2011.05

This paper presents a numerical study on multiphase flows induced by wall adhesion The CSF(Continuum Surface Force} model is used for the calculation of the surface tension force and implemented in an inhouse solution code(PowerCFD). The present method(code) employs an unstructured cellcentered method based on a conservative pressurebased finitevolume method with volume capturing method(CICSAM) in a volume of fluid(VOF) scheme for phase interface capturing As an application of the present method, the effects of wall adhesion are numerically simulated with the CSF model for a shallow pool of water located at the bottom of a cylindrical tank. Two different cases are computed, one in which the water wets the wall and one in which the water does not wet the wall. It is found that the present method simulates efficiently and accurately surface tensiondominant multiphase flows induced by wall adhesion.

In this study, the twophase incompressible flow in twodimensional channel considering the effect of surface tension is simulated using an improved levelset method. Quadratic element is used for solving the continuity and NavierStokes equations to avoid using an additional pressure equation, and CrankNicholson scheme and linear element are used for solving the advection equation of the level set function. Direct approach method using geometric information is implemented instead of the hyperbolictype partial differential equation for the reinitializing the level set function. The benchmark test case considers various arrays of defomable droplets under different flow conditions in straight channel. The deformation and migration of the droplets are computed and the results are compared very well with the existing studies.

A level set method is proposed to simulate the incompressible twophase flow considering the effect of surface tension. For reinitialization of level set junction, a direct approach method is employed, instead of solving hyperbolic type equation. A mixed element is adopted, so that the continuity mid NavierStokes equations are solved by using the quadratic elements (sixnode triangular element mid ninenode quadrilateral element), mid the level set function is solved by using the linear elements (threenode triangular element mid fournode quadrilateral element). In order to verify the accuracy mid robustness of the codes, the present methods are applied to a few benchmark problems. It is confirmed that the present results are in good qualitative mid quantitative agreements with the existing studies.

Two difference cavitation models based on the homogeneous mixture model are used to study cavitating flows through convergingdiverging channel. Here, the cloud cavities, pressure distributions and other results have been obtained and compared to evaluate two cavitation models. What's more, differences are observed in the simulated results, due to the differences in characteristics of each model. Analytical results shows that the new improvement cavitation model is validated to have better effects on simulating cavitating flows

In this paper, numerical simulation of cavitation flow for modified NACA66 hydrofoil was made by using the multiphase RANS equation based on pseudocompressibility. The Homogeneous mixture model comprised of the mixture continuity, mixture momentum and liquid volume fraction equations was utilized. A vertexcentered finitevolume method was used in conjunction 2ndorder Roe's FDS to discretize the inviscid fluxes. The viscous fluxes were computed based on central differencing The SpalartAllmaras one equation model was employed for the closure of turbulence. Reasonable agreements were obtained between the calculation results and the experiment for pressure coefficients on the hydrofoil surface.

In this study, it is performed numerical simulation on multiphase flow by means of CIPCSI2 scheme. It is applied In a twophase free surface flow problem at a high density ratio equivalent to that of an airwater system, for examining the computational capability. The method that is being developed and improved is a CIP(Constrained Interpolation Profile) and CSL2(Conservative SemiLagrangian) based Cartesian Grid Method.

Unsteady sheet cavitation on a threedimensional twisted hydrofoil was studied using an unsteady Reynoldsaveraged NavierStokes equations solver based on a cellcentered finite volume method. As a verification test of the computational method. noncavitating and cavitating flow over a modified NACA66 foil section was simulated and validated against existing experimental data. The numerical uncertainties of forces and pressure were evaluated for three levels of mesh resolution. The computed pressure on the foil and the cavity shedding behavior were validated by comparing with existing experimental data. The cavity shedding dynamics by reentrant jets from the end and sides of the cavity were investigated.

Pressure drops of twophase flow in a pipe according to particle shapes have been calculated and analyzed. The numerical analysis for 3 cases of Reynolds number has been conducted for each particle shape. In case of the cylinder shape, the particles had been assumed to be randomly distributed for each Reynolds number. The results have been averaged and compared to those of the case of the ball shape. Additionally, pressure drops of ball and cylinder shapes has been compared to the result of Ergun's equation.

Water is continuously produced in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), and is transported and exhausted through polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM), catalyst layer (CL), microporous layer (MPL), and gas diffusion layer (GDL). The low operation temperatures of PEMFC lead to the condensation of water, and the condensed water hinders the transport of reactants in porous layers (MPL and GDL). Thus, water flooding is currently one of hot issues that should be solved to achieve higher performance of PEMFC. This research aims to study liquid water transport in porous layers of PEMFC by using porenetwork model, while the microscale pore structure and hydrophilic/hydrophobic surface properties of GDL and MPL were fully considered.

In this paper we present an algorithm about how to simulate two dimensional dam breaking with lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). LBM considers a typical volume element of fluid to be composed of a collection of particles that represented by a particle velocity distribution function for each fluid component at each grid point. We use the modified Lattice Boltzmann Method for incompressible fluid. This paper will represent detailed information on single phase flow which considers only the water instead of both air and water. Interface treatment and conservation of mass are the most important things in simulating free surface where the Interface is treated by mass exchange with the water region. We consider the surface tension on the interface and also bounce back boundary condition for the treatment of solid obstacles. We will compare the results of the simulation with some methods and experimental results.

The objective of this paper is to investigate the gravity effect on the shape characters of natural supercavity. A finite difference solver along with an implicit, dual time, preconditioned, threedimensional algorithm has been used to solve the twophase Navier Stokes equations. Numerical solutions were performed for natural supercavitating flow past a disk for different cavitation and Froud numbers. The numerical results were compared with corresponding analytical results in quantitative manner and it was found that the shape of supercavity was reasonably predicted Numerical results indicated that the gravity effect can induce the asymmetry of supercavity. The asymmetry was apparent when the froud number was smaller so that for constant cavitation number when we reduced the froud number the opt of the axis of supercavity increased. Moreover, for specific froud number a decrease in cavitation number resulted in an increase in the offset of the supercavity Numerical results revealed that for froud number greater than 25 the gravity effect is negligible.

The momentoffluid (MOF) method is a new volumetracking method that accurately treats evolving material interfaces. The MOF method uses moment data, namely the material volume fraction, as well as the centroid, for a more accurate representation of the material configuration, interfaces and concomitant volume advection. In this paper, unstructured mesh extension of the MOF method is to be presented. The MOF method is coupled with a stabilized finite element incompressible NavierStokes solver for two materials. The effectiveness of the MOF method is demonstrated with a freesurface dambreak problem.

Recently, thanks to the advanced computational power and numerical methods, it is made possible to analyze the flow around moving bodies using computational fluid dynamics techniques. In those simulations, moving mesh techniques should be able to represent both the body motion and boundary deformation, which are frequently encountered in fluidstructure interaction and/or six degreeoffreedom problems. In the present study, the staggered loosely coupling algorithm was used for fluidstructure interaction and the Laplacian operator based technique was used for moving mesh. For the verification of the developed computational method, the flow around a twodimensional cylinder was simulated and analyzed.

Thermofluid flow analysis is major subject in most computational fluid dynamics applications. Accompanying convective and conductive heat transport phenomena, radiation plays an important role in high temperature operating systems. Cares in which the radiation dominates are found in such systems as boilers, furnaces, rocket engines, etc. In this paper the finitevolume method (FVM) are employed to simulate twodimensional radiation problems in concentric and eccentric horizontal cylindrical annuli with general bodyfitted coordinates. In that case the simplest and intuitive remedies are proposed for mitigation of ray effect.

The VortexInCell(VIC) method combined with panel method is applied to the analysis of incompressible unsteady viscous flow. The dynamics of resulting flow is governed by the vorticity transport equation in Lagrangian form with vortex particle representation of the flow field. A regular grid which is independent to the shape of a body is used for numerical evaluation based on immersed boundary technique. With an introduction of this approach, the development and validation of the VIC method is presented with some computational results for incompressible viscous flow around two or three dimensional bodies such as wing section, sphere, finite wing and marine propeller.

In this paper, a conjugate heat transfer around cylinder with heat generation was investigated. Both forced convection and conduction was considered in the present finite element simulation. A finite element formulation based on SIMPLE type algorithm was adopted for the solution of the incompressible NavierStokes equations. We compared the finite element solution with that of Ansys fluent 12.0, in which finite volume method was employed for spatial discretization. It was found that the finite element method gave more accurate solution than Ansys fluent 12.0. Further, it was found that the maximum temperature inside cylinder is positioned at the rear side due to the flow separation.

Glass fiber drawing from a silica preform is one of the most important processes in optical fiber manufacturing. High purify silica preform of cylindrical shape is fed into the graphite furnace, and then a very thin glass fiber of 125 micron diameter is drawn from the softened and heated preform. A computational analysis is performed to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of preform heating and the glass fiber drawing in the furnace. In addition to the dominant radiative heating of preform by the heating element in the furnace, present analysis also includes the convective heat transport by the gas flowing around the preform that experiences neckdawn profile and the freshly drawn glass fiber at high fiber drawing speed. The computational results present the effects of gas flow on the temperature of preform and glass fiber as well as the neckdown profile of preform.

In manufacturing optical fibers, the process starts with the glass fiber drawing from the heated and softened silica preform in the furnace, and the freshly drawn glass fiber is still at high temperature when it leaves the glass fiber drawing furnace. It is necessary to cool down the glass fiber to the ambient temperature before it then enters the fiber coating applicator, since the hot glass fiber is known to cause several technical difficulties in achieving high quality fiber coating. As the fiber drawing speed keeps increasing, a current manufacturing of optical fibers requires a dedicated cooling unit with helium gas injection. A series of threedimensional flow and heat transfer computations are carried out to investigate the effectiveness of fiber cooling in the fiber cooling unit. The glass fiber cooling unit is simplified into the long cylindrical enclosure at which the hot glass fiber passes through at high speed, and the helium is being supplied through several injection slots of rectangular shape along the cooling unit. This study presents and discusses the effects of helium injection rates on the glass fiber cooling rates.

Fiber coatings are essential in optical fiber manufacturing, since they provide the protective layers from the surface damages and the adequate fiber strength. Flow and temperature fields of coating liquid in a fiber coating applicator are numerically investigated by using a commercial CFD software. The main focus of this computational study is on the thermal effects by viscous dissipation and the effects of coating supply temperature on the final fiber coating thickness. The numerical results reveal that the thermal effects play a major role in the highspeed optical fiber coating process and give substantial influences on the determination of coating thickness. Changing the supply temperature of coating liquid is found to relieve the radial variation of coating liquid viscosity in the coating die and it can be an effective way to control the fiber coating thickness.

In the present work, a numerical study of fluid flow and heat transfer on the concave surface with impinging jet has been performed by solving threedimensional Reynodsaveraged NaverStokes(RANS) equations. The constant temperature condition was applied to the concave impingement surface. The inclination angle of jet nozzle and the distance between jet nozzles are chosen as design variables under equivalent mass flow rate of working fluid into cooling channel, and area averaged Nusselt number on concave impingement surface is set as the objective function. Thirteen training points are obtained by Latin Hypercube sampling method, and the PEA model is constructed by using the objective function values at the trainging points. And, the sequential quadratic programming is used to search for the optimal paint from the PBA model. Through the optimization, the optimal shape shows improved heat transfer rate as compared to the reference geometry.

To protect the turbine blade, many cooling techniques has developed. With all other things, filmcooling has been widely used as the important alternative. In the present work, numerical analysis has been performed to investigate and to compare the filmcooling performance of various filmcooling hole schemes such as cylindrical, crescent, louver, and dumbbell holes. To analyze the turbulent flow and the filmcooling mechanism, threedimensional Reynoldsaveraged NavierStokes analysis has been performed with shear stress transport turbulence model. The validation of numerical results has been assessed in comparison with experimental data. The characteristics of fluid flow and the filmcooling performance for each shaped hole have been investigated and evaluated in terms of centerline, laterally averaged and spatially averaged filmcooling effectivenesses. The dumbbell shaped hole shows better filmcooling effectiveness than other shaped holes. And the louver and cylindrical shaped hole shows lower one, and concentrated flow on centerline only.

In this paper, a preconverter of MCFC for an emergence electric power supplier is numerically simulated to increase the hydrogen production from natural gas (methane). Commercial code is used to simulated the porous catalyst with user subroutine to model three dominant chemical reactions which are Stream Reforming(SR), WaterGas Shift(WGS), and Direct Stram Reforming(DSR). To get 10% fuel conversion rate in preconverter. the required external heat flux is supplied from outer wall of preconverter. The calculated results show that very nonuniform temperature distribution and chemical reaction happen near the wall of preconverter. These phenomena can be explained by the low heat conductivity of porous catalyst and the endothermic reforming reaction.

The low electric power and high efficiency chips are required because of the appearance of smart phones. Also, highcapacity memory chips are needed. eMMC(embedded MultiMedia Card) for this is defined by JEDEC(Joint Electron Device Engineering Council). The eMMC memory for research and development is a memory mulitchip module of 64GB using 16multilayers of 4GB NANDflash memory. And it has simplified the chip by using SIP technique. But mulitchip module generates high heat by higher integration. According to the result of study, whenever semiconductor chip is about 10
$^{\circ}C$ higher than the design temperature it makes the life of the chip shorten more than 50%. Therefore, it is required that we solve the problem of heating value and make the efficiency of eMMC improved. In this study, geometry of 16multilayered structure is compared the temperature distribution of four different geometries along the numerical analysis. As a result, it is con finned that a multilayer structure of stair type is more efficient than a multilayer structure of vertical type because a multilayer structure of stair type is about 9$^{\circ}C$ lower than a multilayer structure of vertical type. 
The heat transfer rate in an oven is very important for the quality of cooking food. For a robust performance design in an electric oven, forced convection has been used rather than natural convection, in bake and convection mode. Forced convection heat trans for in a vented electric oven has been numerically evaluated using the commercial software FLUENT. CFD modeling of the electric oven involves threedimensional, steady state, MRF fan model and DO radiation model. In this study, the electric oven cavity and fan modules are not simplified. Other research shows that the boundary condition can often lead to nonphysical solutions, such as reverse flaw at the top vent. To remove this nonphysical solution, control volume has been expanded at the nearby vent. This numerical analysis has been performed with dedicated experimental support. The results show that there is less than a 2.2% difference between the simulation and experimental data for the temperature profile of food. From this research we can use this oven simulation technique to make a better convection system in an electric oven.

In this paper, the confined single slot jet impingement is investigated numerically. Although the geometry of the jet impingement is simple, the flow pattern of the jet impingement is complex and the numerical results of the jet impingement is affected much by numerical methods. The first goal of this study is to analyze the effects of Reynolds models and numerical spatial discretization schemes on the results of heat transfer performance and the flaw characteristics and to select the best method. Various versions of the low Reynolds number kepsilon turbulence models are compared. Using the selected numerical method, the flow field and heat transfer characteristics of confined single slot jet impingement on a moving plate are analyzed.

The battery pack, a main component of NEV(Neighborhood Electric Vehicle), needs cooling system when it is charging or discharging to prevent the degradation of the battery charging efficiency. The purpose of this study is to analyse the effects of cooling methods, changing positions of inlet and outlet and changing area ratios of inlet and outlet. It has been observed that in the point of uniform cooling suction from the exit side is more efficient than blowing from the inlet. And there is a suitable inlet/outlet area ratio in maximizing the mass flow rate. The numerical analyse using a commercial code STARCCM+ version 4.02 were used for the study.

A twophase numerical model for platefin heat exchangers with plain fins and wave fins is studied incorporating the thermodynamic properties and the characteristics of fluid flow. The numerical simulations for the two fins in cryogenic conditions are earned out by employing a homogenous twophase flow model with the CFD code ANSYS CFX. The heat transfer coefficients and the friction factor for nitrogen saturated vapor condensation process inside two types of plate fin heat exchanger are evaluated including the effects of saturation temperature (pressure), mass flow rate and inlet vapor quantity. The convective heat transfer coefficients and friction factors will be used for design of platefin type heat exchangers operating under cryogenic conditions.

In this study, numerical analysis was performed for 150kW arc heater and inflow around specimen was studied. Pressure, voltage, etc. were similar to experimental data, however efficiency was over estimated. In order to correct efficiency, swirl effect and modified radiative heat flux using configuration factor were considered. It was shown that Swirl had little effect on efficiency although radiative heat flux played an important role on decreasing the efficiency of arc heater. In addition, nonequilibrium analysis that plasma flows moves from an arc heater's nozzle to a specimen were performed.

As building becomes larger, taller and more complex due to industrialization and urbanization, it tends to be vulnerable to fire and establishment of effective measures for fire safety is demanded. Especially the fact that the smoke hinders evacuation and firefighting activities as well as becomes the major cause of life casualty emphasizes the importance of smoke control system. To design and operate the smoke control system success folly, it is necessary to analyze and predict precisely the thermoflow induced by fire in building. The unsteady threedimensional analysis of thermoflow induced by fire with diverse variables such as building structure, fire conditions and smoke control facilities can be effectively carried out with numerical method In this study, using the FDS(Fire Dynamics Simulation) program that spreads widely as the analysis tool for thermoflow of fire, the analysis of thermoflow in partition of building induced by fire and comparison with the experimental results for assessment of numerical analysis are presented.

Cerebral aneurysm mostly occurs at a bifurcation of the circle of Willis. When the cerebral aneurysm is ruptured a disease like subarachnoid hemorrhage and stroke is caused and this can be even deadly for patients. Generally it is known that causes of the intracranial aneurysm are a congenital deformity of the artery and pressure or shear stress from the blood flow. A blood flow pattern and the geometry of the blood vessel are important factors for the aneurysm formation. Research for several hemodynamic indices has been performed and these indices can be used for the prediction of aneurysm initiation and rupture. Therefore, the numerical analysis was performed for hemodynamic characteristics of the blood flow through the cerebral artery applying the various bifurcation angle and flow rate ratio. We analyze the flow characteristics using indices from the results of the numerical simulation. In addition, to investigate the flow pattern in the aneurysm according to the bifurcation angle and the flow rate ratio, we performed the numerical simulation on the supposition that the aneurysm occurs.

Recently, railroad long tunnels are increasing and growing longer due to topological feathers like a lot of mountain in Korea. But fire disaster of a long tunnel cause many people to injury and death. For that reason, at the early design stage of a long tunnel, risk assessment and mitigation measure of risk for satisfying tunnel safety are required. According to the railroad facility safety standard (Korean MLTM Announcement No. 2006395), risk assessment for railroadtunnel fire should be performed when design stage. Therefore, various methods of risk assessment for tunnel fire have been studied and applied. In the paper, QRA(Quantitative Risk Analysis) for fire risk assessment by using CFD code is presented and the usefulness of CFD is discussed.

Nowadays, SELENE2 is under development for the moon explorer rover in Japan. AXS(Active Xray Spectrometer) sensor development among the candidated payloads will be on going by the worldwide cooperation. The thermal design, analysis and test will be specially performed by Korean institutes. CFD techniques are used for the conceptual design and analysis. Thinshell plate meshes being applied by MonteCarlo Ray Tracing Method are generated for the thermal radiation analysis. Lumped capacity model is employed for the thermal conduction simulation of the AXS payload itself. Various shapes of the payload configuration with thermal boundary conditions are proposed and selected on the purpose of the analysis of the initial design. The results of the analysis are supposed to be used as the baseline for the further detailed design of the AXS payload in the future.

The purpose of this study is to evaluate a defrost model for the possibility of defrosting on wheelhouse window and the heat capacity if defrosting nozzle by using the commercial CFD solver FLUENT. A detailed simulation model has been created which contains the defrosting nozzle, window and the interior/exterior forced convection boundary. In this numerical study, the heat and mass transfer coupled during defrosting and investigated the defrost time for different hot gas temperature, external wind speed and temperature condition.

There are numerous crashed deaths or nearmiss accidents in everywhere. The outbreak place is not just developing countries such as India and Iran, but also leading countries including Japan and German. The crashed death of pedestrian seems to be an unavoidable accident. However, it was revealed in social psychology field that the accident can be treated as a kind of physical phenomenon. In this study, we apply discrete element method frequently used in the field of twophase flow to pedestrian flow with collective behavior psychology. This approach is a field of social science and physics, called computational sociology. The acquired results show that emergency exit size can be related with the wall slope of the exit.

In this report, We compared the actual test with the result of pow calculation and Resistance/Selfpropulsion of the ship using STARCCM+ which is the commercial Reynolds Averaged NavierStrokes(RANs) Solver. The calculation model was the KRISO Container Ship and 205K Bulk Carrier of Sungdong shipbuilding company. For this calculation, We used Realizable KEpsilon model for flaw analysis, VOF method for the free surface creation, Moving Reference Frame method for reducing the POW calculation time, and Sliding Mesh method for SelfPropulsion analysis. Calculation of Resistance and SelfPropulsion includes the freesurface. And all calculations in this report were based on unstructured grids.

In this study, an efficient algorithm for Delaunay triangulation of a number of points which can be used on a GPUbased parallel computation is studied The developed algorithm is programmed using CUDA library. and the program takes full advantage of parallel computation which are concurrently performed on each of the threads on GPU. The results of partitioned triangulation collected from the GPU computation requires proper stitching between neighboring partitions and calculation of connectivities among triangular cells on CPU In this study, the effect of number of threads on the efficiency and total duration for Delaunay grid generation is studied. And it is also shown that GPU computing using CUDA for Delaunay grid generation is feasible and it saves total time required for the triangulation of the large number points compared to the sequential CPUbased triangulation programs.

NACA0012 Airfoil was simulated with Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD) and the aerodynamic characteristics was analyzed for various farfield boundary distances ranging from 10 airfoil chord to 50 chord Drag coefficient distribution was dependent on the farfield distance and circulation, integrated along the loop inside the flow region, was also dependent. It was turned out that some corrections based on the circulation should be added to the farfield boundary condition for accurate airfoil simulation.

A rotating propeller of turboprop aircraft gives much effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of wing such as lift, moment and stall. Specially, a rotating propeller changes the lift and moment characteristics when aircrafts are in landing or takeoff condition. In the present paper, 3dimensional NavierStokes simulations for the interaction of propeller and wing were carried out. For rotating propeller, unsteady sliding mesh method was used to simulate a relative motion. For the power effect analysis in landing and take off configurations, double slotted flap was also considered and the aerodynamic characteristics were investigated. It was shown that the propeller slipstream enhanced the lift slope including maximum lift and this enhancement was more dominant with high lift device.

During landing approach, an airplane could experience dynamic unstable motion by the combination of a gust and elevator control to cancel the disturbances. This situation is dangerous and could lead to a loss of an airplane. In this paper, numerical analysis was used to study the effect of pitch oscillating 2D high lift devices in a landing condition. Experimental data on a pitching naca0012 airfoil was used for code validation. Dynamic characteristics of an airfoil, single slotted flap for midclass passenger aircraft were analyzed. Unsteady NavierStokes analysis was performed with SpalartAllmaras turbulence model for separation dominant low speed flow. As a result, flow hysteresis of a flapped airfoil was more complex than that of an oscillating airfoil. So, dynamic analysis of a flap in a landing condition is very important for operational safety.

Recently, research on evaluating thermal comfort by using CFD has been vigorously active. This research evaluates not only distribution of temperature and air flow analysing but also thermal comfort in indoor space by applying human model. But research of human model's shape, Grid characteristic and turbulence model has not yet been studied. In this paper, human model's shape, physical characteristic of variable Grid, and change of turbulence model has been studies by CFD. In this study. FLUENT is used for analysis and PMV(predicted Mean Vote), PPD(Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied) and EHT(Equivalent Homogeneous Temperature} are used for evaluation and comparison of thermal comfort. As a result, it shows that shape of CSP and lattice features does not affect on global flow field or evaluation on PMV, PPD. However, it demonstrates more precise result from evaluation of thermal comfort by equivalent temperature when it used detailed human model considering prism grid.

A supersonic inlet at angle of attack has antisymmetric pressure distribution, and it can make flow instability and structural problem. In this study, numerical analysis of threedimensional inviscid flow was conducted under various throttle ratio and angle of attack conditions. Throttle ratio was defined as the ratio of the exit area to the smallest cross section area at inlet, and the ratio is controlled from 0 to 2.42. At various angle of attack, the characteristics of steady and unsteady flow around supersonic inlet is observed under different throttling ratios. From these results, pressure recovery curves and pressure history curves were plotted by post processing. Using pressure history data, FFT analysis is also carried out. Through these processes, it shows the tendency of pressure distribution antisymmetricity and changing dominant frequency as increasing angle of attack.

The aluminum composite panel are widely used for the external materials of high rise building because of well insulation of heat and sound and improved Constructability. However, the polyethylene in main material of the aluminum composite panel shows weakness in thermal and fire resistances. For this reason, flame is spread more quickly when the fire break out. Therefore, the potentiality of fire spread to the exterior wall is high due to difficulty of early extinguishment and effect of external air. In this study, numerical investigation was performed by using FDS program for flame spread characteristics with various external air velocity and direction in tenstory building with the aluminum composite external materials. As a result, the flame spread velocity is 0.134m/s and it takes 224 seconds for flames to spread to the 10th floor without external air velocity. however, the flame spread velocity decreases 40% and it takes 348 seconds for flames to spread to the 10th floor when external air velocity is 2.5 m/s. and air direction is little effect compared to air velocity.

COMS (Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite) is a geostationary satellite and was developed by KARI for communication, ocean and meteorological observations. COMS was tested under vacuum and very law temperature conditions in order to correlate thermal model and to verify thermal design. The test was performed by using KARI large thermal vacuum chamber. The COMS S/C thermal model was successfully correlated versus the 2 thermal balance test phases. After model correlation, temperatures deviation of all individual unit were less than
$5^{\circ}C$ and global deviation and standard deviation also satisfied the requirements, less than$2^{\circ}C$ and$3^{\circ}C$ . The final flight prediction was performed by using the correlated thermal model. 
This paper introduces the design concepts and characteristics of WinDS3000
$^{TM}$ (TC IIa) which is a trade name of Doosan's 3MW offshore/onshore wind turbine. WinDS3000$^{TM}$ (TC IIa) has been designed in consideration of high Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Serviceability (RAMS) and low cost of electricity (CDE) for the TC IIa condition based on GL guideline. An integrated drivetrain design with an innovative threestage gearbox has been introduced to minimize nacelle weight of the wind turbine and to enhance a high reliability for transmission. A permanent magnet generator with full converter system has been introduced to get higher efficiency in partial load operation and gridfriendly system for both 50 Hz and 60 Hz. A pitchregulated variable speed control system has been introduced to control wind turbine power while generator reaction torque can be adjusted almost instantaneously by the associated power electronics. The wind turbine has been also equipped with condition monitoring and diagnostic systems in order to meet maintainability requirements. 
Wind power system is generally divided into the onshore wind turbine and the offshore wind turbine according to site locations. The offshore wind turbine is manufactured as a closed nacelle cooling system including a heat exchanger to prevent corrosion, but the onshore wind turbine is manufactured as open nacelle cooling system dependent on only the outdoor air without a heat exchanger. The indoor of a nacelle which is composed of a generator, foil power converters and a gearbox with a lot of heat is very narrow and airtight. This aim of the study is to demonstrate the temperature effect depending on positions of airsupply and exhaust ports. And this study discusses the flow field and removal efficiency of heat caused by components.

The 3dimensional flow field has been investigated by numerical analysis in a 2.5MW wind turbine blade. Complicated and separated flaw phenomena in the wind turbine blade were captured by the Reynoldsaveraged NavierStokes(RANS) steady flaw simulation using generalpurpose code, CFX and the mechanism of vortex structure behavior is elucidated. The vortical flow field in a wind turbine rotor is dominated by the tip vortex and hub separation vortex. The tip vortex starts to be formed near the blade tip leading edge. As the tip vortex develops in the tangential direction, interacting with boundary layer from the blade tip trailing edge. The hub separation vortex is generated near the blade hub leading edge and develops nearly in the spanwise direction. Furthermore, 3dimensional blade tip shape has been designed for increasing shrift power and reducing thrust force on the wind turbine blade. It is expected that the behavior of the tip vortex and hub separation vortex plays a major role in aerodynamic and aeroacoustic characteristics.

International energy agency(IEA) consisted of OECD countries deals with international energy problems. IEA/Wind ExCo is an execution committee under IEA for the implementing agreement for cooperation in the research, development and deployment of wind energy systems. Currently 22 countries participate the committee and 11 research tasks are in progress. 11 tasks are base technology information exchange, wind energy in cold climates, offshore wind energy technology deployment, integration of wind and hydropower systems, power systems with large amounts of wind power, cost of wind energy, labelling small wind turbines, social acceptance of wind energy projects, MexNext aerodynamics and comparison of dynamic computer codes and models, offshore wind energy and wakebench. At the presentation, activities of major wind energy countries and IEA/Wind ExCo and research tasks are introduced.

Supercavitating torpedo uses the supercavitation technology that can reduce dramatically the skin friction drag. The present work focuses on the numerical analysis of the noncondensable cavitating flow around the supercavitating torpedo. The governing equations are the NavierStokes equations based on the homogeneous mixture model. The cavitation model uses a new cavitation model which was developed by Merkle(2006). The multiphase flow solver uses an implicit preconditioning scheme in curvilinear coordinates. The ventilated cavitation is implemented by noncondensable gas injection on backward of cavitator cone and the base of the torpedo. The comparison between the without and with ventilated cavitation numerical results, with ventilated cavitation using noncondensable gas injection is more efficient method.

Using the axial Green's function method for Steady Stokes flows, we introduce a new pressure correction formula to satisfy the incompressibility condition, in which the pressure is related to the integral of the second order derivatives of the velocity. Based on this formula, we propose the iterative method for solving the Stokes flows in complicated domains. Even if the domain is complex, this method maintains the second order of convergence for the velocity.

Using modern techniques from scientific computing and numerical analysis, natural phenomena or scientific experiment can be simulated effectively with a computer and used for computer graphics, for example as special effects for the film industry, manufacturing the thin film, multiphase simulation and image processing. The Level Set method can make those things happen without a lot of difficulties. This method was devised by Osher and Sethian(1988) to represent dynamically moving interfaces as the zero level set of a scalar function that evolves in time. Since then, many researchers have worked on many applications using a Level Set Method. I will give a talk about the applications of the Level Set Method.

An adaptive wavelet transformation method with high order accuracy is proposed to allow efficient and accurate flow computations. While maintaining the original numerical accuracy of a conventional solver, the scheme offers efficient numerical procedure by using only adapted dataset. The main algorithm includes 3rd order wavelet decomposition and thresholding procedure. After the wavelet transformation, 3rd order of spatial and temporal accurate high order interpolation schemes are executed only at the points of the adapted dataset. For the other points, high order of interpolation method is utilized for residual evaluation. This high order interpolation scheme with high order adaptive wavelet transformation was applied to unsteady Euler flow computations. Through these processes, both computational efficiency and numerical accuracy are validated even in case of high order accurate unsteady flow computations.

We present a mathematical model of left heart governed by the partial differential equations. This heart is coupled with a lumped model of the whole circulatory system governed by the ordinary differential equations. The immersed boundary method is used to investigate the intracardiac blood flow and the cardiac valve motions of the normal circulation in humans. We investigate the intraventricular velocity field and the velocity curves over the mitral ring and across outflow tract. The pressure and flow are also measured in the left and right heart and the systemic and pulmonary arteries. The simulation results are comparable to the existing measurements.

A CFD analysis was performed to examine the inner channel blockage of dualcooled fuel which has being developed for the power uprate of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The dualcooled fuel consists of an annular fuel pellet(
$UO_2$ ) and dual claddings as well as internal and external cooling channels. The dualcooled annular fuel is different from a conventional solid 려el by employing an internal cooling channel for each fuel pellet as well as an external cooling channel. One of the key issues is the hypothetical event of inner channel blockage because the inner channel is an isolated flow channel without the coolant mixing between the neighboring flow channels. The inner channel blockage could cause the Departure from Nucleate Boiling (DNB) in the inner channel that eventually causes a fuel failure. This paper presents the CFD simulation of the flow through the side holes of the bottom end plug for the complete entrance blockage of the inner channel. Since the amount of coolant supply to the inner channel depends on largely the pressure loss at the side hole, the pressure loss coefficient of the side hole was estimated by the CFD analysis. The CFD prediction of the loss coefficient showed a reasonable agreement with an experimental data for the complete blockage of both the inner channel entrance and the outer channel. The CFD predictions also showed the decrease of the loss coefficient as the outer channel blockage increases. 
KOGAS(Korea Gas Corporation) uses twotype vaporizers to send customers natural gas with imported LNG. In winter season, SMVs(SubMerged combustion Vaporizers) are mainly operated due to low seawater temperature. SMVs consume the natural gas of 1,520
$Nm^3/hr$ and emit a lot of$CO_2$ in winter time. If carbon taxes are activated on climate change, the tax burden will be severely heavy. Accordingly this work carried out numerical simulation with a commercail CFX code to investigate its possibility on the practical use of pure oxygen combustion of SMVs to reduce$CO_2$ and to improve its efficiency. First, a nozzle of a SMV's combustor is modelled. The combustion characteristics of Air/Fuel and Oxygen/Fuel are analyzed under folly insulated condition. Although we couldn't find the carbon reduction and the efficient elevation when the pure oxygen/fuel type was compared to the existing air/fuel one, we need a further study to investigate the effect of$CO_2$ recirculation. 
In the present study, the numerical prediction of the oil amount leaked from the hole of a damaged tank is investigated using the improved MPS (Moving Particle Semiimplicit) method, which was originally proposed by Koshizuka and Oka (1996) for incompressible flow. The governing equations, which consist of the continuity and NavierStokes equations, are solved by Lagrangian moving particles, and all terms expressed by differential operators should be replaced by the particle interaction models based on a Kernel function. The simulation results are validated though the comparison with the analytic solution based on Torricelli's equilibrium relation. Furthermore, a series of numerical simulations under the various conditions are performed in order to estimate more accurately the initial amount of leaked oil.

This paper introduces the optimum macrositing of a potential site for an offshore wind farm around Jeju Island using the RDAPS sea wind model. The statistical model was developed by analyzing the sea wind data from RDAPS model, and the mesoscale digital wind map was prepared. To develop the high resolution spatial calibration model, Artificial Neural Network(ANN) models were used to construct the wind and bathymetric maps. Accuracy and consistency of wind/bathymetric spatial calibration models were obtained using analysis of variance. The optimization problem was defined to maximize the energy density satisfying the criteria of maximum water depth and maximum distance from the coastline. The candidate site was selected through Genetic Algorithm(GA). From the results, it is possible to predict roughly a candidate site location for the installation of the offshore wind jam, and to evaluate the wind resources of the proposed site.

In this paper, the problem of transonic aerodynamic characteristics of a NACA0012 airfoil is numerically investigated in the inviscid gasdroplet twophase flow with the compressible twofluid model. In the present study, the airfoil flight in the cloud is simulated by taking account of the viscous drag of the droplets, the heat transfer, the phase change, and the droplet fragmentation The twofluid equation system is solved by the fractionalstep method and the WAFHIL scheme. The effects of size and volume fraction of the droplets on the flow characteristics of the airfoil in the cloud are elaborated and discussed.

A twodimensional hybrid flaw solver has been developed for the accurate and efficient simulation of steady and unsteady flaw fields. The flow solver was cast to accommodate two different topologies of computational meshes. Triangular meshes are adopted in the nearbody region such that complex geometric configurations can be easily modeled, while adaptive Cartesian meshes are, utilized in the offbody region to resolve the flaw more accurately with less numerical dissipation by adopting a spatially highorder accurate scheme and solutionadaptive mesh refinement technique. A chimera mesh technique has been employed to link the two flow regimes adopting each mesh topology. Validations were made for the unsteady inviscid vol1ex convection am the unsteady turbulent flaws over an NACA0012 airfoil, and the results were compared with experimental and other computational results.

A fluid in an enclosure can be heated by electric heating, chemical reaction, or fission heat. In order to remove the volumetric heat of the fluid, the walls surrounding the enclosure must be cooled. In this case, a natural convection occurs in the pool of the fluid, and it has a dominant role in heat transfer to the surrounding walls. It can augment the heat transfer rates tens to hundreds times larger than conductive heat transfer. The heat transfer by a natural convection in a regular shape such as a square cavity or semicircular pool has been studied experimentally and numerically for many years. A pool of an inverted triangular shape with 10 degree inclined bottom walls has a good cooling performance because of enhanced boiling critical heat flux (CHF) compared to horizontal downward surface. The coolability of the pool is determined by comparing the thermal load from the pool and the maximum heat flux removable by cooling mechanism such as radiative or boiling heat transfer on the pool boundaries. In order to evaluate the pool coolability, it is important to correctly expect the thermal load by a natural convection heat transfer of the pool. In this study, turbulence models with modifications for buoyancy effect were validated for unsteady natural convections by volumetric heating. And natural convection in the triangular pool was evaluated by using the models.

The present paper deals with the continuous works of extending the multidimensional limiting process (MLP) for compressible flows, which has been quite successful in finite volume methods, into discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods. From the series of the previous, it was observed that the MLP shows several superior characteristics, such as an efficient controlling of multidimensional oscillations and accurate capturing of both discontinuous and continuous flow features. Mathematically, fundamental mechanism of oscillationcontrol in multiple dimensions has been established by satisfaction of the maximum principle. The MLP limiting strategy is extended into DG framework, which takes advantage of higherorder reconstruction within compact stencil, to capture detailed flow structures very accurately. At the present, it is observed that the proposed approach yields outstanding performances in resolving noncompressive as well as compressive flaw features. In the presentation, further numerical analyses and results are going to be presented to validate that the newly developed DGMLP methods provide quite desirable performances in controlling numerical oscillations as well as capturing key flow features.

Numerical study was conducted to simulate the heat transfer on the real launch vehicle base. Three different base temperatures were chosen, to simulate the heat accumulation on the base. Moreover, six different pressure ratio conditions were used to express the different air conditions. As a result, the table that can used to estimate the base heat fox along the base temperature and pressure condition was made.

Aerodynamic characteristics depending on the shape of an internal motor in a smallsize sirocco fan for residential ventilation have been investigated For the aerodynamic analyses of the sirocco fan, threedimensional Reynoldsaveraged NavierStokes equations are solved with the shear stress transport model for turbulence closure. The flaw analyses are performed on hexahedral grids using a finitevolume solver. The validation of the numerical results at steadystate is performed by comparing with experimental data for the pressure and efficiency. In order to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics depending on shape of an internal motor in a sirocco fan, the reference shape is analyzed compared to the case without internal motor. Additionally, two shape parameters, height and width of the internal motor in a sirocco fan, are tested to investigate their effects on the aerodynamic characteristics. The results show that the shape of the internal motor in a sirocco fan is an important factor to improve the aerodynamic performances.

CFD simulation is widely used in various industries, universities and research centers. In Korea most of the researchers use foreign commercial S/W packages especially in industries. But commercial CFD packages have some problems as limit to source code and very high license foe. So from several years ago open source CFD code has been widely spread as an alternative. But in Korea there are a few users of open source code. Insufficiency of performance validation as for accuracy, robustness, convenience and parallel speedup is important obstacles of open source code. So we tested some validation cases as to incompressible external aerodynamics and internal flaws and now are doing compressible flaws. As the first stage of compressible flow validation, we simulated Korea next generation high speed train(HEMU). It's running condition is 400km/hr and maximum Mach number reaches up to 0.4. With the high speed train we tested accuracy, robustness and parallel performance of open source CFD code OpenFOAM Because there isn't experimental data we compared results with widely used commercial code. When use
$1^{st}$ order upwind scheme aerodynamic forces are very similar to commercial code. But using$2^{nd}$ order upwind scheme there was some discrepancy. The reason of the difference is not clear yet. Mesh manipulation, domain decomposition, postprocessing and robustness are satisfactory. Paralle lperformance is similar to commercial code. 
The flow fields over multielement airfoils with liftenhancing flatplate tabs were numerically investigated. Common choice of the height of the liftenhancing tabs usually ranges from 0.25% to 1.25% of the reference airfoil chord, and in this study the effect of the position of the tab with l%chord height was studied by varying the distance of the tab from the trailing edge ranging from 0.5% to 2% of the reference chord. In this paper, the effects of liftenhancing tabs with various position were studied at a constant Reynolds number on a twoelement airfoil with a slotted flap. Computed streamlines show that the additional turning caused by the tab reduces the amount of separated flow on the flap.

The pressure transient inside the passenger cabin of highspeed train has been simulated using computational fluid dynamics(CFD) based on the axisymmetric NavierStokes equation. The pressure change inside a train have been calculated using first order difference approximation based on a linear equation between the pressure change ratio inside a train and the pressure difference of inside and outside of the train. The numerical results have been assessed for the KTX train passing through a 9km long tunnel of WonjuKangneung line at the speed of 250km/h assuming that the train is satisfying the train specification for airtightness required by the regulation.

A loosely coupling method is adopted to combine a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver and the comprehensive structural dynamics (CSD) code, CAMRAD II, in a systematic manner to correlate the airloads, vortex trajectories, blade motions, and structural loads of the HART I rotor in descending flight condition. A threedimensional compressible NavierStokes solver, KFLOW, using chimera overlapped grids has been used to simulate unsteady flow phenomena over helicopter rotor blades. The number of grids used in the CFD computation is about 24 million for the isolated rotor and about 37.6 million for the rotorfuselage configuration while keeping the background grid spacing identical as 10% blade chord length. The prediction of blade airloads is compared with the experimental data. The current method predicts reasonably well the BVI phenomena of blade airloads. The vortices generated from the fuselage have an influence on airloads in the 1st and 4th quadrants of rotor disk. It appeared that presence of the pylon cylinder resulted in complex turbulent flow field behind the hub center.

The hot gas reingestion phenomenon of helicopter brings about the reduction of engine power available around inground. The phenomenon will vary for the conditions of ambient conditions and engine exhaust gas, the flow field associated with the downwash effect of main rotor. To verify the amount of hot gas reingestion to intake, Tests(Wind tunnel test, Flight test) or CFD could be available. At this study, the reingestion around inground would be predicted by numerical analysis(CFD).

The flow characteristics of synthetic jet depending on rectangular and circular jet exit configuration are investigated using numerical computation with cross flow. In rectangular slot, synthetic jet generates the strong vortex, however, supply fewer momentum and effectiveness of flow control is reduced along flow direction. In circular slot, regular vortex is fanned from slot center to end and developed in flow direction. It affects the wider region than rectangular slot. The distribution of wall shear stress is considered in order to indicate the effectiveness of flow control device for flow separation delay. As a result, circular slot is a more suitable candidate for delaying flow separation.

The aerodynamic performance of the pantograph of the next generation high sped train is analyzed. The calculation of the flow around pantograph is carried cut by FLUENT; by the steady state flow calculation with
${\kappa}{\omega}$ SST turbulence model, the lift force of the pantograph is computed. For the verification of the numerical schemes am grid systems, flow calculations are performed with the pantograph shape which was used at the experiments performed at Railway Technical Research Institute (RTRI) in Japan. Then, the difference of lift force between numerical am experimental results is about 10%. Therefore, selected numerical schemes and the current grid system is adequate for the analysis am prediction of the aerodynamic performance of panthograph system. Based on these numerical schemes am grid system, the flow around pantograph of the next generation high sped train is calculated and the lift force of the pantograph is predicted; the lift force of the pantograph is about 146N. 
The aerodynamic characteristics of the Ltype side jet thruster are examined by using computational fluid dynamics methods. The critical design points of Ltype side jet thruster with bent nozzle by 90degrees are studied in terms of the relation between side jet nozzle geometry and thrust efficiency.

As the number of deeplyunderground subway station(DUSS) increases, the safety measures for DUSS have been requested. In this research, Shingumho station (The line # 5, Depth: 46m) has been selected as casestudy for the analysis of smokespread speed with the different fire strength. Field test data measured for actual fan in DUSS was applied as a condition of a simulation. The whole station was covered in this analysis and total of 4 million grids were generated for this simulation. The fire driven flow was analyzed case by case to compare the smokespread effect according to the fire strength. in order to enhance the efficiency of calculation, parallel processing by MPI was employed and large eddy simulation method in FDS code was adopted.

Direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of spatially developing turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) over twodimensional (2D) and rod and threedimensional (3D) cube rough walls were performed to investigate the effects of streamwise spacing on the properties of the TBL The 2D and 3D roughness were periodically arranged in the downstream direction with pitches of px/k=2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 10 and for the cube, the spanwise spacing is fixed to pz/k=2 with staggered array, where px and pz are the streamwise and spanwise spacings of the roughness and k is the roughness height. Inspection of the Reynolds stresses showed that except for px/k=2 and 3 over the 2D rough walls, the effects of the surface roughness extend to the outer layer over the 2D and 3D rough walls and the magnitude of the Reynolds shear stress in the outer layer is increased with proportion to px/k. However, such results are contrary to the trends of form drag, roughness junction and roughness length against px/k, which showed the maximum values at px/k=8 and 4 over the 2D and 3D rough walls respectively.

In this study, a CFD code is developed to perform simulation of the surface and internal flow of a threedimensional rectangular cavity driven by an external gas flow. Investigated in this study are surface characteristic such as surface tension, surface dilational viscosity(or surface elasticity), and surface viscosity. Visualization of the surface of water is performed to compare with the numerical results obtained with the developed inhouse code. We have found that the surface flow is very sensitive to the surface tension and other configurations. The surface flow velocity obtained from the numerical solution is lower than the experimental result.

Since MEMS based micro actuators or generating devices have high efficiency per volume, plenty of research are ongoing. Among them, MEMS based millimeterscale micro gas' turbine is one of the most powerful issue for replacing chemical batteries. However, since limiting of MEMS manufacturing technique, it is very difficult that makes wide turbine bearing area. It causes low DN number, so sufficient bearing force is hard to achieve. Thus, the most important issue on micro gas turbine is proper bearing design which can keep rotor stable during operation. In order to that, microscale gaslubricated bearing is generally used. In this paper, basic feasibility study and design of journal bearing for 10mm diameter micro gas turbine is described Journal bearing is hydrostatic gaslubricated type. Numerical simulation is performed with ANSYS CFX 11.0 which is commercial numerical tool. Repulsive force when there is radial displacement in bearing and returning time is calculated using steady and unsteady cases. Auto remeshing technic is used for moving mesh unsteady cases which simulate displacement of axis and its movement. The simulation results are used for further design of micro gas turbine, and experiment will be done later.

This paper is concerned about the hydrodynamic coefficients of hydrofoil. We discretized the incompressible NavierStokes equation with second order Rungekutta for the time in the second order compact scheme for the spatial. The threedimensional CFD code based on hybrid mesh on the finite volume method is used to simulate flow around NACA series foils. Lift and drag coefficient is calculated for several NACA series foils using different mesh types. Our aim is to obtain the lift and drag coefficient to evaluate the robustness of the solver and to shaw the advantage of using trim tab at the trailing edge. It concludes with a discussion of results and recommendations for future work.

In this research a numerical simulation method is developed for moving body in free surface flows using fixed staggered rectangular grid system. The nonlinear free surface near the body is defined by markerdensity method. The body boundary is defined by line segment connecting the points where the body surface and grid line meet. Continuity equation and NavierStokes equations are used as governing equations and the equations are coupled with twostep projection method. The velocities and pressures of body boundary and free surface cells are calculated with simultaneous iterative method. To treat a body movement in a fixed grid system, the volume displaced by moving body is added to the divergence of the body boundary cell. For the verification of the present numerical method. vortex shedding period of advancing cylinder is calculated and the period is compared with existing experiment results. Moreover, added mass and damping coefficients of a vertically excited box are calculated and the computed results are compared with published experiment results. Impulsive pressure and water level variation due to sloshing phenomenon are simulated and the results are compared with published experiment results. Varying the plunger shape, the waves generated by plunging type wave maker are compared with the 2nd order Stokes wave theory The plunger shape generating the wave that shows the best agreement with the theory is represented.

VIC (VortexInCell) method for viscous incompressible flow is presented to simulate the wake behind a modified NACA16 foil. With uniform rectangular grid, the velocity in field is calculated using streamfunction from vorticity field by solving the Poisson equation in which FFT(Fast Fourier Transform) is combined with 2nd order finite difference scheme. Here, LES(Large Eddy Simulation) with Smagorinsky model is applied for turbulence calculation. Effective viscosity is formulated using magnitude of strain tensor(or vorticity). Then the turbulent diffusion as well as viscous diffusion becomes particle strength exchange(PSE) with averaged eddy viscosity. The wellestablished panel method is combined to obtain the irrotational velocity and to apply the nopenetration boundary condition on the body panel. And wall diffusion is used for noslip condition numerical results of turbulent stresses are compared with experimental results (Bourgoyne, 2003). Before comparing process, LES(Large Eddy Simulation) SGS(Subgrid scale) stress is transformed Reynolds averaged stress (Winckelmans, 2001).

Unsteady Aerodynamic characteristics at High Angle of Attack around Two Dimensional NACA0012 AirfoilMissile am fighter aircraft have been challenged by low restoring nosedown pitching moment at high angle of attach. The consequence of weak nosedown pitching moment can be resulting in a deep stall condition. Especially, the pressure oscillation has a huge effect on noise generation, structure damage, aerodynamic performance and safety, because the flow has strong unsteadiness at high angle of attack. In this paper, the unsteady aerodynamics coefficients were analyzed at high angle of attack up to 60 degrees around two dimensional NACA0012 airfoil. The two dimensional unsteady compressible NavierStokes equation with a LES turbulent model was calculated by OHOC (Optimized HighOrder Compact) scheme. The flow conditions are Mach number of 0.3 and Reynolds number of
$10^5$ . The lift, drag, pressure distribution, etc. are analyzed according to the angle of attack. The results at a low angle of attack are compared with other results before a stall condition. From a certain high angle of attack, the strong vortex formed by the leading edge are flowing downstream as like Karman vortex around a circular cylinder. Unsteady velocity field, periodic vortex shedding, the unsteady pressure distribution on the airfoil surface, and the acoustic fields are analyzed. The effects of these unsteady characteristics in the aerodynamic coefficients are analyzed. 
In this study, numerical simulations of transonic aircraft configurations are performed with various turbulence models and the effect of turbulence models on flow separation are examined. A threedimensional RANS code and three turbulence models are used for the study. The turbulence models incorporated to the code include Menter's
${\kappa}{\omega}$ model, Coakley's$q{\omega}$ , and Huang and Coakley's${\kappa}{\omega}$ , model. Using the code, numerical simulations of DLRF6 configurations obtained from AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop are conducted. Flow separations on the wingbody juncture and the wing lower surface near pylon are observed. and flow features of the regions are compared with experimental data and other numerical results. 
In this paper, a prediction method for dynamic stability derivatives is studied using steady state simulations in rotational coordinates. The simulations require the extension of a standard CFD formulations based on inertial coordinate. A new CFD code based on the method are developed. Flows induced by steady circular motions of airfoils with a constant pitch rate are simulated with the code. From the numerical simulations, the pitch rate derivatives are obtained at various Mach numbers, and the results are compared with other numerical results. The numerical simulations show that the new code are capable of predicting dynamic stability derivatives.

Oscillating airfoil haw been challenged for the dynamic stalls of airfoil am wind turbines at high angle of attach. Especially, the pressure oscillation has a huge effect on noise generation, structure damage, aerodynamic performance am safety, because the flow has strong unsteadiness at high angle of attack. In this paper, the unsteady aerodynamics coefficients were analyzed for the oscillating airfoil at high angle of attack around two dimensional NACA0012 airfoil. The two dimensional unsteady compressible NavierStokes equation with a LES turbulent model was calculated by OHOC (Optimized HighOrder Compact) scheme. The flow conditions are Mach number of 0.2 and Reynolds number of
$1.2{\times}10^4$ . The lift, drag, pressure distribution, etc. are analyzed according to the pitching oscillation. Unsteady velocity field, periodic vortex shedding, the unsteady pressure distribution, and the acoustic fields are analyzed. The effects of these unsteady characteristics in the aerodynamic coefficients are analyzed. 
To investigate aerodynamic performance of highlift devices, 2D design is the base of the success of highlift system design for transport aircraft, which can shorten the periods of threedimensional design and analysis. For the simulation coupled viscous and inviscous euler method (MSES) is used. In this parametric study, Gap and Overlap which can define position of flap is used as design variables and we investigale relation between angle of attack and flap position for lift enhancement.

Propeller shall have high efficiency and improved aerodynamic characteristics to get the thru5t to fly at high speed for the Regional turboprop aircraft. That is way ClarkY airfoil which is used to conventional turboprop aircraft propeller is selected as a blade airfoil. Adkins method is used for aerodynamic design and performance analysis with respect to the propeller design point. Adkins method is based on the vortexblade element theory which design the propeller to satisfy the condition for minimum energy loss. propeller geometry is generated by varying chord length and pitch angle at design point of Regional turboprop aircraft. The propeller design results indicate that is evaluated to be properly constructed, through analysis of propeller aerodynamic characteristics using the Meshless method and MRF, SM method.

In this study, transonic aeroelastic response analyses haw been conducted for the business jet aircraft configuration considering shockwave and flow separation effects. The developed fluidstructure coupled analysis system is applied for aeroelastic computations combining computational structural dynamics(CSD), finite element method(FEM) and computational fluid dynamics(CFD) in the time domain. It can give very accurate and useful engineering data on the structural dynamic design of advanced flight vehicles. For the nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics in high transonic flow region, NavierStokes equations using the structured grid system have been applied to wingbody configurations. In transonic flight region, the characteristics of static and dynamic aeroelastic responses have been investigated for a typical wingbody configuration model. Also, it is typically shown that the current computation approach can yield realistic and practical results for aircraft design and test engineers.

A new method identifies coupled fluidstructure system with a reduced set of state variables is presented. Assuming that the structural model is known a priori either from an analysis or a test and using linear transformations between structural and aeroelastic states, it is possible to deduce aerodynamic information from sampled time histories of the aeroelastic system. More specifically given a finite set of structural modes the method extracts generalized aerodynamic force matrix corresponding to these mode shapes. Once the aerodynamic forces are known, an aeroelastic reducedorder model can be constructed in discretetime, statespace format by coupling the structural model and the aerodynamic system. The resulting reducedorder model is suitable for constant Mach, varying density analysis.

Jung, K.Y.;Ahn, G.B.;Jung, S.K.;Myong, R.S.;Cho, T.H.;Shin, H.B.;Jung, J.H.;Choi, Y.H.;Kim, J.H. 465
Ice accretion on aircraft surface can greatly deteriorate the safety of aircraft. In particular, it can be a cause of impediment for aircraft performances such as aerodynamic characteristics, control, and engine. Numerical simulation of icing accretion based on the stateofart CFD techniques can be alternative to expensive icing wind tunnel test or flight test. In this study, icing conditions are defined in order to predict the ice accretions around the air intake of aircraft. Then the range and amount of ice accretion on the intake in icing wind tunnel were investigated In addition, a study on the size effect of icing wind tunnel was conducted in order to check the compatibility with the real inflight test environment. 
Hemodialysis is essential for patients with end stage renal failure. It is important to improve the patency rate and to minimize occurrence of the stenosis. Also, the blood flow to the artificial kidney can affect the blood flow characteristics though arteriovenous graft. Thus, the delivered dose are important factors for analyzing hemodynamic characteristics during hemodialysis access. In this study, the numerical analysis was performed for the effect of the delivered dose during hemodialysis access on the blood flow through the graft. As a result, The adverse pressure gradient occurred in case of a larger delivered dose through a catheter than standard dose and the flow instability increased. Also the circulation flow appeared largely at anastomotic site of the vein when the delivered dose was exceeded about half blood flow of inlet blood flow.

In the present study, the diffusion process of hydrogen leaking from a FCV (Fuel Cell Vehicle) in an underground parking lot was analyzed by numerical simulations in order to assess the risk of a leakage accident. The temporal and spatial changes of the hydrogen concentration as well as the flammable region in the parking lot were predicted numerically. The effects of the leakage flow rate and an additional ventilation fan were investigated to evaluate the ventilation performance in the parking lot to relieve the accumulation of the leaked hydrogen gas. The present numerical analysis can provide useful information such as the distribution of the leaked hydrogen concentration for safety of various hydrogen applications.

In the present study, a CFD program based on a finite volume method was developed by using an unstructured polyhedral grid system for the accurate simulation with the complex geometry of computational domain. To simulate the transient flow induced by the moving solid object, the program used a fractional step method and a ALE (Algebric LagrangianEulerian) method. The grid deformation for the moving of solid object were performed with a spring analogy based on the center coordinate of each computational grid. To verify the present program with these methodologies, the numerical results of the flow around the fixed and oscillating circular cylinder were compared with the previous numerical results.

The object of this study is to develope the program for analyzing the fluid flow and heat transfer of PMSM electric motor. The program will be mainly used for inexperienced users of CFD analysis. So it has to be performed using the geometry data and the heat source of each part only. Interface program for converting the given data to the instruction of preprocessor is developed. The conjugate heat transfer between a flow passage of the motor and inner parts consisting of rotor and stator is regarded. In order to reduce the computational time and memory storage, cyclic boundary condition is applied. For the numerical simulation, MRF(MultiReference Frame) method is used to consider rotating operation of the rotor and heat source is applied to the copper, wire, and magnetic parts in the motor. On the screen of computer, the users can show the velocity distributions and the contours such as pressure, turbulent kinetic energy, turbulent dissipation rate and temperature.

One of the devices to prevent separated flow over a wing or a flap at high angle of attack is a vortex generator. In the present work, we numerically study the flow around a lowprofile or micro vortex generator whose height is less than local boundary layer thickness which can delay separation with a minimum drag penalty owing to its very small wetted surface area. As a first step toward a parametric study to efficiently design this MVG flow control system, we simulate the flow around a single MVG on a flat plate. For the simulation, we employ OpenFOAM with LaunderSharma
${\kappa}$ epsilon model. The analysis results are validated by comparing with experimental results of a rectangular MVG at an angle of attack of 10 degrees whose height is 20% of local boundary layer. Important results and aspects of this numerical study are discussed. We also simulate the flow around rectangular, triangular and trapezoidal MVGs and the results are compared 
Blood flow simulations in an idealized carotid bifurcation model with considering wall compliance were carried out to investigate the effect of wall elasticity on the wall shear stress and wall solid stress. Canonical waveforms of flowrates and pressure in the carotid arteries were imposed for the boundary conditions. Comparing to rigid wall model, generally, we could find an increased recirculation region at the carotid bulb and an overall reduced wall shear stress. Also, there was appreciable change of flowrate and pressure waveform in longitudinal direction. Solid and wall shear stress concentration occurs at the bifurcation apex.

The inertial migration of a twodimensional elastic capsule in a channel flow was studied over the Reynolds number range
$1{\leq}Re{\leq}100$ . The lateral migration velocity, slip velocity, and the deformation and inclination angle of the capsule were investigated by varying the lateral position, Reynolds number, capsuletochannel size ratio(${\lambda}$ ), membrane stretching coefficient(${\Phi}$ ), and membrane bending coefficient(${\gamma}$ ). During the initial transient motion, the lateral migration velocity increased with increasing Re and${\lambda}$ but decreased with increases in${\Phi}$ ,${\gamma}$ and the lateral distance from the wall. The initial behavior of the capsule was influenced by variation in the initial lateral position ($y_0$ ), but the equilibrium position of the capsule was not affected by such variation. The balance between the wall effect and the shear gradient effect determined the equilibrium position. As Re increased, the equilibrium position initially shifted closer to the wall and then moved towards the channel center. A peak in the equilibrium position was observed near Re=30 for${\gamma}=0.1$ , and the peak shifted to higher Re as${\gamma}$ increased. Depending on the lateral migration velocity, the equilibrium position moved toward the centerline for larger${\gamma}$ but moved toward the wall for larger${\Phi}$ and${\gamma}$ . 
Dust released from the rotating timber cutting process causes various kinds of diseases as well as safety issues. Although there were lots of efforts to reduce the amount of dust by installing largesized dust collectors or by using expensive highquality cutters, they proved to be not so effective. In this study we want to modify and improve the design of the rotary cutter system to prevent dust from being released to the environment as possible by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. We have developed CFD models of the conventional cutter and several design modifications. Through the CFD analysis the characteristics of the air flow was predicted, and then the behavior of dust produced during the cutting process was analyzed for different designs. The most efficient design feature to capture dust inside the cutter as much as possible was chosen based on the CFD analysis results. Finally the prototype of the ratary saw machine was constructed and tested to check the dust capturing efficiency, which result is reasonably consistent with the predicted performance through the CFD analysis.

This study is intended for validation of numerical modeling of a residential building which is made to simulate a phenomenon of fire extension from floor to floor. A common residential building which has the area of 80m2 each floor and some combustibles were chosen for numerical modeling. The combustible models were verified through comparing results of numerical simulations and real fire tests. For computational analysis, the Fire Dynamics Simulator was used with Large Eddy Simulation model for turbulence. Consequently, fireintensity was well predicted and flashover of rooms were successfully estimated.

Cartesian grid system has mainly been used in the casting simulation even though it does not nicely represent sloped and curved surfaces. These distorted boundaries cause several problems. A special treatment is necessary to clear these problems. A cut cell method on Cartesian grids has been developed to simulate threedimensional mold filling Cut cells at a castmold interface are generated on Cartesian grids. Governing equations were computed using volume and areas of cast at cut cells. In this paper, we propose a new method that can consider the cutting cells which are cut by casting and mold based on the patial cell treatment (PCT). This method provides a better representation of geometry surface and will be used in the computation of velocities that are defined on the cell boundaries in the Cartesian gird system. Various test examples for several casting process were computed and validated. The analysis results of more accurate fluid flow pattern and less momentum loss owing to the stepped boundaries in the Cartesian grid system were confirmed. We can know the momentum energy at the cut cell is conserved by using the cut cell method. By using the cut cell method. performance of computation gets better because of reducing the whole number of meshes.

Subway becomes more and more main transportation in major cities. Air pollution in the subway platforms is decreased; however, dust flow inside subway tunnel and train is increased by installing Platform Screen Door. Airflow inside subway tunnel is observed using computational method in this study The airflow characteristics around ventilation shafts and inside the tunnel is studied following the train movement, while the train moves from existing Miasamgeori station to Gireum station ANSYS CFX V12.0.l and ICEM CFD V12.0.l are used to compute the airflow inside the subway tunnel.

The airmotor unit of the handpiece had not been developed inside of the country yet. Therefore it needs some research works. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the many mini holes at the outle of the airmotort. The flow fields analysis has been conducted by the immersed solid method using ANSYS 12.0 CFX.

To utilizing CFX V12.0.l, internal flow characteristics of denture highspeed air turbine handpiece unit was identified, in order to analyze the performance of the torque values were compared. In order to find out the difference of torque by mash values, under steady condition, performed grid convergence test. It compared theoretical torque with torque through flow analysis. To describe the motion of turbine blade was used to immerged solid method. Depending on the location of the turbine blade were calculated from five case. Maximum and minimum values of turbine blades was analyzed. To analyze the performance of the torque values were compared with speed of turbine blade.

In this paper, diagonal implicit harmonic balance method is applied to analyze helicopter rotor blade flow. Periodic boundary condition for Fourier coefficients is also applied in hover and forward flight condition. It is available enough to simulate the forward flight problem with only one rotor blade using the periodic boundary condition in frequency domain. In order to demonstrate present method Carodonna & Tung's rotor blades are used and the results are compared to timeaccurate method and experimental data.

The objective of this study is to investigate flow characteristics of a underwater vehicle by installing pins, using CFD method with a commercial code FLUENT version 6.3.26. To verify the reliability of the computation, the drag is compared the CFD with the experimental test. The drag is increased about 15% by installing 4 pins. At the stern of the body, the turbulent flow is generated by installing pins. Also, the results showed that the drag increase in the stern of the body, not in the pins.

The seawater lift pump system is responsible for maintaining the open canal level to provide the suction flow of circulating water pump at the set point. The objective of this paper is to design a 2stage mixed flow pump(for seawater lifting) by inverse design and to evaluate the overall performance and the local flow fields of the pump by using a commercial CFD code. Rotating speed of the impeller is 1,750 rpm with the flow rate of 2,700
$m^3/h$ . Finite volume method with structured mesh and Realizable${\kappa}{\varepsilon}$ turbulent model is used to guaranty more accurate prediction of turbulent flow in the pump impeller. The numerical results such as static head brake horse power and efficiency of the mixed flow pump are compared with the reference data. Also, the periodic condition calculation method for the mixed flow pump was carried out in order to investigate the pump performance characteristics with the modification of impeller geometry. 
In this paper, 1D design of axial flow hydraulic turbine including runner blades, spiral casing with distributors(guide vanes and stay vane), and draft tube was conducted and then 3D flow analysis was carried out using CFX12.1. The results of 3 runners showed that with an increase in the number of blades, the flow rate and the power of the turbine system increased. On the other hand. the runner loss was not directly connected with the number of blades. As a result, proper blade number could be selected and more than 100kW small hydraulic turbine could be designed.

Air Starter motors are used for the start of mediumspeed diesel engine. One of the main part of air starting motors is the axial turbine stage. In this study, design of 1stage axial type turbine for 14kw class air starter motors has been performed. The turbine blade was designed based on meanline analysis. 1D design calculation and numerical analysis with CFD were conducted iteratively. The validation between 1D design method and numerical analysis for axial clearance has been performed. It revealed that there is optimum axial clearance of turbine design.

The vane type airmotor handpiece is used widely in the dental services. There are a lot of experimental studies about airmotor but eccentrically off not many numerical studies by using Computational Fluid Dynamics. An airmotor has rotor which rotates at the center of inner housing. The retractable vanes are installed on the rotor. As the rotor of the airmotor rotates, vanes move up and down straightly in the radial direction along the guide. Therefore we have to analyze the unsteady flow field by accurate time dependent marching technique. ANSYS 12.0 CFX is used to analyze unsteady vanemotor flow field Analysis of the changing control volume inside airmotor is implemented by userdefined functions and moving mesh options. Rotational speed of the rotor is approximately 23,000rpm.

During a reactor normal operation, a primary coolant was designed to remove the fission reaction heat of the reactor. When one pump is failure and the other pump shall supply the cooling water to cool the reduced power, it is necessary to estimate how much flow will be supplied to cool the reactor. We carried a flow net work analysis for two parallel pumping system as based on the piping net work of the primary cooling system in HANARO. As result, it is estimated that the flow of one pump increased than the rated flow of the pump below the cavitation critical flow.

To improve the performance of the control butterfly valve seals are used to eccentric shaft. In this case, vertical opening gas of the butterfly valve is nonsymmetrical, which will change the flow pattern around the valve. In this study, the eccentric drive shaft of the butterfly valve to change flow characteristics are performed numerically. Flow pattern and pressure drop are investigated as the valve opening angle increases for a given mass flow rate. The valve flow coefficient is compared to the without eccentric shaft.

A numerical investigation on a suction vortices, free vortices and subsurface vortices behavior in the model sump system with multiintakes is performed A test model sump and piping system were designed based on Froude similitude for the prototype of the recommended structure layout by HI9.B Standard for Pump Intake Design of the Hydraulic Institute. A numerical analysis of three dimensional multiphase flows through the model sump is performed by using the finite volume method of the CFX code with multiblock structured grid systems. A
${\kappa}{\omega]$ ShearStressTransportturbulencemodelandthe RayleighPlesset cavitation model are used for solving turbulence cavitating flow. From the numerical analysis, several types of vortices are reproduced and their formation, growing shedding and detailed vortex structures are investigated. To reduce abnormal vortices, an antivortex device is considered and its effect is investigated and discussed. 
In this numerical analysis, the distortion of flow measurement by inlet velocity profile of orifice flowmeter was investigated. To validate the numerical method, the convergence was monitored and the grid dependency was also checked. realizable ke model was selected and y+ was about 50 in this calculation. the results shows that the pressure at the pressure tab near pipe wall was changed by inclined inlet velocity profile and it leads to distorted a measurement values of flow through the orifice plate from 3.8% to 9%. Therefore, the fully developed inlet flow was required for accurate flow measurement by orifice flowmeter. If not, the orifice plate installed at wrong location should be reinstalled or additional actions should be taken.

Plume flowfields of aircraft nozzles are numerically investigated at various flight conditions for infrared signature analysis. A mission profile of subsonic unmanned combat aerial vehicle is considered for the requirement of each mission, associated engine and nozzles are selected through a performance analysis. Numerical results of nozzle plume flowfields using a CFD code are analyzed in terms of thrust, maximum temperature. It is shown that maximum temperature increase for lower altitude and higher Mach number.

A Study on the flowstructure characteristics of a 3/2 way pneumatic valve is essential for optimizing the performance of ship engines. It is important for the valve to have desirable safety factor am reduced weight from the safety and economic point of view. In this study, we capture flowstructure characteristics of 3/2 way pneumatic valve. This is optimized based on the proper design criteria. The air at a pressure of 30 bar is the working fluid which is made to fill in the tack in short time. This time is defined as the filling time. The flow and structure analysis is performed for three cases under maximum stress and safety factor. In optimum design, considering the flowstructure characteristics, we model twenty seven cases by using DOE(design of experiments) method Here, analysis for each cases is performed and then metamodels are created We obtain optimized parameters and then analysis is repeated to compare with the initial model. Finally, the feasibility of the optimum design is verified.

In this study, we tried to validate FLUENT solver model and domain setting for the problem of convective heat transfer in multiple tube bank under transitional zone. We have paid special attention to verify proper boundary conditions and the grid convergence. Through validation work, it is found that unsteady solution method with twodimensional simulation domain can produce reasonable accurate results compared with existing experimental data. Simulation results with steady solution generates relatively large error. We found that both steady and unsteady method for threedimensional domain shows acceptable accuracy. Further parametric study for deriving correlation from transverse and longitudinal pitch is currently underway.