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Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of public Health Nursing
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Sep 2001
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Mar 2001
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Improvement of Nurses' Morale
Kwon Dong Yeon ;
Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing, volume 15, issue 2, 2001, Pages 225~238
The purpose of this study is to examine public health nurses for their morale, test the effect of each factor on the morale, determine the variables affecting the morale, and thereby, provide for some basic data useful to the development of personnel affair administration for nurses. The survey on the nurses for public health centers was conducted for 10 days from April 23 to May 2, 2001; 96 nurses from Pusan, 101 from Kyonggi-do and 108 from Kangwon-do. The results of the study are as follows; 1. For the demographic variables, those aged between 31 and 39 accounted for the majority
of the sample.
was married, and
of the sample graduated from junior colleges.
of them had worked for 10-14 years and
was of the seventh rank.
of the nurses was recruited, and
had chosen the public job for its guaranteed status. Half the nurses were working for the county population of which was more than 260 thousands, and
of the nurses was serving the public health centers with 11-15 members.
of them perceived that their living standard is middle or lower. 2. The degree of the moral was found as mean score. 2.65, which is interpreted as low. It has 11 factors. The rank of mean score of the factors is job satisfaction (3.36), sense of belonging (3.36), sense of recognition (3.30), stress due to supervision (3.13), degree of participation (3.05) and self-achievement (3.04), while those scoring lower points were assurance of status (2.58), pay level (2.53), working conditions (2.35) and promotion opportunity (2.31). 3. The degree of moral depending on the demographic variables was significantly affected by such variables as age. academic background, career, rank, employment method, motive for the job, size of the population served and living standards. 4. The result of the Stepwise multiple regression analysis for the morale factors, it was found that self-achievement accounted for
of the total variance of the degree of morale, followed by stable status
, working conditions
, job requirements
and promotion opportunities
; these five factors explained about
of total variance of the degree of nurses' morale. On the other hand. age
and academic background
of the total variance of the degree of morale. 5. The factors affecting nurses' job life was economic need
, personnel management
, sense of recognition
, human relationship
, stable status and personal development in rank. On the other hand, the factors influencing on their possible resignation were children's bringing-up
, poor personnel management and promotion
and little personal development
, Since such morale factors as promotion opportunity, working condition. pay level and stable status scored lower, it is required to reconsider those factors to improve nurses' morale.
Risk Factors for Nosocomial Pneumonia in Patients at NS ICU
Kim Nam Cho ; Kim So Yeon ;
Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing, volume 15, issue 2, 2001, Pages 239~248
The purpose of this study was to analyze risk factors for nosocomial pneumonia in patients admitted to NS ICU, and to provide a basic data to decrease respiratory nosocomial infection rate engendered from medical environments in NS ICU. The study site was the NS ICU at a university hospital located in Seoul, Korea. The subjects were 31 patients diagnosed with nosocomial pneumonia, who were selected from the initial list of 300 potential subjects who had been a) admitted between September 1999 and January 2000, and September 2000 and January 2001, b) resided at the NS ICU over 72 hours. The diagnostic standard of nosocomial pneumonia was based on the nosocomial infection guides of C university hospital. The data were analyzed using frequencies and logistic regression analysis. The sputums obtained from the subjects were cultivated and causal viruses were separated. The results were as follows: 1. The nosocomial pneumonia rate was
. There were 7 types of causal viruses separated from the sputum. and the most prevalent type of virus was MRSA as
. 2. The factors significantly influencing the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia included age, the residential duration at the NS ICU, GCS scores, diabetes mellitus, insertion of tracheal tube and its duration, tracheostomy and its length of insertion, the use of artificial ventilator and the length of its use, and the insertion of naso-gastic tube. The most significant risk factor among these was the insertion of tracheal tube (odds ratio=18.684.
CI=6.849-50.974), followed by the use of tracheostomy (odds ratio=15.419,
CI=6.615-35.942), the insertion of naso-gastric tube (odds ratio=14.875,
CI=6.396-34.595), and the use of artificial ventilator (odds ratio=13.000.
CI=5.63330.001). 3. Regarding the use of the mechanical aids, the insertion of tracheal tube resulted in 12.968 times increase of the nosocomial pneumonia rate, and the use of artificial ventilator lead 6.714 times increase of the nosocomial pneumonia rate. One point increase of the GCS score resulted in the 1.210 times increase of the nosocomial pneumonia rate. For patients who had tracheal tube, tracheostomy, and artificial ventilator, one day increase of their residential duration at NS ICU lead 1.073 times increase of the nosocomial pneumonia rate. 4. In terms of duration of the mechanical aid usage, one day increase in the use of artificial ventilator engendered 1.080 times increase in the nosocomial pneumonia rate. One day increase of the residential duration at the NS ICU lead 1.604 times increase in the nosocomial pneumonia rate. As one point of the GCS score increased, 0.876 times decrease of the nosocomial pneumonia rate was reported. These study findings show that the risk factors significantly influencing the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia include the use of tracheal tube, tracheostomy, naso-gastic tube, and artificial ventilator. It is recommended that nurses working at NS ICU should pay more attention to the patients with these factors as the risky group for the nosocomial pneumonia, and thus make more active efforts to provide nosocomial pneumonia prevention strategies for them. In further studies patients admitted to the different types of ICUs such as internal medicine or surgery unit ICU will be also included, and more wide investigation of nosocomial pneumonia risk factors will be conducted through one-year longitudinal follow up.
A Study on the relationship between Transformational Leadership and Job Involvement according to Nurses' Personal Characteristics
Kim Myoung Sook ; Park Young Bae ;
Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing, volume 15, issue 2, 2001, Pages 249~261
Today's health care environment is rapidly changing and nurse administrators' leadership styles need to identify in nursing organization to achieve organizational objectives. By Bass(1985), transformational leadership stimulates the subordinates to be creative and achieve organizational objectives and is related to job satisfaction, job involvement, productivity, and organizational commitment. Transformational leadership process consists of charisma, intellectual stimulation, individual consideration. The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of transformational leadership and personal characteries on nurses' job involvement. The subjects for this study consisted of 594 nurses from 8 University Hospitals and General Hospitals. The data were collected by personal characteristics scale, transformational leadership scale, and job involvement scale. The factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha analysis, Pearson correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis and hierarchical multiple regression analysis were used for the statistical method. The results of this study were found that (1) charisma dimension of transformational leadership has positive influence on nurses' job involvement ; but another two dimensions (intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration) did not showed significant effect on job involvement (2) nurses' personal characteristic (internal locus of control) moderated the effect of transformational leadership on job involvement.
The Relationship between Perceived health status, Health conception and Health promoting behavior in the Elderly
Kim Hyo Jung ; Chae Sun Ok ; Park Young Sook ; Woo Sun Hye ;
Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing, volume 15, issue 2, 2001, Pages 262~274
This study was undertaken to grasp the relationship between perceived health status, health conception and health promoting behavior in the elderly. The subjects for this study were 157 old persons in Kyung-ju city. Data were collected by interview with questionnaires from August 24 to October 10, 1999. Analysis of the data was done by SPSS program using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson Correlation Coefficient, stepwise multiple regression. The results were summarized as follows 1. For the practice of health promoting behavior. the mean score was 2.52. The factor of the highest mean score was nutrition(3.02) and factor of the lowest mean score was exerciset(2.03). 2. According to age(F=3.35, P=.012), sex(t=2.26, P=.025), marital status (F=5.08, P=.007), education(F=4.22, P=.003), family numbed(F=5.31, P= .006), people living together (F=2.77, P=.044), economic status(F=7.10, P=.00l), average monthly pocket money (F=3.35, P=.012), there were differences of health promoting behavior. 3. According to age(F=3.40, P=.01l), sex(t=4.30, P=.000), education(F=8.55, P=.000), economic status(F=12.59, P=.000), average monthly pocket money(F=4.26, P=.003), present disease(t=-8.41, P=.000), there were differences of perceived health status. According to marital status(F=3.36, P=.037), education(F=2.89, P=.038), there were differences of health conception. 4. Performance in the health promoting behavior was significantly correlated with perceived health status(r=.272, P=.00l), health conception(r=.345, P=.000) 5. The combination of well-being health conception and average monthly pocket money explained
of the variance of health-promoting behavior. On the basis of the above findings the following recommendations are made; Nursing interventions enhancing exercise or activity, accountability for health, stress management of the elderly must be provided. And Cost-effective health promoting program for the elderly must be developed.
The knowledge and Learning Needs of the Patients with the First Onset Myocardial Infarction
Moon Jung Soon ; Jeong Hye Sun ;
Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing, volume 15, issue 2, 2001, Pages 275~284
In order to assess the knowledge and learning needs. 72 patients with the first onset myocardial infarction were interviewed by the structured questionnaires during the period of September, 1999 to July, 2000. The results were as follows 1. As a whole.
of patient had correct knowledge in relation to myocardial infarction. As for the knowledge score in terms of general characteristics, the patients who were in higher education and living with spouse were significantly higher point than those who were in lower education and living alone. 2. The mean scores of learning need of the subjects was 4.13 measured by Likert 5 point scale, No significant differences were shown in the score of learning need in terms of the general characteristics. As for the learning need according to domain, the subjects had higher leaning needs in the domain of diet, risk factors and activity and exercise. 3. There was no significant correlation between the learning need and the knowledge of myocardial infarction. The results of finding show that education program should be consider the general characteristics. the level of knowledge and learning needs of the myocardial infarction patients.
A Survey on Knowledge and Attitude in Drinking of Elementary School Students in Seoul
Moon Jung Soon ; Yang Soo ; Sohng Kyeong Yae ; Park Sun Nam ;
Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing, volume 15, issue 2, 2001, Pages 285~300
In order to provide basic data for developing problematic drinking prevention program through the investigation of the knowledge and attitude on drinking of the elementary students, a survey was conducted covering 630 fourth, fifth, and sixth graders in 5 elementary schools, in Seoul. Data was collected by using structured questionnaire. The results of the survey analysis were as follows : 1. Among the students under inquiry,
answered they had the experience of drinking and
of them enjoy the drinking. 2. The degree of drinking-related knowledge of respondents were 8.41point with the highest score being 13. The score were significantly higher in the students with good school record and higher mothers' educational level than those of other group. 3. With respect to the attitude of students toward adults' drinking,
responded that inebriated adults in the bus or subway cause inconvenience to others. Students who maintain good school grades, are satisfied with school lives, whose fathers have high educational background or who receive great attention from parents showed more negative and strict attitude toward adults' intoxicated appearance. Concerning the drinking at home,
of respondents said they hope that adults do not drink at home. Students who have experience of drinking and whose parents drink revealed more generous attitude toward adults' drinking at home than those who do not. With regard to the drinking of friends or senior students,
of students said they try to stop the drinking. Respondents with no experience of drinking were more generous toward the drinking of friends and colleagues than those who drank before. Students who are in low graded. maintain high school marks, face no problems in school life or receive great attention from parents demonstrated greater disapproval of drinking. Most respondents
said they were not interested in the scene of drinking in mass media. Those having experience of drinking or parents who drink showed more tolerant attitude toward drinking in mass media than those who do not. Students who are in low grades, face many problems in school life or receive small attention from parents showed greater tendency to find the scene of drinking attractive. 4. The more knowledge they get, the more rigid view they had in drinking.
A Study of the Relationship of Nurses' Personality Type and Job Satisfaction Level, according to the Career
Park Young Sook ; Park Kyung Min ; Park Jeong Sook ; Koh Hyo Jung ; Kwon Young Sook ; Kim Myung Ae ; Kim Chung Nam ; Park Cheong Ja ; Shin Yeong Hee ; Lee Kyung Hee ; Lee Byung Sook ;
Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing, volume 15, issue 2, 2001, Pages 301~313
This study was to explore the relationship between nurses' personality type and their job satisfaction level. The subjects of the study were the 364 nurses who were serving at the general surgical department, psychiatric department, pediatric department and emergency room. The hospitals for which they were working were four university hospitals in Daegu and Busan, and six other university hospitals in Seoul were selected as sample hospitals. For data collection, questionnaires were self-reported to the subjects, under their agreement, from May to June, 2000. The following two instruments were used in the study: One was MBTI Test whose Korean version designed and verified to reliability and validity by Kim Jung Taek and Shim Hae Sook(1990): the other was the Nursing Job Satisfaction Instrument, 'The Index of Work Satisfaction' developed by Slavitt, et al.., (1978). The data were analyzed by frequency, t-test, one-way variance analysis, scheffe's post hoc contrast, and Pearson correlation coefficient with SPSS Win 10.0 program. The results this study were as follows ; 1. As a result of testing nurse's personality type by function at each career, it's found that the most personality type was expressed by the ST-type
at 1-5 years, the SF-type
at 6-10 years, the ST-type
at more than 11 years. 2. As a result of testing the disparity in job satisfaction according to career, it appeared that the 6-10 years group showed higher job satisfaction, followed by the 6-10 years
groups. 3. As a result of testing job satisfaction level according to nurse's personality type by function at each career, it's found that the most job satisfaction was expressed by the SF-type(F=8.50, p=0.00l) at 1-5 years. the ST-type(F=30.61, p=0.001) at 6-10 years. the SF-type(F=4.98, p=0.003) at more than 11 years groups. 4. As a result of testing a significant correlation between nurse's personality type by function and job satisfaction level. the SF(r=0.279, p=0.001) and ST(r=0.222, p=0.001) types showed significant positive correlation. and the NF(r=-0.201, p=0.001) and NT(r=-0.402, p=0.001) types revealed significant negative correlation. The nursing management is likely to be done more effectively, if managers in charge of nursing administration carefully reflect nurses' personal opinions in posting and personnel management, keeping in mind that there is a specific personality type that serves to raise job satisfaction at a specific career.
Analysis of the Hope and Influencing Factors in Hemodialysis Patients
Park Ho Ran ; Park Sun Nam ; Lee Jong Eun ;
Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing, volume 15, issue 2, 2001, Pages 314~323
The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of hope and the influencing factors on the hope in the hemodialysis patients. The subjects of this study consisted 101 patients who had received hemodialysis In two hospitals affiliated with Catholic University from June to August, 2000. The instruments used for the study were the Hope scale by Miller(1998) and Quality of life scale, Self esteem scale and Social support scale. Cronbach's
of measurement tools used in the study were 0.93 for the hope, 0.96 for quality of life, 0.78 for self-esteem and 0.92 for the social support. The data were analyzed by mean, t-test, ANOVA. Scheffe test, Pearson correlation coefficients and Stepwise multiple regression using the SAS program. The results were as follows; 1. Out of a score of 164 the mean score of the hope was
. The mean quality of life score was 102.5 out of 160. The scores concerning social support turned out to have a mean of 67.8 out of 100. The levels concerning self-esteem and self respect had a mean of 25.1 out of 40. 2. There was a positive relation between the quality of life and social support. Furthermore, the hope level was proportional to factors such as quality of life and social support. 3. Social support accounted for
of influential variable on the hope. If transportation way to the hospital and quality of life were added. the total predictors explained
. The results suggested that the hope levels of hemodialysis patients were influenced by their social support and quality of life. Therefore nurses are encouraged to elevate the levels of patients' hope by using the social support and quality of life in caring the patients receiving hemodyalysis.
The Survey of Activities and Fear of Falling in the Community Dwelling Elderly
Sohng Kyeong Yae ; Moon Jung Soon ; Kang Sung Sil ; Choi Jung Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing, volume 15, issue 2, 2001, Pages 324~333
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore fear of falling in relation to activity restriction of in the community dwelling elderly. Two hundred ninety-nine community dwelling elderly residing in Seoul and Kyonggi-do were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The results were as follows : 1. Subjects were predominantly women
, an average 72.5 years old; the incidence of falls in last one year was
. 2. The highest level of fear found for activity in those who say they do engage and those who do not engage in the activity was 'going out when it is slippery '(m=2.53, 2.81) and 'reach for something over your head'(m=1.66, 2.60). Fear of falling scores were significant lower for those who say they do engage in eight kinds of activities (excluded activities of given were 'go to the store', 'take a tub bath', 'get out of bed') than for those who do not engage in the activities. 3. Among those who did not perform the activity, the three activities, when it is slippy(n=80), reaching overhead(n=70), and walk outside(n=59),were most often avoided because fear alone as well as for reasons in addition to fear. 4. The significant variables associated with fear of falling were female(p=0.0000), 1 educational status(p=0.000l), poor economic condition(p=0.0007), and experience of falls in last one year(p=0.0007). Fear of falling is common in the community dwelling elderly in Korea and is associated with several demographical variables. Therefore, to prevent falls and to reduce fear of falling, further study for development of education program for the elderly is needed.
A Study on the Glucose Level Control and Chronic Complication Rate in Diabetic Compliance Groups with Health Care Regimen
Song Min Sun ; Yoo Yang Sook ; Kim Hee Seung ;
Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing, volume 15, issue 2, 2001, Pages 334~341
The purpose of this study is to examine to control of glucose level and the occurrence of chronic complications of diabetes by compliance groups with health care regimen The subjects were consisted of 300 out patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus from beginning of March through the end of April in 2001, who visited at the endocrinology department at Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital of Catholic University in Seoul. The patient's compliance level with health care regimen was assessed at questionnaire. However, the blood glucose level and the occurrence of chronic complications of diabetes were assessed at medical record review. The data were analyzed by SAS program for chi square test and t-test. The results were as follows. 1. Significant differences were found among the factors such as duration of diabetes, the number of participation of diabetes educational program, job, smoking, self monitoring of blood glucose and the methods of diabetes therapy between high and low compliance groups. High compliance group patients had a diabetes longer than low compliance group patients. High compliance group patients more frequently attended the educational program and checked themselves monitoring blood glucose than low compliance group patients. Also, they did not work recently, smoked less and got more insulin injection therapy compared to low compliance group patients. 2. No significant differences were found among the result of fasting blood glucose. 2-hour postprandial blood glucose, and
between high and low compliance groups. 3. The occurrence rate of macrovascular complications of chronic complications of diabetes were lower, however, the occurrence rate of microvascular complications were higher in high compliance group than in low compliance group with health care regimen.
Urinary Incontinence Knowledge among Women In Korea
Song Hyo Jeong ;
Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing, volume 15, issue 2, 2001, Pages 342~350
This study was designed to investigate the knowledge of urinary incontinence and its affecting factors among women aged over 30 years in Korea, and to provide the basic data for the primary urinary incontinence management program through the community-based cross sectional study from May 7 to July 18, 2000. The subjects, who were able to understand the questionnaires and consented their participation in the study, consisted of 2183 women, aged over 30 up to 89 years, residing in Seoul, Kyongki
Kangwon, Chungchong, YongNam, HoNam, Cheju provinces. It took about 20 to 30 minutes to fill up the questionnaires. The data were analyzed by multiple regression with using SAS program. The results were as follows ; 1. The overall reported knowledge of urinary incontinence was
(range 0-14). Over the half of the subjects gave the correct answer to 5 items which referred to effects, treatment and management of urinary incontinence. Among items associated with the cause, two items, such as 'many common over-the-counter medications can cause involuntary urine loss', and 'involuntary urine loss is caused by only one or two conditions', were less likely to be correctly answered. 2. Those who were younger, had more education, or had urinary incontinence, were more likely to provide correct answers. The above findings indicated that the education program and campaign of the urinary incontinence should be developed and operated for those who are elderly and have had less education.
Professional Self-concept of Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioners in Hospitals and Public Health Centers
Yang Soo ; Yu Sook Ja ;
Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing, volume 15, issue 2, 2001, Pages 351~362
This study was conducted to investigate and compare the degree of professional self -concept (PSC) of the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners (PMHNP) in hospitals and public health centers and to identify the factors predicting PSC of them, in order to provide basic data for developing PSC increasing program PSC. The 355 PMHNP were sampled from the university or general hospitals. mental hospitals, community mental health centers and public health centers across the country. The scales used in this study were PSCNI by Arthur (1990), PSI by Heppner & Petersen (1982) and the Index of work satisfaction by Slavitt et al. (1978). The results of the study were as follows : 1. The average item score of PSCNI of PMHNP in hospitals was
, and that of PMHNP in public health centers was
. There was significantly different between two groups (p=0.0202) 2. A comparison of the scores for the dimensions of the PSCNI were as follows ; the mean item score of professional practice of nurses in hospital was
, and that in public health centers was
. There were significant differences between two groups in the scores of professional practices (p=0.0315), leadership (p=0.0071) and skills (p=0.0231). 3. There were significant differences between two groups according to education (p=0.0057) with no significant interaction effect of group and education. 4. Job satisfaction (JS) was the highest factor predicting PSC of PMHNP in hospitals
, and problem solving inventory score (PS) was the highest factor predicting PSC of PMHNP in public health centers
. JS and PS accounted for
in PSC of PMHNP in hospitals. and PS, JS, age, marital status, religion, and career accounted for
in PSC of PMHNP in public health centers. In the light of these results. to gam the professional self-concept. nurses should be educated continuously through role modeling in clinical nursing and research. Also, nurse educators and administrators need to develop programs and policies to increase professional self-concept of nurses, particularly of community PMHNP.
A Study on the Effects of Abdominal Obesity Management Program in Middle Aged Women
Yoon Young Suk ;
Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing, volume 15, issue 2, 2001, Pages 363~375
The purpose of this study is to analyse the effects of obesity management program in food attitude and food habit, body composition(body fat ratio, body fat weight, lean body mass, total body water), abdominal girth(waist, hip, thigh), and serum lipid level(cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, triglyceride, phospholipid, NE fatty acid, high density lipoprotein) of middle aged women. Data for the study were collected from July 4 to August 25, 2000. The study objects were 20 middle aged women(10 controls and 10 experimental objects) from 40 to 50 years old who had body fat ratio more than
and waist girth more than 80cm. The results were as follows: 1. Similarity test between experimental group and control group processed by serum HDL level showed the significant difference(t=3.25, p=0.004), but that processed by age, body weight, body fat ratio, body fat weight, lean body mass, total body water, waist girth, hip girth, thigh girth, cholesterol level, LDL level, triglyceride level, NE fatty acid level, food attitude and food habit score showed no significant difference(p>0.05). These findings imply that the two groups are similar in the sample distribution. 2. The effects of the abdominal obesity management program The obtained results indicate that the abdominal obesity management program in middle aged women changes the food attitude & the food habit. decreases the body fat ratio & the body fat weight and increases the lean body mass, and decreases the girth of waist & hip and the serum level of cholesterol & LDL. Therefore, it is concluded that the abdominal obesity management program can be applied for nursing intervention to decrease the body fat weight and abdominal obesity.
A Study on Discharge Service Needs for Discharge Planning Program Development to the Elderly at the Hospital
Rhee Seon Ja ; Shin Eun Young ; Jang Sook Rang ;
Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing, volume 15, issue 2, 2001, Pages 376~386
I. Background The problem of discharging patients from hospital have been well documented in the literature over the last 20 years. They included poor communication between hospital and community, inadequate notice of discharge, over-reliance on informal support and lack of statutory support, inattention to patients needs before leaving hospital, and wasted or duplicated visits by community nurses. Most patients discharged from hospital are able to return home with little or no support, while others will require a 'package of care' to support them back to good health. Patient with complex care needs, including the frail elderly and those with mental health problems, may require continuing care in special housing, residential, or nursing homes. With this population,effective discharge arrangement is needed and the study on this problem is urgent in Korea because the Medical Reform Project is on suspension of success. II. Results of the Study: 1. Discharge service needs assessed on 360 elderly patients who were hospitalized during the survey period at four university hospitals. Patients want to know the information on disease management after discharge. Follow-up telephone service is the most frequently checked service. 2. Multidisciplinary Discharge Planning is recommended at the hospital level to reduce the readmission and decrease the length of stay. 3. Further research is needed to validate and test the assumption of the solution which is developed in this research.
Subjective Fatigue and Coping Types between Middle Aged Adults and Elders
Chon Mi Young ; Ryu Eun Jung ; Yeon Eun Ja ;
Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing, volume 15, issue 2, 2001, Pages 387~397
Fatigue is a ubiquitous symptom and is a part of many acute and chronic health conditions. This complex symptom is so prevalence in contemporary society that it motivates a large percentage of the health care-seeking behavior among late-middle aged adults and elders. The purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of fatigue. to identify coping types of fatigue, and to explore factors affected fatigue between middle aged adults and elders who have no critical health problems. The results are as follows: 1. The elderly that manifested high level of fatigue revealed more fatigue than adults. 2. There are three coping types of fatigue. The three types were analyzed by Q-methodology. These three are action-evading, action-limited, and action-oriented. 3. The levels of fatigue manifested by the participants varied significantly according to age, vocation, education, present disease, and income. By identifying the nature of each of the coping types of fatigue, it is recommended to develop an effective nursing interventions for middle aged adults and elders.
A Study on the Medication in an early Implementation Period of Separation System of Pharmacy and Clinic in Seoul
Cho Won Sun ;
Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing, volume 15, issue 2, 2001, Pages 398~411
The separation system of pharmacy and clinic has begun on the purpose of preventing drug misuse and abuse since July 1st of 2000. The system revealed some conflicts between doctors. pharmacists and consumers. Consequently pharmaceutical law and related policies undergone some change. Now in an early period of the implementation of the system, the necessity to examine relevance of those policies and law enforcement to medical doctors' prescriptions pattern evolves. This study tries to verify the pattern through a field study. For the purpose, 930 prescriptions collected in May of 2001, from a pharmacy located in Gangnam-gu in Seoul, were analysed. The prescriptions were issued from several clinics: 459 prescriptions from otorhinolaryngological clinic(ENT), 177 from internal medicine clinic(IM), 130 from ophthalmic clinic(Opt), 52 from obstetric and gynecologic clinic(OB & GY), and 112 from miscellaneous clinics. ENT, IM, Opt. OB & GY are situated in a clinic building of 40m distance. The general findings are following: 1)
of the total patients came from 5clinics in nearby single clinic building. 2) Average prescribing days were 6.2 days and the average number of used drugs were 4.0 drugs, i.e. 2-4 times of WHO criteria 1-2 drugs. 3) Use of antibiotics in the oral administration drugs rated
4) Use of injection rated
of the patients use multiple antibiotics in the injection and oral administration together. 6) The patients had multiple disease : ENT patients 1.7 disease and 1M patients has 2.7 disease in average and several regular prescribing types evolved particularly in the ENT prescription. With this result we found that drugs. especially antibiotics are still abused a lot, and there were significant differences in the number of used drugs and prescrbing days between the clinics. It implies somes differences of the preparation work and time for pharmacists. And preparation can be done in advance by pharmacists' own efforts through noticing regular prescribing types. The study suggests the followings: 1) Patient counseling should be done to minimize the incidence of adverse events. 2) The enforcement of the standardized differential preparation price system should be reconsidered. 3) Preparation of typical regularly appeared prescription in advance. which is regarded as 'a prearranged work between doctors and pharmacists' and has been prohibited should be reconsidered. 4) Drug utilization review program should be established to prevent drugs abuse. especially antibiotics abuse.
A Study on Health Behavior of Middle Aged Men
Choi Kong Ok ; Jo Hyun Sook ; Kim Chung Youb ;
Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing, volume 15, issue 2, 2001, Pages 412~427
The purpose of this study is to provide a basis to recognize the health behaviors of middle-aged men that are constructive to a healthy life style. Data were collected from interview of questionnaires completed by 160 middle aged men living in Incheon from November 1 to 30, 2000. The questionnaires used in this study were obtained from publications on health related topics shown in literature review. These topics included : health concept, diseases, use of tobacco, alcohol, caffeine, drug, exercise and diet, cause of stress and stress management. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics using the SPSS program. The results of this study were as follows. 1.
of Middle aged men thought of concept of health as a doing daily living pattern. 2.
of the middle aged men had illness or disease, which included hypertension, gastritis, disc, peptic ulcer, indigestion and DM. 3.
of the middle aged men smoked cigarettes. Most of them the began to smoke due interest. 4.
of the middle aged men drank alcohol. Most of them began drinking due to peer pressure. 5.
of the middle aged men consumed caffeine-containing products. 6.
of the middle aged men took drugs. Most of the drugs were digestant. vitamins and analgesics. 7.
of the middle aged men exercised more than 2 times per week. 8. Most of causes of stress were economic difficulties and sickness. The method of stress management were alcolhol and use of tobacco mostly.