제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems (ICROS)
 기타
Domain
 Machinery ＞ Robot/Automated Machinery
2000.10

한기혁;김진호 1
본 논문에서는 3축이 연성되어 비선형 운동 방정식으로 표현되는 3축 안정화 인공위성 시스뎀에 입릭외란과 시스템의 불확실성이 존재할 경우에도 자제 정밀도를 유지하는 제어기를 설계한다. 비선헝 운동 방정식으로 표현되는 운동 방정식을 선형화하고 PID제어기를 구성하였다 선형화에 의한 시스템의 불확실성과 입력 외란을 신경회로망으로 추정하여 외란의 엉향을 제거하도록 구성된 PR제어기의 제어입력을 수정한다 수정된 제어입력은 외란을 상쇠시켜 시스템 출력에서 외란의 효과를 제거하게 된다. 신경회로망은 제어입력과 시스템 출력, 기준 운동 방정식간의 관계를 이용하여 외간과 시스템의 불확실성을 추정하며, 역전파 알고리즘을 사용한 학습 알고리즘으로 신경 회로망을 교육한다. 제안된 신경회로망을 이용한 외란 제거 제어기는 시뮬레이션을 통하여 자세 정밀도의 향상을 검증한다 
This paper presents an adaptive control against uncertainties in tailcontrolled STT (skidtoTurn) missiles. First, we derive an analytic uncertainty model from a parametricaffine missile model developed by the authors. Based on this analytic model, an adaptive feedbacklinearizing control law accompanied by a sliding model control law is proposed. We provide analyses of stability and output tracking performance of the overall adaptive missile system. The performance and validity of the proposed adaptive control scheme is demonstrated by simulation.

Limit cycle analysis of attitude control system using gas jet thrusters is performed. SchmittTrigger and PD control laws are applied and solenoid valve time delay is considered. Phase plane method is used for calculation of characteristics of limit cycle. Important characteristics of resultant limit cycle such as frequency, amplitude, maximum rate, and duty ratio could be expressed analytically by proposed method.

In this paper, the backstepping control method that is useful for cascade systems is applied to the slew maneuver of the spacecraft. The quaternion is used for representing the attitude of the spacecraft, because the reference trajectory of angular velocity has simple mathematical form. The conventional backstepping control has severa] problems such as slow convergence, trivial cancelling of nonlinear terms, and excessive control input. To overcome these problems, the modified backstepping control method which is redesign of Lyapunov function is proposed. To design a tracking function for angular velocity, it is necessary to estimate the process of maximum angular velocity, and therefore the estimation procedure using BellmanGronwall inequality is developed. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed control law, numerical simulation is performed and the results are compared with the exiting control scheme.

Some of Spacecraft's structures are flexible so that a certain expected disturbance can easily excite a low frequency vibration on these structures, having very low natural damping. Such vibration will degrade the performance of the system, which should to be kept in a specific shape or attitude against the undesired vibration, In this paper, LQG/LTR controller is developed using an additional dynamic model to increase the performance of the frequency responses at low frequency area,

By using the information obtained from the outputs of MR(MagnetoResistive) sensors for an Unmanned Vehicle Driving System, we develop an algorithm that decides the distance and direction between vehicle and the guideline which is made by the magnet. To improve the robust tracking properties of the closed loop system, we introduce H
$\infty$ controller and its application for the Unmanned Vehicle Driving System. 
This paper describes a mirror control system that can adjust the location of side and room mirror of the vehicle automatically using 3D coordinates to monitor the location of driver's eyes. Through analysis of the image inputted by two B/W CCD camera and infrared lamps installed on top of the driver's dashboard, we can estimate the values of 3D coordinate of the driver's eyes. Using these values, this system can determine the absolute position of each mirror and activate each actuator to the appropriate position. The stereo vision system can detect the driver's eyes whether it is day or night by virtue of infrared Lamps. We have tested this system using 10 drivers who drive a car currently, and most of the drivers were satisfied with the convenience of this system.

PICARD (PortInterface Component Architecture for Realtime system Design) is a software architecture and environment, which is aimed to reduce development time and cost of realtime, control system. With PICARD, a control engineer can construct a control system software by assembling prebuilt software components us ing interact ive graphical development environment. PICARD consists of PVM(Picard Virtual Machine) , a component library, and PICE(PIcard Configuration Editor). PVM is a realtime engine of the PICARD system which runs control tasks on a realtime operating system. The component library is composed of components which are called task blocks. PICE is a visual editor which can configure control tasks by creating dataflow diagrams of task blocks or Ladder diagrams for sequential logics. For the communication between PVM on a target system and PICE on a host computer, a simple protocol and tools for stub generation was dove]oped because RPC or CORBA is difficult to be applied for the embedded system. New features such as a bytecode based run time system and a simple and easy MMI builder are also introduced.

Accurate counting and packaging pills is one of the most fundamental works of the pharmaceutical industry. But it is so labor consuming and very hard to be automated. As the pharmaceutical industry is growing bigger, the need of counting and packaging automation is increasing to obtain effective mass production. Precise and quick sensing is required in the counting and processing of quickly dropping pills to improve the productivity. There are many trials for this automation and automatic machine. But the performance of the existing counting machine varies with the size, shape and the dispersion degree of pills In this research, authors design the counting and packing machine of medicinal pills that is more accurate and highly trustworthy After getting analog signal from optical sensor, pill passage is discriminated from chosen characteristic feature using microprocessor.

Eigenstructure assignment is a typical method with the capability of the consideration of the specifications in timedomain in designing a 1]near control system. In general eigenstructure assignment such that all the desired eigenvalues are exactly assigned to the closedloop system, the assignment of the eigenvectors is very restrictive. However if the arbitrary point in a certain area as an eigenvalue is allowed to be assigned t the closedloop system, the assignment of the eigenvector corresponding to this eigenvalue can be much less restrictive. In this paper, the flexible eigenstructure assignment that can assign more closely the desired eigenvector to the closedloop system by using an optimization technique is proposed.

A time domain step response in which no overshoot occurs is demanded in many control application. Recently, Kim et al.[4,51 suggested some prototypes of target transfer functions of type I which can satisfy such a purpose. However, if a plant contains zeros more than one, then any output feedback control systems should have the same zeros in the closedloop transfer function. In this paper, we propose two methods that choose the target transfer functions higher than Type I. These methods allow us to reduce the effect of zeros. It is shown through some examples that the proposed scheme can be effectively applied to the controller design problems with no overshoot.

This paper consider a new weighted model reduction using block diagonal solutions of Lyapunov inequalities. With the input and/or output weighting function, the stability of reduced order system is quaranteed and a priori error bound is proposed. to achieve this, after finding the solutions of two Lyapunov inequalities and balancing the full order system, we find the reduced order systems using the direct truncation and the singular perturbation approximation. The proposed method is compared with other existing methods using numerical example.

This paper considers delaydependent guaranteed cost control for uncertain timedelay systems with normbounded parametric uncertainties. A new delaydependent condition for the existence of the guaranteed cost control law is presented in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMI). An algorithm involving convex optimization is proposed to design a controller which guarantees the suboptimal minimum of the guaranteed cost of the closedloop system for all admissible uncertainties.

In this paper, we present a systematic optimization method that has flexibility of exact assignment of eigenstructure with disturbance suppression and fault isolation capability. The eigenstructure for fault isolation is assigned by the inclusion of a eigenstructure assignment problem in the objective function as well as a disturbance suppression term is also included in the objective function enhance the robustness of the control scheme. The proposed scheme is applied to designing asimple system to confirm the usefulness of the scheme.

In the past couple of years, there has been increasing interest in the fusion of neural networks and fuzzy logic. Most of the existing fused models have been proposed to implement different types of fuzzy reasoning mechanisms and inevitably they suffer from the dimensionality problem when dealing with complex realworld problem. To overcome the problem, we propose the selforganizing networks with activation nodes based on fuzzy inference and polynomial function. The proposed model consists of two parts, one is fuzzy nodes which each node is operated as a small fuzzy system with fuzzy implication rules, and its fuzzy system operates with Gaussian or triangular MF in Premise part and constant or regression polynomials in consequence part. the other is polynomial nodes which several types of highorder polynomials such as linear, quadratic, and cubic form are used and are connected as various kinds of multivariable inputs. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, time series data for gas furnace process has been applied.

This paper describes a new structure re create a pseudo Gaussian function network (PGFN). The activation function of hidden layer does not necessarily have to be symmetric with respect to center. To give the flexibility of the network, the deviation of pseudo Gaussian function is changed according to a direction of given input. This property helps that given function can be described effectively with a minimum number of center by PGFN, The distribution of deviation is represented by level set method and also the loaming of deviation is adjusted based on it. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed network, general problem of function estimation is treated here. The representation problem of continuous functions defined over twodimensional input space is solved.

In this paper, we design a hybrid controller for a safe lane change maneuver in automated highway systems(AHS). The proposed hybrid controller consists of a supervisor which controls the behaviors of discreteevent dynamic systems, and a regulator which controls the operations of continuousvariable dynamic systems. The supervisor determines whether the system starts a maneuver or not, via a condition for a safety, and gives orders to the regulator for performing the maneuvers. And the regulator tracks the planned path generated in the supervisor. The conditions for a safe lane change maneuver are proposed using the velocity, the acceleration, and geometrical relationship of vehicles.

In this paper, some geometric condition for a stochastic nonlinear system and an adaptive control method for minimumphase stochastic nonlinear system using neural network are provided. The state feedback linearization is widely used technique for excluding nonlinear terms in nonlinear system. However, in the stochastic environment, even if the minimum phase linear system derived by the feedback linearization is not sufficient to be controlled robustly. the viewpoint of that, it is necessary to make an additional condition for observation of nonlinear stochastic system, called perfect filtering condition. In addition, on the above stochastic nonlinear observation condition, I propose an adaptive control law using neural network. Computer simulation shows that the stochastic nonlinear system satisfying perfect filtering condition is controllable and the proposed neural adaptive controller is more efficient than the conventional adaptive controller

This paper introduces a new scheme for neural network classifier which can describe the shape of patterns in clustered group by using a selforganizing teeming algorithm. The prototype based neural network classifier can not describe the shape of group and it has low classification performance when the data groups are complex. To improve abovementioned problem, new neural scheme is introduced. This proposed neural network algorithm can be regarded as the extension of selforganizing feature map which can describe The experimental results shows that the proposed algorithm can describe the shape of pattern successfully.

Backpropagation neural network (BPNN) is the most prevalently used paradigm in modeling semiconductor manufacturing processes, which as a neuron activation function typically employs a bipolar or unipolar sigmoid function in either hidden and output layers. In this study, applicability of another linear function as a neuron activation function is investigated. The linear function was operated in combination with other sigmoid functions. Comparison revealed that a particular combination, the bipolar sigmoid function in hidden layer and the linear function in output layer, is found to be the best combination that yields the highest prediction accuracy. For BPNN with this combination, predictive performance once again optimized by incrementally adjusting the gradients respective to each function. A total of 121 combinations of gradients were examined and out of them one optimal set was determined. Predictive performance of the corresponding model were compared to nonoptimized, revealing that optimized models are more accurate over nonoptimized counterparts by an improvement of more than 30%. This demonstrates that the proposed gradientoptimized teaming for BPNN with a linear function in output layer is an effective means to construct plasma models. The plasma modeled is a hemispherical inductively coupled plasma, which was characterized by a 24 full factorial design. To validate models, another eight experiments were conducted. process variables that were varied in the design include source polver, pressure, position of chuck holder and chroline flow rate. Plasma attributes measured using Langmuir probe are electron density, electron temperature, and plasma potential.

In this paper, we design the state feedback gain using linear matrix inequality(LMI) to the multiobjective synthesis, in the magnetic bearing system with integral type servo system. The design objectives can be a H
$\_$ $\infty$ / performance, asymptotic disturbance rejection, timedomain constraints, on the closedlnp pole location. To the end, we investigated the validity of the designed controller through results of simulation. 
This study investigates the use of mixed
$H_2/H_{\infty}$ and$\mu$ synthesis to construct a robust controller for the benchmark problem. The model treated in the problem is a coupled threeinertia system which reflects the dynamics of mechanical vibrations. We, first adopt the mixed$H_2/H_{\infty}$ the to design a feedback controller K(s). Next,$\mu$ synthesis method is applied to the overall system to make use of structured parametric uncertainty. 
In this paper, we proposed the problems of robust stability and 개bust H
$_{\infty}$ control of discrete timedelay linear st.stems with Frobenius normbounded uncertainties. The existence condition and the design method of robust H$_{\infty}$ state feedback control]or are given. Through some changes of variables and Schur complement, the obtained sufficient condition can be rewritten as an LMI(linear matrix inequality) form in terms of all variables. 
This paper proposes a design method of sliding mode observer for SISO linear systems with a disturbance input. We first construct an observer with a constant gain matrix, a feedforward injection map and an external feedforward compensation signal input. Using the second Lyapunov method, we present a sufficient condition for the existence of sliding mode observer. The proposed observer guarantees that the state error trajectories enter a certain region in finite time and remain inside thereafter.

This paper presents a design method of sliding mode control (SMC) for single input linear systems with mismatched uncertainties. We define a virtual state based on the controllable canonical form of the nominal system. And we define a sliding surface for the augmented system with a virtual state. This sliding surface makes it possible to use SMC technique with various types of controllers. In this paper, we construct a controller that combines SMC with robust controller. We design a robust controller for the system with only mismatched uncertainties using a form of linear matrix inequality (LMI). We make a virtual state from this robust control input and the states of the nominal system. And we design a sliding mode controller that stabilizes the overall closedloop system.

We study on the velocity matching algorithm for transfer alignment of inertial navigation system(INS) using robust H
$_2$ filter. We suggest an uncertainty model for INS and apply the suggested discrete robust H$_2$ filter to the uncertainty model compared with kalman filter, the discrete robust H$_2$ filter is shown by simulation to have good performance of alignment time and accuracy. 
The nonlinear observers are proposed for a nonlinear system. To improve the characteristics such as a stability, a convergence, and an H
$\sub$ $\infty$ / filter performance criterion, we utilize and H$\sub$ $\infty$ / filter Riccati equation or a modified H$\sub$ $\infty$ / filter Riccati equation with a freedom parameter. Using the Lyapunov, the characteristics of the observer are analyzed. Then the inflight alignment for a strapdown inertial navigation system(SDINS) is designed using the observer proposed. Simulation results show that the observer with the modified H$\sub$ $\infty$ / fitter Riccati equation effectively improve the performance of the inflight alignment. 
Lowcost solidstate inertial sensors of three rate Gyroscopes and a triaxial Accelerometer are evaluated in static and dynamic environments. As a interim result, error models of each inertial sensors are generated. Model parameters with respect to temperature are acquired in static environment. These error models are included in an Extended Kalman Filter(EKF) to compensate bias error due to temperature variation. Experimental results in dynamic environment are included to show the validity of the each error model and the performance improvement of a compensated low cost inertial sensors for a navigational application

This paper describes the design and implementation of a highspeed navigation computer to achieve precision navigation performance with Strapdown INS. The navigation computer inputs are velocity and angular increment data from the ISA at the signal of the 2404Hz interrupt and performs the removal of gyro block motion and the compensation of high dynamic errors at the 200Hz. For highspeed and highaccuracy, the computer consists of the 68040 microprocessor, 128k Memories, FPGAs, and so on. We show that the computer satisfies the required performance by InRun navigation tests.

In the three axis control of satellite by using reaction wheel and gyro, a Gyro carries out measuring of the attitude angie and the attitude angular velocity. The Gyro is operated by the electronic part and the mechanic actuator. The digital part of the electronic part is consisted of the FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), which is one of the methods for designing VLSI (Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit), and the mechanic actuator processes the input/output data by the dynamic model. In the research of the mixed mode of Gyro, the simulation is accomplished by SABER of the mixed mode simulator and the results for the practical implementation of the satellite ACS (Attitude Control System) interfaced with the data processing are proposed.

In this paper, Ive design and test the V/F converter for KSRIII INS using commertial INC, VFC110, AD652. The test result shows that performance of AD652 is better than that of VFC110. Through the calibration of V/F converter, we show that the designed V/F converter has a good performance and is usable for KSRIII.

We present CReMeS, a CORBAcompliant design and implementation of a new realtime communication service. It provide for of a new realtime communication service. It provide for efficient, predictable, and scalable communication between information producers and consumers. Experimental results demonstrate that CReMeS can achieve better performance, predictability and scalability than a RealTime implementaion of the CORBA Event Service.

In this paper a new distributive control system for BA(Building Automation ) lighting control used on general microprocessors is presented. For optimal lighting control and saving energy, The system have to control the group and pattern lighting control as well as individual light control at one time. Tn this paper, This functions are accomplished with lowcost and simple microprocessor. A plurality of modulated light control terminals are connected to the central control unit through a pair of power line. This power line provide both power and signal to the each terminal and the data is transmitted through cyclic time division multiplex transmission. With this structure a lowcost distributive control system for lighting applications has been achieved, allowing energy and maintenance saving and reliability increase of the light control system.

One of the basic goals, when considering networks for communication in industrial control applications, is the reduction of complexity of related wiring harnesses. In addition, the networking offers the advantages for industrial control applications, such as ease of cabling, ease of changes in the cabling, ease of adding controller modules, etc. CAN (Controller Area Network) is generally applied in car networking in order to reduce the complexity of the related wiring harnesses. These traditional CAN application techniques are modified to achieve the real time communication for the industrial control applications. In this paper, we propose the method of CAN Identifier assignment for RealTime network system. This method is can be used to scheduling messages on CAN for RealTime network system. And also, the realtime network system is developed and the proposed moth(Ids are verified experimentally.

In this paper, we introduce a conservative control approach using a full feedback map and suggest a switching control between the conservative and default control. For the conservative control, we use the coordinator which performs the conjunction operation of the full feedback map information of local supervisors. Since the switching control with the coordinator extends the ability of local supervisors in the decentralized supervisory control, we can solve the problem in case the coobservability condition can not be satisfied.

The paper presents a speed control algorithm for a full pitchcontrolled wind turbine system. Torque of a blade generated by wind energy is nonlinear function of a wind speed, angular velocity, and pitch angle of the blade. The design of a cor_troller, in general, is performed by linearizing the torque in the vicinity of a operating point assuming the angular velocity of the blade is constant. For speed control, however, the angular velocity is no longer a constant, so that linearization of the torque in terms of a wind speed and pitch angle is impossible. In this study, a reference pitch model is derived in terms of a wind speed, angular velocity, and pitch angle, which makes it possible to design a controller without linearizing the nonlinear torque model of the blade. The validity of the algorithm is demonstrated with the results produced through sets of experiments.

This paper introduces the Performance Monitoring System(PMS) in a thermal power plant. The purpose of the PMS is to offer the operator current performance information of plant which could be an index of plant status or information to improve plant efficiency. The PMS of Bukcheju thermal power plant unit ＃2&3 is implemented under the SIEMENS DCS which supplies about 150 function blocks for performance calculation and all measured signals. The performance of unit, boiler, turbines, feedwater heaters, condenser, airpreheaters, feedwater pumps will be monitored and updated for every 5 minutes in PMS of Bukcheju TPP.

To fulfill recent requirements for high quality products in steel rolling process, fast responding and easily tunab control system is required and ILQ(Inverse Linear Quadratic) control system may be one of such alternatives. In this paper characteristics of ILQ control and its application to BUR(BackUpRoll) eccentricity in strip rolling mill is discussed and compared to polynomial control approaches. Also the rolling mill model and basic principle to control thickness of srip are introduced with control effect by polynomial methods.

In this paper, a decoupler of tandem cold rolling mill is designed. Before designing the decoupler, this paper improved conventional linear model by considering friction and yield stress of rolling strip. In a stand, the decoupler let an output be controlled by an input. And even if states of other stands should be changed, current stand takes no interference from those changes. In addition, with the same method, a feedforward controller is designed for an input strip thickness error. Finally, performance of controllers above is shown with nonlinear simulation.

Generally a RF AGC controls the roll gap using the variation of rolling force caused by the roll eccentricity and the entry thickness of material, but these can not be classified. The Feed forward AGC method, which controls the next stand roll 9ap by estimation the skid mark of the previous stand output thickness is needed to supplement the shortage of RF AGC. In this paper, an improved filtering method of skid mark which take account of the kinds of materials, the final objective thickness and the roll speed is proposed, In addition, an improved estimation method of control point using the speedometer and looper angle is suggested, Via simulation, the performance improvement of the suggested FF AGC method is verified.

biped robots are expected to robustly traverse terrain with various unknown surfaces. The robot will occasionally encounter the unexpected events in madefor human environments. The slipping is a very real and serious problem in the unexpected events. The robot system must respond to the unexpected slipping after it has occurred and before control is lost. This paper proposes a reflex control method for biped robots to recover from slipage. Computer simulations with the 6DOF environment model which consists of nonlinear dampers, nonlinear springs, and linear springs, show that the proposed method is effective in preventing falldown due to slippage.

This paper concerns an efficient aperiodic static crab walking algorithm for quadruped walking machine in rough terrain. In this algorithm, the requirements for forward stability margin and backward stability margin could be given differently in order to consider the slope of terrain and disturbances resulting from moving velocity. To restrict the searing regions for motion variables, such as moving distances until a leg is lifted or is placed, the standard leg transferring sequence is decided to be that of wave gaits. standard support pattern is also proposed that enables the quadruped to continue forward motion using the standard leg transferring sequence without falling into deadlock.

In this paper, we introduce a case study of developing a miniature humanoid robot that has 16 degrees of freedom and is able to perform statically stable walking. The developed humanoid robot is 37cm tall and weighs 1,200g. RC servo motors are used as actuators. The robot can walk forward and turn to any direction on even surface. It equipped with a small digital camera, so it can transmit vision data to a remote host computer via wireless modem. The robot can be operated in two modes; One is a remotecontrolled mode, in which the robot behaves according to the command given by a human operator through the userinterface program running on a remote host computer, the other is a standalone mode, in which the robot behaves autonomously according to the preprogrammed strategy. The userinterface program also contains a robot graphic simulator that is used to produce and verify the robot's gait motion. In our walking algorithm, the ankle joint is mainly used lot balancing the robot. The experimental results shows that the developed robot can perform statically stable walking on even surface.

Firstly, kinematic model of various type of wheels which includesskidding and skidding friction are presented. Tend, the transfer method of generalized coordinates which is useful to model the parallel mechanisms, can be applied to mobile robot by including such friction terms. Particularly, by appling the modeling method to mobile robot consisting of two conventional wheels and one caster wheel, forword/reverse kinematic modeling could be obtained without using pseudoinverse solutions.

This paper proposes a remote control system that combines computer network and an autonomous mobile robot. We control remotely an autonomous mobile robot with vision via the internet to guide it under unknown environments in the real time. The main feature of this system is that local operators need a World Wide Web browser and a computer connected to the internet communication network and so they can command the robot in a remote location through our Home Page. The hardware architecture of this system consists of an autonomous mobile robot, workstation, and local computers. The software architecture of this system includes the server part for communication between user and robot and the client part for the user interface and a robot control system. The server and client parts are developed using Java language which is suitable to internet application and supports multiplatform. Furthermore, this system offers an image compression method using motion JPEG concept which reduces large time delay that occurs in network during image transmission.

A quadruped monitoring robot is introduced. The robot has several features that poses arbitrary position thanks to a 4wheel hive mechanism, transmits an image and command data via RF wireless communication, and moreover, the imaged date are transferred through a network communication. The robot plays a role in monitoring what is happening around the robot and covers wide range due to a moving camera operated by the 4wheel mechanism. The robot system can be applied k versatile models based the distinguished techniques introduced in this paper

Most measuring devices are equipped with RS232 or GPIB interface for communicating data with computers. If the measuring devices can be accessed by a server computer, the valuable information from the devices can be effectively shared with other computers via internet. But, if the measuring devices and the server computer are too far away, it is difficulty to directly connect them by RS232 interface. PSTN(Public Switched Telephone Network) refers to the world's collection of interconnected voiceoriented public telephone networks. Measuring computer system which is equipped with RS232 interface and modem for PSTN can be introduced to overcome the aforementioned distance problem, In this work, an internet based remote monitoring system which utilizes PSTN and VRML for 3dimensional GUI is proposed.

We developed a wireless communication system for multiple instrumentation system. The developed system has a function of remote instrumentation and PLC(Programmable Logic Controller) control. The system consists of CC(Control and Communication) protocol, wireless media access and physical media system. For multiple wireless communication, we propose a hub polling protocol based on masterslave control concept. To show the validity of the developed system, several experiments are illustrated.

Sensors are used to measure the states in need for control in a closedloop system. Accuracy, reliability, stability of sensors are closely related to the controller performance. In case of sensor faults, they are detected by examining the sensor output values and the major values of the system. And then the types of the faults are recognized by the analysis of symptoms of faults. In this paper, a selfvalidating sensor is applied to the control of an aerodynamic plant system with the sensor fault problems in the potentiometer module for exact positioning to show the applicability. We propose a digital controller can provide a satisfactory loop performance even when the sensor faults occur.

In this paper, a new measuring system is :proposed which can measure the fine 6DOF displacement of rigid bodies. Its measurement principle is based on detection of laser beam reflected from a specially fabricated mirror that looks like a triangular pyramid having an equilateral crosssectional shape. The mirror has three lateral reflective surfaces inclined 45
$^{\circ}$ to its bottom surface. We call this mirror 3facet mirror. The 3facet mirror is mounted on the object whose 6DOF displacement is to be measured. The measurement is operated by a laserbased optical system composed of a 3facet mirror, a laser source, three positionsensitive detectors(PSD). In the sensor system, three PSDs are located at three corner points of a triangular formation, which is an equilateral triangular formation tying parallel to the reference plane. The sensitive areas of three PSDs are oriented toward the center point of the triangular formation. The object whose 6DOF displacement is to be measured is situated at the center with the 3facet mirror on its top surface. A laser beam is emitted from the laser source located at the upright position and vertically incident on the top of the 3fatcet mirror. Since each reflective facet faces toward each PSD, the laser beam is reflected at the 3facet mirror and splits into three subbeams, each of which is reflected from the three facets and finally arrives at three PSDs, respectively. Since each PSD is a 2dimensional sensor, we can acquire the information on the 6DOF displacement of the 3facet mirror. From this principle, we can get 6DOF displacement of any object simply by mounting the 3facet mirror on the object. In this paper, we model the relationship between the 6DOF displacement of the object and the outputs of three PSDs. And, a series of simulations are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The simulation results show that the proposed sensing system can be an effective means of obtaining 3dimensional position and orientation of arbitrary objects. 
The ambiguity resolution is an essential task for the precise carrier phase differential GPS. In practice, however, there are still many problems in resolving the ambiguity in kinematic mode, especially in the urban areas. The multipath in received signal, the frequent change in visible satellites, and the cyclic slips make the ambiguity resolution very difficult task in realtime operation. In this paper, we consider a differential positioning with the float ambiguity that is free from the integer constraint. The float ambiguity estimation if carried out by the Kalman filter. The float and fixed ambiguities are combined together to determine the position in realtime kinematic mode.

The HPL(Horizontal Protection Limit) means bound of radial horizontal error with given probability in satellite navigation system. RAIM algorithm is not available if HPL exceeds HAL (Horizontal Alert Limit). So exact calculation of HPL is very significant in RAIM algorithm. In this paper the methods that calculate HPL their own way a]:e studied and compared by simulation. And availability of RAIM algorithm is evaluated also.

In this paper, we introduce the realtime skiertraining software using DGPS. We used a PCS to receive the pseudorange correction messages from the reference station. We tested the performance of this system and could get a skier's position in realtime with high accuracy. It can help skiertrainers to monitor a skier's trajectory and teach him mote effectively This paper will show you how the system works and prove it has good performance.

For its synergistic relationship, an integrated SDINS/GPS system has been adopted in many navigation areas. As an application of SDINS/GPS integration, the inflight alignment process of a SDINS utilizing GPS carrier phase measurements is introduced and analyzed via an observability analysis using nul1 space method. A measurement model of doubledifferenced GPS carrier phase measurements is newly derived in order to be used with a SDINS error model. Also, conditions for determining the complete observability of a SDINS/GPS system are suggested and proved. Consequently, it is shown that the system is not completely observable in case of one basel me. With one baseline aligned with yaxis of body frame, pitch error and xaxis accelerometer bias are unobservable states. Also shown is that al1 states are completely observable when sequential maneuver is performed. Above results are confirmed by a covariance analysis.

This paper presents a fault detection and isolation(FDI) method based on Ceneralized Likelihood Ratio(GLR) test for the tightly coupled INS/GPS. State and measurement GLR tests detect INS or GPS fault. Once the fault is detected, Multihypothesized GLR scheme performs the fault isolation between INS and GPS and find which satellite malfunctions. Simulation results show that the GLR method is effective enough to detect and isolate a fault of the integrated navigation system.

In this paper, the relationship between GPS code and carrier tracking performance is given. Through the error analysis and experiments, the performance of code tracking loop can be improved using narrow correlation. The performance of code tracking loop can be also improved if the better carrier tracking loop is used. On the other hand, the performance of carrier tracking loop is independent of that of code tracking loop.

The purpose of this paper is show that an chip mounter can be modeled by stochastic petri nets, and that the simulator to verify a fitness of the program to assemble. The chip mounter can be constructed by using the petri net class (CPetriNet) based on the objectoriented programming. By using this simulator, we can get the information about the description of motion of the chip mounter, and moreover, we can evaluate the productivity.

As many sensors and actuators are used in various automated systems, the application of network system to realtime distributed control is gaining acceptance in many industries. In order to take advantages of the network technique. however, network implementation should be carefully designed to satisfy realtime constraints and to consider network delays. This paper presents the implementation of feedback control system in ProfibusDP. ProfibusDP is a type of fieldbus protocols that are specifically designed to interconnect simple devices with fast I/O data exchange. As feedback control in profibusDP is implemented, Network delays is found with influence of system performance. We analyze network delays in ProfibusDP into 3 reasons  dead time in Profibus interface, protocol delay, delay by asynchronization. In order to compensate the network delays, we introduce control algorithms with time delay concept. The results show that network delay can be compensated.

In this paper, we present a framework for modeling and control of multiple mobile robots which cowork within a bounded workspace and limited resources. To achieve this goal, we adopt a formalism of discrete event system and supervisory control theory based on Petri nets. We can divide our whole story into two parts: first, we search the shortest path using the distance vector algorithm, and then we construct the control scheme from which a number of mobile robots can work within a bounded workspace without any collision. The use of Petri net modeling allows us In synthesize a controller which achieves a control specification for the desired closedloop behavior efficiently. Finally, the usefulness of the proposed Petri net formalism is illustrated by a simulation study.

CAN(Controller Area Network) is a serial communication protocol which specifies very low cost and high performance. It is widely used in rea1time control applications such as automobiles, aircraft, and automated factories. The main application fields are industrial control systems and embedded network. In this paper, the CAN monitoring system is proposed and implemented. Also its performance is tested in the mobile robot which is integrated by CAN and its performance lot receipt failure rate is evaluated. This can be used to analyze the performance of the network. It can tie also used to manage and monitor the network.

Since FMS(Flexible Manufacturing System) such as semiconductor production systems have the characteristic that each device has to be commonly used in several stages, it is difficult to find an optimal solution. In this paper, we proposed the new algorithm which can get the optimal ratio of sharing resources. We will implement the proposed algorithm to semiconductor production systems. We introduce the optimal algorithm, which is modeled and analyzed by ExSpect, a petri net based simulation tool. When there exist conflicts of sharing resources, the scheduling method is adopted, which gives a priority to the most preceded process. The suggested algorithm can be used not only in semiconductor production systems but also in various FMS.

An autotuning PID controller which is adequate for temperature control is developed based on relaycontrol and poleplacement Using the critical frequency which is obtained from relaycontrol parameters of assumed model are identified. Pole/zeroplacement PID controller is designed for the identified model. The desired pole/zeros are determined so that the closedloop has overshoot free step response. The developed autotuning PID controller was successfully applied to the temperature control of RTP.

This paper is about the method to improve the IDGPS system using receiver which is not aligned to GPS time. Transmitted data between server and user is constructed in PDDM of IS801 rule. Pseudorange is overflowed in case of using receiver unaligned GPS time. And satellite position is miscalculated because earth rotating effect is not corrected. To solve this problem, when Pseudorange measurement is over the maximum range, the Pseudorange measurement is reset. And after the rough user position and transmit time is calculated, the precise Pseudorange measurement is calculated.

The contributing proportion of the increase of port productivity is more increasing concerning not only the port industry, but also all the informations of container crane which is the representative equipment by the rapid increase of the volume of freight of port. The basic of rapid service is the improvement of the productivity, the information of operation as to the productivity of crane for the quick handling within yard and especially the informations of breakdown and to handle breakdown as soon as possible has a great effect on the increase of productivity.

For Video on Demand(VoD) servers, a design of an efficient scheduler is important to the support a large number of clients having various playback speeds and receiving rates. In this paper, we propose the scheduling algorithm to handle establishing deadlines and selection using the earliest deadline first. To establish deadlines and selections, the period of the receiving rates for each client is located between the overmax receiving rate and the overplayback rate. To avoid video starvation and the buffer overflow of each client, the proposed algorithm guarantees providing the admission control. Because of establishing deadlines and selection, period of each client receiving is between one over max receiving rate and one over play back rate. Using Virtual Buffer in server, scheduling load is reduced. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm is verified using a Petri Net_Based simulation tool, Exspect.

In this parer, we introduce an algorithm to control flows of the traffic in multiintersections. It is pointed out that the main problem in traffic control is how to resolve the congested situations for the particular timedurations and directions. The heavy load to a certain direction usually leads the intersection to congested situations, and the adjacent intersections are affected. We control and analyze the traffic flow of multiintersections consisting of five intersections, in which four intersections are linked to the four directions of the central one. The entrance of vehicles of each direction is described using the concept of probability. We compare the performance of the pretimed signal controls to the traffic adaptive signal controller using a Petri Net simulation tool, Exspect.

In this paper, a hybrid type fuzzy controller is proposed to maintain molten steel level stable and reliable manner in high speed continuous casting regardless of various disturbances such as casting speed change, tundish weight variation, 치ogging/undoning of SEN(Submerged Entry Nozzle), periodic bulgings, etc. To accomplish this purpose, hardware filter and software filer are carefully designed to eliminate high frequency noise and to smooth input signals from harsh environments. In order to minimize the molten steel level variations from various disturbances the controller uses hybrid type control term: fuzzy logic term, proportional term, differential term and nonlinear feedback compensation tenn. The proposed controller is applied tn commercial minimill plant and shows considerable improvement in minimizing the molten steel variation.

This paper presents a fuzzy modified PID controller that uses linear fuzzy inference method. In this structure, the proportional and derivative gains vary with the output of the system under control. 2input PD type fuzzy controller is designed to obtain the varying gains. The proposed fuzzy PID structure maintains the same performance as the generalpurpose linear PID controller, and enhances the tracking performance over a wide range of input. Numerical simulations and experimental results show the effectiveness of the fuzzy PID controller in comparison with the conventional PID controller.

Control systems using a hydraulic cylinder as an actuator are modeled to a nonlinear system owing to varying of moments and nonlinearities of hydraulic itself. In this paper, we want to control nonlinear hydraulic systems by adopting the fuzzy PID control technique which include nonlinear time varying control parameters. To do this, we propose the design method of fuzzy Pm controller and in order to assure effectiveness of fuzzy PID controller, computer simulations were executed for the control system.

Recently, a neurofuzzy approach, a combination of neural networks and fuzzy reasoning, has been playing an important role in the motor control. In this paper, a novel method of fiction compensation using neurofuzzy architecture has been shown to significantly improve the performance of a DC motor system with nonlinear friction characteristics. The structure of the controller is the neurofuzzy network with the TS(TakagiSugeno) model. A backpropagation neural network based on a gradient descent algorithm is employed, and all of its parameters can be online trained. The performance of the proposed controller is compared with both a conventional neurocontroller and a PI controller.

In this paper, the fuzzy system is applied to MCZ Crystal Grower using at industrial field. The existing controller, which is PID controller, has a fixed gain and as a result of it it can not have an adaptive control function against the error or disturbance. Hence, the machine operator should always check the process status and when the error is occurred, the quality and the productivity may be decreased by each personal capability. In order to remove this drawback, a fuzzy control system which is known to be adaptive and flexible is applied to the machine. After applying the fuzzy system, and compared with the existing system, the diameter deviation and the defects were decreased. we proved the possibility of application fuzzy system to single silicon crystal grower.

This paper presents a methodology combining sliding mode control and fuzzy control to tune the boundary layer and input gain according to the system state. The equivalent control is designed such that the nominal system exhibits desirable dynamics, The robust control with fuzzy selftuning is then developed to guarantee the reaching condition and reduce chattering phenomenon in the presence of parameter and disturbance uncertainties.

Assembly is usually performed by one robot and fixtures. This type of assembly system has Low flexibility in terms of variety of parts and partpresentation that the system can handle. This paper addresses assembly without fixtures using twomanipulator robot. An active method using force feedback is proposed for the peginhole assembly in highly uncertain environment. Assembly states are described by extended contact relations. Qualitative templates for events are easily derived from the token vector of the Petrinet model. The states are recognized through identification of the events using two 6d.o.f force/moment sensors. The proposed method is verified and evaluated through experiments with round peg inhole assembly.

This paper presents a neural network controller for a rigidlink electricallydriven robot. The proposed controller is designed in conjunction with three neural networks approximating for complicated nonlinear functions. Particularly, the fact, different from conventional schemes, is that the neural network based current observer is used. Therefore, no accurate measurement of the actuator driving current is required. In the proposed controllerobserver scheme, the derived weight update rule guarantees the stability of closedloop system in the sense of Lyapunov. The effectiveness and performance of the proposed method are demonstrated through computer simulation.

Recently, number of navigation system using GPS and other complementary sensors has been developed to offer highposition accuracy. In this paper, an integration of GPS and DeadReckoning, which consists of a fiber optical gyroscope and two highprecision wheelmotor encoders for a unmanned navigation system, is presented. The main objective of this integrated GPS/DR unmanned navigation system is to provide accurate position and heading navigation data continuously for autonomous mobile robot. We propose a method for increasing the accuracy of the estimated position of the mobile robot by its DR sensors, highprecision wheelmotor encoders and a fiber optical gyroscope. We used Kalman filter theory to combine GPS and DR measurements. The performance of GPS/DR navigation system is evaluated.

The calibration of the robot system with a visual sensor consists of robot, handtoeye, and sensor calibration. This paper describe a new technique for computing 3D position and orientation of a 3D sensor system relative to the end effect of a robot manipulator in an eyeonhand robot configuration. When the 3D coordinates of the feature points at each robot movement and the relative robot motion between two robot movements are known, a homogeneous equation of the form AX : XB is derived. To solve for X uniquely, it is necessary to make two robot arm movements and form a system of two equation of the form: A
$_1$ X : XB$_1$ and A$_2$ X = XB$_2$ . A closedform solution to this system of equations is developed and the constraints for solution existence are described in detail. Test results through a series of simulation show that this technique is simple, efficient, and accurate fur hand/eye calibration. 
The shape of small or curved object is usually reconstructed using a single camera by moving its lens position to find a sequence of the focused images. Most conventional methods have used a window with fixed shape to test the focus measure, which resulted in a deterioration of accuracy. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a new approach of using a shape adaptive window. It estimates the shape of the object at every step and applies the same shape of window to calculate the focus measure. Focus measure is based on the variance of the pixels inside the window. This paper includes the experimental results.

This paper provides a guideline for specifying the operational compliance characteristics considering the location of compliance center and the grasp points in assembly tasks using robot hands, To be specific, some of coupling stiffness elements cannot be planned arbitrary. Through Ttype assembly task, we analyze the conditions of the achievable operational stiffness matrix with respect to the location of compliance center and the grasp points. It is concluded that the location of compliance center on the grasped object and the grasp points play important roles for successful assembly tasks and also the operational stiffness matrix should be carefully specified by considering those conditions.

In this Paper, the PC input device using MEMS gyros and accelerometer is newly developed, so that it can measure rotation rate and linear acceleration of the human body in space. In General, the human motion has 6 degree of freedom but 2 degree of freedom is enough PC monitor with 2D display. Therefore the simple method is proposed to achieve minimum degree of freedom. It is also applied to the PC mouse. This method can be expanded to the input device for internet settop box or internet TV.

The GPS can provide accurate position information on the earth. But GPS receiver can't give position information inside buildings. DR(DeadReckoning) or INS(Inertial Navigation System) gives position information continuously indoors as well as outdoors, because they do not depend on the external navigation information. But in general, the inertial sensors severely suffer from their drift errors, the error of these navigation system increases with time. GPS and DR sensors can be integrated together with Kalman filter to overcome these problems. In this paper, we developed a personal navigation system which can be carried by person, using GPS and electronic pedometer. The person's footstep is detected by an accelerometer installed in vertical direction and the direction of movement is sensed by gyroscope and magnetic compass. In this case the step size is varying with person and changing with circumstance, so determining step size is the problem. In order to calculate the step size of detected footstep, the neural network method is used. The teaming pattern of the neural network is determined by human walking pattern data provided by 3axis accelerometer and gyroscope. We can calculate person's location with displacement and heading from this information. And this neural network method that calculates step size gives more improved position information better than fixed step size.

We use camera to apply human vision system in measurement. To do that, we need to know about camera parameters. The camera parameters are consisted of internal parameters and external parameters. we can fix scale factor&focal length in internal parameters, we can acquire external parameters. And we want to use these parameters in automatically driven vehicle by using camera. When we observe an camera parameters in respect with that the external parameters are important parameters. We can acquire external parameter as fixing focal length&scale factor. To get lane coordinate in image, we propose a lane detection filter. After searching lanes, we can seek vanishing point. And then yaxis seek ysxis rotation component(
${\beta}$ ). By using these parameter, we can find xaxis translation component(Xo). Before we make stepping motor rotate to be yaxis rotation component(${\beta}$ ), '0', we estimate image coordinates of lane at (t+1). Using this point, we apply this system to Kalman filter. And then we calculate to new parameters whick make minimum error. 
The way which estimates a position from Navigation is Deadreckoning Navigation and Radio Navigation. Generally deadreckoning navigation uses Gyro and odometer as sensor, but these have problems which are an integrating noise and a noisesensitivity. Gps which is used by radionavigation has a Troposthetic error and MultiPath ewer and so on. For minimizing a Troposthetic error and a Multipath error, this paper suggests to an algorithm which use vanishing point on CCD camera.

Recently, Vision system has being used all around industry. Sensor systems are used for Mark Reader, for example, optical scanning is proximity sensor system, have many disadvantages, such as, lacking user interface and difficulty to store original specimens. In contrast with this, Vision systems for Mark Reader has many advantages, including function conversion to achieve other work, high accuracy, high speed, etc. In this thesis, we have researched the development of Mark Reader by using a Vision system. The processing course of this s)'stem is consist to Image PreProcessing such as noise reduction, edge detection, threshold processing. And then, we have carried out camera calibration to calibrate images which are acquired from camera. After searching for reference point within scanning area(60pixe1
${\times}$ 30pixe1), we have calculated points crossing by using line equations. And then, we decide to each ROI(region of interest) which are expressed by four points. Next we have converted absolute coordinate into relative coordinate for analysis a translation component. Finally we carry out Mark Reading with images classified by six patterns. As a result of experiment which follows the algorithm has proposed, we have get error within 0.5% from total image. 
This paper proposes a new impedance control scheme based on a variable stiffness matrix for a bilateraL teleoperation. In this scheme, stiffness matrix of the impedance model in the slave is modulated based on the distance, measured by an ultrasonic sensor, between the slave and environment. At the same time, the stiffness matrix of the master is also changed accordingly in order for the impedance parameters of the combined system to remain constant The proposed scheme is implemented on a 1dof master/slave system to perform a simple task. In the experiments, the teleoperator with the impedance parameter modulation shows better performance than one with fixed impedance parameters, especially in reducing task execution time and in avoiding excessive external forces.

In this paper, we propose a novel robust fault isolation filter design method using the left eigenstructure assignment scheme proposed b\ulcorner author. An eigenstructure assignment methodology that satisfies the required fault isolation conditions is also proposed. The proposed method guarantees that the corrupted
${\gamma}$ simultaneous faults can be isolated when the numbers of available output measurements are${\gamma}$ . 
This paper describes a neural network based fuzzy type PID control scheme. The PID controller is being widely used in industrial applications. however, it is difficult to determine the appropriate PID gains for (he nonlinear system control. In this paper, we reanalyzed the fuzzy controller as conventional PID controller structure, and proposed a neural network based fuzzy type PID controller whose scaling factors were adjusted automatically. The value of initial scaling factors of the proposed controller were determined on the basis of the conventional PID controller parameters tuning methods and then they were adjusted by using neural network control techniques. Proposed controller was simple in structure and computational burden was small so that online adaptation was easy to apply to. The result of practical experiment on the magnetic levitation system, which is known to be hard nonlinear, showed the proposed controller's excellent performance.

In this paper, an integrated design of fault detection, diagnosis and reconfigurable control tot multiinput and multioutput system is proposed. It is based on the interacting multiple model estimation algorithm, which is one of the most costeffective adaptive estimation techniques for systems involving structural and/or parametric changes. This research focuses on the method to recover the performance of a system with failed actuators by switching plant models and controllers appropriately. The proposed scheme is applied to a fault tolerant control design for flight control system.

As more and more critical commercial applications move on the Internet, providing highly available servers becomes increasingly important. One of the advantages of a clustered system is that it has hardware and software redundancy. High availability can be provided by detecting node or daemon failure and reconfiguring the system appropriately so that the workload can be taken over bi the remaining nodes in the cluster. This paper presents how to provide the guaranteeing high availability of clustering web server. The load balancer becomes a single failure point of the whole system. In order to prevent the failure of the load balancer, we setup a backup server using heartbeat, fake, mon, and checkpointing faulttolerance method. For high availability of file servers in the cluster, we setup coda file system. Coda is a advanced network faulttolerance distributed file system.

The Current CORBA has many drawbacks to be deployed successfully in realtime system applications. Recently, OMG adopted RealTime CORBA specification. In this paper, we report our efforts on an implementation of Priority Model of RealTime CORBA spec., which is one of the most important components in RealTime CORBA spec. The improvement of realtime performances of our implementation is verified experiments.

The FAS protocol of FOUNDATION Fieldbus playes the roles of interface between Data Link Layer and application layer and establishment of connection between receiver and sender. In this study, the FAS protocol of FOUNDATION Fieldbus was developed. The method of implementation is described in this paper. Software of FAS protocol was implemented by Windowbased program and DOSbased program for PC and sensor module, respectively.

In this paper, the error compensation method of the attitude reference system with lowcost IMU is proposed. In general, the attitude error calculated by gyro grows with time. Therefore the additional information is required to compensate the drift. The attitude angles can be bound by accelerometer mixing algorithm and the heading angle can be aided by GPS velocity information. The Kalman filter is used for error compensation. The result is verified by comparing with the attitude calculated by mediumgrade IMU, LP81.

Helicopter offer the signigicant advantage over traditional air vehicles, in that the provide extended maneuverability, such as vertical climb, hovering, longitudinal and lateral flight, hovering turns and bank turns. But helicopter have the strong cross couplings and nonlinearities for each lateral, longitudinal and rotational motion mutually. However, it is possible to ignore this couplings for the hovering condition, so using this properties we can control the attitude of helicopter. That is, by implementing the dynamic of each rotational axis(roll, pitch, yaw) of independent mutually, 3DOF(degree of Freedom) attitude control for the helicopter is possible. In this paper, we identify decoupled inputcoutput relations of each three rotational axis about the helicopter mounted on the 3DOF gimbal by experiment, and on these basis implement 3DOF attitude controller using the PID control method.

In this study, physical and data link layer protocols of FOUNDATION Fieldbus are implemented. INTEL386EX and 80196KC are used fer the CPU of PC interface board and sensor interface module, respectively The physical layer protocol of FOUNDATION Fieldbus is developed by using FB3050 chip, the fieldbus communication controller ASIC. The data Link layer protocol of FOUNDATION Fieldbus is implemented by software.

In this paper, the performance of INS/GPS integration is analyzed. Generally the integration method is classified into two method. One is loosely coupled integration, Another is tightly coupled integration. For the simulation, the error model of Kalman fitter is defined and the result of simulation is analyzed. When the number of visible satellites is less than four, the error of tightly coupled integration is smaller than that of loosely coupled integration. To very the result of simulation, van test that use LP81 IMU and Millen3151R GPS receiver is carried out.

In this study, the LLI software in the Profibus is developed by using MFC and API of visual C++. This paper presents the implementation method of LLI protocol. Software of LLI protocol was implemented as Windowbased program and DOSbased program for PC and sensor module, respectively.

Today, Internet is an everyone's tool for information searching and communication. Furthermore, with the wireless Internet, we can get connected while moving. The Internet, especially wireless Internet could be an excellent data Link for DGPS because of its interactive twoway communication capability and wellconstructed network infra. The user with his own mobile communication device doesn't necessarily get equipped with the other specific data link for DGPS This paper will show that how the Internet based DGPS system could be constructed on the computer network in real time, Its performance is demonstrated by the field experiments. Comparing to the DGPS system with the conventional data Links, Like beacon and FM DARC, the Internet based DGPS could provide us a convenient and cost effect DGPS system.

In this paper, a signal processing algorithm for software GPS receiver is proposed. The signal processor takes snapshot of the sampled If signal from the RF section of the GPS receiver. All the processing for code and carrier tracking and correlation are implemented using the digital signal processing techniques. In order to achieve fast code acquisition, correlation of the incoming GPS signal is performed using the FFT method, After code acquisition, to reduce the Doppler shift effect and increase the accuracy, the interpolation or the tracking are performed. The performance of the proposed processing algorithm is first evaluated using matlab/simulink. A signal acquisition board for sampling and logging GPS IF signal form the Mitel GPS RF chip set is constructed. In order to analyze the performance of the designed algorithm the experiments are performed and the results are analyzed.

In this paper, we present a Multiheading Method for INS initial. The system is not observable for initial alignment however using pseudo tilt angles and pseudo sensor errors become observable. We suggest a new Multiple Method to find the real sensor errors by using the converted system dynamics. The results show that we can find the sensor errors very accurately by the proposed method.

An effect ive filter algorithm that can manage radar beam pointing efficiently is needed to track multitarget in the air. For effective beam management the filter has lobe good enough to predict future position of target and based on this filter output radar beam is control led to point toward the predicted target position in the air. In this paper, we investigate the
${\alpha}$ ${\beta}$ filter known for its brief filter structure with the steadystate Kalman filter gain, the ruv filter, and the coordinatetransformed filter that can decouple the measurement noise variance. 
In this paper, a new GPS navigation algorithm which considering the SA fade away, is proposed. Ionospheric delay and Tropospheric: delay is modeled and estimated is the proposed method. The experimental results show that precise positioning without DGPS or other sensors can be possible. It will be easily applied to car or marine navigation without changes.

MSC(Multispectral Camera), which will be a unique payload on KOMPSATII, is designed to collect panchromatic and multispectral imagery with a ground sample distance of 1m and a swath width of 15km at 685km altitude in sunsynchronous orbit. The instrument is designed to have an orbit operation duty cycle of 20% over the mission life time of 3 years. MSC electronics consists of three main subsystems; PMU(Payload Management Unit), CEU(Camera Electronics Unit) and PDTS(Payload Data Transmission Subsystem). PMU performs all the interface between spacecraft and MSC, and manages all the other subsystems by sending commands to them and receiving telemetry from them with software protocol through RS422 interface. CEU controls FPA(Focal Plane Assembly) which contains TDI(Timc Delay Integration) CCD(Charge Coupled Device) and its clock drivers. PMU provides a Master Clock to synchronize panchromatic and multispectral camera. PDTS performs compression, storage and encryption of image data and transmits them to the ground station through xband.

In this paper, attitude control laws are proposed for an underactuated spacecraft. The stabilization problem of the complete system including the kinematics as well as the dynamics of the spacecraft is addressed. The quaternion parameterization is used. The key idea is that the angular velocity of a uncontrolled axis is first regulated and then, the other states are regulated. Based on numerical simulations, it is conjectured that the closedloop nonlinear system of a spacecraft with the proposed control laws is globally asymptotically stable. The control law for the stabilization problem around the origin as well as the command following problem are proposed. The numerical examples indicate that the stabilization of an underactuated asymmetric spacecraft can be achieved successfully.

In this paper to cope with the reduction of products lifecycle as the variety of products along with the various demands of consumers, a virtual simulator is developed to make the changeover of manufacturing line efficient to embody a virtual simulation similar to a real manufacturing line. The developed virtual simulator can design a layout of a factory and make the time scheduling. Every factory has one simulator so that one product can be manufactured in the factories to use them as virtual factories. We suggest a scheme that heightens the agility to the diversity of manufacturing models by making the information of manufacturing lines and products models to be shared. The developed unit simulator can construct a proper virtual manufacturing line along with the required process of products using several kinds of operator and work cell. A user with the simulator can utilize an interface that makes one to manage the separate task process for each manu(acturing module, change operator components and work cells, and easily teach tasks of each task module. The developed simulator was made for users convenience by Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 that can develop a program supplying graphic user interface environment and by OpenGL of the Silicon Graphics as a graphic library to embody 3D graphic environment. Also, we show that the simulator can be used efficiently for the agile manufacturing by the communication among the factories being linked by TCP/IP and a hybrid database system made by a hierarchical model and a relational model being developed to standardize the data information.

Among durability tests, the accelerated durability test has been widely used to evaluate the durability of vehicle structure and chassis pans in a shon period of time on the designed road which has severe surface conditions. However it increases the drivers fatigue mainly caused by the severe driving conditions. The drivers difficulty of maintaining constant speed and controlling the steering wheel reduces the reliability of test results. The durability test includes the position and distance sensing system for the recognition of the absolute and relative driving position, the driving control system for the control of whole driving circumstance, the emergency system for responding to system errors. AGVDS (Autonomous Guided Vehicle Driving System) was Proved to facilitate the development of now car projects. Therefore the AGVDS we propose will help make the fundamentals for all future traffic systems.

In this paper, an integrated control of the semiactive suspension system using a reduced fullcar model is investigated. By including the reduced fullcar dynamics in the control law, the semiact ive suspension system is able to control not only the vertical acceleration but also the roll and pitch mot ions of the car body, which is not Possible with a quartercar model or a halfcar model. The damping forces for the semiactive dampers are designed to track the damping forces of the skyhook controller designed from the reduced full car dynamics. Computer simulations and experimental results using a real car are also included.

This study is to embody automatic inspection system of motor body panel by visual system. since it is inefficient to examine the adhesion condition of components with the naked eye, picture processing algorithm is presented to replace the existing manual inspection process with an automatic inspection process. The developed automatic inspection system presents the examination method of the adhesion condition of components with a ixed camera, which leads to an increase of the productivity and a reduction of manufacturing cost.

This paper focuses on a method to connect mobile devices such as mobile robot, ACV and UTC with Profibus network. In this paper, the IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN is used for wireless extension of Frofibus, and four major issues are introduced to implement the wireless extended Profibus; First, the integration method between Profibus and IEEE 802.11 is introduced. Second, the implementation method of gateway is proposed. Three, the virtual polling mode algorithm is developed for satisfaction of realtime characteristics required in industrial network. Finally, we implement a experimental model, and carried out the performance analysis of wireless extended Profibus. This results show that wireless extended Profibus is suitable to industrial network such as automated container terminal.

김대웅;박성준;이영진;원태현;박한웅;정태욱;백승면;이만형 108
This application study presents a solution to control a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor without sensors. The use of this system yields enhanced operations, fewer system components, lower system cost, energy efficient control system design and increased efficiency. The control method presented is field oriented control (FOC). The sinusoidal voltage waveforms are generated by the power module using the space vector modulation technique. A practical solution is described and results are given in this application Study. The performance of a Sensorless architecture allows an intelligent approach to reduce the complete system costs of digital motion control applications using cheaper electrical motors without sensors. This paper deals with an overview of sensorless solutions in digital motor control applications whereby the focus will be the new Controller without sensors and its applications. 
In process industries, more than 90% of the control loops have PID controller. Futhermore, the most control systems are using classical PID controllers for their process control. Various autotuning methods of PID gains using relayfeedback are presented recently. In order to get the desired control performance, the correct tuning of PID controller is very important. This paper suggests how to tune of digital PID gains using information for both the Nyquist critical point by conventional method and another point by the relay feedback and hidden timedelay term. Simulation results show that the proposed controller has better performance than the conventional method.

In this paper, an antilock brake system (ABS) for commercial vehicles is studied by considering the design of a fuzzy Logic controller with pulse width modulation (PWM). PWM method is used for generating solenoid valve inputs in order to cope with the chattering problem caused by the conventional on/off control The sliding mode observer is designed to estimate the vehicle longitudinal velocity and it is used to calculate the wheel slip ratio. The effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm was validated by simulations performed with a nonlinear 14DOF vehicle model including the dynamics of the brakes.

The research of network system, being used to reduce automotive wiring harness, is reaching to the development of bywire system. It is bywire system that apply IVN(InVehicleNetwork) to steering, braking system, and it has the advantage of massdecreasing, easy to diagnose fault and so on. But until now, many developed device can't satisfied with reliability that system have ever had. So redundancy of each network module, i.e., It is only way to make backup module. This paper researches development of network module and redundancy management of backup module when error occurred for implementation of brakebywire system.

The aim of this paper is to design a two degreeoffreedom H
$_{\infty}$ controller for lateral control of the vehicle. The object of this controller is to track the centerline of the reference lane. The controller is splited into two parts, feedback and prefilter. The feedback part is for both robust stability and disturbance attenuation, while the prefilter is for improving the robust tracking properties of closed loop system. This paper is consist of preface, background theory, dynamics of vehicle, controller design and computer simulation.ter simulation. 
A robust adaptive technique for the longitudinal control of a platoon of automated vehicles is presented. A nonlinear model is used to represent the vehicle dynamics of each vehicle within the platoon. The external disturbance such as wind gust and a disturbance term due to engine transmission variations and so on are considered. The state observer is used to avoid direct measurement of the relative velocity or acceleration between the controlled and leading vehicles or the controlled vehicle's acceleration. It is shown that platoon stability can be recovered in operation even if a speed dependent spacing policy is adopted, which incorporates a constant time headway in addition to the constant distance. The simulation results demonstrate excellent tracking even in the presence of disturbances.

In this paper a selftuning modified skyhook control for the semiactive suspension systems is investigated. The damping force generation mechanism is modeled We consider a 2 DOF timevarying quarter car model that permits parameter variations of the sprung mass and suspension spring coefficient. The modified skyhook control algorithm proposed in this paper requires only the measurement of body acceleration. The absolute velocity of the sprung mass and the relative velocity of the suspension deflection are estimated by using integral filters, according to parameter variations. The skyhook gains are designed in such a way that the body acceleration and the dynamic tire force are optimized. An ECU prototype will be discussed

A gait pattern classification method using electromyography(EMG) signal is presented. The gait pattern with four stages such as stance, heeloff, swing and heelstrike is analyzed and classified using feature parameters such as zerocrossing, integral absolute value and variance of the EMG signal. The EMG signal from Tibialis Anterior and Gastrocnemius muscles was obtained using the surface electrodes, and lowpass filtered at 10kHz. The filtered analog signal was sampled at every 0.5msec and converted to digital signal with 12bit resolution. The obtained data is analyzed and classified in terms of feature parameters. Analysis results are given to show that the gait patterns classified by the proposed method are feasible.

This paper describes an experimental embedded tiny web server system that monitors the processing of manufacture using the Internet. The object of this study is developing of an embedded tiny web server that connects the standalone machines in factory to the Internet. Using the World Wide Web (WWW), we proffer userfriendly environments to users. Anyone with a web browser may easily access the processing of manufacture in the factory. Through connecting different network system, our web server extends the private networks to the Internet, the global networks. Our embedded tiny web server is ideal for process control, building and facility management system, factory automation and even home automation.

This paper presents experimental results for peformance management of a ProfibusFMS network. The performance management alms to maintain a uniform level of network performance at all stations under changing network traffic. The performance management algorithm monitors the performance of individual network stations and commands the stations to change their timer values in order to have comparable performance at all stations. In order to determine the amount of timer change, the algorithm employs a set of fuzzy rules. This algorithm has been evaluated on a Profibus network

This paper suggests the methodology to guarantee the rea1time service over Ethernet and TCP/IP and to solve the problems such as retransmission due to collision and platformtransparency and independence. This paper proposes a new mechanism called Realtime Ethernet protocol combined the centralized medium control mechanism with the token passing mechanism. The centralized medium control mechanism is used to get the token, the right to transmit the data, and the token passing mechanism is used to return the token to the token controller and to transmit data within the specified time interval. The proposed RealTime Ethernet Protocol is based on Java and Java RMI(Remote Method Invocation). The presented protocol is believed to work enough in realtime applications considering latency occurred due to the Java RMI, which is less small than data transmission time.

In this research an induction motor vector control system was developed using Simulink and RTW(Real Time Workshop). On the Simulink window, control system is designed in the form of block diagrams, program codes are produced automatically with the RTW, then c compiler compiles the program codes. With this automatic real time program producing mechanism rapid prototyping is realized without the timeconsuming manual program coding procedures. To show effectiveness of the proposed designing scheme a DSPbased induction motor vector control system was constructed and implemented

In this study, in order to control real system under the environment of graphic user interface, study on the technique which can control real system without additional hardware drivers using virtual machine driver operated on the windows operating system. Consider the problem which is the error and the delay of a sampling time on the multi task processing through the load test of the experiment using graphic user interface.

This paper presents a design of macromicro system for highspeed mounting of microchips. A macro motion device is driven by DC servomotor and ball screw mechanism. To obtain fast response, a micro motion device utilizes a precision elector magnetic actuator In order to reduce peak impact force, We evaluate the design parameters that have an effect on it. And a characteristic of response is simulated using PID controller in velocity and force control.

Polishing work of a freecurved surface die demands simple and repetitive operations but requires a considerable amount of time for high precision. In out previous study, to reduce the polishing time and solve the problem of the shortage of skilled workers, the automatic polishing system was developed. However, in the polishing process of die, workers have to stay still in factory to monitor the polishing process for a long time in the poor environment. Therefore, this study proposes the remote operation and monitoring system of the automatic polishing robot. The developing system offer worker monitoring functions and teleoperating functions, as following: system state check, manual manipulation mode, automatic mode, manual teaching mode, automatic teaching mode, simulation by virtual manufacturing device. And automatic teaching system is developed to easily obtain a teaching data.

Polishing a die that has freeform surfaces is a timeconsuming and tedious job, and requires a considerable amount of highprecision skill. In order to reduce the polishing time and cope with the shortage of skilled workers, a userfriendly automatic polishing system was developed in this research. The polishing system with five degrees of freedom is able to keep the polishing tool normal to the die surface. The polishing system is controlled by a PCNC controller. And, to easily onerate the developed polishing system, this stud)r developed a integrated program in the Windows environment. This program consists of 4 modules: polishing module, a graphic simulator, a polishing data generation module, and a teaching. Also, the automatic teaching system was developed to easily obtain a teaching data. The developed teaching system consists of a three dimensional joystick and a proximity sensor. In order to evaluate stability of the driving program and the leaching system, polishing experiments of the die of saddle shape were carried out.

In this paper, The PID controller for stabilization of an inverted pendulum system is proposed. The PR control rule is very common in control systems. It is the basic tool for solving most process control problem. We consider the inverted pendulum system containing two PID controllers. The first controls the angle of the pendulum. The second is used to control the position of the cart. We can show stabilization of the PID controller through simulation of the inverted pendulum system.

An Empirical approach to determine a roadsurface condition is presented The roadsurface condition thus provided includes the detection of not only friction coefficient, but also abrupt surfaceprofile changes such as pitfalls and bumpers The former plays a key role in establishing the appropriate control strategy, while the latter allows to minimize unnecessary brake intervention induced by the aforementioned jut. In this paper, we use an empirically chosen variable, namely. the timerate of change of vehicle speed estimated from the point where ABS engaged to the point where measurement taken Experimental results shoe that the proposed method is effective to infer various control variables critical for the control of ABS.

In this paper, we provide an approach of controller synthesis for inputsaturated linear systems by a linear parameter varying (LPV) framework. Using directly the saturation nonlinearity as scheduling parameters, we propose an LPVstabilizer with parameterdependent dynamic statefeedback controller concept. Especially, the synthesis conditions are formulated in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) that can be solved very efficiency.

The antiwindup schemes developed so far are summarized and the similarities/differences schemes are discussed. The antiwindup schemes are applied to a DC servomotor control system with PID controller to perform comparative study and sensitivity analysis. Based on those results, some criteria for choosing antiwindup scheme are suggested. The results of this study provide a very useful guideline for selecting and designing the antiwindup scheme for various types of PID control systems.

An antenna tracking technique, referred to as "step track", is commonly used in communication applications. In this paper, an algorithm to improve the steptracking technique for satellite tracking is proposed. We suggest a method by which the antenna scans the azimuth, detects the satellite signal without the position information, and points quickly to the direction receiving the signal of peak level. After reaching the peak level, the steptrack system maintains enough signal levels to receive satellite broadcasting normally. Performance of the Tracking Algorithm proposed in this paper are verified with simulation.

This paper describes the concept and method of Controlling an illuminator using PowerLine Modem. Nowadays it is being studied and developed the PowerLine communication. The communication using PowerLine can realize BuildingAutomation and HomeAutomation easily and chiefly. Because it has no need constructing an additional equipment. In this study it is used The PowerLine Modem, illuminators and microcontrollers which enable RS232C serial communication.

This paper presents a robust fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control lot the actuator and sensor faults in the closedloop systems affected by unknown inputs or disturbances. The fault diagnostic scheme is based on the residual set generation by using robust Parity space approach. Residual set is evaluated through the threshold test and then fault is isolated according to the decision logic table. Once the fault diagnosis module indicates which actuator or sensor is faulty, the fault magnitude is estimated by using the disturbancedecoupled optimal state estimation and a new additive control law is added to the nominal one to override the fault effect on the system. Simulation results show that the method has definite fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control ability against actuator and sensor faults.

In this paper, a design method of a fault diagnosis filter for a system with multiplicative faults which cause to change its parameters is developed. Linear timeinvariant systems are dealt with in discretetime domain. The residual which is sensitive to a damage of control surface of an aircraft by parity space approach is defined. Next, the fault is isolated by a new decision logic. Control reconfiguration is achieved by the result of fault diagnosis. Finally, the feasibility of the method is illustrated with a simulation study of a fault diagnosis system for a damaged control surface of an aircraft.

The reliability of EIC systems in hot rolling mill is indispensable and very important in order to maintain stable production. Signals obtained from sensors and control system should be analyzed to monitor the condition of down coiler in hot rolling mill. We develope a monitoring system of down coiler which is composed of three parts (1) data acquisition and MMI (2) signal processing and analyzing, and (3) automatic data saving. Also it is designed to enable to inform users the abnormal conditions of down coiler. This developed system is expected to make it possible to reduce long downtime, secure high facility precision, and maintain high control levels.

This paper implements Message Service of TCN or IEC 613751. TCN is divided into two services, Variable and Message Service. Variable Service uses the broadcasting method with Source Address, but Message Service uses peertopeer method with Destination Address and has OSI 7 Layer. In TCN, interface between Transport and Network Layer has not been defined and Meaning of Packet Pool has not been defined exactly. Therefore, this paper proposes the Implementation method for both the interface between Transport and Network Layer and the packet pool for Message Service of TCN.

A switching control using multiple gains in the fuzzy rule is newly proposed for an abruptly changing hydraulic servo system. The proposed scheme employs fuzzy PID control, where modified input parameters are used, and LVQNN(Learning Vector Quantization Neural Network) as a switching controller (supervisor). Simulation and experimental studies have been carried out to validate and illustrate the proposed controller.

In this Paper. the DSP implementation of induction motor drive is Presented on the viewpoint of the design and experiment. The speed estimation of control system for induction motor drive is designed on the base of neural network speed estimator. This neural network speed estimator is experimentally applied to the induction motor system. This system Provides the satisfactory results.

The direct drive servo valve(DDV) is composed of a DC rotor, link, valve spool and displacement sensor(LVDT) where the spool is directly coupled to the DC motor through the link. Since the DDV is a kind of onestage valve, the robust controller is required to overcome the flow force effect on the spool motion. The mathematical equations are derived and the stability, accuracy and response speed of a DDV are investigated analytically using a linearized system block diagram. Proportional control, PID control. TimeDelay control, Sliding Mode control, and Proportional control using the load pressure are applied to DDV to find which one shows the best control performance. The digital computer simulation results show that the proportional control using the load pressure satisfies the design requirement of response speed and steady state error regardless of the variation of load pressure,

In this research. we developed Tire Roller Prototype which is operated hydraulic transmission system. For develop the theoretically computer aided system, we practiced the simulation of hydraulic system and dynamic modeling and will compare with the experiment results of Tire Roller Prototype. We conceptualize the new hydraulic system and derive the equations of motion for dynamic analysis. Finally, we will design the controller, which can manage the hydraulic circuit of servo mechanism system. We define new hydraulic system and integrate modeling of Tire Roller through simulation of h\ulcornerdraulic system and design of controller. From above procedure. Hydraulic transmission system characteristics and target performance can be investigated. To follow the required performance, we select the parts of Tire Roller. We manufactured the prototype of Tire Roller, and will install the equipment for experiment.

In this paper, a methodology for designing a controller based on inverse dynamics for speed control of DC motors is presented. The proposed controller consists of a prefilter, the inverse dynamic model of a system and a fuzzy logic controller. The prefilter prevents high frequency effects from the inverse dynamic model. The model of the system is characterized by a nonlinear equation with coulomb friction. The fuzzy logic controller regulates the error between the setpoint and the system output which may be caused by disturbances and it simultaneously traces the change o( the reference input. The parameters of the model are estimated by a genetic a]gorithm. An experimental work on a DC motor system is carried out to illustrate the performance of the proposed controller

The subject of this paper is the tole operation for unmanned vehicle. The aim is studied in context of motor control system and algorithms for the mid to low level control of tele operation unmanned vehicle described. Modern, vehicle related researches have been implemented about control, chassis, body and safe쇼 but now is to driving comfort, I.T.S. and human factor, etc. As a result of this fact, unmanned vehicle is main research topic over the world but it is still very expensive and unreasonable. A hierarchical approach is studied in context of motor control system and algorithms for the mid to low level control of tele operation unmanned vehicle described. The real time control and monitoring of longitudinal, lateral, Pitching motion is to be solved by system integration and optimization technique. We show the experimental result about fixed brake range test and acceleration test. And all system is to integrated for driving simulator and unmanned vehicle.

Traditional genetic algorithms, though robust, are generally not the most successful optimization algorithm on any particular domain. Hybridizing a genetic algorithm with other algorithms can produce better performance than both the genetic algorithm and the other algorithms. In this paper, we use random process and simulated annealing instead of mutation operator in order to get well tuned fuzzy rules. The key of this approach is to adjust both the width and the center of membership functions so that the tuned rulebased fuzzy controller can generate the desired performance. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified by computer simulation.

In the recent day, fatigue life prediction techniques play a major role in the design of components in th ground vehicle industry. Full scale durability testing in the laboratory is an essential of any fatigue life evaluation of components or structure of the automotive vehicle. Component testing is particularly important in today's highly competitive industries where the design to reduce weight and production costs must be balanced with the necessity to avoid expensive service failure. Generally, multiaxis durability testing simulator is used to car교 out the fatigue test. In this paper, the operation software for simultaneously driving 3axis simulator is developed and the realtime signals of inputoutput data are displayed in window of PC. Moreover, the displacements and the loads of 3axis actuators are calibrated separately and the operating characteristics of the actuators are evaluated.

During the operation of crane system in container yard, it is necessary to control the crane trolley position so that the swing of the hanging container is minimized. Recently an automatic control system with high speed and rapid transportation is required. Therefore, we designed a controller to control the crane system with disturbances. In this paper, Ive present the neural network two degree of freedom PID controller to control the swing motion and trolley position. Then we executed the computer simulation to verify the performance of the proposed controller and compared the performance of the neural network PID controller with our proposed controller in terms of the rope swing and the precision of position control . Computer simulation results show that the proposed controller has better performances than neural network PID with disturbances.

A neural net based generalized predictive control(NNGPC) is presented for a hydraulic servo position control system. The proposed scheme employs generalized predictive control, where the future output being generated from the output of artificial neural networks. The proposed NNGPC does not require an accurate mathematical model for the nonlinear hydraulic system and takes less calculation time than GPC algorithm if the teaming of neural network is done. Simulation studies have been conducted on the position control of a hydraulic motor to validate and illustrate the proposed method.

Air balance hoists are widely used in handling of heavy materials in industry. Currently used air balance hoists adopt manual switches for vertical motion, thus the operator has a difficulty in operating of the switches and handling of material simultaneously. To overcome this difficulty, this study develops a weightless airbalancehoist system using compressed air. This system memorizes the weight of material in terms of pneumatic pressure with a pneumatic circuit. Such memory of the material weight is used for achieving weightless handling of materials. Through a series of experiments, handling forces and the response of the system for various material weights are analyzed. The results show that the developed system can be used for weightless handling o( heavy materials.

In this paper, we propose a hybrid dstep predictor which is composed of an adaptive predictor and a Kalman predictor. We prove the performance limit of the proposed predictor. Simulation is conducted to examine the performance of the proposed predictor. Simulation results show that the proposed combined predictor is superior to the adaptive predictor and the Kalman predictor. Proposed predictor is used for prediction of gun tip vibration of k1 tank. The result is compared with that of conventional adaptive predictor.

This paper presents field test results of the GPS precise positioning using carrier phase observable. The Leastsquares AMBiguity Decorrelation Adjustment(LAMBDA) method is implemented to resolve integer ambiguity problem for two epoch Ll carrier phase measurement data. Field test results show that the GPS precise positioning of cmlevel accuracy is obtainable with conventional low cost, single frequency C/A code GPS receivers.

Recently, a considerable amount of attention is being given to the use of wavelets and neural network for modulation and equalization. We proposed a new scheme of equalization for constellation using discrete wavelet transform(DWT) and neural network. The DWT is used for noise reduction and the neural network is used to update the equalizer coefficients adaptively.

In this paper the IMM(Interacting Multiple model) algorithm using the MGEKF(Modified Gain Extended Kalman Filter) which modes are variances of the process noises is proposed to enhance the performance of maneuvering target tracking with bearing and frequency measurements. The state are composed of relative position, relative velocity, relative acceleration and doppler frequency. The mode probability is calculated from the bearing and frequency measurements. The proposed algorithm is tested a series of computer simulation runs.

We experimented on AGV driving test with color CCD camera which is setup on it. This paper can be divided into two parts. One is image processing part to measure the condition of the guideline and AGV. The other is part that obtains the reference steering angle through using the image processing parts. First, 2 dimension image information derived from vision sensor is interpreted to the 3 dimension information by the angle and position of the CCD camera. Through these processes, AGV knows the driving conditions of AGV. After then using of those information, AGV calculates the reference steering angle changed by the speed of AGV. In the case of low speed, it focuses on the left/right error values of the guide line. As increasing of the speed of AGV, it focuses on the slop of guide line. Lastly, we are to model the above descriptions as the type of PID controller and regulate the coefficient value of it the speed of AGV.

We as modal parameter estimation technique by developing a residual based system reconstruction and using the system matrix coordinate transformation. The modal parameters can be estimated from and residues of the system transfer functions expressed in modal coordinate basis, derived from the state space system matrices. However, for modal parameter estimation of multivariable and order structural systems over broad frequency bands, this noniterative algorithm gives high accuracy in the natural fre and damping ratios. From vibration tests on crossply and angleply composite laminates, the natural frequencies and damping ratios on be estimated using tile coordinates of the structural system reconstructed fro the experimental frequency response. These results are compared with those of finite element analysis and singledegreeoffreedom curvefitting.

The objective of this paper is to develop the new robust and adaptive control system against external environments as applying the probabilistic recognition which is one of the inherent properties of immune system, ability of learning and memorization, and regulation theory of immune network to the system under engineering point of view. In this paper, HIA(Humoral Immune Algorithm) PID controller using Neural Network Identifier was proposed to drive the autonomous guided vehicle(AGV) more effectively. To verify the performance of the proposed HIA PID controller, some experiments for the control of steering and speed of that AGV are performed.

In this paper, we propose a new approach to intelligent motion and autonomous maneuvering of mobile robots using hybrid system. In high Level, the discrete states are defined by using the sensorbased search windows and the reference motions of a mobile robot as a low vevel are specified in the abstracted motions, The mobile robots can perform both the motion planning and autonomous maneuvering with obstacle avoidance in indoor navigation problem. Simulation and experimental results show that hybrid system approach is an effective method for the autonomous maneuvering in indoor environments.

This paper is focused on the development of a Toolbox to support the design of the PID control]or and to check tile performance of tile controller designed. Although it is common to use the PID controller in the industrial field, any toolbox for the PID controller has not been provided yet, which is the main motivation to research in this paper. At first, the methods of PID autotuning are reviewed, and then contents, structures and how to use of the toolbox developed are explained. In addition, some application simulations of this toolbox are performed to exemplify the performance of the toolbox developed iii this paper.

The cooperative strategy for the teleoperated multiagent system is presented. And this scheme has been applied to the teleoperated robot soccer system that is newly proposed. For the teleoperated robot soccer system, we made mapping functions to control a 2wheeled mobile robot using a 2 DoF stickcontroller. The simulation with a real stickcontroller has been evaluated the performance of the proposed mapping function. Then, the basic cooperation strategy has been tested between teleoperated robot and autonomous robot It is shown that the multiagent system for teleoperation can have a good performance for a job Like a scoring a goal

A high performance control and monitoring system for a high speed railway train requires a reliable the realtime communication network. TCN/WTB is designed for the data transmission over the train bus, and UIC556 defines that all the data be transmitted over TCN/WTB. This paper evaluates the performance of the link layer of WTB(Wired Train Bus). The evaluated results can be used for the selection of parameters for the sporadic message data.

In this paper, a new method for colour measuring is presented using fuzzy modeling technique. The fuzzy and polynomial inferences are used for obtaining RGB characteristic curve. The eight RGB real data from expert dyestuff manufacturer, are simulated. The results show that the proposed method will is more excellent than other methods, in the colour measuring process of textile field.

In the fuzzy control for the multivariable system, it is difficult to obtain the fuzzy rule. Therefore, the parallel structure of the independent single inputsingle output fuzzy controller using a pairing between the input and output variable is applied to the multivariable system. The concept of relative gain matrix is used to obtain the inputoutput pairs. However, among the input/output variables which are not paired the interactive effects should be taken into account. these mutual coupling of variables affect the control performance. Therefore, for the control system with a strong coupling property, the control performance is sometimes lowered. In this paper, the effect of mutual coupling of variables is considered by tile introduction of a simple compensator. This compensator adjusts the degree of coupling between variables using a neural network. In this proposed neurofuzzy controller, the Neural network which is realized by backpropagation algorithm, adjusts the mutual coupling weight between variables.

In this paper, control problems of computer kitchen systems are studied, which are widely used to automate test dyeing processes. To reduce the process time and avoid collision, a simplified real time control scheme Is proposed using Windows 98 environments Using two robots and applying proposed control scheme, the process time was reduced more than 30% for a given recipe in comparison with one robot machine

최근 조선분야의 경우 생산원가의 절감, 품질의 고급화, 단순작업에 대한 근로기피 등의 이유로 로봇시스템 적용에 대한 필요성이 크게 대두되고 있다. 그러나 기존의 로봇 시스템의 교시방식이 교시재생(TeachingPlayback)방식이어서 작업부재의 형상 및 치수가 매번 변경되는 중공업 분야에서는 적용이 불가능하였다. 본 연구에서는 조선용 아크용접 로봇을 위한 오프라인 프로그램밍(OLP: OffLine Programming) 시스템을 개발하였다. 오프라인 프로그램밍 시스템의 경우 작업중인 로봇과는 상관없이 다음 부재에 대한 형상 데이터만을 이용하여 컴퓨터상에서 다음 작업프로그램을 미리 생성할 수 있으므로 기존의 온라인 교시재생 방식의 교시시간의 과다라는 문제를 극복할 수 있다. 본 연구에서는 강교 판넬 및 조선 소조립용으로 개발 중인 아크용접용 로봇 시스템을 위한 오프라인 프로그래밍 시스템을 개발하였다. CAD 데이터나 OLP의 모델링 기능으로 작업부재를 형상한 후 미리 데이터베이스화 되어 있는 자료를 검색하여 부위별 작업매크로 확보를 위하여 실제 로봇 시스템을 이용한 작업테스트를 수행하였다. 개발된 오프라인 프로그래밍 시스템은 기능보완 후 당사 아크용접용 로봇시스템에 적용될 계획이다.

An optimization approach is used to solve the division problem of working area, and a cost function is defined to represent the constraints on the solution, which is then mapped onto the Hopfield neural network for minimization. Each neuron in the network represents a possible combination among many components. Division is achieved by initializing each neuron that represents a possible combination and then allowing the network settle down into a stable state. The network uses the initialized inputs and the compatibility measures among components in order to divide working area.

The clean mobile robot for wafer transfer is AGV that carry each wafer to each equipment. It has wafer handling technology, wafer ID recognition technology, position calibration technology using vision system, and antivibration technology. Wafer loading/unloading working accuracy is within
${\pm}$ 1mm,${\pm}$ 3$^{\circ}$ . By application of this AGV, we can reduce the manufacturing tack time and bring cost down of equipment. 
We describe a new opticaltype guide sensor for AGV. It is robust the disturbance of the light. The developed opticaltype guide sensor is very useful in the clean room environment where the light disturbance is very critical through the hole on the surface of the floor.

The tracking system on the moving vehicle is made up of two parts. One is a stabilizer which is flatting the system against the moving vehicle, the other is a tracker which is tracking the target. This makes use of the geometric information of the tracking target and that utilizes the dynamic information of the moving vehicle equipping the tracking system. Especially the stabilizer is very important for an ocean vehicle affected by wave, wind, and current. In this paper, the stabilizer of sun tracking system for a ship is developed.

This paper proposes a moving window technique that extracts lanes and vehicles using the images captured by a CCD camera equipped inside an automobile in real time. For the purpose, first of all the optimal size of moving window is determined based upon speed of the vehicle, road curvature, and camera parameters. Within the moving windows that are dynamically changing, lanes and vehicles are extracted, and the vehicles within the driving lanes are classified as obstacles. Assuming highway driving, there are two sorts of imageobjects within the driving lanes: one is ground mark to show the limit speed or some information for driving, and the other is the vehicle as an obstacle. Using characteristics of threedimension objects, a neural network can be trained to distinguish the vehicle from ground mark. When it is recognized as an obstacle, the distance from the camera to the front vehicle can be calculated with the aids of database that keeps the models of automobiles on the highway. The correctness of this measurement is verified through the experiments comparing with the radar and laser sensor data.

The sunlight tracking and reflexing system can be divided into two parts. One is a sunlight tracking system and the other is a sunlight reflexing system. The sunlight tracking system detects an azimuth angie and an elevation angle of the sun using 2axis sensor sun tracker. The sunlight reflexing system controls a reflection mirror to be reflected a sunlight at the target area after getting the azimuth angle and the elevation angle of the sun from the sunlight tracking system. We applied the fuzzy PID controller to control the reflexing mirror.

This paper describes for applications of neural networks in the field of arc welding. Conventional, automated process generally involves sophisticated sensing and control techniques applied to various processing parameters. Welding parameters affecting quality include the arc voltage, the welding current and the torch travel speed. The relationship between the welding parameters and weld qualify is not a direct one, and in addition, the effect of the weld parameter variables are not independent of the each other  changing the welding current will affect the arc voltage, and so on. Finally, a suitable proposal to improve the construction of the model has also been presented in the paper.

This study aims at the development of REC sensor causing the gauge error in the hot strip rolling process, and the improvement of the hydraulic AGC (Automatic Gauge Control) system. The gauge error outbreaks from the various reasons, however, mainly the roll eccentricity is considered to cause a such kind of error. In the study, the REC (Roll Eccentricity Control System) sensor is designed using sensor An On  line test of the system shows the comprehensive effects of controlling the gauge error of the hot strip. On  Line test shows the possibility of enhancing the accuracy for gauge.

In this paper, a boiler control system for thermal power plant is configured. The boiler control system for thermal power plant is largely composed of an ABC(Automatic Boiler Control) system and a MBC(Mill Burner Control) system. ABC system controls analog process values, so almost all analog control logic is dealt with in ABC system. On the other hand, MBC system relates to sequence control logic such as MFT logic, Furnace Purge, Safety related logic. Advanced control systems made from advanced countries deal with an ABC system and MBC system in a distributed control system. In this paper, we adopt a DCS as an ABC system and adopt a PLC system as a MBC system to configure a boiler control system for thermal power plant using domestic control system. Finally the validity of the configured boiler control system is shown via simulation using digital simulator for boiler system in thermal power plant.

The modeling for the looper of a hot strip finishing mill to control the tension of the strip is presented. The looper is an arm pushing against the strip between stands in a tandem mill to keep the strip tension constant and to isolate the interactions of the adjacent stands. Tension is influenced by the difference in mass flow through the up stream and downstream rolling stands. Tension is critical to strip quality, influencing width, gauge, and shape. This paper presents how looper angle and strip tension are controlled for a hot strip finishing mill.

This paper deals with onLine detection of strip movement and real time positioning of brackets of EMD connected with it. Strip movement is detected by 4 line CCD camera and measured position correction value is inputted to motor position controller to control position of brackets.

We have developed m innovative surface inspection system for automated quality control for steel products in POSCO. We had ever installed the various kinds of surface inspection systems, such as a linear CCD and a laser typed surface inspection systems at cold rolled strips production lines. But, these systems cannot fulfill the sufficient detection and classification rate, and real time processing performance. In order to increase detection and classification rate, we have used the Dark, Bright and Transition Field illumination and area type CCD camera, and fur the real time image processing, parallel computing has been used. In this paper, we introduced the automatic surface inspection system and real time image processing technique using the Object Detection, Defect Detection, Classification algorithms and its performance obtained at the production line.

In this paper, we propose a new discretetime sliding mode controller for reference tracking. Stability of tracking error is analyzed. Design method of sliding surface for tracking control is proposed. Simulation and experimental results are included to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

This paper discusses a observer based discretetime controller design and presents a modified control structure for dualstage hard disk drive systems using piezoelectric microactuator(MA). In plant modeling, dynamic coupling between VCM and MA is not considered. Each controller is organized independently and designed using pole placement. Simulation result shows that 4thorder controller achieves about 3kHz servo bandwidth and 0.22msec of 2% settling time.

Qlearning, based on discrete state and action space, is a most widely used reinforcement Learning. However, this requires a lot of memory and much time for learning all actions of each state when it is applied to a real mobile robot navigation using continuous state and action space Regionbased Qlearning is a reinforcement learning method that estimates action values of real state by using triangulartype action distribution model and relationship with its neighboring state which was defined and learned before. This paper proposes a new Regionbased Qlearning which uses a reward assigned only when the agent reached the target, and get out of the Local optimal path with adjustment of random action rate. If this is applied to mobile robot navigation, less memory can be used and robot can move smoothly, and optimal solution can be learned fast. To show the validity of our method, computer simulations are illusrated.

In this Paper we propose a navigation algorithm which can be used to estimate state vectors such as position and velocity for its motion control using multisensor output measurements. The output measurement we will use in estimating the state is a series of known multisensor asynchronous outputs with measurement noise. This paper investigates the Extended Kalman Filtering method to merge asynchronous heading, heading rate, velocity of DVL, and SSBL information to produce a single state vector. Different complexity of Kalman Filter, with biases and measurement noise, are investigated with theoretically data from KRISO's AUV. All levels of complexity of the Kalman Filters are shown to be much more close and smooth to real trajectories then the basic underwater acoustic navigation system comment)'used aboard underwater vehicle.

Generally, discretetime processing is applied to the uniformlysampled signals. But, radars emit pulse trains with irregular time instances. In this paper, we formulate the radar pulse train as a stochastic discretetime dynamic linear model. The estimation task can be done via linear signal processing using Kalman Filter and some considerations. As a result, we can estimate the pulse repetition interval of a pulse train and predict the time instances of the next pulses to be received.

In this paper, we propose a twoinput twooutput fuzzy controller to improve the performance of transient response and to eliminate the steady state error. The outputs of this controller are the control input calculated by positiontype fuzzy controller and the accumulated error scaling factor. Here, the accumulated error scaling factor is adjusted online by fuzzy rules according to the current trend of the controlled process. To show the usefulness of the proposed controller, it is applied to several systems that are difficult to get satisfactory response by conventional PD controllers or PI controllers.

In this paper, intelligent methods using digital protection relay in power management and control system is developed in order to protect power systems by means of timely fault detection during operation and control at starting for induction motor which have various load environments and capacities in power systems. The digital protective relay was designed with DSP CPU(TMS320C31) to Protect and measure more quickly and precisely. The test result on the basis of KEMCl120 and IEC60255, show that the operation time error of the digital motor protection relay is improved within
$\pm$ 5%. Also, we can control motors at starting according to starting types with simple method as programmable sequence editor. So we can improve the demerits of high cost and much manhour for rework. 
An adaptive neural network compensator for stickslip friction phenomena in servo systems is proposed to supplement the traditionally available position and velocity control loops for precise motion control. The neural network compensator plays a role of canceling the effect of nonlinear slipping friction force. This enables the mechatronic systems more precise control and realistic design in the digital computer. It was confirmed that the control accuracy is more improved near zero velocity and the points of changing the moving direction through numerical simulation

The shape of cold strip for the stainless process has been become issue in quality recently, and hence POSCO (Pohang Iron & Steel Co., Ltd) developed an automatic control system for strip shape in the sendzimir mill. The strip shape is measured by an outward measuring roll and is controlled by As_U roll and first intermediate roll. As_U roll consists of 8 saddles, which are controlled vertically. The fist intermediate rolls, which are controlled horizontally, consist of two pairs of rolls up and down. A developed shape control system is applied to real plant by using fuzzy logic and neural network method to control actuators; As_U roll and first intermediate roll. This system composes mainly of three parts as a realtime system, input to output conditioner board, and manmachine interface. The actual shape is recognized by neural network and converted into symmetric shape. The fuzzy controller, based on the shape from neural network and sensor, controls positions of the As_U roll and first intermediate roll. This paper verifies the shape controller performance. The experiments are made on line for the sendzimir mill. The shape control performance shows very efficient for the target tracking, shape symmetry, and fluctuation of shape.

We identified the performance problems of scheduling algorithms such as FCFS, and demonstrated the superiority of WFQ in terms of realtime performance measures. For this purpose, we presented the service scenario and performed the analysis for the delay bound and fairness which are required to support the realtime applications in the Internet.

This paper proposes a self tuning fuzzy inference method by the genetic algorithm in the fuzzysliding mode control for a robot. Using this method, the number of inference rules and the shape of membership functions are optimized without an expert in robotics. The fuzzy outputs of the consequent part are updated by the gradient descent method. And, it is guaranteed that the selected solution become the global optimal solution by optimizing the Akaike's information criterion. The trajectory trucking experiment of the polishing robot system shows that the optimal fuzzy inference rules are automatically selected by the genetic algorithm and the proposed fuzzysliding model controller provides reliable tracking performance during the polishing process.

In this paper, webbased remote monitoring for coldrolling system is developed and the analysis of spatial control system is performed. The remote monitoring system is able to grasp the status of coldrolling system regardless of time and locations. We analyzed spatial control algorithm of the system with the collected data. The usefulness of spatial control system is shown by simulation studies.

The newtype measuring modules for unmanned remote supervisory system using mobile communication network have been designed in this study. Measuring modules consist of temperature measuring module, humidity measuring module and human body sensing module. And we will design a main part to collect and process informations of each modules, evaluate reliability of combined total system.

This paper designs an interference mitigation filter for GPS receiver using a timedomain signal processing techniques (Adaptive Transversal filter). ATF is designed using verilog and simulated using COSSAP for evaluating its performance.

In the GPS/DR integrated system, the GPS position(or velocity) is used to compensate the DR output and to calibrate errors in the DR sensor. This synergistic relationship ensures that the calibrated DR accuracy can be maintained even when the GPS signal is blocked. Because of the observability problem, however, the DR sensors are not sufficiently calibrated when the vehicle speed is low. This problem can be solved if we use a multiantenna GPS receiver for attitude determination instead of conventional one. This paper designs a twoantenna GPS receiver integrated with DR sensors. The proposed integration system has three remarkable features. First, the DR sensor can be calibrated regardless of the vehicle speed with the aid of twoantenna GPS receiver. Secondly, the search space of integer ambiguities in GPS carrierphase measurements is reduced to a part of the surface of the sphere using DR heading. Thirdly, the detection resolution of cycleslips in GPS carrierphase measurements is improved with the aid of DR heading. From the experimental result, it is shown that the search grace is drastically reduced to about 3120 of the nonaided case and the cycleslips of 1 or half cycle can be detected.

This paper presents the comparison of EulerRodrigues quaternion and Euler Angles using attitude kinematics for aircraft flight simulation. It is hard for PCLevel to accomplish realtime simulation. The purpose of this paper is to accomplish realtime simulation of the aircraft dynamics modeling parts and the graphics parts. The computation time is more reduced in case of applying quaternions than Euler Angles. This paper provides a quaternions algorithm and it's applications for the realtime simulation.

The most important problem in target tracking can be said to be modeling the tracking system correctly. Although the simple linear dynamic equation for this model has used until now, the satisfactory performance could not be obtained owing to uncertainties of the real systems in the case of designing the filters baged on the dynamic equations. In this paper, we propose the extended robust Kalman filter (ERKF) which can be applied to the real target tracking system with the parameter uncertainties. A nonlinear dynamic equation with parameter uncertainties is used to express the uncertain system model mathematically, and a measurement equation is represented by a nonlinear equation to show data from the radar in a Cartesian coordinate frame. To solve the robust nonlinear filtering problem, we derive the extended robust Kalman filter equation using the Krein space approach and sum quadratic constraint. We show the proposed filter has better performance than the existing extended Kalman filter (EKF) via 3dimensional target tracking example.

A controller test on a sounding rocket using a testbed is discussed in the paper. Because of the high cost and the risk for the flight test the hardware simulation on the ground is performed. In this paper the conventional On/Off Controller is applied to the attitude control of a sounding rocket. The hardware simulation results are compared with those of the software simulation.

This paper presents a multirate state feedback control (MRSFC) method for systems sensitive to disturbance and noise based on the multirate estimator design using the current estimator. MRSFC updates the controller output slower than the measurement sampling frequency of system output by a lifting factor R=T
$\sub$ c//T$\sub$ s/. The closedloop MRSFC system is less sensitive to disturbance and noise due to filtering effect than the conventional singlerate control system. The multirate estimator gain is obtained from solving a conventional pole placement problem such that MRSFC has the same spectrum of eigenvalues in the splane as the singlerate control. We applied the proposed multirate state feedback controller to a galvanometer servo system. Simulation and experimental results show that settling and tracking performances are improved compared with a conventional singlerate pole placement control (PPC). 
Hydraulic servo system is difficult to be made up and each component is very expensive, it takes long for actual system to make and test and it costs a high price. Because of these characteristics of hydraulic servo system, a real time simulator that could describe behavior of real system is highly demanded, without composing real hydraulic system. So, many studies have been (lone on these subjects and many simulators are developed with superiority. Since the nonlinearity of a hydraulic system common simulator have composed of many calculative times byusing DSP(Digital Signal processing) and have made it possible to find the situations of the system in real time, calculating hydraulic simulation and controller separately. In this study, we suggest realtime simulator that could describe real system without ordinary DSP card. This simulator is composed of 80196kc and personal computer. DSP card that has calculated complex numerical equation is supplanted by personal computer and 80196kc generates control signals independently out of the personal computer. In all process, personal computer is synchronized with oneboard microprocessor within sampling time in the closed loop system. This makes it possible to be described in hydraulic servo system in real time. And to make a comparison between the result of the realtime simulator and a hydraulic servo system.

In this paper, a platoon merging is considered as a remotecontrolled system with the state represented by a stochastic process. In this system, it becomes to encounter situations where a single decision maker controls a large number of subsystems, and observation and control signals are sent over a communication channel with finite capacity and significant transmission delays. Unlike classical estimation problem in which the observation is a continuous process corrupted by additive noise, there is a constraint that the observation must be coded and transmitted over a digital communication channel with finite capaci쇼. A recursive coderestimator sequence is a state estimation scheme based on observations transmitted with finite communication capacity constraint. Using the coderestimator sequence, the remote control station designs a feedback controller. In this paper, we introduce a stochastic model for the lead vehicle in a platoon of vehicles considering the angle between a road surface and a horizontal plane as a stochastic process. The simulation results show that the intervehicle distance and the deviation from the desired intervehicle distance are well regulated.

김찬희;박종구 193
This paper proposes a dynamic observer that is applicable to linear timeinvariant systems subject to unknown input, The proposed method utilities Che output feedback control structure to design unknown input observer. We name it as the dynamic unknown input observer(UIO). The dynamic UIO can be designed easily over the usual static UIO, and the system response could be improved. 
In aviation navigation by GPS, requirements on availability and integrity must be absolutely satisfied for safety. Current study on accomplishing this integrity includes RAM(Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring), checking integrity internally in GPS receiver itself. However RAIM techniques have be investigated and presented under assumption that there is included only one fault in measurements from GPS, In case of multiple fault, an interaction among bias errors sometimes results in decreasing the effect of multiple fault. This may make an exact fault detection and identification difficult, and study on mutiple fault RAIM focused on. This paper explains the reasons that techniques applied on single fault are not adequate to extend directly to two faults case and shows that RAIM solution on two fault may be given in revised parity space.

In this paper, intelligent control method using neural network as a nonlinear controller is presented, Neural network controller is implemented on DSP board in PC to make real time computing possible, Online training algorithm for neural network control is proposed, As a testbed, a large ax table was build and interface with PC has been implemented, Experimental results under different PD controller gains show excellent position tracking for circular trajectory compared with those for PD controller only.

This paper describes a lateral guidance system of an autonomous vehicle, using a neural network model of magnetoresistive sensor and magnetic fields. The model equation was compared with experimental sensing data. We found that the experimental result has a negligible difference from the modeling equation result. We verified that the modeling equation can be used in simulations. As the neural network controller acquires magnetic field values(B
$\_$ x/, B$\_$ y/, B$\_$ z/) from the threeaxis, the controller outputs a steering angle. The controller uses the backpropagation algorithms of neural network. The learning pattern acquisition was obtained using computer simulation, which is more exact than human driving. The simulation program was developed in order to verify the acquisition of the teaming pattern, teaming itself, and the adequacy of the design controller. The performance of the controller can be verified through simulation. The real autonomous electric vehicle using neural network controller verified good results. 
In this paper, we present a novel method for design of fuzzy Logic controllers by defining a set of characteristic parameters (CFLCS). These parameters are extracted and defined by examining the structure and characteristics of the individual components of FLCs and parameterizing those. Based upon this formulation, a series of simulations is conducted for plants having simple dynamics in order to see the performance of this proposed method. The simplicity and effectiveness of this method are discussed in detail.

In this paper, the linearization method of nonlinear systems via fuzzy controllers which can be the basic research for designing a systematic fuzzy controllers with singleton consequents is proposed. We regard a closed loop system as a canonical form and propose a methodology for linearization of nonlinear system which adjust the input at vertex using zero condition and affinity condition. Through some examples, we show the validity of the proposed method and it can be extended to the design problem of fuzzy controller.

Most of linear timevarying(LTV) systems except special cases have no general solution for the dynamic equations. Thus, it is difficult to design timevarying controllers in analytic ways, and other control design approaches such as robust control have been applied to control design for uncertain LTI systems which are the approximation of LTV systems have been generally used instead. A robust control method such as quantitative feedback theory(QFT) has an advantage of guaranteeing the stability and the performance specification against plant parameter uncertainties in frozen time sense. However, if these methods are applied to the approximated linear timeinvariant(LTI) plants which have large uncertainty, the designed control will be constructed in complicated forms and usually not suitable for fast dynamic performance. In this paper, as a method to enhance the fast dynamic performance, the approximated uncertainty of timevarying parameters are reduced by the proposed QFT parameterscheduling control design based on radial basis function (RBF) networks for LTV systems with bounded timevarying parameters.

Highly nonlinear dynamical systems are easily identified using neural networks. When disturbances are included in the learning data set Int system modeling, modeling process will be poorly performed. Since the radial basis functions in the radial basis function network(RBFN) are centered at the points specified by the weights, RBF networks are robust for approximating the process including the narrowband disturbances deviating significantly from the regular signals. To exclude(filter) these disturbances, a robust algorithm for system identification, based on the RBFN, is proposed. The performance of system identification excluding disturbances is investigated and compared with the one including disturbances.

Recently in the design of fuel tanks(launch vehicle, ship, automobile) which transport a large amount of liquid in the cargo holds, the structural damage due to liquidsloshing becomes an important problem. The impact pressure from sloshing is most violent when the liquid motion of a partially filled tank is in resonance with the motion of a system. In this paper, the sloshing natural periods in liquid tanks are estimated for partially filled tanks with various geometries. In addition to, controlled for a launch vehicle with liquid sloshing effect by PD controller and sloshing filter The PD gain and sloshing filter parameter arc determined by optimal algorithm.

염동희;정정주 202
In this paper, the synchronous generator model which is derived from the swing equation and the Park's equation is transformed to an adequate form for feedback linearization. And the single controller is designed in order to play the role of both PSS and AVR. The result of the simulations shows that the stability of the system is guaranteed in the wide range of operating points. 
The P&S(Power Plant Simulation System) is a powerful simulation software system for the dynamic behavior of power plants. The P&S module libraries provide plant models with higher flexibility of dynamic simulations for process and control designs. The P&S software was effectively available for PCS based on Linux and modem workstations based on Unix. The P&S was applied for simulating the dynamic behaviors of the SOVR(Supercritical OnceThrough Variable Pressure Reheater) according to the operations such as stanup, shutdown, load following, load change and trip in order to obtain an optimal operation procedure for Unit 5/6 of Taeahn fossil power plant consisted of SOVRs and steam turbines.

This paper describes the development of training simulator for Hadong fossil Power Plant. The simulator was developed to train operator, test new control Logic and evaluate alternative operating procedure for expert engineer of control system. The most control logics such as Siemens TELEPERM ME and GE Mark V are translated directly from microprocessors. Those HMI are also directly emulated. The simulation was performed by ProTRAX modeling software. The paper discusses the configuration of simulator and the simulation results of 30%, 50%, 75% and 100% normal rate load test.

In this paper, we are proposed an analysis method of the operation schedule in FMS using Time Petri Nets(TPN) unfolding. TPN's unfolding is one of the analysis methods after changed noncyclic net from the concurrent net without to expand the state explosion. We are illustrated this proposed to analyze a schedule problem in Ratiodriven FMS modeling.

This paper is ai ed to handle quick work for all the workers and to improve the productivity by adding more effective content in Crane Monitoring System. The contributing proportion of the increase of port productivity is more increasing concerning not only the port industry, but also all the informations of container crane which is the representative equipment by the rapid increase of the volume of freight of port. The basic of rapid service is the improvement of the productivity, the information of operation as to the productivity of crane for the quick handling within yard and especially the informations of breakdown and to handle breakdown as soon as possible has a great enect on the increase of productivity.

This paper presents an observer for nonlinear systems using approximate observer form. It is shown that if a nonlinear system is approximately error linearizable, then there exists a local nonlinear observer whose estimation error converges exponentially to zero. Since the proposed method relaxes strong geometric conditions of previous works, it improves the existing results for a nonlinear observer design. Finally, some examples are given to show the effectiveness of this scheme.

In realistic control systems, the nonlinear salutation attributes of the control actuator due to physical limitations should be taken into account. This nonlinear saturation of actuators may cause not only deterioration of the control performance but also a large overshoot during startup and shutdown. As the overshoot increases, the system may become oscillatory unstable. In this paper, the supervisor implementation which guarantees good performance lot saturation operation and prevents reset windup is presented. Moreover, the sufficient conditions of the stability for saturated systems using supervisory control with a dynamic controller are provided in the discretetime domain. A numerical example is illustrated to depict the efficiency of supervisory control for a typical saturated productiondistribution system controlled by a discretetime dynamic controller and to validate basic results by simulation.

In this paper, we show that some of 2 or higherdimensional systems cannot be asymptotically stabilized on the constrained asymptotically stabilizable set via linear feedback.

In this paper, we have investigated the properties of multilayer perceptron (MLP) for odour patterns classification and concentration estimation simultaneously. When the MLP may be has a fast convergence speed with small error and excellent mapping ability for classification, it can be possible to use for classification and concentration prediction of volatile chemicals simultaneously. However, the conventional MLP, which is backPropagation of error based on the steepest descent method, was difficult to use for odour classification and concentration estimation simultaneously, because it is slow to converge and may fall into the local minimum. We adapted the LevenbergMarquardt(LM) algorithm [4,5] having advantages both the steepest descent method and GaussNewton method instead of the conventional steepest descent method for the simultaneous classification and concentration estimation of odours. And, We designed the artificial odour sensing system(Electronic Nose) and applied LMBP algorithm for classification and concentration prediction of VOC gases.

The multiple targets tracking problem has been one of main issues in the radar applications area in the last decade. Besides the standard Kalman filtering, various methods including the variable dimension filter, input estimation filter, interacting multiple model (IMM) filter, federated variable dimension filter with input estimation, probable data association (PDA) filter etc. have been proposed to address the tracking and sensor fusion issues. In this paper, two existing tracking algorithms, i.e. the IMMPDA filter and the variable dimension filter with input estimation (VDIE), are combined for the purpose of improving the tracking performance of maneuvering targets in clutter. To evaluate the tracking performance of the proposed algorithm, three typical maneuvering patterns i.e. Waver, PopUp, and HighDiver motions, are defined and are applied to the modified IMMPDA filter considered as well as the standard IMM filter. The smaller RMS tracking errors, in position and velocity, of the modified IMMPDA filter than the standard IMM filter are demonstrated through computer simulations.

This study was performed to construct a hot strip speed measuring system and check over whether the measured speed can be used for improving the mass flow of the headend part of a hot strip in the 7stand finishing mill. Because the mass flow in hot rolling mill affects the looper operation and the thickness and width control of a strip, accurate measurement of strip speed ie important. The measured speed was compared with the roll speeds of No. 6 and No.7 stand to check the performance of the system and analyzed to find how to apply the speed. As a result, it is shown that the accuracy of the system is enough, strip thickness error can be reduced by 275∼+200
$\mu\textrm{m}$ using the measured speed and the existing FSU model has low accuracy for predicting forward slip rate. A neural network was developed to calculate forward slip rate instead of FSU model. The test result of the neural network shows that the neural network is more accurate than the FSU model. 
A sensor system which can measure the transmittance of ITO(Indium Tin Oxide) layed glass is proposed. The sensor system includes a single wavelength laser beam source, photo diodes and electronic circuit processing sensor signal. The wavelength of laser is 543.5 m, this is most sensitive wavelength to photopic and scotopic vision. We applied the sensor to measure transmittance of ITO layer on general manufacturing environment and verified the effectiveness of sensor through experimental measurement.

This paper deals with the non contact optical sensor to measure the shape of transparent plates such as glass panel of LCD(Liquid Crystal Display). The conventional methods to obtain the shape or thickness of a transparent plates are contact type sensor such as LVOT(Linear Variable Differential Transformer). Due to the contact between the tip of the sensor and the surface of objects, the tip is abraded. In addition, the high temperature glass casting makes the size of sensor body changed. These reasons makes the sensor degraded. In this paper, to overcome these problem, we proposed a low cost noncontact optical sensor this is composed of the Hologram laser unit of a CDPickup and a plastic lens. To evaluate the performance of the proposed optical sensor, a series of experiments were performed for various measurement condition. Based upon observation of the experimental result, the developed sensor shows good result for measuring the shape of transparent plates.

In this paper, depth and course controllers of autonomous underwater vehicles using H
$_{\infty}$ servo control are proposed. An H$_{\infty}$ servo problem is formulated to design the controllers satisfying a robust tracking property with modeling errors and disturbances. The solution of the H$_{\infty}$ servo problem is as follows: first, this problem is modified as an H$_{\infty}$ control problem for the generalized plant that includes a reference input mode, and then a suboptimal solution that satisfies a given performance criteria is calculated by LMI(Linear Matrix Inequality) approach. The H$_{\infty}$ depth and course controllers ate designed to satisfy with the robust stability about the modeling error generated from the perturbation of the hydrodynamic coefficients and the robust tracking property under disturbances(wave force, wave moment, tide). The performances(the robustness to the uncertainties, depth and course tracking properties) of the designed controllers are evaluated with computer simulations, and finally these simulation results show the usefulness and application of the proposed H$_{\infty}$ depth and course control systems. 
In this paper, we introduce a new roadwaydeparture prevention algorithm and the developed HardwareintheLoopSimulator (HiLS) for applying the new algorithm. A slidingmode controller is used for lateral position control. And, the HiLS consists of real car elements, a microcontrol board, and a selfaligning torque generator Finally from the display module, the perspective view and bird view of the animated vehicle can be seen simultaneously.

A decentralized robust EA(eigensoucture assignment) controller is designed for an active suspension system of a vehicle based on a full car model with 7degree of freedom. Using overlapping decomposition, the full car model is decentralized by two half car models. For each half car model, a robust eigenstructure assignment controller can be obtained by using optimization approach. The performance of the decentralized robust EA controller is compared with that of a conventional centralized EA controller through computer simulations.

Advanced Vehicle Control Systems(AVCS) is one of the key elements in Intelligent Transportation Systems(ITS). This paper considers the problem of longitudinal control in vehicle platoon on a straight lane of a highway. In a very simplified situation, longitudinal vehicle dynamics contains many nonlinear elements. The nonlinear characteristics are mainly composed of an engine, a torque converter, and a drag force. In this paper, sliding control, one of nonlinear control methods, is applied to longitudinal automated vehicle control for platooning. Output feedback linearization is also simulated for comparison with the sliding control. Simulations for comparative study for the adopted controllers such as sliding control and output feedback linearization are peformed under the same conditions. This Paper aims at clarifying the characteristics of sliding control and output feedback linearization.

A Plate type pipe is used for heat exchange in radiator of a vehicle. The pipe has several rooms through which water flows and heat is dissipated into outside . In the case that there are small holes, cracks or some scratches on the plate, the radiators lost their functions due to Leakage. This may result in overheating of engine in a car. Thus, we need to perform the entire inspection of the plate type pipe in advance before assembling the radiator. In manufacturing process of the plate type pipe, the productive speed is very high and that may be performed continuously. So, there is no room to perform the outlook inspection by typical image processing techniques. This paper proposes a new method to inspect the outlook surface of the plate type pipe automatically with high speed. Especially, the sequential processing technique of an algorithm which detects defects on the surfaces of the plate type pipe is proposed for line scan camera which captures line image. To evaluate the inspection performance, a series of experiments is performed.

In this paper, some noninteraction problems in tandem cold rolling mill are considered, which are required to control effectively a thickness of the cold .oiled strip. First, Interstand noninteractive compensate. (Interstand NIC) is designed for decoupling the interaction between stands. Next, a L2 optimization based precompensator is designed for decoupling the interaction between roll gap and strip tension in the stand. Finally, the effectness of the proposed decoupling methods is demonstrated via simulations.

The heat exchange part in a modern multitype airconditioning system employs multiplepass heat exchangers. The heattransfer performance of an each pass in such an exchanger depends strongly on the length of the twophase region and the mass flow of the refrigerant. The total length and diameters of the pipes, the exit conditions, and the arrangement of each pass as well as the geometrical shape of the distributor at the branching sections are considered to be major factors affecting the heattransfer performance. The refrigerant commonly used in these systems is HCFC22. The two objectives of this paper are to investigate the characteristics of the refrigerant flow rate and the superheat in the evaporator of a multitype airconditioning system for a single or simultaneous operating conditions and to control the superheat and the refrigerant flow rate of the evaporator.

The general dicing process cuts a semiconductor wafer to lengthwise and crosswise direction by using a rotating circular diamond blade. But inferior goods are made under the influence of several parameters in dicing such as blade, wafer, cutting water and cutting conditions. Moreover we can not applicable this dicing method to GaN wafer, because the GaN wafer is harder than the other wafer as GaAs. In older to overcome this problem, a new dicing process is necessary. This paper describes a new machine using scriber and precision servo mechanism in order to dice a semiconductor wafer.

Embedded system area has brought an innovation and has been spread rapidly by the growth of the Internet, wireless telephony and multimedia recently. Many embedded systems are required to be realtime systems in that it needs multitasking and priority based scheduling. This paper introduces a realtime system that was developed with web server ability for control and monitoring system employing a realtime operating system. It discusses the design model, structure, and applications of web server system. We used SNDS100 board which has a 32bit RISC microcontroller of ARM7TDMI core as a hardware platform. MicroC/OS kernel was used as Realtime operating system that supports a preemptive and multitasking functions. We developed a hierarhchical control and monitoring system that not only reduced system and management costs, but also enhanced reusability and portability.

Biaffine Matrix Inequalities(BIs) are known to give more general and flexible frameworks in control designs than Linear Matrix Inequalities(LMIs). However, BMIs are nonconvex constraints and very difficult to solve. In this paper, BMI problems are solved using Evolution Strategy(ES). Numerous BMI problems are solved to verify performances of ES solver for BMI problems and compared with those of Genetic Algorithms and BranchandCut algorithm.

We propose the hybrid robust controller for TDC(Time Delay Control) and SMC(Sliding Mode Control) method. TDC and SMC deal with the timevarying system parameters, unknown dynamics and unexpected disturbance. This controller is applied to follow the desired reference model for the uncertain timevarying overhead crane. The control performance is evaluated through simulation. The theoretical results indicate That the proposed controller shows excellent performance to an overhead crane with the uncertain timevarying parameters and disturbance.

This paper presents the control problem for the motion of sphere with robot manipulator. The robot manipulator is controlled to regulate the angle of plate for the sphere to track given trajectories on the plate. The center position of the sphere is measured with machine vision system and the advanced algorithm for center detection is proposed in which the change of shape is considered to solve the problem of image distortion. To cope with the variation of plate material and the structure of sphere (size, mass, etc.), sliding mode control, which has robustness to model uncertainty, is applied to the control of robot manipulator.

This paper presents an application of MixedSensitivity H
$_{\infty}$ control of a flexible manipulator. Firstly the detail model transfer function is derived from system identification. The objective is to position the free end of the beam with model including uncertainties and disturbance. we derive multiplicative uncertainties based on frequency response from difference between detail model and reduced model for designing controller. Finally we compare simulation results with experimental results. 
To deal with nonlinearities and timevarying characteristics of hydraulic systems, in this paper, the neurofuzzy controller has been introduced. This controller does not require an accurate mathematical model for the nonlinear factor. In order to solve general fuzzy inference problems, the input membership function and fuzzy reasoning rules are used for determining the controller Parameters. These parameters are determined by using the learning algorithm. The control performance of the neurofuzzy controller is obtained through a series of experiments for the various types of input while applying disturbances to the cylinder. .and performance of this controller was compared with that of PID, PD controller. As a experimental result, it can be proven that the position tracking performance of the neurofuzzy is better than that of PID and PD controller.

Conventional gaintuning methods such as ZieglerNickels methods, have many disadvantages that optimal control ler gain should be tuned manually. In this paper, modified PID controllers which include selftuning characteristics are proposed. Proposed controllers automatically tune the PID gains in on1ine using neural networks. A new learning scheme was proposed for improving learning speed in neural networks and satisfying the real time condition. In this paper, using a nonlinear mapping capability of neural networks, we derive a tuning method of PID controller based on a Back propagation(BP)method of multilayered neural networks. Simulated and experimental results show that the proposed method can give the appropriate parameters of PID controller when it is implemented to DC Motor.

This paper describes a model reference adaptive system(MRAS) for speed control of vectorcontrolled induction motor without a speed sensor. The proposed approach is based on observing the instantaneous torque. The real torque is calculated by sensing stator current and estimated torque is calculated by stator current that is calculated by using estimated rotor speed. The speed estimation error is linearly proportional to error between real torque and estimated torque. The proposed feedback loop has linear component. Furthermore proposed method is robust to parameters variation. The effectiveness is verified by equation and simulation

It is proposed that a novel method which can compensate the time delay occurs in overall system, when voltage and current is measured, owing to LPF, hysteresis control inverter and microprocessor program computation time. The Proposed scheme estimates the time delay using the difference between Qaxis stator current command and time delayed Qaxis stator current in synchronous reference frame, and compensates the time delay of voltage and current using angular displacement of DQ transformation. The proposed scheme compensates accurately the time delay occurs in overall system. Therefore performance of vector control system is improved highly and it is verified by simulation and experiment.

switched reluctance motors and drives are increasingly used in industrial applications due to their robust mechanical structure, low inertia and reduction in the rotor losses. As the motor speed increase turn on angle must be advanced to build up phase current. When Cdump converter is applied to switched reluctance motor, the capacitance of dump C has to have proper value. In this paper advance angle for a switched reluctance motor and capacitance of dump C are investigated. Then proper advance angle and the capacitance of dumpC are propose for the industrial low voltage SR motor.

Direct torque control (DTC) scheme provides a very quick torque response without the complex fieldorientation block and inner current regulation loop. DTC is known as an appropriate scheme for high power induction motet drives because it can be used at lower switching frequency. There are two major drawbacks with the application of DTC schemes : one is large current harmonics due to flux drooping in a low speed range, the other is that the inverter switching frequency is varying according to motor parameters and operating speed. Switching devices in the power electronics drives should be supported for relatively high switching frequency. In this paper, a Ptype fuzzy controller to realize the variable switching sector scheme and a PIDtype fuzzy switching frequency regulator are adopted. A meaningful contribution of this paper is to propose a simple realization scheme of the fuzzy switching frequency regulator. Simulation results show the effectiveness of those propositions.

A direct torque control(DTC) based sensorless speed control system which employs a new closed loop flux observer is proposed. The flux observer takes an adaptive scheduling gains where motet speed is used as the scheduling variable. Adaptive nature comes from the fact that the estimated values of stator resistance and speed are included as observer parameters. The parameters of the PI controllers adopted in the adaptive law for the estimation of stator resistance and motor speed are determined by simple genetic algorithm. Simulation results in low speed region are given for comparison between proposed and conventional flux estimate scheme.

This paper proposes a tole force feedback control through internet systems. The system consists of joystick, solver, client, robot, and internet. The main contribution of this work is the implementation of the system rather than theoretical analysis. The time delay problems will be considered next step.

Control of Industrial processes is very difficult due to nonlinear dynamics, effect of disturbances and modeling errors. M.Morari proposed Internal Model Control(IMC) system that can be effectively applied to the systems with model uncertainties and time delays. The advantage of IMC systems is their robustness with respect to a model mismatch and disturbances. But it was difficult to apply for nonlinear systems. Adaptive NeuroFuzzy Inference System which contains multiple linear models as consequent part is used to model nonlinear systems. Generally, the linear parameters in neurofuzzy inference system can be effectively utilized to identify a nonlinear dynamical systems. In this paper, we propose new IMC design method using adaptive neurofuzzy inference system for nonlinear plant. Numerical simulation results show that proposed IMC design method has good performance than classical PID controller.

김인희;마진석;최병태;김우현;구본호;권우현 237
In this paper, The modified deadtime compensator for plants with an integrator and long dead time is proposed. The design procedure takes account of the closedloop performance and robustness. The tuning of the controller can be done using some information about the plant and its uncertainties. The proposed controller is compared to others recently presented in the literature. Some simulation results verify good closedperformance and robustness of the proposed DTC. 
In this paper, to increase the utilization of uranium resources contained in the spent fuel, the spent fuel is reused. for this, the spent fuel is dismantled or spent fuel rod is extracted from the spent fuel assembly. Therefore, to achieve the performance of compacting the spent fuel assembly, we proposed the controller consisting of adaptive and fuzzy with teaming algorithm. In order to show the performance of proposed algorithm compares, we compared the controller with conventional controller in plant.

This paper present experimental results on temperature trajectory tracking. The benefits of precalculated feedforward input together with PID feedback control are demonstrated by experimental results. To find the feedforward input, the plant (autoregresiive) model is first identified and convex optimization procedure is applied. PID controller is then implemented based on ZieglerNickels tuning rule to reduce effects of disturbances and modeling errors. Experimental results show an improvement in slope tracking performance over the fully PID controller.

This paper presents two algorithms based on the concept of the frequency domain adaptive filter(FDAF). First the frequency domain recursive least squares(FRLS) algorithm with the overlapsave filtering technique is introduced. This minimizes the sum of exponentially weighted square errors in the frequency domain. To eliminate discrepancies between the linear convolution and the circular convolution, the overlapsave method is utilized. Second, the sliding method of data blocks is studied Co overcome processing delays and complexity roads of the FRLS algorithm. The size of the extended data block is twice as long as the filter tap length. It is possible to slide the data block variously by the adjustable hopping index. By selecting the hopping index appropriately, we can take a tradeoff between the convergence rate and the computational complexity. When the input signal is highly correlated and the length of the target FIR filter is huge, the FRLS algorithm based on the block processing technique has good performances in the convergence rate and the computational complexity.

In this Paper, we present a new efficient algorithm that can segment an object in the image. There are many algorithms for segmentation and many studies for criteria or threshold value. But, if the environment or brightness is changed, their would not be suitable. Accordingly, we apply a clustering algorithm for adopting and compensating environmental factors. And applying labeling method, we try arranging segment by the similarity that calculated with the fuzzy algorithm. we also present simulations for searching an object and show that the algorithm is somewhat more efficient than the other algorithm.

Comparing to the conventional adaptive filters using LMS algorithm, the proposed adaptive filters can reduce the amounts of computation and have robustness to variance of characteristics of input signals. LMS algorithm is performed in the domain of Hadamard transform after a reference signal and input signal are transformed by fast Hadamard transformation. As a transformation from time domain to Hadamard transformed domain, the proposed filter not only maintains the performance of estimating an input signal but also greatly reduces the number of multiplication. Moreover, the effect of characteristic changes of input signal is decreased. Computer simulation shows the stability and robustness of the proposed filter.

This paper introduces a visual inspecting and monitoring system based on an image processing technique. We propose an image processing method for analyzing landslide movement in real time. The method adopts Laplacian of Gaussian operator to extract linear features for the captured images and uses a linear matching algorithm to distinguish the matching error for those features. When the algorithm is processed, motion parameters such as displacement area and its direction are computed. Once movement is recognized, displacements are estimated graphically with statistical amount in the image plane. The simulation results are shown us to verify the effectiveness of the developed method.

We proposed the aboveknee prosthesis using rotary MR damper in which knee joint is semiactively controlled by microprocessor. Dissipation torque in the knee joint can be controlled by the magnetic field which is induced by applying current to a solenoid, Tracking control of knee joint angle was tested by 3DOF Leg simulator. The experimental results show that the proposed aboveknee prosthesis system had good performance in swing phase tracking and repetitive controller in conjunction with a computed control law and PD control law, reduced RMS tracking error as the repetitions of tracking. Moreover, desired knee angle trajectory was generated based on the estimation of gait period with the gyro signal and the tracking control was performed.

후각기는 후각신경과 삼차신경의 기능을 객관적이고 정량적으로 검사할 수 있는 기기로, 객관적으로 인정받을 수 있는 후각기의 제작에는 많은 어려움이 있기 때문에, 현재까지 후각신경과 삼차신경의 기능을 정확하게 측정할 수 있는 방법이 없었다. 그러나, 산업이 발달하고 공해가 더욱 심해질수록 후각의 변화가 생기고, 비강 내 질환이나, 공해물질 등에 의해 삼차신경이 민감한 반응을 일으키므로, 앞으로는 이 신경들의 측정이 중요할 것으로 여겨진다. 또한 각종 산업분야에서 이제까지 사람의 미각이나 후각에 의존하여 제품을 생산해오던 방법을 변화시켜 객관적인 수치를 이용하여 제품을 생산할 수 있다. 따라서 이번 연구에서는 사람이나 동물에게 다양한 후각물질을 원하는 정확한 농도로 투여하는 기기로, 온도와 습도를 사람의 신체 조건과 동일한 공기와 혼할하여 원하는 정확한 농도(ppm)의 후각 자극을 만들어 mass flow controller와 solenoid valve를 이용하여 squareshape의 자극모양이 되도록 한 후, 피검자에게 자극하여 전기생리학적 반응을 얻는 기기를 개발하였다.

다른 생체기반 검증시스템에 비해 서명 검증 시스템에서 가장 문제점은 불안정한 특징 정보를 가진다는 것이다. 그러나, 서명은 인류역사를 통해 인간에게 가장 익숙한 방법이므로 사용자에게 거부감이 없어 수많은 연구가 진행되고 있다. 본 논문에서는 이 문제를 해결하기 위해 좀더 안정화 되어 있고 유용한 특징정보를 사용하여 서명 검증 시스뎀을 구현한다

A new bioelectric impedance measurement method is proposed for the precise measurement of the bioelectric impedance. To obtain the impedance from the known applied a.c. current and the measured voltage signals, a frequency conversion circuit, like the mixer in heterodyne receivers, is introduced to reduce the frequency of the original current. It can be observed from several lines of derivation that the impedance is independent on the amplitude and phase of the mixing signals. This makes it possible to use lowspeed analogtodigital converters and thus utilize cheaper electronic parts in the implementation. The possibility of the method is shown by simulations, and a generic structure applicable to bioelectric impedance measurement devices is also proposed.

본 연구는 조선 소조립, 판넬조립 등의 공정에서 발생되는 필렛 용접 부위의 용접 자동화를 위한 로봇 시스템 개발에 관한 연구이다. 조선등의 중공업 분야에서는 작업이 중량이고 대형임에 따라 로봇이 부재의 특정위치로 이동하여 작업해야 한다. 또한 작업대상의 형상이나 치수가 매번 변경됨에 따라 이에 능동적으로 대처할 수 있어야 한다. 본 연구에서는 두 대의 로봇(2대x6축=12축)이 다축 문형 캔트리(4축)에 장착된 조선용 필렛용접 로봇 시스템(16축)을 개발하였다. 필렛용접부재를 중심으로 두 대의 로봇이 양쪽을 동시에 용접하는 방식으로 고속회전토치를 적용하여 위빙동작없이 원하는 용접각장(Leg Length)을 생성할 수 있다. 캔트리 시스템은 PC 기반의 별도 제어기로 구성하여 두 대의 로봇 제어기와 신호 입출력에 의해 동시동작이 가능하도록 하였으며, 작업장에 놓인 부재의 위치오차를 보장하기 위하여 시각센서를 적용하였다. 용접시작점의 위치보정을 위한 시작점 검출을 위해접촉센서(Touch Sensor)를 적용하였으며, 용접선 추적을 위해서 아크센서(Arc Sensor)를 적용하였다. 본 시스템 2000년 1월 제작 설치가 완료되어 현재 성능 테스트가 완료된 상태로 향후 생산현장에 적용될 계획이다.

This paper introduces a clean mobile robot fur 4th generation LCD cassette, which is guided by optical sensor and position compensation using vision module. The mobile robot for LCD cassette transfer might be controlled by AGV controller which has powerful algorithms. It offers optimum routes to the destination of clean mobile robot by using dynamic dispatch algorithm and MAP data. This clean mobile robot is equipped with 4 axes fork type manipulator providing repeatability accuracy of
$\pm$ 0.05mm. 
The purpose of this paper is to study on the control of a selfactivated cable spooling system for towed array handling winch using a hydraulic servo driving unit and a cable position measurement mechanism. To design a controller of the cable spooling system, it is carried out the analysis of the hydraulic servo system and derived the relationship of a parameters through the control theory. Also, it is derived from the control specifications using settling rotation angle and spooling safety ratio proposed to the analysis for the behavior of the system. The cable spooling system is tested and evaluated to validate the performance of the controller.

Tangjin Power Plant is modern Korean standard plant which is made up Once Through Super Critical Boiler, Turbin, Generator and Flue Gas Desulfarization System. INFI90 system fur control of the 500 MW Korean standard super critical once through boiler MarkV for Turbine, EX2000 fer Generator, WDPF for FGD were installed in Tangiin thermal power plant. There were two BFPTs, BFPM, 25% control valve, 35% control valve to control boiler feed water flow. It is very difficult to tune the Separator Tank level control system and change the mode from Wet to Dry. This paper focuses on test results and modification control logic for feed water control system in Tangjin power plant.

The Resistance Spot Welding (RSW) has been considered as an inherently safe and reliable method far joining metals, and has been widely employed, especially in automobile body assembly shops, as a manufacturing process. In recent years, the requirement for more sophisticated quality control procedures has considerably grown in the mass production industries. The object of the application of servo control to spot welding gun is the improvement of quality control in the spot welding, one of conventional industrial areas. The important factors affecting welding qualities (shear strength, nuggest size, indentation depth) are welding current, welding time, and gun press force. Welding current and welding time are controlled by welding timer. But, the conventional welding guns using compressed air are out of control in changing gun press forces in welding process. In this paper, a servo gun welding system having a AC servo motor and a PC control system is presented. The main object of this paper is to estimate the influence of gun press force changes in the welding process (press time > welding time > hold time) to welding qualities, and to evaluate welding qualities in real time, by recognizing the patterns of gun press forces changed in the welding process and comparing with the standard patterns.

Each robot plays a role of its own behavior in dynamic robotsoccer environment. One of the most necessary conditions to win a game is control of robot movement. In this paper we suggest a win strategy using Cellular Neural Network to set optimal path and cooperative behavior, which divides a soccer ground into gridcell based ground and has robots move a next gridcell along the optimal path to approach the moving target.

This paper presents a genetic programming based evolutionary strategy for online adaptive learnable evolvable hardware. genetic programming can be useful control method for evolvable hardware for its unique tree structured chromosome. However it is difficult to represent tree structured chromosome on hardware, and it is difficult to use crossover operator on hardware. Therefore, genetic programming is not so popular as genetic algorithms in evolvable hardware community in spite of its possible strength. We propose a chromosome representation methods and a hardware implementation method that can be helpful to this situation. Our method uses context switchable identical block structure to implement genetic tree on evolvable hardware. We composed an evolutionary strategy (or evolvable hardware by combining proposed method with other's striking research results. Proposed method is applied to the autonomous mobile robots cooperation problem to verify its usefulness.

Technical advance of electrical chart and cruising equipment make it possible to sail without a man. It is important to decide the cruising route in view of effectiveness and stability of a ship. So we need to study on the optimal trajectory planning. Genetic algorithm is a strong optimization algorithm with adaptational random search. It is a good choice to apply genetic algorithm to the trajectory planning of a ship. We modify a genetic algorithm to solve this problem. The effectiveness of the revised genetic algorithm is assured through computer simulations.

In this parer, we present a realtime path planning algorithm which is integrated the artificial potential field(APF) and simulated annealing(SA) methods for mobile robot. The APF method in path planning has gained popularity since 1990's. It doesn't need the modeling of the complex configuration space of robot, and is easy to apply the path planning with simple computation. However, there is a major problem with APF method. It is the formation of local minima that can trap the robot before reaching its goal. So, to provide local minima recovery, we apply the SA method. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified through simulation.

The objective of this research is to monitor and control the vehicle motion in order to remove out the existing safety risk based upon the humanmachine cooperative vehicle control. A predictive control method is proposed to control the steering wheel of the vehicle to keep the lane. Desired angle of the steering wheel to control the vehicle motion could be calculated based upon vehicle dynamics, current and estimated pose of the vehicle every sample steps. The vehicle pose and the road curvature were calculated by geometrically fusing sensor data from camera image, tachometer and steering wheel encoder though the Perception Net, where not only the state variables, but also the corresponding uncertainties were propagated in forward and backward direction in such a way to satisfy the given constraint condition, maintain consistency, reduce the uncertainties, and guarantee robustness. A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the control performance, in which a car Like robot was utilized to quit unwanted safety problem. As the results, the robot was keeping very well a given lane with arbitrary shape at moderate speed.

In this paper, we present the position control of pendulum system which is driven by a ultrasonic motor. Since the system's response is different for each initial position of pendulum, it is difficult to obtain the satisfiable control performance by using a neural network which is learned by offline. To overcome this problem, we propose the multiple controller based on fuzzy inference system for ultrasonic motor. and controller is designed by neural network. The proposed method shows good performance for any initial positions and it's effectiveness is verified from experiments. We expect that ultrasonic motor can be used as actuators of robot's leg or manipulator.

In the recent, the size of hardware is smaller and the structure is simpler, without reducing the performance of the digital controller. Accordingly, the fixedpoint arithmetic is very important in the digital controller. This paper presents simulation to apply the robust control algorithms to DVDR servo controller using the floatingpoint and fixedpoint arithmetic from the matlab. Also, it analyses and compares the performance of control algorithms in the each of point calculation and presents a method for improvement of drop in the performance, quantization error and overflow/underflow from using the fixedpoint arithmetic

In this work, we have developed a 2 degree of freedom(DOF) motion simulator that can generate the sensation of motion in a 6 DOF space. The motion base has the DOF of roll and pitch, and the purpose of the motion base is to create the sensation of riding a vehicle in a 3D space by controlling the motion base. The dynamics of the mechanism was analysed and the optimal design of the motion base mechanism has been reached. The prototype motion base mechanism was developed and tested. The multiaxis motion controller(MMC) was used to control the two ac servo motors that drive the roll and pitch motion.

This paper analyzes the characteristics of presliding friction of an XY table of CNC machining center at velocity reversal, and presents a simple and effective method of friction compensation based on this characteristics. At velocity reversal, a large position tracking error occurs because of the discontinuous change of friction. The relationship between the occurrence time of maximum position tracking error and the acceleration at zero velocity is analyzed by using the springlike friction model. Furthermore, the experimental observation verifies this relation. From this, the state transition tine from presliding regime into sliding regime can be predicted. Using the predicted transition time, the friction can be effectively compensated and table experimental results show its effectiveness.

This paper presents a new torque sharing function method that extends the definition region of the conventional TSF to both the positive and negative torque production regions. By using this definition, all kinds of the control inputs that consider switching on/off angle control as well as the current profiling can be described. A parametrized representation of the current profiles is proposed by using a series of Bspline functions, which reduces memory requirement and enables additional controllers. Optimal determination of the TSFs are also investigated for various control objectives. Moreover, the comparison study of each objective is presented. Since this method generalizes all of the possible control input, the current and torque profiles obtained from the optimization are the most suitable control input that satisfy the objectives.

Electromagnetic Suspension(EMS) System produces no noise, friction and heat through noncontacting operation Therefore, the applicable device using EMS system has a lot of attraction in case of the highspeed and noncontacting transmission EMS with nonlinear properties requires a precise airgap position control and stable kinematics characteristics under the disturbances, In this study, the nonlinear system was linearized by a Nonlinear Feedback Lineariztion(NFL) method. The NFL method requires that the modelling should be exact, and the state variables should be measured and a rapidly operating controller be necessary on account of a heavy data calculating In the experiments. the ideal control characteristics of the NFL was acquired through simulation at first. then the characteristics of the actual system were compared with those of simulation. In addition, the results by NFL were examined and analysed considering the characteristics of the PID control. The Control by NFL shows much stable control characteristics than the PID control. Whereas, the steady state errors occur for various disturbances. hence a robust control design is remained for a further study.

In this paper, we propose a method to automatically extract stable visual landmarks from observed data for a mobile robot with stereo vision system. The robot selects as stable landmarks vertical line segments which are distinct and on planar surfaces, because they are expected to be observed reliably from various viewpoints. When the robot moves, it uses several, less uncertain landmarks for estimating its motion. Experimental results in real scenes show the validity of the proposed method.

In this paper the systematic modeling method of general wheeled mobile robot is proposed. First we show how to describe kinematics properties of wheeled mobile robot in the method formulating constraint equations using Basic Homogeneous Transform(BHT) which is used mainly the kinematics modeling of manipulator, and, under assumption it's provided part of nullvector in given constraint equations, find kinematics model of mobile robot related to actuators in real robot.

This paper relates to develop the humanmobile interface system using saccadic eye movements as an aid to the disabled. EOG(ElectroOculoGraphy) method is used to measure the potentials of rapid eye movements because the method is not expensive and the device is simple. But because the resolution and accuracy of this signal are not good, the algorithm to remove the drifting, using ideal velocity shape, is applied to process the signals. The mobile robot (POSTURII) used in this system was developed in Robot & Biomechatronics laboratory in POSTECH and has the teleoperation system for the telecommunication with a main computer. Our Research is to help the physically disabled except his eye movements to operate some works with the mobile. Our Results about the system's possibility will be showed by some experimental tests giving the point information to the mobile by eyegaze.

We developed a humansized BWR(biped walking robot) driven by a new actuator based on the ball screw which has high strength and high gear ratio. The robot overcomes the limit of the driving torque of conventional BWRs. Each leg of the robot is composed of three pitch joints and one roll joint. In all, a 10 degreeoffreedom robot with two balancing joints was developed. The BWR was developed to walk autonomously such that it is actuated by small torque motors and is boarded with DC battery and controllers. In the performance test, the BWR peformed nice motions of sittingup and sittingdown. Through the test, we could find capability of high performance in bipedwalking.

In the inspection of the reactor pressure vessel using an underwater mobile robot, we developed a new bidirectional guidance control scheme between an underwater mobile robot and a laser pointer. We imposed fanning to the inclinometer embedded in the mobile robot to improve its transient response, and used heuristic control scheme to reduce accidents when the laser pointer losts the mobile robot. We implemented these algorithms to our reactor vessel inspect ion system and performed a series of experiments.

This paper presents a predictive control with H
$_{\infty}$ suboptimal performance which is robust to disturbances and has a guaranteed stability. In order to derive the control law conveniently, statespace based approach, where the state variable is involved explicitly in the controller design and implementation is allowed. So an inputoutput model is converted to an equivalent observable canonical statespace form. The suggested control guarantees the norm bounded system output values from disturbances. A systematic way using the LMI method is presented to obtain appropriate parameters for Quadratic stability condition and optimization problem. 
Input delay is frequently encountered in the practical systems since measurement delay and computational delay can be represented by input delay. In this viewpoint, this paper deals with the robust control problem of input delayed systems with structured uncertainty. Robust stability conditions are provided in terms of linear matrix inequalities(LMIs) and it is shown that the proposed conditions can give less conservative maximum bound of input delay guaranteeing robust stability.

This paper considers guaranteed cost output feedback controller for the uncertain timevarying delay systems with delays in state and control input. The uncertainty in the system is assumed to be normbounded and timevarying. The sufficient condition for the existence of controller and the guaranteed cost output feedback controller design method are presented. Also, using some changes of variables and Schur complements, the obtained sufficient condition can be reformulated as LMI forms in terms of transformed variables. Using the obtained LMI variables, we derive guaranteed cost controller gain and guaranteed cost.

since the controller is part or the overall closedLoop system, it is necessary that the designed controller be able to tolerate some uncertainty in its coefficients. The adequate stability and performance margins are required for the designed nominal controllers. In the paper. we study the method to design the nonfragile fixedstructured controller for real parametric uncertain systems. When we impose the controller parameter perturbation, the structure of the controller must be given. Therefore, we assume that the controller has fixedstructure. The fixedstructure controller is practically necessary especially when the robust controller synthesis results in a highorder controller. In SISO systems, we propose the robust controller design method using the Mapping theorem. In the method, the plant uncertainty and controller Parameter are of the multilineal form in the stability and performance conditions. Then, the controller synthesis problem is easily recast to Linear Programming Problem.

We present a new scheme to increase the performance of edgepreserving image smoothing from the parameter tuning of a Markov random field (MRF) function. The method is based on automatic control of the image smoothingstrength in MRF model ing in which an introduced parameter function is based on control of enforcing power of a discontinuityadaptive Markov function and edge magnitude resulted from discontinuities of image intensity. Without any binary decision for the edge magnitude, adaptive control of the enforcing power with the full edge magnitude could improve the performance of discontinuitypreserving image smoothing.

In the future, the convenient speech command system will become an widelyusing interface in automation systems. But the previous research in speech recognition didn't give satisfactory recognition results for the practical realization in the noise environment. The purpose of this research is the development of a practical system, which reliably recognizes the speech command of the registered users, by complementing an existing research which used the image information with the speech signal. For the lipreading feature extraction from a image, we used the DWT(Discrete Wavelet Transform), which reduces the size and gives useful characteristics of the original image. And to enhance the robustness to the environmental changes of speakers, we acquired the speech signal by stereo method. We designed an economic standalone system, which adopted a Bt829 and an AD1819B with a TMS320C31 DSP based addon board.

This paper designs a digital correlator for the integrated GPS/GLONASS receiver consisting of DCO, carrier cycle counter, code generator, code phase counter, mixer, epoch counter, accumulator. It is designed using VerilogHDL(VerilogHardware Description Language) and synthesized using EDA(Electronic Design Automation) tools. The performance of the designed digital correlator is verified by the functional simulation and real satellite tracking experiments.

This paper presents the efficient algorithms for the pose determination of a circular object with and without a priori knowledge of the object radius. The developed algorithms valid for a circular object are the result of the elaboration of Ma's work [2], which determines the pose of a conic object from two perspective views. First, the geometric constraint of a circular object and its projection on the image plane of a camera is described. The number of perspective views required for the object pose determination with and without a priori knowledge of the object radius is also discussed. Second, with a priori knowledge of the object radius, the pose of a circular object is determined from a single perspective view. The object pose information, expressed by two surface normal vectors and one position vector, is given in a closed form and with no ambiguity. Third, without a priori knowledge of the object radius, the pose of a circular object is determined from two perspective views. While the surface normal vectors are obtained from the first view, the position vector is obtained from the two views.

This paper's purpose obtain information of three dimension using a camera. This system embody to know the height of object using triangle method between reference point of circumstance and object. As I use java program, it is possible to make system regardless of operating system, set up the system. By using comportable USB port camera, we used to everywhere without the capture board. We can use the internet by using the java's JMF and applet everywhere, we regard the camera as fixed.

In this paper, we introduce a new genetic reordering operator based on the concept of schema to solve optimization problems such as the Traveling Salesman Problem(TSP) and maximizing or minimizing functions. In particular, because TSP is a wellknown combinational optimization problem andbelongs to a NPcomplete problem, there is huge solution space to be searched. For robustness to local minima, the operator separates selected strings into two parts to reduce the destructive probability of good building blocks. And it applies inversion to the schema part to prevent the premature convergence. At the same time, it searches new spaces of solutions. Additionally, the nonschema part is applied to inversion for robustness to local minima. By doing so, we can preserve diversity of the distributions in population and make GA be adaptive to the dynamic environment.

In this paper, we have proposed a new approach to the design of robot vision system to develop the technology for the automatic test and assembling of precision mechanical and electronic parts fur the factory automation. In order to perform real time implementation of the automatic assembling tasks in the complex processes, we have developed an intelligent control algorithm basedon neural networks control theory to enhance the precise motion control. Implementing of the automatic test tasks has been performed by the realtime vision algorithm basedon TMS320C31 DSPs. It distinguishes correctly the difference between the acceptable and unacceptable defective item through pattern recognition of parts by the developed vision algorithm. Finally, the performance of proposed robot vision system has been illustrated by experiment for the similar model of fifth cell among the twelve cell fur automatic test and assembling in S company.

In this paper, we propose a method of constructing equation using bioinspired emergent and evolutionary concepts. This method is algorithm that is based on the characteristics of the biological DNA and growth of plants. Here is. we propose a constructing method to make a DNA coding method for production rule of Lsystem. Lsystem is based on socalled the parallel rewriting mechanism. The DNA coding method has no limitation in expressing the production rule of Lsystem. Evolutionary algorithms motivated by Darwinian natural selection are population based searching methods and the high performance of which is highly dependent on the representation of solution space. In order to verify the effectiveness of our scheme, we apply it to one step ahead prediction of MackeyGlass time series.

This paper presents an implementation of speech recognition system for teaching an autonomous mobile robot. The use of human speech as the teaching method provides more convenient userinterface for the mobile robot. In this study, for easily teaching the mobile robot, a study on the autonomous mobile robot with the function of speech recognition is tried. In speech recognition system, a speech recognition algorithm using HMM(Hidden Markov Model) is presented to recognize Korean word. Filterbank analysis model is used to extract of features as the spectral analysis method. A recognized word is converted to command for the control of robot navigation.

The analysis of the radiation effect on matter has been performed using stochastic methods. Recently, It was discovered that the detector pulses of radiation can be analysed using deterministic method that utilizes the chaotic behaviour with an attractor found in a noise region. We acquired a time series for pulse tram of Am241 using scintillation detector and reconstructed a phase space, then performed new analysis for the radiation detection signal by applying embedding theory, Lyapunov exponent, correlation dimension, autocorrelation dimension, and power spectrum.

In this paper, we deals with a decentralized control scheme with input compensation form for gantry crane systems. By considering the gantry crane's characteristics, the system is decentralized into two subsystems such as the travelling and sway subsystem, and the hoisting subsystem. For decentralizing the system, a simple algorithm is proposed using observability canonical form. The decentralized subsystems include unknown input which coupled with other subsystems and actuator failures. These unknown input and actuator failures are estimated by using PI observation techniques and those estimated values are used to construct an input compensation form. Lastly, the proposed decentralized control scheme far the gantry crane systems is verified by crane simulation.

In adaptive fuzzy control systems. fuzzy systems are used to approximate the unknown plant nonlinearities. Until now. most of the papers in the field of controller design for nonlinear system using fuzzy systems considers the affine system with fixed gridrule structure based on system state availability. This paper considers observerbased nonlinear controller and dynamic fuzzy rule structure. Adaptive laws for fuzzy parameters for state observer and fuzzy rule structure are established so that the whole system is stable in the sense of Lyapunov.

A continuous and reliable electrical energy supply is the objective of any power system operation. A transmission line is the part of the power system where faults are most likely to happen. This paper describes the use of wavelet transform for analyzing power system fault transients in order to determine the fault location. Synchronized sampling was made possible by precise time receivers based on GPS time reference, and the sampled data were analyzed using wavelet transform. This paper describes a fault location monitoring system and fault locating algorithm with GPS, DSP processor, and data acquisition board, and presents some experimental results and error analysis.

We consider a negative unity feedback control system in which Che PIO, PI, PD or P controller and a transfer function having only poles are in cascade, We define the notion of the structural polynomial which means that there exists a subdomain of the coefficient space in which the polynomial is Hurwitz (left half plane stable) polynomial. We obtain the necessary and sufficient condition of the structure of the transfer function of which the characteristic polynomial is a structural polynomial, In addition, this paper present another necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a constant gain controller with which the characteristic polynomial is structurally stable, For the structurally stabilizable P controller, it is allowed that the transfer function may not to all pole plants.

As a method to control the bacteria number in adequate level, a real time control system based on microscope image processing measurement for the bacteria is adopted. For the experiment, Ammoniaoxidizing bacteria such as Acinetobacter sp. are used. This paper proposed hybrid method combined watershed algorithm with adaptive automatic thresholding method to enhance segmentation efficiency of overlapped image. Experiments was done to show the effectiveness of the proposed method compared to traditional Otsu's method, Otsu's method with adaptive automatic thresholding method and human visual method.

Reactor vessel is one of the most important equipment with regard to the safety of nuclear power plant. Thus nuclear regulation requires its periodical examination by certified inspection experts. Conventional reactor inspection machines are obsolete, hard to handle, and very expensive. To solve these problems we developed robotic reactor vessel inspection system which are small, easy to use for inspection, cost effective, and convenient in operation. This paper describes the main features of Main Control System which is one part of robotic inspection equipment we developed.

In this paper, a new textbased method is suggested for the usersystem interaction. The use of textbased user interface is mote efficient under situation which don't be introduced the GUI because of the limitation of hardware cost or improvement of system performance. The dialogical method using suggested hierarchical structure is the easier for a convenience of usage and the method in this paper is the more useful as considering knowledgeable background and environment of task for user As a practical example, the method for the proposed textbased user interface construction is applied to DoubleLift Open Shedding Electronic Jacquard.

This paper presents some ideas about an open architectural controller platform for semiconductor manufacturing equipment First, we proposed modulartyped software architecture. Each module is composed of commands and status sets. Second, common bus protocol is suggested in order to communicate with other modules. It is designed with visual c++ programming. Finally, job program is consisted of simple commands and status. Consequently, Controllers are easily developed with some required modular assembling.

A vehicle driving simulator is a virtual reality device which a human being feels as if the one drives a vehicle actually. Driving Operation System acts as an interface between a driver and a driving simulator. This paper suggests the driving operation system for a driving simulator. This system consists of a controller, DC geared motor, MR brake, rotary encoders, steeping motor and bevel gear box. Reaction force and torque on the steering system were made by DC_Motor and MR_Brake. Reaction force and torque on the steering system were compare between real car and a driving simulator. The controller based on the 80C196KC micro processor that manage and transfer signal.

Since highpower CO
$_2$ Laser can be make a high densed energy to Local processing area, manufacturing processes using the laser can be processed for very Localized areas at a very fast rate with minimal or no distortion. Accordingly, the laser has been widely used in the fields of thermal manufacturing processes such as welding, fusion cutting, grooving, and heat treatment of metals. In particular, interest in the laser heat treatment process has grown tremendously in the past few years. In this process, maintaining the uniform hardening depth is important problem to obtain good quality products and to reduce heat induced distortion and residual stress. For achieving this objective, we introduced a new design technique of a fuzzy logic controller that greatly simplified the design procedure by defining several simplified design parameters. In the design procedure, the major design parameters of the controller are characterized by identifying several common aspects. From a series of simulation results, we found that the proposed design technique can be effectively used to design of a fuzzy logic controller for the LASER surface hardening process. 
The SECS(SEMI Equipment Communications Standard) is a standard protocol for communication between equipments and a host in semiconductor processes. This paper proposes the implementation of the HSMS(Highspeed SECS Message Services) as an interface for transmission of the SECS messages and SECSII containing message contents defined as an SEMI standard. The HSMS driver is implemented as a type of the daemon program and several DLL files. The SECSII composes of the SML(SECS Message Language) file defining the SECS messages, the SML translator being able to interpret and transform the SML, and the data index table being able to refer to SECS messages. We also define the shared parameter to exchange the HSMS header and SECS message between the HSMS and the SECSII. Eventually, to show the effectiveness of the proposed drivers, we test the SECS communications between equipments and a host using the implemented communication programs.

In this paper, we would like to discuss the signal processing and the algorithm for ECG analysis. The ECG gives us information about the condition of the heart muscle, because myocardial abnormality or infarction is inscribed on the ECG during myocardial depolarization and repolarization. Analyzing the ECG signal, we can find heart disease, for example, arrhythmia and myocardial infarction, etc. Particularly, detecting arrhythmia is more important, because serious arrhythmia can take away the life from patients within ten minutes. The wavelet transform decomposes the ECG signal into high and low frequency component using wavelet function. Recomposing high frequency bands including QRS complex, we can detect QRS complex and eliminate the noise from the original ECG signal. To recognize the ECG signal pattern, we adopted the curvefitting partially and statistical method. The ECG signal is divided into small parts based on QRS complex, and then, each part is approximated to the polynomials. Comparing the approximated ECG pattern with some kinds of heart disease ECG pattern, we can detect and classify the kind of heart disease.

In this paper, the measurement algorithm of PCB alignment error is developed using image processing. The XY
$\theta$ table correcting PCB alignment error is driven by drive module based on microprocessor according to calculation results obtained through image processing procedure. In order to recognize the XY$\theta$ position errors, two fiducial points are marked on PCB and two cameras of ultraviolet rays types are used for detection of the points to capture exactly fiducial points under disturbance of illumination change. Through application for a practical screen printer, the precision control using the developed position control system can be realized about 2.5${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ in table moving range and 8${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ in camera processing precision. 
This paper describes the features of a transmission line and a wiring, and a design rule based on a demanded condition for a wiring. Like as the simulation of a circuit, by tracking the wiring path among parts that are disposed on PCB, we analyze the feature of the corresponding wiring using the design formula and rule. We implement a signal integrity simulator, which is capable of electrical and electronic simulation for the feature of a wiring signal and the corresponding signal, and the results are demonstrated.

This paper proposed character recognition method by using DB Matching and Artificial Neural Network at the Gerber files. Gerber files are file for make PCB. But we also use the file to a program of extraction PCB position data. If the Gerber file recognized a character, the extraction PCB position data will be faster and also when the recognition rate is high, it can be possible to automatic extraction. We apply to the construction PCB Gerber file program and Simulation results are presented to verify the usefulness of the method.

This paper presents the optimization technique to analyze the effect of the design parameters of rapid prototyping system for human brain model fabrication. The optimization method considers the functional relationships among the design parameters such as thickness gap, shrink rate, and laser speed that govern the operation of fabrication system. This paper applies a discrete optimization technique as the optimization method to determine the dominant parameter values. Additional study includes manner of complement surface image of ellipse which approximates the brain model using the adaptive slicing and the offset contour. According to the parameters tuning and interaction of effect, more suitable parameter values can be obtained by enhanced 3D brain model fabrication.

In this paper, a determination method of number of AGVs fer introducing to the multipath material handling systems is presented by using genetic algorithm. For serving the raw material to each work stations automatically, there needs to introduce a AGVs for transfer the raw martial. To reduce the overall production cost in the material handling systems, however, a trade off exists between the amount of inventory hold on the shop floor and the number of AGVs needed to provide adequate service. In this paper, firstly a objective function which included the net present fixed costs of each stations and each purchased AGVs, delivering cost. stock inventory cost, and safety stock inventory cost is presented. Secondly by using genetic algorithm, the optimal reorder quantity at each stations is decided, where the number of AGVs is increased step by step. From a simulation with different GA parameters, we can determine a optimal number of AGVs to reduce the overall production cost. Thus, the effectiveness of GA for determining the number of AGVs is verified in automated material handling systems.

Reduced lifecycle and scale of electronic products make the conventional automated manufacturing system difficult to keep on competitiveness in these days. Reduced lifecycle requires an agile adaptation of manufacturing to new products and reduced scale requires enhanced precision as well as high speed. In this research, We propose a new concept called as "OneCell Minifactory" in which various processes are combined to produce final modules or products and human interaction can be combined easily. We hope the proposed concept can guide new developments of automated manufacturing in electronics, optics and bioengineering.

It is well known, for many years, that deep drawability ,can be improved by applying variable blank holding force. To apply variable blank holding force during cup during, we set up pressure controlling system on experimental hydraulic press, and the pressure control system is often called NC(Numerically Controlled} cushion system. Using the NC cushion system we carry out pressure control experiment and the proposed structure shows good performance. And we compare drawability of square steel cups with NC cushion and that with conventional cushion. The results show drawability is greatly improved when the pressure control curve is designed in a Sshaped curve. This paper includes design details of the NC cushion system and experimental analysis of drawability with experimental NC cushion system.

This paper presents the measurement and correction of PCB alignment errors for PCBmanufacturing machines. The conventional PCBmanufacturing machine doesn't have enough accuracy to accommodate the demand for highresolution circuit pattern and highdensity mounting capacity of electronic chips. It is because of alignment errors of PCB loaded to the PCBmanufacturing machine. Therefore, this study focuses on the development of the system which is able to measure and correct alignment errors whit highaccuracy. An automatic optical inspection part measures the PCB alignment error using two cameras, and the highaccuracy 3axis stage makes correct of these error. The operating system is run in the environment of Window 98 (or NT). Finally we implemented this system to PCB screen printer and PCB exposure system.

It is difficult to determine the static axle weight of a vehicle with weighinmotion systems which in absence measure instantaneous axle impact forces. The difficulty in determining a static axle weight results from dynamic effects induced by vehicle/road interactions. One method to improve the problem is to quantify a statistical confidence level for measured axle weight. The quartercar model is used to simulate vehicle motion, Also, the road input to vehicle model can be characterized in statistical terms by PSD (power spectral density) of appropriate amplitude and frequency contents other than an exact spatial distribution. The confidence levels for the measured axle weight can be obtained by the random process analysis using both vehicle model and road input.

품질이 우수한 에어콘 제어기 콘트롤라를 생산하기 위해서는 기본적인 설계에서 한층 진보된 설계기법과 광도에 맞는 PCB(Printed Circuit Board)를 선택하여야만 생산성 향상과 안정성을 확보할 수 있다. 이는 설계의 다양한 기법과 전문성을 요구함으로써 해결될 수 있다. 정보화 사회의 구현에 맞추어 전기 및 전자산업의 빠른 속도로 변화함으로써 개발자도 여러 가지 기법과 낑산성, 신뢰성을 고려하여 설계할 수가 있어야 하겠다.

In this paper, we developed a Windows 98 version offline programming system which can simulate a track vehicle model in 3D graphics space. The track vehicle was adopted as an objective model. The interface between users and the offline program system in the Windows 98's graphic user interface environment was also studied. The developing language is Microsoft Visual C++. Graphic libraries, OpenGL, by Silicon Graphics, Inc. were utilized for 3D Graphics.

This paper analyze the dynamic characteristics of Automated Guided Vehicle(AGV) which is being developed as a part of automation in port through DADS, one of the multidynamic analysis program, Previous evaluation of a vehicle is carried out through the continuous driving test of a real vehicle, however this method raise the loss of finance and time. If it is possible to analyze the dynamic characteristics of vehicle before construction completely we can compensate the loss of money and time during constructing. AGV contained containers is very heavy and its center of gravity can be easily changed with the disturbance from road or cornering. It makes AGV unsatisfied, therefore we evaluate the handling characteristics and stability of the full vehicle model. This paper contribute to establish the foundation of the development of a new system like a AGV which have a special structure.

The swing motion of the spreader during and after movement causes an efficiency problem of position control in unmaned gantry crane. The objective of this research is to design implementable stabilizing controllers that minimize the swing motion of spreader in precise position control. The dynamic equations related to trolley, rope, and spreader are derived. For constitute a similar actual system, we introduced a conception of spring and damper in the connector. It is located between the trolley and link that is used in stead of rope. We derived dynamic equation by appliance that friction and external disturbance are occurred to the connector. We constituted of position servo system and velocity servo system for the control of position and velocity of the trolley and constituted of lag compensator system for the control of sway of the spreader. And we will show an effect of the proposed system in this research finally.

In case of fire in the highrise buildings, the appropriate and safe evacuation plans for the building residents are very important to minimize the number of casualties. Since the evacuation time usually depends on the floor plans of the buildings, the evacuation plans should be considered while the architectural design is done. Conventionally, the calculation of the evacuation time in the case of fire breakout is based on the approximate mathematical equations which are prone to error In this study, the simulator model is developed to help the architectural designers to access the more accurate evacuation time and find out the floor plans which offers the most safe evacuation plans for the residents in case of fire.

The main objective of this study is to understand the regeneration step of the PTSA(Pressure and thermal swing adsorption) process below the atmospheric pressure by rigorous dynamic simulation. This target process is to recover toluene using activated carbon as an adsorbent. To do this, the dynamic simulations for the regeneration step are performed at 360, 490, 590mmHg and at high temperature after the simulation of the adsorption step at latm and 298K. A mathematical model was developed to simulate the column dynamics of the adsorption systems. This model is based on nonequilibrium, nonisothermal and nonadiabatic conditions, and axial dispersion and heat conduction are also considered. Heat transfer resistances are considered in gassolid, gascolumn wall and column walloutside air. The LDF(Linear Driving Force) approximation model describes the mass transfer rate between the gas and solid phase. This study shows that the recovery of toluene by PTSA is more preferable than that by general TSA.

The main problem in stereo vision is to find corresponding points in left and right image known as correspondence problem. Once correspondences determined, the depth information of those points are easily computed form the pairs of points in both image. In this paper, dynamic programming considering halfoccluded region is used fer solving correspondence problem.

We propose a DPbased formulation for matching line patterns by defining a robust and stable geometric representation that is based on the conceptual organizations. Usually, the endpoint proximity and collinearity of image lines, as two main conceptual organization groups, are useful cues to match the model shape in the scene. As the endpoint proximity, we detect junctions from image lines. We then search for junction groups by using geometric constraint between the junctions. A junction chain similar to the model chain is searched in the scene, based on a local comparison. A Dynamic Programmingbased search algorithm reduces the time complexity for the search of the model chain in the scene. Our system can find a reasonable matching, although there exist severely distorted objects in the scene. We demonstrate the feasibility of the DPbased matching method using both synthetic and real images.

Human sensibility ergonomics is applied to evaluation of dynamic performance of a vehicle driving simulator. Vehicle, driving environment, and human perception models are constructed and integrated. Driving simulations are carried out based on these models. This study defines a set verbal expressions collected and investigates which are the most appropriate for describing the fidelity of translational and angular accelerations of the driving simulator. An statistical analysis is uscd to find correlation between the ergonomic sensibility and the cutoff frequency of the washout algorithm. This study suggests a methodology to obtain an ergonomic database which can be used for the performance evaluation of dynamic environments.

Recently the number of lectures of offered as part of distance education courses is increasing due to the necessity of continuing education in this era of rapidly changing technologies. To promote this, Webbased distance education systems have been developed and put into practical use. To step further, we propose a virtual space, distance education platform called interactive virtual laboratory. The proposed system is expected to overcome many obstacles in performing the unit operations laboratory at the current setting. The server/client system implementation was programmed with ASP and Visual Basic. The availability of simple and efficient technological supports for dissemination and remote use of virtual lab systems supports more experimental practices regardless of the number of participating students and their locations. Variety of instruments, process equipments and lab procedures are being added to make it a complete package of virtual lab fur undergraduate unit operations course.

This study deals with the analysis of the effectiveness of a safer belt in frontal crash. ATB, Articulated Total Body, program is used as a dynamics solver of the occupant model. ATB is a public code, however, the program is somewhat cumbersome to use due to lack of sufficient user interface. A preprocessor and a postprocessor are, therefore, developed for a user friendly graphic interface in Windows environment. Dialog boxes are used for an interface with GEBOD, Generator of Body Data, for human anthropometry and with ADAMS for vehicle dynamics. It is found through three test simulations that simulated results are in good agreement with those obtained by ATB. The effect of the initial slack of safety belt is investigated for frontal crash using the developed program.

강환일;정요원;송영기 315
In this paper, we perform the time series prediction using the SVM(Support Vector Machine). We make use of two different loss functions and two different kernel functions; i) Quadratic and$\varepsilon$ insensitive loss function are used; ii) GRBF(Gaussian Radial Basis Function) and ERBF(Exponential Radial Basis Function) are used. MackeyGlass time series are used for prediction. For both cases, we compare the results by the SVM to those by ANN(Artificial Neural Network) and show the better performance by SVM than that by ANN. 
SPM dynamic model was developed by using Bland & Ford formulas considered elastic zone in roll gap, gauge meter equation, tension equation, speed equation and actuator models. And SPM controllers of the field were done model ing. It was shown the efficiency of constant tension, rol1ing force and elongation controllers by the simulation program and it was recommended the proper gain to the controllers of the field.

The mathematical setup model was developed to reduce the mechanical property deviation in annealed and slightly rolled steel strip. The mechanical peculiarities of temper rolling process, such as high friction value and noncircular contact arc, Low reduction and nonnegligible entry and exit elastic zones as well as central restricted deformation zone are all taken into account. The deformation of work rolls is calculated with the influence function method and arbitrary contact arc shape is permitted. The strip deformation is modeled by slab method and the entry and exit elastic deformation zones are included. The restricted deformation Bone near the neutral point is also considered. It was revealed that the new model has better accuracy than present regression model by statistical analysis with actual mill rolling data.

Current signal square based on switch current is presented in this article. This is the new technique that can design current signal square circuit by using switchcurrent memory cell, current square and sample and hold technique, which have been presented by the general switchcurrent. This principle which is present have the good electrical characteristics such as the low input impedance, high output impedance and high frequency response. The system can also operate in the audio frequency range to the high frequency current signal. The system application of this technique can be apply to the current signal multiplier by quarter square technique. The experimental results agree well with the theory as high accuracy and linearity.

In this paper, A deadtime compensator (DTC) for the processes with long deadtime is proposed. The processes which consist of deadtime, timeconstant, gain are estimated by the linear least squares method in the frequency domain. A Smith predictor(SP) modified by including a filter becomes a two degree of freedom DTC. So the proposed DTC can yield the desirable setpoint and load disturbance responses separately. PI controller is used for the primary controller and the filter is tuned to be robust. Simulation examples demonstrate the properties of the proposed DTC.

In this paper, a temperature controller of a test plate for semiconductor is developed using LQG/LTR methodology. The liquid is heated or cooled in a tank by a heater of a cooler. The controller controls the flow of heated or cooled liquid in the plate by controling an electronic valve. The developed controller is applied to the plate designed for function test of a semiconductor under high or low temperature environment. As a result, control using the heater and the cooler together shows better control performance than using the heater or the cooler separately.

This paper presents a sliding mode controller based on variable structure for the tip position control of a singlelink flexible manipulator. Dynamic equations of a singlelink flexible manipulator are derived from the EulerLagrange equation using a Lagrangian assumed modes method based on BernoulliEuler Beam theory. Simulation results are presented to show the validity of the system modeling, controller design.

This paper shows an application of H
$_{\infty}$ control design for a magnetic suspension system which has strongly nonlinearity and parameter perturbation. The control design is evaluated by numerical simulations and experiments. 
In the tandem cold wiling mill, the quality is very in portant, and requirements for thickness accuracy become more strict. However, the mathematical model for prediction of rolling force was not considered an elastic deformation at the entry and delivery side of the contacted area between the worked roll and rolling strip so that there was so difficult to control of the thickness. To overcome this problem, the mathematical model included an elastic deformation of strip has been developed and applied to the field in order to predict the rolling force. The simulated results showed that the end of elastic recovery should be included the model, even if the effect of elastic compression was not important.

This paper presents a CANbased control system, which supports toleoperations over the Internet. As a result, CANbased control systems are opened up for remote control, monitoring and maintenance using WWWtechnology. Most of the system is written in JAVA because it is small, powerful package and can easily be reused in the whole system on different platforms and implemented in embedded system. The effectiveness of proposed method is demonstrated through the experiments using a CANbased manipulator, which allow remote access for Webbased Java clients.

This paper proposes a modified adaptive sliding mode control which improve the performance by making the system follow the nominal trajectories controlled by nominal controller. This method is used for the system with unknown parameter uncertainty and bounded uncertainties.

Continuous time system deadbeat controller(CdbC) has been studied mainly since 1992 especially by Japan researchers. They suggested delay elements. These elements stem from the finite Laplace Transform which is the starting point in deadbeat control system design in continuous time system. Every transfer function is established by these elements. From some conditions such as internal model stability and peasibility of a CdbC controller. unknown polynomials or coefficients can be calculated. In this paper, optimal pole placement of the closed loop system is suggested. From this. a CdbC controller with lower order can be obtained which attains the same level of weighted sensitivity function's H
$_{\infty}$ norm used as a measure of the robustness property as existing CdbCs. 
Derivation of a slab dimension from the desired tolerance degrades the product quality, resulting in significant yield loss by trimming. This necessitates the dimensional control system to be operated in tighter dimensional accuracy. This paper presents an integral approach to a dimensional control system design taking into account the interaction between the edging process and the gap rolling process. To investigate the effects of each process controller, a simple PID controller is adopted as a preliminary study. The control performance is analyzed in detail in terms of the system response accuracy for various operating conditions.

In this paper, An inverted pendulum system is typical of a nonlinear model. We propose a stable the inverted pendulum with fuzzy controller and state observer of nonlinear system. we represent the fuzzy system as a TakagjSugeno fuzzy model in addition, fullorder state observer of inverted pendulum. As the result show fuzzy controller of inverted pendulum with nonlinear model of fullorder state observer.

In this paper, a spindle system using an electromagnetic exciter is proposed to compensate a spindle disturbance such as unbalance and machining force etc A spindle compliance can be readily varied with a disturbance which is generated by the interact ion between the spindle / workpiece structure and the cutting process dynamics. The varied compliance is one of the major constraints that deteriorates the surface quality of workpiece. This paper suggests a compliance compensation by using the EME in the proposed spindle system. To compensate the varied compliance, firstly a spindle system modeling was conducted by using the bond graph. Then the model is simulated by numerical analysis method and an optimal EME position is determined to compensate a disturbance effectively through simulation, which makes the bearing load to be minimized

In this paper, as an entertainment robot the implementation of boxing robot system is presented for mechatronics education. In order for students to learn robot as a mechatronics system, boxing robot is a good model. The boxing robot consists of three parts: two link arms for punching, controller for actuating wheeled mobile robot, infrared rays sensors for the detection of he other robot and ring. The strategic algorithm for playing boxing is presented as wel as simple game rules.

This paper presents the mixed
$H_2/H_{\infty}$ output feedback controIler design method for linear systems with delayed state. The objective is to design the output feedback controller which minimizes the H$_2$ norm of one transfer function while ensuring the H$_{\infty}$ norm of the other is held below a chosen level. When objective is tormulated in terms of a common Lyapunov function, the sufficient conditions of existence of mixed$H_2/H_{\infty}$ controller are given in terms of LMIs. terms of LMIs. 
In this paper, a novel sliding mode control with uncertainty adaptation is produced by introducing a virtual state. Because upper bounds of the uncertainty is difficult to know, we estimate these upper bound by using the simple adaptation law and design the novel sliding mode controller. The nominal controller is used the optimal controller to minimize cost function.

When the generalized singular perturbation method is used for model reduction, the state variables of the original system is reconstructed from the reduced order model. The state reduction error is defined, which shows how well the reconstructed state variables approximate the state variables of the original system equation.

In this paper, sliding mode observer design principles based on the equivalent control approach are discussed for the systems which may not satisfy the matching conditions. We propose a new approach for designing a sliding observer and the proof of the stability of the state reconstruction error system for timeinvariant systems using the Lyapunov method. The reaching time to the sliding surface, the sliding dynamics of the system, the stability of the reconstruction error system via Lyapunov method, sufficient conditions for the existence of the sliding mode are studied.

Applications such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and the time varying nature of their navigation, guidance and control systems motivate an integrated approach to trajectory general ion and trajectory tracking for autonomous vehicles. In this paper, an experimental testbed was designed for studying this integrated trajectory control approach. In this paper we apply the separating approach to an autonomous nonlinear vehicle system. A new linear matrix inequality based H
$_{\infty}$ control technique for periodic timevarying systems is applied to the role of trajectory tracking. Trajectory general ion is accomplished by exploit ing the differential flatness property of the vehicle system; this at lows product ion of desired feasible nominal or reference trajectories from certain ″flat'system outputs. Simulation and experimental results are presented showing stable tracking of a periodic circular trajectory. 
This paper studied on the yaw motion of the gantry crane which is used for the automated container terminal. Though several problems are occurred in driving of gantry crane, they are solved by the motion by the operator. But if the gantry crane is unmanned, it is automatically controlled without any human operation. There are two types, cone and flat typo in driving wheel shape. In cone type, lateral vibration and yaw motion of crane are issued. To bring a solution to these problems, the dynamic equation of the gantry crane driving mechanism is derived and it used PD(ProportionalDerivative) controller to control the lateral vibration. The simulation result of the driving mechanism using the RungeKutta method is presented in this paper.

This paper describes a Chuck System developed for scaling PDP gas hole on PDP panel glass. There are lots of constraints for designing Chuck System: high temperature, high vacuum, precious motor control etc. A such constraints was considered by design of structure and by selecting of parts and material for Chuck System. The Chuck System was manufactured and assembled after the design process. It was applied on the PDP process unit. For sealing POP hole, precious control of a step motor was important in this system. For this experiment, a step motor, motor driver and micro controller(80196KC) were used.

This paper proposes a modified TDPSOLA algorithm for Korean speech synthesis. A WSS (Weighted score search) algorithm is proposed for pitch detection and speech synthesis engine is designed using 46 phones database.

In this parer, a method of measuring the size of defects on the wall and restructing the defect image of 3dimension is developed based on the tracking algorithm of a camera position which uses the inclination angle of line slit beam for overcoming the difficulty of the corresponding problem identifying the image point in the both image. In the experiments, an algorithm for estimating the horizontal angle of CCD camera is presented and validated by applying it to the measurement of area and length under the variations of both the distance and the angle of CCD camera. And its performance is compared to that of the rotating and mapping method of image which has the Euclidian distance.

This paper aims at deriving an equivalent finite dimensional discretetime system for H
$_{\infty}$ type problem for sampleddata control systems. A widely used ph is based on the lifting technique, but it needs somewhat complicate computation. Instead this paper derives an equivalent finitedimensional discretetime system directly from a description of the sampleddata system which is achieved via a closedloop expression of the worstcase intersample disturbance. 
This paper presents a sliding mode control(SMC) design method for single input linear systems with uncertainties and time delay in the state. We define a sliding surface for the augmented system with a virtual state which is defined from the nominal system. We make a virtual state from optimal control input using LOR(Linear Quadratic Regulator) and the states of the nominal system. We construct a controller that combines SMC with optimal controller. The proposed sliding mode controller stabilizes on the overall closedloop system.

We present 3axis stabilized spacecraft attitude determination algorithm using the magnetometer. The magnetometer has been used as a reliable, lightweight and inexpensive sensor in attitude determination and reaction wheel momentum dumping system. Recent studies have attempted to use the magnetometer when other attitude sensor, such as star tracker, fails. The differences between the measured and computed the Earth's magnetic field components are spacecraft attitude errors. In this paper, we propose extended Kalman filter(EKF) to determine spacecraft attitude with the magnetometer data and gyromeasured body rates. We develop and simulate this algorithm using MATLAB/SIMULINK. This algorithm can be used as a backup attitude determination system.

The conventional actuators with the speed reducer had weakness in supporting the weight of the body and leg itself. To overcome this, a new four bar link mechanism actuated by the ball screw was proposed. Using this, we developed a new type of 10 D.O.F biped robot. The dynamics model of the biped robot is investigated in this paper. In the modeling process, the robot dynamics are expressed in the joint coordinates using the EulerLagrange equation. Then, they are converted in to the sliding joint coordinates, and joint torques are expressed in the force along the sliding direction of the ball screw. To test modeling of the robot, a computer simulation was performed.

Recently, the demand for high precision and large stroke in linear positioning systems is increasing in industry. A coarsefine position control system composed of a linear motor and a piezoelectric actuator has such characteristics. Many optimal control laws have been applied to the position control of coarsefine actuators but most of them did not take account into constraints. In this study, model predictive control (MPC) method with constraints is applied to the position control of the coarsefine actuator and the performance of MPC is compared with those of conventional control laws.

This paper introduces a new design approach for robust slidingmode control of a class of mismatched uncertainties. For this, we propose a design method of slidingmode surface using eigenstructure assignment to be insensitive to perturbation in slidingmode systems, and also find a formula which is shown bounds of mismatched uncertainties for stability of the system. Simulation results are given to illustrate the approach proposed in this paper.

We proposed a method of secondorder iterative learning control with feedback, which shows an enhancement of convergence speed and robustness to the disturbances in our previous study. In this paper, we show that the proposed secondorder iterative learning control algorithm with feedback is more effective and has better convergence performance than the algorithm without feedback in the case of the existence of initial condition errors. And the convergence woof of the proposed algorithm in the case of the existence of initial condition error is given in detail, and the effectiveness of the Proposed algorithm is shown by simulation results.

Nowadays, the Laser image is used to realize multimedia show for events, an advertising media and 3D simulation, realization of video image and so on. It is a hot issue to realize the laser image like computer graphic image. The image used in laser projector is vector graphic image that is described by linking point to point. A computer makes this continuous vector graphic images so that the image shows as an animation. A control signal converted by a computer makes the laser projector draw image. Two motors and universal joint are used to realize 2D laser image in this study. Developing a controller applied Lookahead algorithm and software to interface with personal computer, This study is the chief aim of improving difference of moving velocity that is appeared from edge of vector graphic image and disparity of graphic density.

In this paper, we present a fuzzy moving sliding mode control for twodegrreeoffreedom robotic manipulator. 17he sliding surface parameters are designed by fuzzy inference. The proposed sliding mode control makes the error always remain on the surface from beginning and therefore, the system is insensitive to system uncertaintics and external disturbances. Simulation results show the effectiveness of proposed scheme.

A Clustering Adaptive Fuzzy Logic Controller(CAFLC) is applied to the torque control of a brushless do motor drive. Objective of this system includes elimination of torque ripple due to cogging at low speeds under loads. The CAFLC implemented has advantages of computational simplicity, and selftuning characteristics. Simulation results showed that the torque ripple and dynamic response of the system using a CAFLC were superior to the model reference adaptive controlled system.

Since the heat exchange system, such as the boiler of power plant, gas turbine, and radiator require a high rate heat efficiency and the efficiency of these systems is depended on the control methods. However, it is important f3r operator to understand control system of these systems. In order to properly apply control equipment to these process control systems, such as boiler, any other heat process, or process control system it is necessary to understand the basic aspects and operation principle of the process that relate control, interrelationships of the process characteristics, and the dynamics that are involved. Generally, PID controllers are used in these systems but it is difficult for engineer to understand the complex dynamics and the tuning method because of the coupling action and disturbance in the system loop. In this paper, we design an effective experimental system fur automatic control education and analyze its characteristics through experimental system and industrial plant control software to study how they can team automatic control system by experiments.

Since the heat exchange system, such as the boiler of power plant, gas turbine, and radiator require an application of intelligent control system for a high rate heat efficiency and the efficiency of these systems is depended on the control methods it is important for operator to understand control system of these systems and intelligent control technologies. In order to properly apply control equipment and intelligent technology to these process control systems, it is necessary to understand fuzzy, neural network, genetics, and immune as well as the basic aspects and operation principle of the process that relate control, interrelationships of the process characteristics, and the dynamics that are involved. Generally, since PID controllers are used in these systems it is difficult far engineer to understand both the complex dynamics and the intelligent control method. In this paper, we design an effective experimental system for the intelligent control education and analyze its characteristics through experimental system and each intelligent method to study how they can learn intelligent control system by experiments.

ESR(ElectroSlag Remelting) Process is secondary fine process and melts steels by electric resistance heat and fines the melting steels by an appropriate solidification process parameters which affects the melting and solidification processes to get the high quality products. This paper describes a method to derive the mathematical model and analysis the dynamic characteristics for designing a controller of the ESR processes. The ESR process consists of a melting and solidificating processes and electrical system include the contact resistance mechanism. In this paper, we consider only the static relationship between inputs and outputs of the electric system because the dynamics of the electric system is so fast compared with the melting and solidificating processes which are analysed by using finite difference method. As the results, the fine processing in ESR is analysed and the process controller could be designed based on the process dynamic analysis.

To control a light weight flexible manipulator, a composite fuzzy controller is proposed. The controller is designed based on two time scaled models. A singular perturbation technique is applied for deriving the models. The proposed controller, however, does not use the complex equilibrium manifold equations, which are usually needed in the controller based on the two time scaled models. The controller for a slow submodel and a fast submodel are TS type fuzzy controllers, which use 3 linguistic variables for each submodel. A step trajectory is used in simulations as a reference trajectory of joint motions. The results of simulations with the proposed controller show excellent damping of flexible motions compared to a controller with derivative control of flexible motions.

In this paper, we would study the applicability of neural networks to the recognition process of Korean stenographic character image, applying the classification function, which is the greatest merit of those of neural networks applied to the various pans so far, to the stenographic character recognition, relatively simple classification work. Korean stenographic recognition algorithms, which recognize the characters by using some methods, have a quantitative problem that despite the simplicity of the structure, a lot of basic characters are impossible to classify into a type. They also have qualitative one that it is not easy to classify characters for the delicacy of the character forms. Even though this is the result of experiment under the limited environment of the basic characters, this shows the possibility that the stenographic characters can be recognized effectively by neural network system. In this system, we got 90.86% recognition rate as an average.

The position control accuracy of a robot manipulator is significantly deteriorated when a long arm robot is operated at a high speed. This paper presents a very simple sliding mode control which eliminates multiple mode residual vibration in a 개bot manipulator. The neural network is used to avoid that sliding mode condition is deviated due to the change of system parameter and disturbance. This paper is suggested control system which designed by sliding mode controller using neural network. The effectiveness of proposed scheme is demonstrated through computer simulation.

For irregular nonlinear systems, switching controlk form is proposed recently. This control law is designed to overcome the singularities through the scheme that switches between an approximate tracking law close to the singularities, and an exact tracking law away from the singularities. But, that form has problems which may break the system's stability through unstable control input value at switching procedure. In this paper, We propose new switching control law which supervises approximate tracking control law and exact tracking control law by fuzzy rules to overcome unstability problem in switching procedure.

In this study, we consider a multiinput multioutput styrene polymerization reactor system for which the monomer conversion and the weight average molecular weight are controlled by manipulating the jacket inlet temperature and the feed flow rate. The reactor system is identified by using a linear subspace identification method and then the output feedback model predictive controller is constructed on the basis of the identified model. Here we use the Best Linear Unbiased Estimation (BLUE) filter as a stochastic estimator instead of the Kalman filter. The BLUE filter observes the state successfully without any a priori information of initial states. In contrast to the Kalman filter, the BLUE filter eliminates the offset by observing the state of the augmented system regardless of a priori information of the initial state for an integral white noise augmented system. A BLUE filter has a finite impulse response (FIR) structure which utilizes finite measurements and inputs on the most recent time interval [iN, i] in order to avoid long processing times.

An iterative learning control technique based on a linear quadratic optimal criterion is proposed for temperature uniformity control of a silicon wafer in rapid thermal processing.

Generally, level control in the steam generator of a nuclear power plant is difficulty process control, because the low power operating can lead nonminimum phase characteristics(swell and shrink phenomenon) and flow measurement are unreliable and nonlinear characteristics. This paper presents a framework for solving this problem based on the constrained linear model predictive control and introduces the design of method for the level of the controller in the entire operating power of the steam generator, and compares with conventional PI controller.

In this paper, a new criterion f9r determining the sampling rate of digital conroller is proposed. This paper will introduce a method fur determining the appropriate sampling rate of digital controller which can be substituted with the given analog controller, using phase margin and gain cross over frequency, not rising time or bandwidth of the closedloop system. This method also guarantees performance of the system. Without exact modeling functions of the plant, abstracting those functions, this paper can achieve stability and aimed performance of the system, and this paper proved it with proper modeling functions.

In the 2mass system with flexible shaft, a torsional vibration is often generated because of the elastic elements in torque transmission as the newly required speed response which is very close to the primary resonant frequency. This vibration makes it difficult to achieve quick responses of speed and disturbance rejection. In this paper, 2mass system is designed by using pole placement based on optimal control theory fur fast speed response and torsional vibration elimination and using neural network for disturbance rejection in particular. The simulation results show that the proposed controller based on neural network and full state feedback controller has better performance than 려ll state feedback controller, especially fur disturbance rejection.

The purpose of this thesis is to reduce force ripple of linear pulse motor(LPM) using neural network and to enhance precision. In order to this, we propose a new controller using a neural network to compensate disturbances. The structure includes adaptation block which learns the dynamics of the periodic disturbance and forces the interferences, caused by disturbances. The proposed controller compensates an unmodeled dynamics in the LPM. The neural network changes a current command to reduce position error and force ripple of the LPM. We compare proposed controller with PI controller. Simulation result shows that the proposed controller has better performance than a PI controller without neural network.

The conventional algorithms which identify and follow a moving target using a camera located at a fixed position are not appropriate for applying to the cases o( using mobile robots, due to their long processing time. This paper proposes a new tracking algorithm based on the sensing system which uses a line light with a single camera. The algorithm categirizes the motion patterns of a pair of mobile objects into parallel, branching, and merging motion, to decide of which objects the trajectories should be calculated to follow the reference object. Kalman Filter is used to estimate the trajectories of selected objects. The proposed algorithm has shown in the experiments that the mobile robot does not miss the target in most cases.

Timed Petri Net(TPN) is one of methods to model and to analyze Discrete Event Dynamic Systems(DEDSs) with real time values. It has two time values, earliest firing time (
$\alpha$ $_{i}$ ) and latest firing time ($\beta$ $_{I}$ ) for the each transition. A transition of TPN is fired at arbitrary time of time interval ($\alpha$ $_{I}$ ,$\beta$ $_{i}$ ). Uncertainty of firing time gives difficulty to analyze and estimate a modeled system. In this paper, we proposed the Fuzzy Transition Timed Petri Net(FTTPN) with fuzzy theory to determine the optimal transition time (${\gamma}$ $_{i}$ ). The transition firing time (${\gamma}$ $_{i}$ ) of FTTPN is determined from fuzzy controller which is modeled with information of state transition. Each of the traffic signal controllers are modeled using the proposed method and timed petri net. And its Performance is evaluated by simulation of traffic signal controller. controller. 
In this paper, we describe the system to recognize the six digit postal number of mails using neural network. Our zipcode recognition system consists of a preprocessing procedure for the original captured image, a segmentation procedure for separating an address block area with a shape, and recognition procedure for the cognition of a postal number. we extract the feature vectors that are the input of a neural network for the recognition process based on an area optimizing and an image thinning processing. The neural network classifies the zipcode in the mail and the recognized zipcode is verified through the zipcode database.

In this paper, an adaptive neurofuzzy filter using the conditional fuzzy cmeans(CFCM) methods is proposed. Usualy, the number of fuzzy rules exponentially increases by applying the grid partitioning of the input space, in conventional adaptive neurofuzzy inference system(ANFIS) approaches. In order to solve this problem, CFCM method is adopted to render the clusters which represent the given input and output data. Parameter identification is performed by hybrid learning using backpropagation algorithm and total least square(TLS) method. Finally, we applied the proposed method to the nonlinear channel equalization problem and obtained a better performance than previous works.

In this paper, an Adaptive neurofuzzy Inference system(ANFIS) using fuzzy minmax network(FMMN) is proposed. Fuzzy minmax network classifier that utilizes fuzzy sets as pattern classes is described. Each fuzzy set is an aggregation of fuzzy set hyperboxes. Here, the proposed method transforms the hyperboxes into gaussian membership functions, where the transformed membership functions are inserted for generating fuzzy rules of ANFIS. Finally, we applied the proposed method to the classification problem of iris data and obtained a better performance than previous works.

In this paper, we present forecasting ozone concentration with decision support system. Since the mechanism of ozone concentration is highly complex, nonlinear, and nonstationary, modeling of ozone prediction system has many problems and results of prediction are not good performance so far. Forecasting ozone concentration with decision support system is acquired to information from human knowledge and experiment data. Fuzzy clustering method uses the acquisition and dynamic polynomial neural network gives us a good performance for ozone prediction with ability of superior data approximation and selforganization.

Control system by means of fuzzy theory has demonstrated its robustness in applying to the highorder and nonlinear dynamic system in that it can utilizes the human expert knowledges in system design. In this paper, first, the design methodology of HFC combined PID controller with fuzzy controller by membership function of weighting coefficient is proposed. Second, Second, an autotuning algorithms utilizing the simplified reasoning method and genetic algorithms is presented to improve the performance of hybrid fuzzy controller. Especially, in order to obtain the optimal scaling factors and PID parameters of HFC using GA based on advanced initial individual, three kinds of estimation modes such as basic, contraction, and expansion mode are effectively utilized. The proposed HFC is evaluated and discussed in ITAE, overshoot and rising time to show applicability and superiority with simulation results.

In this paper, we design a MultiFuzzy model by means of HCM clustering and genetic algorithms for a nonlinear system. In order to determine structure of the proposed MultiFuzzy model, HCM clustering method is used. The parameters of membership function of the MultiFuzzy ate identified by genetic algorithms. A aggregate performance index with a weighting factor is used to achieve a sound balance between approximation and generalization abilities of the model. We use simplified inference and linear inference as inference method of the proposed MultiFuzzy mode] and the standard least square method for estimating consequence parameters of the MultiFuzzy. Finally, we use some of numerical data to evaluate the proposed MultiFuzzy model and discuss about the usefulness.

A strategy for the swingup control according to states of the 2link rotational pendulum is proposed. The proposed controller consists of two modes of control such as divergence mode and stabilization mode. When the controller is in divergence mode, control input is generated using sinusoidal and signum function to make the first and second links reach the bottom and top positions, respectively. After the controller finishes divergence mode, stabilization mode is initiated to keep the pendulum around the top position using poleplacement method. Dynamic models including actuator dynamics are obtained using coordinate changes at each control mode. Simulation results are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

In this paper, we propose Neuro Fuzzy Polynomial Networks(NFPN) based on Polynomial Neural Network(PNN) and NeuroFuzzy(NF) for model identification of complex and nonlinear systems. The proposed NFPN is generated from the mutually combined structure of both NF and PNN. The one and the other are considered as the premise part and consequence part of NFPN structure respectively. As the premise part of NFPN, NF uses both the simplified fuzzy inference as fuzzy inference method and error backpropagation algorithm as learning rule. The parameters such as parameters of membership functions, learning rates and momentum coefficients are adjusted using genetic algorithms. As the consequence part of NFPN, PNN is based on Group Method of Data Handling(GMDH) method and its structure is similar to Neural Networks. But the structure of PNN is not fixed like in conventional Neural Networks and selforganizing networks that can be generated. NFPN is available effectively for multiinput variables and highorder polynomial according to the combination of NF with PNN. Accordingly it is possible to consider the nonlinearity characteristics of process and to get better output performance with superb predictive ability. In order to evaluate the performance of proposed models, we use the nonlinear function. The results show that the proposed FPNN can produce the model with higher accuracy and more robustness than any other method presented previously.

In this paper, we propose a fuzzy modeling algorithm which divides the input space more efficiently than convention methods by taking into consideration correlations between components of sample data. The proposed fuzzy modeling algorithm consists of two steps: coarse tuning, which determines consequent parameters approximately using FCRM clustering method, and fine tuning, which adjusts the premise and consequent parameters more precisely by gradient descent algorithm. To evaluate the performance of the proposed fuzzy mode, we use the numerical data of nonlinear function.

In this paper, we developed an ANFIS controller through ES algorithm for disturbances rejection in Hot Rolling. The looper of a Hot Rolling is installed between each pair of stands and plays key roles to enhance the product quality of the strip by controlling the tension and the width of the strip. At the same time, the AGC on top of the Mill produces a strip with the desired thickness through pressing its Mill. Between both, however, interactions are caused by coupling effects among strip tension, looper angle and strip thickness. In addition, in case disturbances, it is more difficult to keep strip quantities desirable. So we present an ANFIS controller through ES algorithm which is able to identify fuzzy rule with input/output data and update itself through output errors.

Estimating software development effort remains a complex problem attracting considerable research attention. Improving the estimation techniques available to project managers would facilitate more effective control of time and budgets in software development as well as market. However, estimation is difficult because of its similarity to export judgment approaches and fur its potential as an expert assistant in support of human judgment. Especially, in software development for DCS (Distributed Control System), because of infrastructure software related to targetmachines hardware and process characteristics should be considered, estimating software development effort is more complex. This paper suggests software development effort estimation technique using neural network. The methods considered are based on COCOMO and casebased projects. Estimation results applied to casebased project appeared to have value fur software development effort estimation models.
