of the whole system can be determined from circle criterion by root locus method . The instant reverse direction of rotation can be done by decreasing the energy to the lowest level while motor is running with no load and variable load at the speed about 100120 rpm and 5060 rpm.

The optimal reaction conditions are determined for a PET process, which consists of transesteriflcation, prepolymerization and polycondensation reactors in series. Based on the simulation results of the reactor system, we scrutinize the cause and effect between the reaction conditions and the final properties of the polymer product. We then select the process variables with significant influence on the properties of polymer as control variables and calculate the optimal reaction conditions by iterative dynamic programming (IDP) algorithm with constraints. A new reaction scheme incorporating reactions for byproducts as well as three main reactions is considered in the constrained IDP method.

Feed rate in the fedbatch reactor is the most important control variable in optimizing the reactor performance. Exact solution can be obtained only for limited cases of simple reactor. The complexity of the model equations makes it extremely difficult to solve fur the general class of system models. Evolutionary programming method is proposed to get the information of the profile types, and the final profile is calculated by that information. The modified evolutionary programming method is used to get the more optimal profiles and it is demonstrated that proposed method can solve a wide range of optimal control problems.

In this article, an integrable circuit technique for implementing square root extractor for analog signal processing is described. The realization method makes use of the characteristic of MOS translinear principle. The proposed scheme achieves a wide dynamic range, wideband capability and high accuracy. Simulation results demonstrating the performance of the proposed scheme are also presented.

An operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) based precision fullwave rectifier circuit is presented in this article. The proposed circuit has a very sharp corner in the DC transfer characteristic and simple configuration comprised three OTAs and one current mirror. The temperature dependence of the OTA transconductance is reduced. Experimental results demonstrating the characteristic of the circuit are included.

This paper describes a new method for object extraction necessary for image tracking systems. The extraction method which this paper proposes here is that an Marray is set between a camera and the object and the obtained image including the object and Marray is processed for extracting the object. The image processing utilizes a characteristic of Marray which is robust to noise. When an Marray is overlapped on the object in background image, the object woud have a part of Marray, which is detected by use of partial correlation between the mosaic image of Marray and the standard Marray. Thus the shape and position of the object are extracted by extracting a common domain of width of high correlation value. Experiments are carried out by using an actual photo of Kumamoto city taken from an airplane as background, and by use of a rectangular and circular object. The results of experiment show a wide application of this method for practical image tracking systems.

An electronically Scannable microphone system is in the Planning stage. For this Purpose, a multiple microphone array with controllable delay is available. To achieve effective pointlistening characteristics, we proposed an enclosed microphone array system with a complex weighting method. In this system, both the microphone arrangement and the value of the complex weighting are important. In this report, the construction of microphone array system and the signalprocessing method are explained, and the calculation method for optimal complex weighting is also presented. A prototype experimental setup is designed and fabricated to verify the expected characteristics.

Circular dynamic stereo has special advantages as it enables a 3D measurement using a single TV camera and also enables a high accurate measurement without a cumbersome calibration. Annular particle streaks are recorded using this system and the size of annular streaks directly concerns to the depth from TV camera. That is, the size of annular streaks is inversely proportional to the depth from the TV camera and the depth can be measured automatically by image processing technique. Overlapped streaks can be processed also by our method. The flow measurement in a water tank is one of the applications of our system. Tracer particles are introduced into the water in a flow measurement. Since the tracer particles flow with water, threedimensional velocity distributions in the water tank can be obtained by measuring the all movement of tracer particles. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of our method.

This paper is concerned with estimating the mass of a loose part in the steam generator of a nuclear power plant. Although there is the basic principle known as “Hertz Theory”for estimating mass and energy of a spherical part impacted on an infinite flat plate, the theory is not directly applicable because real plants do not comply with the underlying ideal assumptions. (Say, the steam generator is of a cylindrical and hemisphere shape.) In this work, a practical method is developed based on the basic theory and considering amplitude and energy attenuation effects. Actually, the impact waves propagating along the plate to the sensor locations become significantly different in shape and frequency spectrum from the original waveform due to the plate and surrounding conditions, distance attenuation and damping loss. To show the validity of the present mass estimation algorithm, it has been applied to the mockup impact test data and also to real plant data. The results show better performance comparing to the conventional Hertz schemes.

This paper proposes controlling of temperature in an oven by using 4 bits Integral  Cycle Binary Rate Modulation (IBRM) method and ac line with frequency 50 Hz. Microcontroller MCS51 controls IBRM according to Proportional Integral controller (PI) function. Discrete signals are used in the system modeled by using Ziegler Nichols principle for analyzing the stability before designing the system. This procedure makes it easy to investigate system response. The system is implemented by 4 bits digital circuit which gives 320 patterns of ac signal fur controlling the generation of energy for 3,000 watts thermal coil every 20 ms of each cycle. We divide scan time (Ts
$\sub$ n/) in to 20 intervals, 1 ms interval is selected to generate 16 patterns IBRM. Because of this method gives the ripple lower than 2% it generates less noise fur system. Moreover, we can consider whole system from the time model of control procedure and IBRM algorithm at 40200$^{\circ}C$ with${\pm}$ 1$^{\circ}C$ error in the 1 cubic meter oven. 
This topic presents an inductor short turn testing. From the rudimentary principles, the quality factor(Q) decreases due to inductor short turn. Frequency response varies because of the variation of circuit inductance and resistance. In general, short turn circuit testing is performed by comparing the ratio of an inductance and resistance of inductor in that particular circuit. An alternative method can be done by considering the response of second order circuit which can give both dynamic and static testing, whereas static testing give an error results not more than 2 turns. For dynamic testing, the result is more accurate, which can test fur the short turn number form 1 turn onward.

Numsomran, Arjin;Sriratana, Witsarut;Julsereewong, Prasit;Kongratana, Viriya;Tirasesth, Kitti 284
A design of IPDA controller for the third order plant by CDM is presented in this paper. Using CDM in the controller design procedures, the step responses of the controlled system with the IPDA controller satisfied both transient and steady state response specifications without adjustment, and also satisfy the requirements of stability, faster response and robustness. The step responses of the controlled system using IPDA controller are coiniciding to the ones using PIDA controller, and the integral gain of the IPDA controller also equals to the prefilter gain of the PIDA controller designed by CDM. The effect of the disturbances can also be lastly eliminated. The fast step response of the controlled system can be obtained by reducing the equivalent time constant. MATLAB's numerical results show that the desired specifications of the controlled system using IPDA controller is obtained. Furthermore, the results also show a good robustness that the desired performances of the controlled system have no significant changed when the plant parameters are varied. 
The PID (ProportionalIntegralDerivative) controller is widely used in the industries for more than fifty years with the well known ZieglerNichols tuning method and others varieties. However, most of the PID controller being used in the real practice still require trial and error adjustment for each process after the tuning method is done, which is consuming of time and needs the operator experiences to obtain the best results for the controller parameter. In order to reduce the inconvenience in the controller tuning, this paper presents a design of an automatic PID controller parameter analyzer being used as a support instrument in the industrial process control. This analyzer is designed based on the tuning formula of Dahlin to synthesize the PID controller parameter. Using this analyzer, the time to be spent in the trial and error procedures and its complexity can be neglected. Experimental results using PID controller parameter synthesized from this analyzer to the liquid level control plant model and the fluid flow control plant model show that the responses of the controlled systems can be efficiently controlled without any difficulty in mathemathical computation.

Evolving in artificial agent is an extremely difficult problem, but on the other hand, a challenging task. At present the studies mainly centered on single agent learning problem. In our case, we use simulated soccer to investigate multiagent cooperative learning. Consider the fundamental differences in learning mechanism, existing reinforcement learning algorithms can be roughly classified into two typesthat based on evaluation functions and that of searching policy space directly. Genetic Programming developed from Genetic Algorithms is one of the most well known approaches belonging to the latter. In this paper, we give detailed algorithm description as well as data construction that are necessary for learning single agent strategies at first. In following step moreover, we will extend developed methods into multiple robot domains. game. We investigate and contrast two different methodssimple team learning and subgroup loaming and conclude the paper with some experimental results.

Numsomran, Arjin;Julsereewong, Prasit;Ukakimaparn, Prapart;Trisuwannawat, Thanit;Tirasesth, Kitti 298
This paper presents a design technique based on the root locus method fur a class of$n^{th}$ order plants using PID (ProportionalIntegralDerivative) x (n1) stage PD controller. It is intended to satisfy both transient and steady state response specifications. This controller can be used instead of a conventional PID controller for the higher order plants to obtain better performances. The controlled system is approximated as a stable and robust second order controlled system. Only adjusting the controller gain, the desired performances of the controlled system are satisfied. For the stable plant including the plant with small dead time, the controlled system is made robustly stable. In case of the unstable plant, when the controller gain is adjusted higher than the critical value, the unstable plant can also be made stable. Robustness properties given by this controller proposed in this paper have also been demonstrated by numerical examples. 
Twinservo mechanism is used to increase the payload capacity and speed of high precision motion control system. In this paper, we propose a robust synchronizing motion control algorithm to cancel out the skew motion of twinservo system caused by different dynamic characteristics of two driving systems and the vibration generated by high accelerating and decelerating motions. This proposed control algorithm consists of separate feedback motion control algorithm of each driving system and skew motion compensation algorithm between two systems. Robust model reference tracking controller is proposed as a separate motion controller and its disturbance attenuation property is shown. For the synchronizing motion, skew motion compensation algorithm is designed, and the stability of whole Closed loop system is proved based on passivity theory.

Recently 2DOF control system has been widely recognized to be efficient. The major merit of 2DOF control is the independency between tracking performance and feedback performance. But the design of two parameters of 2DOF control system is not much considered about the relation between the identification and the design. In the field of robust control, the joint control, which can combine the identification with the design, is investigated. Then are apply the joint control to the design of 2DOF control system, and verify the effectiveness by some simulation.

Application of FuzzyPID Controller Based on Genetic Algorithm for Speed Control of Induction MotorsThis paper proposed a novel method for pseudoonline scheme using lookup table based on the genetic algorithm The technique is an pseudoonline method that optimally estimate the parameters of FPID controller for systems with nonlinearity using the genetic algorithm which does not use the gradient and finds the global optimum of an unconstraint optimization problem. The proposed controller is applied to speed control of 3phase induction motor and its computer simulation is carried out. Simulation results show that the proposed method is more excellent then conventional FPID and PID controllers.

In this paper, a quantization algorithm by which the accumulative error can be prevented is presented. In digital control systems, the quantization cannot be avoided because of the finite word length of digital computers. The error due to quantization of the computed values may be tolerable in case of directly using them. In case of using the accumulated values, the error between sum of the original values and that of the quantized values becomes larger as the number of the values to be summed increases. Such an increasing accumulative error is critical for the control of precise NC machines, robots and autonomous vehicles. To solve this problem, a quantization algorithm without the accumulative error is presented. Basically, the algorithm is based on the feedback loop by which the accumulationive of the quantization error can be prevented. The error boundness of the proposed algorithm is proven and a computer simulation is performed to show the validity of the algorithm.

A robust end time optimal conかof strategy for dualstage servo system is presented. The time optimal trajectory for a massdamper system is determined and given os a reference input to the servo system. The feedback controller is constructed so that the fine stage tracks the coarse stage errors and robustly designed as the“perturbation compensated sliding mode control(PCSMC)”law, a combination of sliding mode controller(SMC) and perturbation observer(PO). In addition, a null motion controller which regulates the fine stage at its neutral position is designed based on the“dynamic consistency”So, the overall dualstage servo system exhibits the robust and timeoptimal performance. The inherent merit and performance of the dualstage system will be shown.