Proceedings of the KIPE Conference (전력전자학회:학술대회논문집)
The Korean Institute of Power Electronics (전력전자학회)
 Semi Annual
Domain
 Electricity/Electronics ＞ Electric and Electronic Components
1998.10

To achieve fast control action, direct control methods should be used. "Direct Mean Torque Control" (DMTC) combines the good dynamic performance of Direct Torque Control (DTC) with the advantages of inherently constant switching frequency and time equidistant control for implementation in a digital signal processor. Since DMTC is a predictive control algorithm, the model and its correction deserves special investigations. This paper proposes a steadystate Kalman filter which is well suited for fast computation.mputation.

Because of simple control algorithm and easy implementation, the conventional PI controller has been widely used in industrial application. But, it is very difficult to find the optimal PI control gain. Therefore, in improperly tuned PI controller or parameter variation, to obtain optimal performance, the novel PI controller, which consist of conventional PI controller and 4rule based fuzzy logic, are presented in this paper. The novel PI controller which exhibits a stabilizing effects on the closedloop system, has good robustness regarding the improperly tuned PI controller or parameter variation. The simulations are performed to verify the capability of proposed control method on induction motor.

In this paper, simultaneous estimation of rotor speed and time constant for a voltage source inverter (VSI) fed induction motor drive are disccussed. The theory is based on the Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS). The identifier executes Simultaneous rotor speed and time constant so that vector control of the induction may be achieved in the rotorflux oriented reference frame. Furthermore, to eliminate the offset error caused by the change in the stator resistance, a fuzzy resistance regulator is also designed which operates in parallel with the rotor speed and time constant identifier

Stator Transient inductance has much influence on rotor flux orientation. In this paper, a new simple online tuning scheme of inductances including stator transient inductance for rotor flux orientation control is proposed. Detuned effects caused by inductance variations are shown and simple online tuning scheme of them is proposed. Inductances are estimated and tuned by only stator flux and stator current. The proposed scheme is effective in wide speed region including the field weakening region. The proposed online tuning scheme is confirmed by the simulation and experiment results.

We propose a nonlinear feedback controller that can control the induction motors with high dynamic performance by means of decoupling of motor speed and rotor flux. The nonlinear feedback controller needs the information on some motor parameters. Among them, rotor resistance varies greatly with machine temperature. A new recursive adaptation algorithm for rotor resistance which can be applied to our nonlinear feedback controller is also presented in this paper. The recursive adaptation algorithm makes the estimated value of rotor resistance track its real value. Some simulation results show that the adaptation algorithm for rotor resistance is robust against the variation of stator resistance and mutual inductance. In addition, it is computationally simple and has small estimation errors. To demonstrate the practical significance of our results, we present some experimental results.

In this paper, a new dynamic overmodulation strategy is proposed for vectorcontrolled induction motor drive, and a comparison experiment with conventional schemes are also performed. In overmodulation region, the proposed overmodulation scheme allocates the output voltage of inverter so that synchronous daxis voltage is diminished in proposed overmodulation scheme allocates the output voltage of inverter so that synchronous daxis voltage is diminished in proportion as reference voltage exceeds hexagon boundary. As a result, daxis current is decreased in the overmodulation region, which improves the dynamic performance of torque control considering the current dynamics of induction motor. The conspicuous improvement of the proposed scheme over conventional ones is observed in experimental results.

This paper describes the simulation approaches employed for a vector control system of induction motor drive using SIMNON for windows program. SIMNON program tool can solve differential and difference equations for nonlinear dynamical control system. One powerful feature is its ability of allowing integration of individual program modules after each individual module is programed and tested independently. This particular feature is exploited here for an SVPWM inverter drive by realtime modeling and simulation. The suggested programs are provided a simple and complete simulation for induction motor vector drive system.

This paper describes variable speed drive and power control of a doubly fed induction machine(DFIM) for wind energy generation without rotational transducers. A stator flux orientation scheme and rotor speed estimator are employed to achieve decouple control of active and reactive power. To verify the theoretical analysis, a 5hp DFIM prototype system and PWM power converter are built. Results of computer simulation are presented to support the discussion.

In this paper, the direct thrust control of PWM Inverterfed Singlesided Linear Induction Motor (hereinafter referred to as "SLIM") is achieved with Space Vector control and PI control. The trembling of air gap length which is occured between the primary winding core and the secondaty structure of the SLIM must be minimized in order to get quick response characteristic. First, voltage equations of SLIM are shown on the suitable dq axis equivalent circuits which analyze characteristics of the thrust and the normal force. Also, modeling and analysis of the dq axis equivalent circuits are able to make robust transient thrust from the current regulation in the equivalent circuits. These results exemplified the direct drive of SLIM with the reference speed and thrust were verified by the experiments.periments.

This paper introduces the advantages of zero voltage transition(ZVT) boost converter for power factor correction and analyzes the control method of ZVT with IC UC3855. Practical design issues which include the components selection and design procedure are discussed. The experimental results are given.

A softswitching threelevel chopperinverter system was built for highpower applications like Power Conditioning System (PCS) for Superconductive Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES). The system can handle 1800VDC, 200A peak, and 250kW output power. The system was designed to operate with 20KHz PWM operation with the aid of stateoftheart zerocurrent transition type softswitching. The system is based on the Power Electronics Building Block (PEBB) concept.

An arc welding machine using single switched PFC converter is presented in this paper. First, the basic operation and principle is reviewed. Controller design is intended to force voltage ripple to minimize, and dynamic response to enhance, Feedforward strategy for arc welding machine is developed, and that is verified by simulation. The improved power factor characteristics of arc welding machine known as low power factor system with nonlinear property, are shown and evaluated compared to conventional one.

This paper presents a novel prototype of active voltage clamped quasiresonant ZVSPWM forward DCDC converter designed for specific low voltage high current application. We establish the softswitching forward converter with a high frequency isolated link which can efficient operate over wide load ranges under conditions of zero voltage softswitching and active voltage clamped switching. In addition, we evaluate connection of the softswitching forward converter with large capacitor which capacitance is over 100[F].

The shortcomings of zerovoltagetransition PWM converter is discussed and a new family of topologies of zerovoltagetransition PWM converter with softswitched auxiliary switch is introduced. The experiments on a 290W boost converter and a 100W forward converter are carried out to prove the circuit. The efficiency increment of the new circuits are 25% comparing to hard switching circuits, and the switching noise is also greatly reduced.

A novel zero voltage and zero current switching (ZVZCS) full bridge (FB) PWM converter with low output current ripple is presented. A simple auxiliary circuit added in the secondary provides ZVZCS conditions to primary switches, ZVS for leadingleg switches and ZCS for laggingleg switches, as well as reduces the output current ripple (ideally zero ripple). The auxiliary circuit includes neither lossy components nor additional active switches which are demerits of the previously presented ZVZCS converters. Many advantages including simple circuit topology, high efficiency, low cost and low current ripple make the new converter attractive for high performance high power (＞1kW) applications. The principle of operation, features and design considerations are illustrated and verified on a 2.5kW, 100KHz IGBT based experimental circuit.

Ninomiya, Tamotsu;Hashimoto, Takayoshi;Tanaka, Hidekazu;Syoyama, Masahito;Tymerski, RichardP. 85
A parallelresonant converter with zerovoltageswitching, pulsewidthmodulation(ZVSPWM) control is proposed. Similar to the previously proposed seriesresonant counterpart, it has a simple structure and can be controlled at a constant switching frequency using an activeclamp technique. The nearly constant current output characteristic of the parallelresonant converter lends itself beneficially to precisely controlled constant current power supply applications. An experimental breadboard featured an accuracy of$\pm$ 1% for an output current of 2A, with an efficiency of 75%. 
This study aims to realize high precision repetitive positioning control of the linear servo motor. The authors have previously improved the repeatability positioning precision by employing a twodegreeoffreedom PID controller in the positioning control, rather than equal distance positioning, and investigates the repeatability positioning precision.

In this paper, micro step driving method is used for the high performance motion control and low vibration and low noise in an XY axis soldering machine for factory automation. The improvement of the electrical and mechanical driving characteristic of a stepping motor is achieved by applying microstep driver.

This paper deals with the difference of the static and kinetic thrust characteristics of a linear pulse motor(LPM) without and with feedback control for a total artificial heart(TAH). In general, the kinetic thrust of LPM without feedback control decreases as increasing the mover velocity. The kinetic thrust characteristics of the LPM with feedback control are improved approximately 30% as compared with the LPM without feedback control in the high velocity range.

In this paper, we introduce the design method using CAE(Computer Aided Engineering) which is profitable in the compatibility and standardization of the developed product, and the reduction of construction time and price to develop and design a machine equipment. Particularly, we select the standard model to design or develop from the large machinery to the super precision one, extract the peculiar characters of the model by the close analysis on the physical and technical part, the experiment for the characteristics of objective dimensions by analogical mathematical analysis for previous results, and can induce the design model demanded by user investigating optimal data in the design previous. We present the analogical algorithms and process method of design factors and restriction factors in the systematization design with computer. Then we analyze step functions for each systematization equipment and induce the process of technical data with actuator model.

In modern mechatronics new concepts of machines and processes are found by using the collected knowledge of all disciplines and by offering functional solutions. Most of the problems in the field of mechatronics demand technical innovations on the field of actuators, sensors and control methods. It demands also high dynamic drives with power electronics, able to cope with the new requirements. The paper presents some trends and industrial experiences with power components for high dynamic drives.

This paper proposes a new repulsiveMaglev vehicle in which a vertical type PM linear synchronous motor (LSM) can levitate and propel simultaneously, independently of the vehicle speeds. A compact control method is developed which is based on the concept of controlling individually the levitation system by armaturecurrent and the propulsion system by mechanical loadangle. The levitationmotion control experiments have carried out successfully together with positioning at standstill. The pitching motion has been compensated for very well by using the zerophasecurrent control method proposed here.

This paper presents a speed control for ultrasonic motors using a PI controller and disturbance torque observer. Since the PI gains and the observer's poles are generally fixed, the control performance deteriorates when the driving conditions vary much. Therefore, we propose the speed control scheme that the PI gains and the observer's poles are adjusted online in accordance with the speed ripple using fuzzy reasoning.

Based on the linear model of electromagnetic suspension (EMS) system, it is able to be further simplified into a standard secondorder model with a modified PD control. In this paper static and dynamic characteristics of EMS with modified PD control are investigated when suspended weight of steel plate change. A experimental system has been built to verify static and dynamic characteristics of EMS system. Simulation and experiment are both given.

This paper describes a simple vector control scheme for the wound rotor type induction motors(WRIM) without the additional speed sensor in order to remove the external resistor bank which is usually adapted for the WRIM speed control. The motor angular speed is obtained indirectly from the slip angular speed is obtained indirectly from the slip angular speed and the slip angular speed is estimated by detecting the rotor currents only. Because the motor parameters are not included in the estimation algorithm, the proposed algorithm is free from the variation of the motor parameters and the robust sensorless vector control can be achieved. The performance of the proposed scheme is verified through the digital simulation.

The Design criteria of the auxiliary resonant snubber inverter (ARSI) using a loadside circuit are discussed in relation to electric propulsion drives. In this regard, this paper attempts to develop a set of design criteria for the ARSI. First, the switching characteristics of IGBTs under softswitching mainly in terms of dv/dt/, di/dt and switching losses are discussed and utilized for optimizing the selection of the resonant components in the system. After that, the proper control strategies of ARSIs are analyzed and simulated based on voltage space vector modulations. Later, the design, control and implementation of the auxiliary resonant circuit suitable for industrial products are analyzed and presented. And finally, other factors including power stage layout, packaging and the choice of current sensors are included. The detailed simulation and experimental results will be included based on a laboratory prototype. The proposed design criteria of the ARSI would help the implementation of an electric propulsion drive system.

From the viewpoint of modelbased current control, it is indispensable to use the accurate system parameters for the high control performance. This paper adopts the LeastSquares algorithm as a parameter estimation scheme because it has the fast convergence rate and the low sensitivity to noises. In case of the intelligent current controller with delay compensator, the simulation results show that the adopted estimation scheme can be successfully applied to PWM converters and also show the improved control performance in the estimated parameters.

In this paper, a prototype of the auxiliary resonant commutated snubber circuit(ARCS) with a high frequency transformer power regeneration loop is described for voltage source type sinewave inverter system. This is a new soft switching topology developed for three phase voltage source softswitching inverter, active power filter and reactive power compensator has significant advantage of current rating reduction for auxiliary active switching devices. In addition, this paper presents a novel prototype of voltagesource soft switching space vectormodulated inverter with ARCS mentioned above, which is more suitable and acceptable for highpower utility interactive power conditioning, along with a digital control scheme. The steadystate operating analysis of ARCS has the remarkable features and the practical design procedure of this resonant snubber are illustrated on the basis of computer simulation analysis. The operating performance evaluations in the steadystate of this three phase voltage source soft switching inverter are discussed and compared with the three phase voltage source hard switching inverter.

This paper proposes a SVPWM (space vector pulse width modulation) strategy for a multilevel voltage source inverter. This strategy is easily implemented as SPWM (sinusoidal pulse width modulation) and has the same DClink voltage utilization as general SVPWM. The method to keep the voltage balancing of DClink also is proposed by the analysis model of DClink voltage fluctuation. The usefulness of the proposed SVPWM is verified through the simulation.

The paper describes developed method of feedforward digital modulation of linetoline voltage of 3phase inverter for drive application. It is based on representation of parameters of output voltage of inverter in function of operating frequency of drive system. Pure algebraic control laws and big computational simplicity characterize this scheme of modulation. It has been presented results of simulation of adjustable drive systems with the method of pulsewidth modulation described.

COMMONMODE VOLTAGE PULSE CANCELLATION METHOD BASED ON SPACEVECTOR PWM IN CONVERTERINVERTER SYSTEMThis paper proposes the advanced PWM method that can reduce commonmode voltage in threephase PWM converterinverter system. By the proper distribution of the zerovoltage vector of inverter, it is possible to cancel out a commonmode voltage pulse in a sampling period. Since the proposed PWM method maintains the effectivevoltage vector, it does not affect the control performance of converterinverter system. Without any extra hardware, overall commonmode voltage can be decreased by onethird compared with conventional PWM scheme.

The parallel inverter is popularly used because of its faulttolerance capability, highcurrent outputs at constant voltages and system modularity. The conventional parallel inverter usually employs active and reactive power control of frequency and voltage droop control. However, these approaches have the disadvantages that the response time of parallel inverter control is slow against load and system parameter variation to calculate active, reactive power, frequency and voltage. This paper describes a novel control scheme for power equalization in parallelconnected inverter. The proposed scheme has a fast power balance control response, a simplicity of implementation, and inherent peak current limiting capability since it employees an instantaneous current/voltage control with output voltage and current balance and output voltage regulation. A design procedure for the proposed parallel inverter controller is presented. Furthermore, the proposed control scheme is verified through the experiment in various cases such as the system parameter variation, the control parameter variation and the nonlinear load condition.

In this paper, the dynamic analysis and design of an AC to AC power supply with DC current link is presented. Despite many advantages of such a structure, its application in fixed frequency power supplies has received very little attention in the literature. Different issues related to dynamic analysis of the proposed system are considered. These include a simple averaging technique for modeling switching function generators, the concept of Internal Model Controllers, and necessary condition to avoid multiple crossing in ramp comparison methods. Theoretical and experimental results obtained from a DSPbased laboratory type setup are presented.


Three switchedcapacitor(SC) networks are presented including seriesparallel capacitor set, reversedswitchedcapacitor network and pushpull switchedcapacitor network, the performances of which are discussed. Combining the SC networks with traditional DCDC converters, we form several new topologies. Experiment and analyzed results show that the behavior of a DCDC converter with large voltage ratio can be improved. A wider voltage conversion range is also obtained.

In this paper, the charge control with the input voltage feed forward is proposed for the input seriesoutput parallel connected converter configuration for high voltage power conversion applications. This control scheme accomplishes the output current sharing for the outputparallel connected modules as well as the input voltage sharing for the inputseries connected modules for all operating conditions including the transients. It also offers the robustness for the component value mismatches among the modules.

In audio techniques calculation of digital filters is accelerated considerably by use of wave variables instead of voltages and currents. The suitability of wave variables for digital simulation of power converters was investigated and the results are reported in this paper. The original method is described briefly, modelling of switches and diode rectifiers is presented, examples are given and the features of the method are discussed.

A Summary is given of conventional electrical engineering university education and a description of the employment scene for the graduates. The training requirements of graduates for three different industrial employers are given and the steps taken to meet some of these requirements are explained in detail. The steps taken include tow training programmes, one an undergraduate final year course and the other a graduate training programme. The final year course teaches to design and construct a real product to specifications, whereas the graduate training programme employs a new graduate or postgraduate student on industrial projects which can be closely supervised for maximum benefit. Both programmes are described in detail and the conclusion developed as to future requirements.

The soft reverse recovery characteristics of PIN power diodes by different lifetime killer were compared in this paper. It was concluded that the best local lifetime control at N base was achieved through the optimization of penetrated depth into the wafer by 5 MeV proton irradiation, resulting in significant soft recovery performance in our study. The results of 5∼12 MeV electron irradiation and platinum diffusion were also discussed here.

A procedure for the optimal design of high quality rectifiers is introduced in this paper. The procedure is capable of producing different optimal designs for the same rectifier based on the objective performance required from that rectifier. A FORTRANbased computer system designed to solve largescale optimization problems was used in this work to obtain the optimal designs. The optimization program uses Wolfe algorithm in conjunction with a quasiNewton algorithm as well as a projected augmented Lagrangian algorithm to solve the highly nonlinear optimization problem. The paper also introduces a detailed analysis and an application of the procedure on a boosttype zerocurrent switch (ZCS) singleswitch threephase rectifier introduced recently in the literature. The obtained results are compared with popular simulation packages (i. e. PSPICE and SIMCAD) to support the validity of the proposed concept.

This paper gives the novel design of compensated ring anodeshort for power GTO thyristor. By means of this design the power GTO of
$\Phi$ 63.5mm 2500A/4500V reaches more uniform turnoff compared with conventional ring short GTO, resulting in higher turnoff ability and low tail current/tail time. 
Henry G ldner;Andreas Thiede;Lutz G hler;Schulze, HansJoachim;Jakob Sigg;Johann Otto;Dieter Metzner 246
This paper describes the main features of an unconventional tester for high power semiconductor devices. Two application ranges are highlighted. The tester is used for the extraction of GTO parameters and their verification by measurements. The second field comprises the determination of the radial and azimuthal current density distribution of a GTO tablet. The results are compared with the carrier lifetime distribution. 
Twostage power factor correction (PFC) converter with a single PWM controller for universal input voltage (90264V) is proposed. It consists of a power factor preregulator cascaded by a DC/DC converter as in a conventional twostage approach. However, a single PWM controller is used as in a singlestage, singleswitch PFC approach. The switch in the PFC part is synchronized with the switch in the DC/DC converter with a fixed switching frequency. Employing an adaptive delay scheme the switch in the PFC part is controlled to limit the energy storage capacitor voltage within a designed range for the optimum efficiency, and to reduce input current harmonic distortion. The experimental results obtained on a 200W (5V/40A) prototype PFC converter are given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

A comparative study of singlephase PWM converters having active filtering functions both on acinput and dcoutput sides have been carried out. Based on the function of the dcoutput side active filter, two types of configurations, the RPM (ripple power managing) type and the APM (average power managing) type are compared to show their contrastive characteristics. The prototype system using DSP based control algorithms, i.e. deadbeet current control and voltage sensorless technique using fullorder observer, show the availability of the proposed system.

A proposed softswitching buckboost PWM converter has a lot of advantages, Viz., electric isolation, a high power factor, low switching losses, low EMI noise, reduction of the voltage and current stresses, etc. In a new PFC converter, the switching device is replaced by the lossless snubber circuit to achieve the zero voltage switching (ZVS) at the maximum current. However, the charging current of the capacitor in the lossless snubber circuit distorts the input current waveforms. To improve the input current waveform, a new duty factor control method is proposed in this paper.

A new single phase power factor correction rectifier/regulator with dc linked energy feedback circuit is proposed, which is capable of achieving the zero voltage switching (ZVS) of a boost rectifier stage without any auxiliary switch. The performance of the proposed rectifier/regulator is demonstrated through a 200W, 90 KHz prototype. This proposed rectifier/regulator with dc linked energy feedback circuit is particularly suited for distributed power system applications

This paper proposes a harmonic a harmonic reduction technique of the parallelconnected twelvepulse thyristor rectifiers. The proposed system is an improvement over the diode rectifier system with an active interphase reactor [2]. In this scheme, a low KVA (0.15 Po (PU) ) active current source injects a triangular current into an interphase reactor of a twelvepulse thyristor rectifier along the phase delay angle. The current injection results in near sinusoidal input current with less than 1% THD. Detailed analysis of the proposed scheme along scheme along with design equations is illustrated. Simulation results verify the concept.

This paper proposes a new singlestage, singleswitch AC/DC converter based on the boost power factor correction (PFC) cell. The converter offers both high power factor and high efficiency. To reduce the dc voltage on the energy storage capacitor, the dc bus voltage feedback method was used. A 100W (5V/20A) prototype was built and tested to show the validity of the proposed converter.

This paper presents some results of performance evaluation test via actual machines of a new hybrid vector control utilizing a new indirect orientation scheme and stable filter embedded direct orientation scheme for induction motors without speed or position sensor. It is shown through the test by 0.3(kW) and 3.7(kW) motors that the proposed sensorless vector control has the following high potentialities: 1) speed range is 0 to 600(rad/s) or more, 2) zerospeed command is accepted and settles the machines at a stable standstill with no vibration 3) it can make machines to track variable command of acceleration and deceleration
$\pm$ 6,000(rad/s2), 4) it can make machines to drive directly load of at least 26 times larger inertia than that of the machine, 5) it can make machines to produce much larger torque than the rating in torque control mode even at standstill. The performance confirmed by the test is far away for previous schemes or sensorless drive apparatuses. 
This paper presents a newly developed speed sensorless drive using RLS based on Neural Network Training Algorithm. The proposed algorithm has just the timevarying learning rate, while the wellknown backpropagation algorithm based on gradient descent has a constant learning rate. The number of iterations required by the new algorithm to converge is less than that of the backpropagation algorithm. The theoretical analysis and experimental results to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy are described.

In the speed sensorless control of the induction motor, the machine parameters (especially the secondary resistance R2) have a strong influence to the speed estimation. It is known that the simultaneous estimation of the speed and R2 is impossible in the slip frequency type vector control, because the secondary flux is constant. But the secondary flux is not always constant in the speed transient state. In this paper the R2 estimation in the transient state without adding any additional signal to the stator current is proposed. This algorithm uses the least mean square algorithm and the adaptive algorithm, and it is possible to estimate the R2 exactly. This algorithm is verified by the digital simulations and the experiments.

In this paper, authors introduce an application of a nonlinear rotor flux observer, known under the name of ELO(extended Luenberger Observer), for direct rotor field oriented control(DRFOC) of induction motor. ELO requires no solution of nonlinear partial differential equation for its coordinate transformation and linearization used for the nonlinear observer design. Its simulation results concerned to different level of unknown variables of load torque and rotor resistance show high accuracy on rotor flux estimation in steady state.

In this paper a new analytical model for the nonlinear fluxlinkage/current characteristics of the switched reluctance motors at different rotor positions is proposed. The model has been successfully verified by the simulation and the experimental results of the instantaneous current waveforms and the average torque values in both single pulse and multiple pulse operation of the motor. The uniqueness of the model lies in its defining a simple algorithm for determining the rotor position (
$\theta$ ). Hence, sensorless operation of the motor can be easily implemented with the aid of this model. 
RPWM(Random Pulse Width Modulation) is a switching technique to spread the voltage and current harmonics on the wide frequency area. Using randomly changed switching frequency of the inverter, the power spectrum of the electromagnetic acoustic noise cab be spread to the wideband area. The wideband noise is much more comfortable and less annoying than the narrowband one. So RPWM have been attracting an interest as an excellent method for the reduction of acoustic noise on the inverter drive system. In this paper a new RPPWM (Random Position PWM) is proposed and implemented. Each of three pulses is located randomly in each switching interval. Along with the randomization of PWM pulses, the space vector modulation is executed in the C167 microcontroller also. The experimental results show that the voltage and current harmonics were spread to wide band area and that the audible switching noise was reduced by proposed RPPWM method.

A single phase induction motor (SPIM) rated in fractional horsepower is widely used in home and industrial equipment: washing machines, fans, refrigerators, etc. In this paper, authors present the experimental results of the SPIM under controlling of currents of main and auxiliary windings by using a onechip micro stator(OMS). This new starting method is developed to replace the conventional starting device consisted with a mechanical switch and a capacitor. In mentioned method, the softstarting of SPIM is simply implemented and higher efficiency is obtained in comparison with conventional condenser type SPIM.

This paper describes the controller for the improving speed control of the AC servo motor. The microprocessor provides an output to the difference in command. the servo system improves the characteristics of speed control. When the motor is running at the same speed as set by the reference signal, the speed encoder also provides a signal of the same frequency. Thus, the microprocessor controlled digital techniques enable to realize the flexible performance and control which was possible with time constant of linear acceleration/deceleration. We can know that optimal speed of machining center is 75msec in 30000mm/min and actually, 75msec is using on machining center. Finally experimental results prove excellent performance of this control system. This can be reduced error with more exact measure of actual speed. The system can be adaptable to CNC machine.

In this paper the robust vector control method of induction motor for the purpose of improving the system performance deterioration caused by parameter variations is proposed. The estimations of the stator current and the rotor flux are obtained by the full order state observer with corrective prediction error feedback. and the adaptive scheme is constructed to estimate the rotor speed with the error signal between real and estimation value of the stator current. Adaptive sliding observer based on the variable structure control is applied to parameter identification. Consequently predictive current control and speed sensorless vector control can be obtained simultaneously regardless of the parameter variations.

In this paper, an effective control scheme of a single phase UPS inverter is proposed to have no steady state error of the output voltage and the fast response for the load request. The cosine wave tranfer function is proposed to control the output voltage. This controller clearly removes errors of magnitude and phase both in the steady state. On the other hand, a current controller is proposed to reduce the transient time of the voltage control and to improve the bad distorted factor of the output voltage waveform by the load fluctuation and the presences of nonlinear parameters in the plant. The current controller is designed parallel to the voltage controller and performs separately from it.

This paper presents performance and loss analysis of Auxiliary Resonant Commutation Snubberlinked (ARCS) three phase voltage source soft switching inverter which is operated under a condition of Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS). The system performances of this ARCS soft switching inverter which is controlled on optimal type I digital servo scheme are illustrated and evaluated on the basis of experimental results.

In design of a digital current controller for a 3phase (3 ) voltagesource (VS) PWM converter, its conventional model, i.e., stationary or synchronous reference frame model, is used in obtaining its discretized version. It introduces, however, inherent errors since the following practical problems are not taken into consideration: the characteristics of the space vectorbased pulsewidth modulation (SVPWM) and the time delays in the process of sampling and computation. In this paper, the new hybrid reference frame model of the 3 VS PWM converter is proposed considering these problems. In addition, the direct digital current controller based on this model is designed without any prediction or extrapolation algorithm to compensate the time delay. So the control algorithm is made very simple. It represents no steadystate error in input current control and has the optimized transient responses. The validity of the proposed algorithm is proved by the computer simulation and experimental results.

This paper describes minimum current control method for size reduction and performances improvement at unified inverterinduction motor system. This control method is based on V/F without speed sensor. Through the use of minimum stator current points at required torque during V/F operation it is possible to minimize the size of heatsink related with the losses of power circuit and to improve overall efficiency compared to conventional V/F control. Using this proposed scheme, it is so much more useful to apply to some fields such a selectric vehicles. air conditioning system and textile mills where the limited space is given and required low cost.

Lee, ByungSong;Cho, YunOk;Park, HyunJune;Kim, Myungyong;Byun, YeunSub;Kim, YunHo;Lee, JaeHak 357
A new current controlled PWM technique for a 3level inverter has been proposed and described in the paper. The proposed current control has the simple structure without needing to calculate the switching angles of the voltage vectors. The output in the proposed inverter contains less harmonic content than that of a conventional current controlled PWM controller, since the current control can be applied to the 3level inverter. In addition, the proposed current controlled PWM technique has lower switching frequency than that of a conventional current controlled PWM technique at the same current limit. The control method and the performance for a proposed 3level inverter has been discussed and investigated by the computer simulation. 
A new modified command voltage of the third harmonics injected PWM inverter is proposed in overmodulation mode. By analyzing the relationship between the modulation index and the peak of the fundamental component of the modified reference voltage, we can settle the problem in over modulation mode without iteration. Then we can increase the maximum fundamental component of the third harmonic injected PWM inverter comparative to sixstep inverter continuously in over modulation mode.

In this paper, a new control strategy to reduce switching losses in threephase voltagesource PWM converters is proposed according to ModifiedPeriodAverageModel (MPAN). The basic concept of this strategy is aimed at calculating the phase control voltages for controlling the source currents to be sinusoidal and in phase with the source voltages, and reducing the number of switching in each period. The phase control voltages of PeriodAverageModel(PAM) is obtained according to analyzing the operation of PWM converter. In order to reduce the sensitivity to system parameters in PAM, MPAM is deduced. Then a square wave whose frequency is three times of utility frequency is added to the phase control voltages derived from MPAM. The control strategy reduces the switching losses since there exists about onethird blanking time for every phase in one period. The theoretical derivation and the control strategy are experimentally verified on a 2.5 kW threephase voltage source converter.

This paper proposes a control method for threephase PWM rectifier using only single current sensor in DC link. A PWM modulation strategy for reconstructing three phase current from the DC link current is given. The states of the rectifier switch are modified so that all phase currents can be reconstructed in a switching period although one of active vectors is applied only for a short time. Therefore, a novel current control using an adjustment scheme of the modulation signal for a threephase PWM rectifier will be discussed, and verified with the experimental results.

This paper proposes a current control algorithm to reduce the torque ripple to commutation in unipolar PWM inverterfed trapezoidal brushless dc motor drives. In this paper, we analyze the average voltage variation of the conducting phase due to commutation, and design a current controller to compensate for the average voltage variation. The proposed method predicts the duration of commutation to reduce the torque ripple due to overcompensation. Experimental results are presented that validate the proposed method.

Kwon, ByungKi;Park, GaWoo;Shin, WonChang;Cho, EungSang;Lee, JinSeop;Choi, ChangHo;Hyun, DongSeok 386
Parameter estimation method of induction motor for vector control is presented in this paper. It can be easily implemented and applied to inverters in the industrial field, because it needs no additional hardware such as voltage sensors and measuring equipment. The proposed algorithm in this paper is so straightforward and practical that it can be easily implemented on the builtin controllers with little overhead. The proposed estimation algorithm has good accuracy and repeatability for parameters due to the sensitivity of estimation errors. This enables its total consuming time to be made shorter. Experimental results and applications in the industrial fields verify the validity and usefulness of the proposed method. 
This paper proposes a programmable low pass filter(LPF) to estimate stator flux for speed sensorless stator flux orientation control of induction motors. The programmable LPF is developed to solve the dc drift problem associated with a pure integrator and a LPF with fixed pole. The pole of the programmable LPF is located far from the origin to decrease the time constant as speed increases. The programmable LPF has the phase and the magnitude compensator to exactly estimate stator flux in a wide speed range. So, the drift problem is much improved and the stator flux is exactly estimated in the wide speed range.

This paper describes a controller design for the stator reactive power generator in the transmission system. The controller of static reactive power generator was designed using a mathematical model and nonlinear state feedback. The performance of controller was verified using computer simulation with EMTP code and experimental work with scaledmodel. The dynamic interaction with a simple power system was also analyzed using both the simulation model and hardware scaledmodel. Both simulation and experimental results prove that the controller using PI block and nonlinear state feedback offers better performance than the controller using PI block only.

In this paper, the discrete variable structure controller (DVSC) is proposed for vector controlled induction motor position control. The variable structure control (VSC) which guarantees accuracy and robustness in nonlinear control system is developed in discrete time domain for applying to real servo system. Furthermore, the load torque observer is introduced to reduce chattering problem. The computer simulation results are presented to verify the proposed control scheme.

Yoon, SukAm;Park, ChongBock;Yoon, HyungSang;Choi, JangGyun;Cha, InSu;Kim, WonBae;Cho, MyungHyun 410
In this paper, we present the method that improve alarm security system using the electronic circuits added the emergency lamp by our proposed Algorithms. In conventional method the emergency lamp of warning & alarm system didn't work perfectly its performance because of battery with short life. For improving this problem we, using Peripheral Interface Controller IC, designed the circuit added the emergency lamp for an warning & alarm system and for prevention against stopping the electric current, and compared our proposed method with conventional method. By designing the circuit to stop up over charge we can extend life of battery, use for a stoppage of electric current in emergency and according to the lightness around. Therefore we are very convenient and profitable in our life. In the future we will study the method to lower the cost of architecture for practical utilization. 
This paper describes the dynamical performance of a fourquadrant circulation current mode control of dc motor drive, using the controlled flywleeling technique, a fourquadrant closedloop control drive with an inner current control loop and a speed fuzzy PI regulator is designed. The obtained computer simulation results of a dc motor drive below and above the base speed are demonstrated. These result show that compare to a conventional dualconverterfed dc motor drive with simultaneous control, the overal system performance has been improved and also, agood stability and robstness has been achieved.

A new type of controller for DCDC converters is presented. The proposed neurofuzzy controller combines fuzzy logic with neural networks to adjust parameters of the fuzzy controller to the most appropriate. Neither the exact mathematical models of the DCDC converters nor the tuning process of the parameters of the fuzzy controller are needed in the proposed scheme. Simulation results are presented to show the above process and transient, steady state responses, and load regulation of the given system.

This paper presents a high performance low switching PWM technique for the propulsion system of railway such as subway and high speed train. In order to achieve the continuous voltage control to sixstep and a low harmonics with low switching frequency under 500Hz, the synchronous PWM technique is combined with a space vector overmodulation and implemented by using DSP. Improved performance and a validation of proposed method are showed by the digital simulation and the experimental results using a 1.65MVA IGBT VVVF inverter and inertia load equivalent to 160 tons railway vehicles.

This paper deals with the output characteristics of resonant PWM inverter type Xray generators connected to different DC power units i.e. a single phase full bridge rectifier, a three phase full bridge rectifier and a power storage unit(PSU). The quality of Xray beam depend on the pulsation waveforms of DC voltage supplied to the Xray tulbe. In a Xray generator, the waveforme of DC output voltage can be affected from hramonic distortion of DC input power. When a tube voltage waveform is distorded, the property of Xray beam such as reproducibility, direcibility and doesage can be reduced. Therefore, we compared DC output waveforms and doesages with three thpe of DC power units and show the experimental results in this paper

This paper proposes an novel dc power supply using modified multilevel ac/dc converter. The output voltage of the power supply can be disconnected from and reapplied to the load rapidly. Therefore the power supply is suitable for a load having frequent short circuit such as ion source. The proposed scheme improves the performance, efficiency, and reliability and reduces the cost of the conventional power supply system for an ion beam acceleration.

With the advent of the highspeed microprocessor and DSP, the possibility of executing a control strategy in digital domain has become a reality. By the use of the DSP and microprocessor controller, many high power converters such as especially inverter and motor drive system may be enhanced resulting in the improved robustness to EMI, the ability to communicate the operating conditions and the ease of adjusting the control parameters. But, the digital controller using DSP or microprocessor is not applied in the high frequency switching power supplies, especially full bridge dc/dc converter. So, this paper presents the method and realization of designing a digitaltophase shift PWM circuit for full digital controlled phaseshifted full bridge dc/dc converter with zero voltage switching. The operating principles, simulation and experimental results will be presented.

This paper conducts a study on a noncontact power delivering system using highfrequency inverter with the purpose of discussing the noncontact electric power transmission characteristics through circuit analysis, magnetic analysis and feasible experiments. In this power delivering scheme, various properties pertaining to the noncontact transformer of the power system such as the design, the core depth, core material, primary side frequency etc. are considered with a view of improving the noncontact power dilivery to the secondary.

This paper deal with problems of leakage current, shaft voltage, bearing current, and EMI, in valiablespeed AC drives. The originating mechanism is illustrated with a highfrequency equivalent circuit. Reduction methods are classified in to six categories based on the equivalent circuit. Some experimental results show that a commonmode transformer (CMT) and a commonnoise canceler (ACC) can solve the problems, which have been proposed the authors.

The paper describes the methods and means of measurement and study of vibrations, stresses and shocks affecting electronic equipment during its use and in the testing stage as well as original units to determine shapes and frequencies of vibrations of functional boards. Particular attention has been given to the development of methods and means to protect sturctures against vibrations and shocks.

In the conventional wire feeder drives of welding machine, one thyristor or MOSFET device was used for halfwave phase control circuit and direct EMF measurement was used for sensing the wire feed rate. But the method using one switching device has poor response for sudden disturbance and it has latent speed ripple. It can affect some welding performance such as spatter generation and irregular bead formming. Therefore, the welding performance using fullbridge PWM speed control scheme was compared with conventional driving scheme was compared with conventional driving scheme and experimented in this paper. The results of experiment confirm the posibility of welding performance improvement by proposed constant speed control scheme in wire feeding drive of welding machine.

A robust control technique is presented for a high performance control of a permanentmagnet(PM) synchronous motor. In order to deal with the internal and external disturbances of a PM synchronous motor drive system, a new feedback control structure is proposed. Since the dynamic behavior of the PM synchronous motor drive system is mainly concerned with the difference between the electromagnetically developed torque and the load torque which generally referred to as an accelerating torque, the estimation and control techniques of this torque are introduced. The simulations and experiments are carried out for the DSPbased PM synchronous motor drive system and the results well demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control technique.

A Commutation Torque Minimization Method for Brushless DC Motors with Trapezoidal Elecromotive ForceIn this paper, a commutation torque minimization method using parameter observer for a brushless DC motor fed by a voltage source inverter is described. In order to investigate the nature of the commutation torque ripple in trapezoidal brushless DC motor, a new model of the motor is proposed. The optimal drive voltage to minimize the ripple torque is represented as a function of the motor parameters. Therefore, the important parameter is estimated by leastsquare algorithm.

Field orientation of rotating field machines is influenced by various machine parameters. Most unpleasant are those parameters which vary during machine operation, such as the stator and rotor resistances. Permanent influences of resistance variation in steady state operation could have serious consequences. Also transitory influences are often disturbing. In this paper a control method for a currentfed synchronous machine is presented in which both permanent and transitory parameter influences are suppressed as much as possible.

Indirect sensing of the rotor position of permanent magnet brushless DC motors contains position error. Such measuring error can be attenuated by adopting Kalman filter. In this paper, the cause of measuring error is analyzed and the design technique of Kalman filter is described. Experimental results show that the proposed sensorless drive exerts superior performances.

In this paper, a three phase voltage source inverter synchronous motor drive is introduced which is capable of producing an approximate to sinewave currents in the stator windings. Compare to a conventional current forced synchronous machine drive, for the same machine loss, a gain in out put per unit overall volume of 125% at a 50Hz supply frequency has been achieved. In addition, the torque pulsation has been drastically reduced. These improvements are achieved by introducing new rotor windings which are capable of controlling the stator current waveforms an approximate to sinewave. A computer program has been developed which can be used to predict the dynamic performance of this drive/system. The paper describes the design of rotor windings for cylindrical rotor motor but the theory is equally applicable to salientpole designs.

This paper deals with the design and evaluation of the robust controller for a synchronous generator excitation system to improve the steady state and transient stability. The nonlinear characteristics of the system is treated as model uncertainties, and then the robust control techniques are introduced into the power system stability design to take into account these uncertainties at the controller design stage. The performance of the designed controller is examined by extensive nonlinear time domain simulation. It is shown that the performance of the robust controller is superior to that of the conventional PI controller.

In this paper, the new vector control scheme of BLDCM producing lossminimized ripplefree torque based on the dqΟ reference frame is presented including 3 phase unbalanced condition. The optimized phase current waveforms that are obtained by the proposed method can be a reference values and the motor winding currents are forced to track it by delta modulation technique. As a results, it can be shown that the proposed work provides a simple and clear way to obtain an optimal motor excitation current.

This paper gives and analytical expression of the average and rms currents of switching devices in voltagefed PWM inverters. It is shown that the device currents are represented by a function of the power factor of the load and the normalized output voltage of the inverter. The validity of the derived formulas is confirmed with simulation and experiment, showing that the modulation method has a minor effect on the characteristics of the device current.

In a matrix converter, input side and output side are coupled with each other through switching elements. Since disturbances on either side affect directly on the other side, it requires a highspeed online control system to compensate them. We proposed in previous papers a new control strategy and an online control circuit for a matrix converter. The control circuit could keep the output voltage at commanded value against fluctuation in the supply voltage. Furthermore wave forms of the output voltage and the input current were always kept sinusoidal. The switching pattern was generated by comparing modified voltage references with a carrier. The carrier was synchronized with the supply voltage using a PLL system, which made the control circuit complicated and costly. This paper discusses on the possibility of an asynchronized carrier. Experiment results show the input current distortion in case of asynchronous carrier is bigger than that of synchronous carrier. However, the deterioration can be minimized by increased carrier frequency.

In this paper, a noble dead time minimization algorithm is presented for developing the outputs of inverters. The adverse effects of the dead time are examined. The principle of the proposed algorithm is explained with the conduction modes of the output currents. The H/W and the S/W construction method of the proposed algorithm are also presented. The validity of the proposed algorithm is verified by comparing simulation and experimental results with those of the conventional methods. It can be concluded from the results that the proposed algorithm have the virtue which is able to ruduce the numbers of inverter switching and the harmonics in the output voltages, and which make the output voltage equal to the reference value.

The voltagesource inverters are normally equipped with an electrolytic capacitor in their DC link, however, the electrolytic capacitor has several disadvantages such as increasing size, limiting converter life and reliability. Therefore, several approaches for removing the DC link capacitor have been studied by the authors. This paper proposes a new voltagesource inverter without DC link components. To reduce waveform distortion of the AC source current, the currentcontrolled PWMrectifier with di/dt feedback is introduced. The di/dt feedback gain and LC parameters are investigated by calculation for a 0.75kW induction motor driven by this inverter. The calculated AC source currents maintain nearly sinusoidal waveforms with a unity power factor.

In this paper, control strategies of the bridgetype ZVT inverter for AC motor drive application were discussed. The topology of the ZVT inverter is analyzed with a description of the control conditions based on the load current. And a new resonant control algorithm by using load current feedback and modified SVM algorithm for the proposed ZVT inverter is proposed in order to achieve the ZVT switching condition in full control range. The detailed computer simulation and experimental results represent that ZVT and ZCT operation for the main and auxiliary switch, respectively, was achieved.

This paper discusses a triple stage current source GTO inverter system for high power motor drives. The energy rebound circuit of the triple stage inverter not only controls the spike voltage of the GTO inverter but also facilitates PWM control of the thyristor rectifier operated at unity fundamental input power factor. Based on Pspice simulation and experiments, the principles and PWM pulse pattern for removing specific lower harmonics in the inverter's output current are discussed in detail.

This paper proposes a new snubber circuit for multilevel inverter and converter. The snubber circuit makes use of Undeland snubber as basic snubber unit and can be regraded as a generalized Undeland snubber. The proposed snubber keeps such good features as fewer number of components, improved efficiency due to low loss snubber, capability of clamping overvoltage across main switching devices, and no unbalance problem of blocking voltage. Furthermore, the proposed concept of constructing a snubber circuit for multilevel inverter and converter can apply to any kind of basic snubber unit such as Holtz nondissipative snubber, McMurray efficient snubber, Lauritzen lossless snubber, etc which have been utilized for twolevel inveter.

In this paper, we composed of utility interactive pv generation system of voltage source inverter, and represented uninterrutible power supply (UPS) equipment maintaining constant voltage, using a pulse width modulation(PWM) voltage fed inverter, as power source disconnection, voltage variation and output current variation with load variation. This system is driven by being synchronized voltage fed inverter and AC source, and in the steady state of power source charge battery connected to dc side with solar cell using a photovoltaic (PV) that it was so called constant voltage charge. In addition, better output waveform was generated because of PWM method, and it was proved to test by experiment maintained constant output voltage regardless of AC source disconnection, load variation, and voltage variation of AC power source.

Equalizing the state of charge of cell that affects the charge/discharge quality and efficiency of the battery through the charge/discharge characteristic experiments of battery source, we develope the high efficiency charge/discharge system which would be used in serial HEV with the constant enginegenerator output. For this, establishes the electrical model of NiMH battery appropriate to the high efficiency charge/discharge conditions. There is no model of NiMH cell, so we used NiCd model and obtain the NiMH model through the experiment. A reason that each cell has the same charge/discharge property for applying the cell model to serial/parallel connected battery source extensively is needed. Therefore, in this paper, propose the NiMH charger/discharger has the equalization charging function and selectable cutoff function.

For the next generation railway brake system, a disc brake which can be operated directly and electrically is strongly expected. This paper deals with newly developed disc brake actuator using giant magnetostrictive materials(GMM) which can be integrated with disc brake. Regarding the brake system performance, a better delay time was also attained which can be integrated with disc brake. Regarding the brake system performance, a better delay time was also attained which will contribute to shorten a stopping distance.

All elements and systems of electronics have optimum temperature conditions. A using of the thermoelectric method of cooling is the most approach for the thermal management of power electronics. An analysis of using the thermoelectric cooling and the temperature control is given as an efficient method of ensuring a work of power electronic devices in conditions of microminiaturization.

This paper presents a twoparalleled 4 quadrant DC chopper type PWM power conversion circuit in order to generate a gradient magnetic field in the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system. This power amplifier is connected in parallel with the conventional 4quadrant DC chopper using IGBTs at their inputs/outputs to realize further highpower density, high speed current tracking control, and to get a low switching ripple amplitude in a controlled current in the Gradient Coils (GCs). Moreover, the power conversion circuit has to realize quick rise/fall response characteristics in proportion to various target currents in GCs. It is proposed in this paper that a unique control scheme can achieve the above objective. DSPbased control systems realize a high control facility and accuracy. It is proved that the new control system will greatly enlarge the diagnostic target and improve the image quality of MRI.

A power meter is an instrument for measuring in watts the power flowing in a electric equipment. Since the value which a conventional power meter measures is analog, the power meter is hard to determine a phase difference between the voltage and current for a inductive load. The phase difference causes a loss of electric power and a increase of powerline load. In this paper, we propose a digital power meter using TI's DSP(Digital Singnal Processor) TMS320C5x, which is employed to calculate the phase difference and more accurate power consumption.

This paper presents the new current sharing control method of a 12pulse phasecontrolled rectifier(PCR) for a UPS. The control circuit of the 12Pulse PCR with a parallel operating rectifier system is proposed to balance input currents and to reduce the harmonics of input current. The PCR is used widely in the industrial world, since its cost is much lower than that of the PWM converter and the composition of control circuits is simple. This system is developed and tested for a 3phase 400KVA UPS system and the experimental results in this application are included.

This paper presents an innovative prototype of a new conceptual electromagnetic inductionbased fluid heating appliance using voltagefed series capacitorcompensated load resonant highfrequency IGBT inverter with a phaseshifted PWM and a power factor correction schemes. Its operating characteristics in steadystate and dynamic state are illustrated including unique features and evaluated on the basis of its computer simulation and experimental results of 10kw breadboard appliance developed for hot water producer and superheated steamer.

In order to analysis high frequency interference conduction in transformer, this paper constructs a equivalent network based on P.I. Fergested transformers physical model. A method of calculating self and mutual leakage inductance of windings sections is presented and a calculating example is given.

This paper refers to fundamental investigations and simulations of conducted electromagnetic inference emissions produced by power electronic devices in a frequency range from 2 to 10 kHz. The emissions of different industrial power converters were measured and compared. The influence of different working conditions over the altitude of the EMI are represented. Simulations of the power converter system including the line impedance stabilisation network certify the measurements.

Singlephase diode bridge rectifiers with dc filter capacitor usually operate in discontinuous mode and generate large amounts of harmonic currents. This paper presents a precise harmonic analysis of the line side current in the case that both the filter inductor and the filter capacitor are not infinite. The analytical expressions of the line side performance parameters associated with harmonics are derived. The curves that show the relationship of these parameters associated with harmonics are derived. The curves that show the relationship of these parameters as the functions of circuit parameters are illustrated. By simulation the results are verified to be accurate and the conclusion clearly reveals the relations between the line side performance parameters and circuit parameters.

A new small signal modeling of an average current mode control is proposed. In order to analyze the characteristics of the control scheme, the discrete and continuous time small signal models are derived. The derivation are mainly come from the analysis of the sampling effect presented in the current control loop. By the mathematical interpretation of practical sampler representing the sampling effect of a current control loop, the small signal models of an average current mode control can be easily derived. The instability of the current control loop, which gives rise to the subharmonic oscillation, can be identified by the proposed models. To show the usefulness of the proposed models, the simulation and experiment are carried out. The results show that the predicted results by the proposed model are much better agreed with the measured ones than that of the conventional model, even though the high gain of the compensation network of a current control loop is employed.

Active power filter is a kind of device used for compensating instantaneous reactive and harmonic current in threephase circuits. An essential technology that determines the behavior of an active power filter is the method of detecting the distorted current. Using threedimensional space vectors, this paper describes a simple method for detecting the distorted current without any coordinate transformation. The effectiveness of the novel method is verified by the theoretical analysis and simulation.

Higher operating frequency provides rising output power from modern power electronics devices. Nevertheless, the switchmode operation results in EMI which is produced due to large di/dt and/or dv/dt. The methods to reduce EMI are the use of classic and expensive input filters or the addition of the active filter into the main circuits. In this paper, by using the randomized PWM the EMI effect can be reduced and implementation of the proposed control scheme into the forward converter can improve the harmonic spectrum as well

So far a singleaxis controlled repulsive type magnetic bearing system have been designed and fabricated in our laboratory employing the repulsive forces operating between the stator and rotor permanent magnet for levitation. The radial axis is uncontrolled passive one. The higher speed of operation is limited due to the vibration along the uncontrolled axis and the increase of control current due to eddy current interference. This paper will discuss a detailed modeling of the repulsive type magnetic bearing system for five axis control including the eddy current effect and the method of reduction of eddy current effect. Simulation results using Matlab will be presented.

This paper establishes in a new unified manner new mathematical models with core(iron) loss factor for two kinds of AC motors, induction and synchronous motors which are supposed to generate torque precisely or/and efficiently under vector controls. Our new models consist of three basic equations consistent with the others such as differential equation describing electromagnetic dynamics, torque equation describing torque generating mechanism, energy transmission equation describing how injected energy is wasted, saved or transmitted where all vector signals are defined in general frame of arbitrary instant angular velocity. It is clearly shown in our models that equivalent coreloss resistance can express appropriately and separately both eddycurrent and hysteresis losses rather than mere vague loss. Proposed model of induction motor is the most compact in sense of the number of employed interior states and parameters. This compact model can also represent eddycurrent and hysteresis losses of rotor as well as stator. For synchronous motor, saliency is taken into consideration. As well known model for cylindrical motor can be obtained directly from salient one as its special case.

In this paper, operation characteristics of the ZerovoltageSwitching(ZVS) mode and NonZeroVoltageSwitching (NZVS) mode of the active clamp (ACL) forward converter are compared through the loss analysis. The losses of semiconductor devices, transformer and passive elements of the converter are analyzed and compared for each type of operation mode. In order to verify the validity of the analysis, we have built a 50W ACL forward converter and measured the losses of the converter. From the experiment it is known that the ACL forward converter shows nearly same loss distribution for both of operation modes

A new smallsignal model for the controlled ontime boost power factor correction (PFC) circuit is presented. The proposed smallsignal model is valid up to high frequencies over lKHz. The model can be used in designing the voltage feedback compensation of PFC circuits, the control bandwidth of which is maximized with auxiliary means of removing the lowfrequency ripple from the output. The accuracy of the model is confirmed by a 200W experimental hardware

The conventional threephase rectifier with bulky LC output filter has been widely used in the industry because of its distinctive advantages over the active power factor correction rectifier such as simple circuit, high reliability, and low cost. Over than 0.9 power factor can be achieved, which is acceptable in most of industry applications. This rectifier, however, is not easy to use for high power density applications since the LC filter is bulky and heavy. To solve this problem, a new simple rectifier is presented in this paper. By eliminating the bulky LC filter from the conventional diode rectifier without losing most of the advantages of the conventional rectifier, very high power density power conversion with high power factor can be achieved. Operation principle and design considerations are illustrated and verified by Pspice simulation and experimental results from a prototype of 3.3 kW rectifier followed by 100KHz zero voltage switching full bridge PWM converter

This paper is described a digital implementation of a pulse area modulation (PAM) method for a unitypowerfactor buckboost converter. A digital controller is designed and implemented by a Digital Signal Processor(DSP) to replace the analog control circuit for PAM. Experimental results are presented and compared with simulations.

A pulse frequency modulation control method for singleswitch threephase buck rectifiers is comprehensively studied in this paper. The proposed pulse frequency control method leads the threephase buck rectifier to high performance system that can draw the nearly sinusoidal imputline currents. The simulated and experimental results demonstrate that the system provides low total harmonic distortion of the inputline currents, highpower factor, and good output voltage regulation.

This paper describes for reducing harmonic distortion on CO2 welding machine with nonlinear load characteristic using singleswitch threephase AC/DC converter. The loworder harmonic component amplitude of the phase current of singleswitch threephase discontinuous mode is calculated. Experimental results show that CO2 welding machine with singleswitch threephase AC/DC converter is effectively controlled with power factor correction for phase current during welding time.

A passive energy recovery snubber for highpowerfactor boost rectifier, in which the main switch is described in terms of the equivalent circuits that are operational during turnon and turnoff sequences. These equivalent circuits are analyzed so that the overshoot voltage across the main switch, the snubber current, and the turnoff transition time can be predicted analytically. The main switch combined with proposed snubber can be turned on with zero current and turned off at limited voltage stress. The highpowerfactor boost rectifier with proposed snubber is implemented, and the experimental results are presented to confirm the validity of proposed snubber.

A Singlephase Active Rectifier (SAR) [46] with high power factor capability is adopted to satisfy the international harmonic current standards such as IEC 100032. To minimize the input current distortion and to apply the control IC, such as FA5331, UC3854, ML4821 and so forth, the new adequate sensing circuits of the input voltage and current are proposed. There are tow methods applicable the SAR to inverter airconditioner from the viewpoint of both efficiency and cost. The selecting methods of the passive components are presented for the two approaches. Using the determined components, the loss analyses are carried out. The prototype SAR circuits of these two approaches with 3kW power consumption are built and the operation and performance of the circuits with power factor correction capability are verified through the experimental results.

In this paper, the power factor correction (PFC) system for inverter airconditioner that has not only good harmonic characteristics but also cost downmerit compared with the conventional inverter type is proposed. The detail design procedures to get costdown merits are introduced. And it is shown that the PFC system performances also can be improved by the virtue of the stabilization of output voltage. The proto type system is implemented and tested to virify the additional good performances of the proposed system, and its simulation and experimental results are presented.

An improved zero voltage and zero current switching (ZVZCS) full bridge (FB) PWM converter is proposed to solve the problems of the previously presented ZVACSFBPWM converter with secondary active clamp such as narrow ZVS range of leadingleg switches [6]. By adding an auxiliary inductor in between the leadingleg and separated input source voltages, the ZVS of leading leg switches can be extended to the whole line and load ranges, which eliminates unwanted hard switching of clamp switch and simplifies its control. The principle of operation is explained and analyzed. The features and design considerations of the proposed converter are also illustrated and verified on a 3 kW, 100 KHz IGBT based experimental circuit.

A novel zerovoltagetransition (ZVT) isolated PWM boost converter for single stage power factor correction (PFC) is presented to improve the performance of the previously presented ZVT converter[8]. A simple auxiliary circuit which includes only one active switch provides zerovoltageswitching (ZVS) condition to all semiconductor devices. (Two active switches are required for the previous ZVT converter) This leads to reduced cost and simplified control circuit comparing to the previous ZVT converter. The ZVS is achieved for wide line and load ranges with minimum device voltage and current stresses. Operation principle, control strategy and features of the proposed converter are presented and verified by the experimental results from a 1.5 kW, 100 KHz laboratory prototype.

This paper presents a novel nonresonant PWM DCDC converter for Xray highvoltage power generator using the parasitic impedances of the highvoltage highfrequency link transformer with its output highvoltage control scheme and steadystate characteristics compared to the conventional seriesparallel resonant DCDC converter. The key point of this approach is to evaluate effectiveness of reduction of the turn ratio of the highvoltage highfrequency transformer on improvements in power conversion efficiency and the power factor applying a boost ACDC converter as DC voltage source, especially in the long exposure term and light output load ranges.

A new ZVSCV PWM converter with power factor correction (PFC) function is presented in this paper. The new topology is a integration of a boost converter and a ZVSCV topology in a single power conversion stage. The new converter can be regulated in pulsewidth modulation (PWM) by universal integrated control circuits. Some design considerations are given in detail. A laboratory prototype has been implemented to show the feasibility of the approach and the analysis.

SOFT SWITCHING AND LOSS ANALYSIS OF A HALFBRIDGE DCDC CONVERTER WITH IGBTMOSFET PARALLEL SWITCHESDue to high power ratings and low conduction loss, the IGBT has become more attractive in high power applications. However, its slower characteristics than those of MOSFET cause severe switching losses and switching frequency limitation. This paper proposes the IGBT's soft switching concept with the help of MOSFET, where each of the IGBT and MOSFET plays its role during onperiods and switching instants. Also, the switching losses are analyzed by using the linearized modeling and the modeling and the operations of a converter are investigated to confirm the soft switching of IGBT's.

Prevention of the islanding phenomena is one of the most important issues because it can damage electrical equipment connected to the utility system and endanger human life. It is very difficult to detect an islanding condition of a power distribution line with conventional voltage of frequency relays, while the output power and the load power of utility interactive PV inverter units are in nearly balanced state in both active power and reactive power. This paper describes the protective equipment that prevents the PV system connected to the utility grid from starting islanding. Both predictive ocntrol method and harmonic injection method are used for a current control and islanding detection for operating safety.

In general, a singlephase currentfed PWM inverter using IGBTs has some unique advantages for small scale distributed utilityinteractive power supply system as compared with voltagefed PWM inverter. In particular, this is more suitable and acceptable for a nonisolated type utilityinteractive power conditioner, which is going to be widely used for residential solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation system in Japan. However, this currentfed PWM inverter has a significant disadvantage. The output current of this inverter includes large harmonic contents when the inductance of smoothing reactor in its DC side is not large enough to eliminate its current ripple components of this inverter. In order to overcome this problem, a new conceptual pulse area modulation scheme for this inverter is introduced in difference with conventional PWM strategy. This paper presents a new effective control implementation of this PV power conditioner which is able to reduce the harmonic component in the output current produced by the singlephase currentfed PWM inverter even when the ripple current in the smoothing DC reactor is relatively large. The operating principle of the proposed control strategy introdued for this inverter system is described, and its simulation results are evaluated and discussed herein.

Power conditioning system, especially for power converter, is considered for the fuel cell power plants. Various characteristics of the fuel cell are analyzed and various choices of power converters are considered. One of the main converters, the boost type is selected and analyzed as an example.

It is well known that an encoder or a resolver is necessary to obtain the position data for speed or position control Generally utilized speed sensors are malaffected by the EMI, dusty, and high temperature surroundings. Therefore, the speed and position sensorless controls using observers have been studied widely. In this paper, the binary observer which is composed of two feedback regulation loops to control the speed of SRM(Switched Reluctance Motor) is applied. One loop compensates the control input directly like the sliding mode control, and the other one compensates the system parameters indirectly. This observer is constructed on the foundation of variable structure control on the foundation of variable structure control theory and has the inertial term for the varying parameter. The validities of this proposed method is proved by experiments.

In the HighSpeed range for salient type synchronous reluctance motors, the effect of iron loss can not be negligible. In this paper, the SynRM without cage is analyzed mathematically to model and the speed control system is examined by simulation. In order to control the revolution speed, a closedloop control with vector control and decoupling control are applied to the highspeed SynRM drives. The speed control system is analyzed to investigate the desired speed characteristics of high SynRM by simulation.

Machine parameters need to measure in advance for vector control and theoretical analysis. Therefore, we present the machine parameter measurement scheme, considering stator iron loss, by the singlephase test at standstill condition. Using this method, the dq axis inductances and the equivalent iron loss resistance in the voltage equation considering stator iron loss are easily measured. This method is simple and does not need to use complex theory and expensive equipment.

In this paper, the fuzzy control logic of Switched Reluctance Motor(SRM) is introduced to apply the variable speed drive system. Since the speedtorque property of SRM has high speed variation to the changes of torque like a DC motor, to apply SRM to the variable speed driving system, the optimal speedtorque control method is required. As the control method like this, the fuzzy logic and PI control are proposed, and characteristics of them are compared and verified through the experimental results

Many harmonics components are contained within the stator currents of the highspeed synchronous reluctance motor, SynRM, with salient pole rotor. They cause the power factor of SynRM to get worse. In this paper, the mathematical model of SynRM is investigated, and SV_PWM control method is applied to reduce harmonics components in the stator current. Simulation results show the fast response of speed and the reduction of harmonics components at steady state.

In this paper, we analyzed the characteristics and source of vibration and acoustic noise in SRM drives. The paper study the reduction technique of those by new SRM which has auxiliary field winding. The operating mechanism and vibration and acoustic noise characteristics is examined. This paper suggests the control strategies of auxiliary field winding in order to reduce vibration and acoustic noise.

The speed control of SRM(Switched Reluctance Motor) needs the accurate position and speed data of rotor. This information is generally provided by a shaft encoder or resolver. In some cases, the environment is which the motor operates may cause difficulties in maintaining the satisfactory position detection performance. Therefore, the elimination of the position and speed sensor has gained wide attention. In this paper, a new algorithm for estimation of rotor position and speed is described for the SRM drives. This method uses is nonlinear adaptive observer using the MRAS(Model Reference Adaptive System). The observer is proved by Lyapunov Stability Theory. This algorithm was implemented with a TMS320C31 DSP. Experiment results prove that the observer is able to estimate the speed and position with a little errors.

For the speed control of motors, the position or speed sensors are necessary to obtain the position information of the rotor. Specially, SRM(Switched Reluctance Motor) needs an accurate rotor position data because both the rotor and the stator have a salient pole structure. High functional sensors like resolver or encoder are expensive and have complex connecting lines to the controller so the pure signals are apt to be mixed with noised. In the sight of SRM drives, the high temperature, heavy dust, and the EMI surroundings reduce the reliability of speed and position sensors. Therefore, the speed and position sensorless control algorithms using observer have been accepted widely. In this paper An adaptive sliding observer is described to control the SRM without speed or position sensors. The adaptive sliding observer is set on the basis of variable structure control theory. The sliding surface is constructed by current error terms and this surface guarantees the errors converge to "zero". The stability of observer is affirmed by Lyapunov stability analysis and popov's hyper stability theory.ty theory.

A novel active input unbalance voltage compensator with harmonic current compensating capability is proposed and the operating principle of the proposed system is presented in the 3phase power system. The proposed system performs both the voltage regulation of the load and the compensation of the harmonic currents generated due to nonlinear load such as diode rectifier. The system to compensate unbalanced voltage and hramonic currents is composed of a 3phase voltage source inverter, LC filter, series transformer and passive devices at the load side of the line. The compensating voltage to regulate the load voltage and to remove the harmonic current components is transmitted to the line by the series transformer. The validity of the line by the series transformer. The validity of the proposed system is proved by the results of computer simulation.

In this paper a new control approach of detecting load voltage is proposed. It can directly detect the as side harmonic voltage of a voltage source load for the series APE to do dynamic compensation for harmonic voltages. In addition, the control methods of PWM inverter and its dc side voltage are discussed. According to these, a prototype of the series APF is manufactured and corresponding experiment studies are done.

A novel mode of parallel operation of a modular 3phase ACDC flyback converter for power factor correction along with tight regulation was recently analyzed and presented. The advantage of the proposed converter does not require expensive high voltage and high current devices that are normally needed in popular boost type 3phase converter. In this paper the detailed small signal analysis of the modular 3phase ACDC flyback converter is provided for control purposes and also experimental results are included to confirm the validity of the analysis.

This paper presents a balanced 3/1 supply scheme for electric railway. By employing an active filter, the current of the threephrase delivery system is balanced while the load is single phrase, which makes it possible for the traction system to behave like a pureresistance load, with unity power factor and no harmonics. Simulation results are present to verify the scheme's topology and control strategies.

The main drawback of parallel type active power filters (APF) is the large capacity required for harmonic compensation. This paper evaluates the APF capacity requirement of harmonic/reactive power compensation for thyristor converter load. Theoretically achievable maximum power factor under partial load is evaluated. And it is shown that the APF capacity can be considerably reduced while slightly sacrificing the filtering performance by deliberately limiting the peak current of the APF.

A new SPWM control method for Uninterrupted Power System(UPS) is presented. A triangle waveform is used as the reference signal. The desired SPWM control signal can be obtained more easily with a group of comparators. The output AC voltage can be regulated by controlling the lower reference and the upper reference of the comparators according to the feedback voltage. Basic principle, an actual circuit and the experimental results on a 500W UPS for computer system is discussed as an example.

This paper proposes a new control strategy of bidirectional uninterruptible power supply(UPS) with the performance of active power filter which compensate the harmonics and reactive power. To improve the transient response for the effective compensation in active power filter mode. It is considered that a simple and precise calculation method of the compensation reference current for the harmonics and reactive power compensation. So a novel closedloop control strategy is used to calculate the reference current. The system model and control algorithm are described and the system performance is verified by the simulation and experimental results.

A threearm PWM UPS is realizable low price and small size UPS. In this UPS configuration, the center arm operates in both PWM converter mode and PWM inverter mode. Therefore, the operation of this UPS differs from the conventional UPS. In this paper, the threearm PWM UPS is analyzed and a trial product is realized.

In regard to the very stringentgoing requirements applied to power supply systems is nowadays applications, the reliability of typical UPS redundency systems are investigated. Several resonable assumptions are made to build up the probability models. The reliabilities of the typical UPS redundency systems are analysed. Their relating Relaibility and MTTF (Mean Time To Faults) are evaluated. It is resulted in that the MTTF of today's UPS redundency systems is unlikely to be beyond 1,000,000 hours.

This paper describes a new digital control method of 3phase PWM inverter with LC filter for uninterruptible power supply(UPS). The overall control system is based on the dead beat control, which has the minor loop of current control within the voltage control major loop. In this paper, the fullorder disturbance observer is proposed to compensate the disturbances generated due to a sudden change of load currents. The proposed disturbance observer is composed of dead beat observer which estimates state values within a finite time, and cancels the disturbances by adding feedforward compensation loop in the control system. In addition, on order to remove a defect of oscillation generated in output of conventional dead beat controller, a modified dead beat algorithm is proposed in this paper.


The superconducting permanent current switch (PCS) is an important component to build MRI system. This switch uses a thermal and / or magnetic supertonormal phase transition of the superconductor. Unfortunately, in the past it was not designed for using in line frequency. We made some superconducting power electronics devices operating up to 100 Hz [1]. The results of development and preliminary studying of the hear controlled SPED up to line frequency are presented.

This paper proposes a new scheme of FLR for improving corner breakdown voltage. The major difference from the conventional FLR is to build extra rings and floating field plates in the corner region. In this structure the additional field plate and ring have reduced th electric field at the junction in the corner region. Thus it improves the breakdown characteristics which are critical for obtaining high breakdown voltage.

Ishimaru, N.;Fujita, A.;Hirota, I.;Yamashita, H.;Omori, H.;Nakamizo, Tetsuo;Shirakawa, S.;Nakaoka, Mutsuo. 851
In recent years, a costeffective voltagesource type singleended resonantload inverter using MOS gate power switching devices and its related resonant inverter topologies have been commonly used for inductionheated cooking appliances because of relativelylowered switching losses, simple circuit topology, low cost, compactness and low harmonic current in utility AC side. This paper present some comparative performance evaluations of IGBTs as sample devices in each generation and MOS controlled Thyristor(MCT) incorporated into the voltagesource type singleended load resonant inverter for inductionheating rice cookers used for consumer power electronic applications, in which the output power can be regulated on the basis of Frequency Modulation Scheme. 
Many semiconductive switches are operated in series for high voltage operation. The same number of gate drivers are needed to control all the switches, hence, the drivers cause high cost and system complexity. In this study, a simple and low cost gate driver for high voltage thyristor diode switches is investigated. This gate driver can operate several high voltage thyristor diode switches at the same time.

Compact and small size, reliable and failsafe operation and low cost featuring fault current limiter causing the designer to take a close look into the use of passive fault current limiter(FCL) for the protection of power semiconductor devices in power electronic systems. This paper has identified the main parameters responsible for the development of ideal passive magnetic current limiter. The effect of those parameters on the range of operation and the voltagecurrent characteristics of the magnetic current limiter has been studied using tableau approach. Desirable characteristics are discussed and the simulation results are presented.

We propose a multifunctional power line compensator (PLC) which can individually compensate multiple impediments at the same time. The PLC has the flexibility to share power to each compensation according to commands, this improving the working rate. We constructed a 100kVA PLC model including a controller with digital signal processor (DSP) to realize a multifunctional compensation were obtained.

A DSPbased source current control for power conditioner is presented to compensate current harmonics and asymmetries of threephase fourwire emergency generators caused by nonlinear and/or unbalanced loads. Therephase voltage type converter with splitdccapacitor is adopted as the power circuit and a new direct source current control method is suggested, which simplifies the controller. The proposed control method shapes the generator current sinusoidally inphase with the voltage and allows the generator to supply maximum power even to single phase loads. An IGBT base lookVA prototype with the controller realized with a DSP (TMS320C32) is built and tested to verify the performance of the power conditioner.

The compensation strategy of shunt active power filters is one of the most important link that determine its compensation characteristics. In this paper, a new interpretation of the instantaneous reactive power theory in threephase circuits was proposed. A compensation strategy (ip, iq mode) was introduced on the basis of the new interpretation. This compensation strategy was compared with other two compensation strategies(P, q mode and UPF mode). When source voltage is distorted, a sinusoidal, the three compensation strategies are equivalent to each other. When source voltage is distorted, a sinusoidal source current may result only by using ip, iq mode. This is the advantage of ip, iq mode. The result is verified by simulation.

The goal of this paper is to present an instantaneous compensating power flow of active power filter(APF) by graphical method that could be practicable to compensate the power in both case of behaving in an instantaneous rectifying mode and an instantaneous inverting mode. To ensure the validity of the proposed method, computer simulation is achieved. Proposed method can be present more exquisite and physically meaningful power flow than conventional method in the instantaneous compensating power flow diagram of APF.

In practice, not only the load current but also the load voltage may contain asymmetric and harmonic components. Instantaneous power using pq theory is analyzed to have compensation of reactive power, harmonics and asymmetry at the same time. In this paper, the limitation of pq theory by using only shunt or series active filter is analyzed. A new scheme is proposed to solve the above issues.

A conventional parallel hybrid active filter has an inherent problem of large current ratings of devices used in inverter. In general, this problem has been solved by adjusting turn ratio of a matching transformer. However, making the transformer with high turn ratio may be not available for high power system due to its requirement for high voltage insulation. In this paper, a new configuration is proposed for parallel hybrid active filter. In the proposed hybrid active filter, the active filter is connected to the passive filter inductor in parallel through a matching transformer for the aim of reducing the size of inverter. Through computer simulations, we have shown the outstanding performances of the proposed topology.

Voltage and harmonic stability characteristics of capacitor commutated converters applied to a BTB (back to back) system (CCCBTB) are analyzed and compared to characteristics of a BTB system composed of conventional line commutated converters (LCCBTB). About 1.6 times larger safe operating regions can be obtained for the CCCBTB system compared to the latter. The CCCBTB system results in no harmonic instability problem as it has no shunt reactive compensators in the station and the adjoining AC system generates no low antires onance points.

This paper aims at investigating the characteristics of the operating modes of twomodule Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC) in a power transmission system. The operating modes of twomodule TCSC are defined, analyzed and compared to those of singlemodule TCSC are defined, analyzed and compared to those of singlemodule TCSC. The load flow program, the stability calculation program and Electro Magnetic Transient Program (EMTP) simulation of a TCSC power transmission system are developed for the performance evaluation of twomodule TCSC as a power flow controller. In the process of the simulation study, the potential problem areas of the TCSC power transmission system are identified.

Transient and static characteristics of HVDC inverter can be analyzed with various simulation tools. For the optimal filter design, various performance criteria are proposed. In this paper, performance index is calculated based on proposed per phase equivalent circuit. Voltage and harmonic and filter power loss are selected as criteria. Optimization procedure is performed to find optimal passive filter parameters. Dynamic characteristics is also analyzed with proposed equivalent circuit.

A Capacitor Commutated Converter (CCC) has less difficulty of commutation failure in comparison to the conventional line commutated converter. This paper proposes the Ar1R control of the CCC in the inverter operation, which deserves as the Ar1R of the conventional converter. The CCC can be operated in high power factor area by using the proposing Ar1R control. The voltage stability at an AC bus connected the CCC inverter is investigated and estimated its ability of preventing the AC voltage collapse. To estimate the voltage stability, this paper developed the simplified converter mathematical model and led the VSF index. The results shows that the AC voltage stability is guaranteed and enables the interconnection to an weak AC system, when compensation factor of the compensation capacitor is higher than 200%.

This paper proposed that an Analysis of a partial resonant ACDC converter for high power and power factor operates with four choppers connecting to a number of parallel circuit. To improve these, a large number of soft switching topologies included a resonant circuit have been proposed. And, some simulative results on computer are included to confirm the validity of the analytical results. The partial resonant circuit makes use of an inductor using stepdown and a condenser of loseless snubber. The result is that the switching loss is very low and the efficiency of system is high. And the snubber condenser used in a partial resonant circuit makes charging energy regenerated at input power source for resonant operation. The proposed conversion system is deemed the most suitable for high power applications where the power switching devices are used

This paper presents a novel current control system to eliminate the steady state control error and to improve the transient characteristics for PWM ACDC converter. A general mathematical model of the converter that is represented as a statespace model is first established. The statespace model is used for the simulation of PWM switching converter with the proposed current control system. The proposed sinusoidal tracking control system that does not require coordinate transformations using principle of the integral controller is described. It is proved that the steady state deviation reduces to zero through a transfer function of source current control system. Finally, it is seen that simulations agree with the experimental results in source current and reference of controlled ac current loop.

Charge/discharge property of LiMn2O4 was investigated with LiMn2O4/Li cell for use of lithium ion battery in electric vehicle. LiMn2O4 calcined at
$800^{\circ}C$ for 36hr show high charge/discharge capacity and excellent cycle stability than that of others. This is found to be in agreement with expectation in the Xray diffraction analysis. In addition, the kind and volume of conductive agent involved in LiMn2O4 cathode is excellent at supersblack and 20wt%, respectively. 
The induction motor of the electric vehicles is controlled based on the vector control method to obtain good torque control characteristics. In the conventional vector control system, the field exciting current should be kept on a constant value to keep a stable flux level. This method has a liability that core loss becomes increasing at the light load region. To solve this liability, the efficiency maximizing control method of the vector controlled induction motor is proposed in thid paper. We developed light weight water cooled 60kW induction motor drive system which adopts our method and fabricated a conversion electric car for actual vehicle test. We demonstrate the usefulness of drive system by comparing its driving mode with conventional field oriented system and an efficiency maximizing controlled induction motor.

This paper presents a new highperformance intelligent controlled currentsource (CCS) system which can compensate for modelling errors of armature resistance, leakage and magnetizing inductances and for space harmonic components of speed EMF's. A shuttlemotion simulation is presented in the massreducedmode in which an equivalent vehicle weight is reduced, by 40kg to 7kg. This study provides one of the most important keytechnologies in driving practical linear synchronous motor (LSM) Maglev vehicle.

This paper describes a development of traction unit for 2motor driven electric vehicle (EV). The traction unit is consisted with an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM), a reduction gear and an inverter for electric vehicle that is driven by 2 motors without differential gear. For traction unit, prototype IPMSM and inverter have been developed. The IPMSM was designed by CAD program that was developed with both equivalent circuit method and FEM. Also the inverter was developed to drive 2 motors with 6 legs IGBT switches in a control board. The vector control algorithm was implemented with maximum torque control method in the constant torque region and field weakening control method in the constant power region considering inverter capacity. To verify that the traction unit is more high efficiency and has more high power density than a traction unit with induction motor with the same power, we would like to show the results about the design and analysis of the IPMSM and the experiment results about the traction unit.

Electrified railroads inject large amount of harmonics, negative sequence and reactive currents to electric supply systems. This paper introduces application of active filter as a 3/1 phase converter for electrified railroad. In this system active filter compensate harmonics, negative sequence and reactive currents and electric railroad and active filter together act as a balance threephase load with power factor 1

The rapid development of smallscale (110 MJ) Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage Systems (SMES) can be explained by real perspective of practical implementation of these devices in electro power nets. However the serious problem of all high mechanically stressed superconducting coilsproblem of training and degradation (decreasing) of operating current still exists. Moreover for SMES systems this problems is more dangerous because of pulsed origin of mechanical stressesone of the major sources of local heat disturbances in superconducting coils. We investigated acoustic emission (AE) phenomenon on model and 0.5 MJ SMES coils taking into account close correlation of AE and local heat disturbances. Twocoils 0.5 MJ SMES system was developed, manufactured and tested at Russian Research Center
in the frames of cooperation with Korean Electrical Engineering Company (KEPCO) [1]. The twocoil SMES operates with the stored energy transmitted between coils in the course of a single cycle with 2 seconds energy transfer time. Maximum operating current 1.55 kA corresponds to 0.5 MF in each coil. The NbTibased conductor was designed and used for SMES manufacturing. It represents transposed cable made of NbTi strands in copper matrix, several cooper strands and several stainless steel strands. The coils are wound onto fiberglass cylindrical bobbins. To make AE event information more useful a real time instrumentation system was used. Two main measured and computer processed AE parameters were considered: the energy of AE events (E) and the accumulated energy of AE events (E ). Influence of current value in 0.5 MJ coils on E and E was studied. The sensors were installed onto the bobbin and the external surface of magnets. Three levels of initial current were examined: 600A, 1000A, 2450 A. An extraordinary strong dependence of the current level on E and E was observed. The specific features of AE from model coils, operated in sinusoidal vibration current changing mode were investigated. Three current frequency modes were examined: 0.012 Hz, 0.03 Hz and 0.12 Hz. In all modes maximum amplitude 1200 A was realized. 
The studies on the photovoltaic system are extensively exhaustible and broadly available resourse as a future energy supply. In this paper, a new maximum power point tracker(MPPT) using neural network theory is proposed to improve energy conversion efficiency. The boost converter and neural network controller(NNC) were employed so that the operating point of solar cell was located at the Maximum Power Point. And the back propagation algorithm with one input layer of two inputs(E, CE) and output layer(cnntrol value) was applied to train a neural network. Simulation and experimental results show that the performance of NNC in MPPT of photovoltaic array is better than that of controller based upon the Hill Climbing Method.

Kang, KiHwan;Yu, GwonJong;Song, Jinsoo;Jeong, YoungSeok;Kang, KiHwan;Lee, ByoungKu;Choe, GyuHa 972
This paper deals with standalone Photovoltaic system(SPVS) with charge and discharge controller. Main power source of SPVS are generally solar cell and battery. Therefore SPVS can be classified into variable types in accordance with connection method between battery and solar cell array. Mainly used one of them is direct connection type which has advantages such as simple structure and simple controller. However most big drawback of this system is energy loss by voltage disharmony between solar cell array and battery. Therefore SPVS with charge and discharge controller which can operate solar cell array at maximum power point is designed and experimented with a laboratory prototype. 
This paper presents a newly developed transformerless single phase inverter for a photovoltaic (PV) power system. In the proposed system, there is no earthleakage current at all in the theoretical base, and the main circuit of this system is rather simple and it is expected the higher efficiency will be realized. The system is operated by a digital signal processor (DSP) which makes it more flexible in the control. From the experimental results, it is found that this new inverter supplies the AC power to utility grid line with the power factor of nearly unity.

Analysis of the Charge Controlled Inductor Current Sensing PeakPowerTracking Solar Array RegulatorThe peakpowertracking solar array regulator sensing the inductor current is proposed. Since it uses the inductor current as the solar array output power information, the PPT control scheme can be greatly simplified. The charge controlled twoloop scheme is presented to improve the dynamics due to the inductor current sensing. The comparison between the singlevoltage loop controlled system and the twoloop controlled system employing the charge control is presented. This paper also contains the simulation results of that comparison.

Solar cell has an optimum operating point to extract maximum power. To control operating point of the solar cell, a fuzzy controller has already been proposed by our research group. However, several parameters are determined by trial and error. To overcome this problem, this paper adopts Fuzzy Neural Network (FNN) for maximum power point tracking control for photovoltaic array. The FNN can be trained to perfect fuzzy rules and to find an optimum membership functions online.

Takhashi, Nobuo;Okutsu, Kenzo;Kato, Yoshito;Ohkita, Masaaki;Matsuyama, Makoto;Nakaoka, Mutsuo 993
This paper presents a twoswitch boost chopper with a sinewave current shaping and power factor correction scheme, which is applied for driving electronic ballast using high frequency resonant inverter. A working principle of the proposed oneconverter type electronic ballast with power factor correction and active filtering schemes is described on the bases of the equivalent circuit of each operation mode, together with operation analysis. The steadystate performance evaluations of this electronic ballast are illustrated and discussed in experiment. 
The electronic fluorescent lamp ballast can promote the lighting efficiency up to 1020% by driving high frequency with frequency transformation technique, and can completely eliminate the flickering phenomenon occurring from 60Hz frequency. The electronic ballast provides very high energy saving effects for it has high power factor than traditional ballast, and it is convenient to use, can extend the life cycle of fluorescent lamp for it starts at once by driving with high frequency. However electronic ballast needs high price, and it has the bad stability and reliability. This paper provides illumination systems, which drive dozens of fluorescent lamps at the same time, to overcome these shortcomings of electronic ballast and utilize the advantage of electronic ballast.

In recent years inverter power sources are more and more used for resistance welding processes. In this paper some results of investigation into the static and dynamic behavior of highcurrent rectifier diodes used in these inverter power sources will be discussed. By means of digital simulation, losses and efficiency have been determined depending on the power semiconductor parameters.

Output of arc welding power source can be evaluated dynamically and also statically through an arc simulator. The arc simulator is developed to simulate the arc load of short circuit and arc and return power to the line.

According to the adoption of inverter circuit topology for welding machine area, the improvement of welding performance can be achieved. However conventional CO2 inverter arc welding machine uses the constant voltage characteristics. So the metal transfer is performed under unoptimum condition in the sence of spatter generation. In this paper the new control algorithm is proposed for welding machine, which is the instantaneous output current control method using single chip microprocessor. But the optimum waveform of welding current is still uncertain, as a first step for figuring out the optimized waveforms, this study was performed. And as a result of performance test of the proposed system, it was demonstrated that all of the waveform variation parameter could be set individually and the generated spatter is reduced compared to conventional inverter arc welding machine.

This paper presents an effective control scheme incorporated in the voltagefed halfbridge series resonant inverter for induction heating applications, which is based upon a loadadaptive tuned frequency tracking control strategy using PLL(Phase Locked Loop) and its peripheral control circuit. The proposed control strategy ensures a stable operation characteristics of overall inverter system and ZVS(Zero Voltage Switching0 operation in spite of sensitive load parameters variation as well as power regulation, specially in the nonmagnetic heating loads. The simulation results and the performance characteristics in the steadystate are shown as compared with the experimental results for a prototype induction cooking system rated at 1.2kW.

In this paper, the voltagefed series compensated inductor type loadresonant highfrequency inverter is originally presented for driving a newlydeveloped silent discharge ozone generating tube. The effective power regulation scheme of this ozonizer is proposed, which is based on PDM (Pulse Density Modulation) related PWM strategy due to DSP implementation. The effectiveness of this inverter type ozonizer is proved in simulation and experiment.

This paper describes a new dcac inverter system, which for achieving sinusoidal ac waveform make use of parallel loaded frequency resonant inverter consisting of full bridge. Each one of the pair of switches in the inverter is driven to synchronous output frequency and the other is driven to PWM signal with resonant frequency proportional to magnitude of sine wave. Since current through switches is always zero at its turnon in proposed inverter, low stress and low switching loss is achieved. The theoretical analysis is proved through the experimental test.

A novel ZCS high frequency inverter in complex resonance applied for reduction of PM is developed. This inverter is suppressed the switching stress by using complex resonance. The stable operation is realized by ZCS using overlapping commutation phenomenon. The ZCS characteristics are investigated based on numerical analysis and experimental results.

A new soft switching isolated bidirectional phase shifted pulse width modulation (PSPWM) dc/dc converter is presented. Due to the use of the energy recovery snubber, the isolated bidirectional PSPWM dc/dc converter has a significant reduction of switching losses in the switching devices of the primary and secondary side bridge, respectively. The proposed soft switching bidirectional PSPWM FB dc/dc converter provides an energy recovery snubber which consists of two fast recovery diodes, a resonant capacitor and a resonant inductor. The complete operating principles and simulation results will be presented.

This paper describes an advanced prototype of voltagefed zero voltage softswitching PWM resonant inverter with an active voltage clamped capacitor, which is put into practice for highfrequency highpower inductionheated appliances. This applicationspecific quasiresonant inverter using the latest generation IGBTs for softswitching can regulate its output power under a principle of a fixed frequency ZVSPWM strategy. Its operating principle and unique features are presented as compared with a conventional quasiresonant ZVS inverter for inductionheated cooker, together with its power regulation characteristics on the basis of its simulation and experimental results. The steadystate performances of this inverter developed for multiburner type inductionheated food cooking appliance are evaluated and discussed from a practical point of view.

Kim, EunSoo;Joe, KeeYeon;Park, HaeYoung;Kim, YoonHo;Kim, ChoonSame 1051
To achieve high efficiency in high power and high frequency applications, reduction of switching losses and noise is very important. In this paper, an improved zero voltage switching forward dc/dc converter is proposed. The proposed converter is constructed by using energy recovery snubbers in parallel with the main switches and output diodes of the conventional forward dc/dc converter. Due to the use of the energy recovery snubbers in the primary and secondary side, the proposed converter achieves zerovoltageswitching turnoff without switching losses for switching devices and output rectification diodes. The complete operating principles and experimental results will be presented. 
In this paper, a novel zero current switching (ZCS) high frequency inverter for induction heating is proposed. The ZCS characteristics are investigated from both the numerical analysis and the experiment.