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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Health Promotion
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Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Sep 1999
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Feb 1999
Selecting the target year
AIDS-related Knowledge, Attitudes and AIDS-Education Needs of Male Workers in Seoul and Kyungki areas
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 16, issue 2, 1999, Pages 1~17
AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) known as 20th century's pest is spreading rapidly internationally, and the number of patients are increasing. Since the prevention vaccine has not been developed yet, the only available effective method for preventing AIDS is the health education. Most of the AIDS-infected persons are males, and especially over twenties of age. Therefore, it is necessary to measure the knowledge and attitudes on AIDS of male workers. The purpose of this study is to examine the knowledge, attitudes and education-needs of male workers on AIDS. The data were collected by a questionnaire survey of 977 workers who work in Seoul and Kyungki areas from September 1 thru October 4, 1997. The results were as follows: 1. We examined the level of knowledge on AIDS transmission, symptoms, diagnoses, and prevention methods. Even though respondents had a moderate level of AIDS-related knowledge, still sizable numbers believed that AIDS could be transmitted through casual contact. White-collar workers, higher education groups, higher income groups or those with age thirties showed respectively higher level of knowledge than the other comparison groups. 2. 85％ of the respondents recognized AIDS as a serious problem. Statistical analysis revealed that white-collar workers, higher education groups or those with age twenties had more positive attitudes towards a AIDS patient than their counterparts. 3. Over 80％ of the respondents replied that AIDS education in schools, work places, social agencies or by mass-media was necessary. 62.8％ of the respondents mentioned that government should play the major role in developing AIDS education program. 4. The prediction model of AIDS-education needs was examined with using the multiple logistic regression method. The education level and AIDS-related knowledge were turned to be statistically significant factors influencing positively the perceived needs of AIDS education.
Health Behavior and Attitude of Residents toward the National Health Promotion Law in Kyungsan City
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 16, issue 2, 1999, Pages 19~40
In order to ascertain the attitudes of residents to their health and the National Health Promotion Law, surveyors interviewed 1,220 subjects, 1% of men and women in Kyungsan city, who were twenty-year-old or more. The major findings are as follows: Men and women were 48.2% and 51.8%, respectively. The recognition rate of enacting and enforcing this law is 59.2% of men and 51.3% of women. With regard to the behavioral attitude to the health in the distinction of sex and age, current smokers are 31.2% of the interviewees, 61.6% of the men and 3.3% of the women. Current drinkers are 35.1%, 59.5% of the men and 12.3% of the women, but on the other hand there is little significance in the distinction of age. The acknowledgement proportion of enacting and enforcing this law is 59.2% of male and 51.3% of female. In terms of the recognition rate of the contents according to the general characteristics of interviewees, it appears that the indication of a warning expression on a packing paper of cigarette case and a liquor bottle is 92.4% and also the designation of a smoking free area in public facilities is 94.8%. Prohibition of cigarette-sale to the teenagers who are under 19, is 96.0%. Considering these facts, the recognition rate is high. On the contrary, 48.8% is accounted for encouraging a medical check-up before marriage which is in a low position. As a result of multiple behavior as a independent educational level, marital significant variables. In case of having undergone a periodic medical examination the recognition rate was high whereas frequent exercise led to the low recognition rate. Concerning the details of the undertaking in accordance with each factor of general characteristics, the greater part of them have been appraised successfully whether it is recognized or not. On the other side, no effect got answered about the result of the undertaking subjects to general and peculiar behavior attitude towards health was in effect or not. A great majority approved of more reinforcement of legal regulation about smoking and drinking regardless of whether they perceived the details of the law of promotion of National Health Promotion Law or not. Additionally there was significant difference in reinforcing legal regulation of smoking and drinking in compliance with the attitude of the substance of this law. With regard to education, public relations and evaluation about national health through public health centers by our government, the younger and the higher in education they are, the more deficient they feel. First of all, those who were aware of the enforcement of this law as well as plenty of scarcity answered that better service of disease prevention had to be expanded than ever. In consideration of the above-stated results, the education to public health and the business of public relations should be reinforced and a practical campaign for health life should also spread out for the purpose of encouraging to practise healthy life-style.
A Comparative study on needs assessment of health education of Chinese, Korean-Chinese in Gilin and Korean adolescences
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 16, issue 2, 1999, Pages 41~54
Health behaviors determine people's health status and the Quality of their life. Health education is the most effective method to change people's health behaviors in modem life. Therefore health education for adolescents is essencial to form desirable health behaviors and improve the Quality of their life. This study was administered to analyze important needs for the health education among Chinese, Korean -Chinese adolescents in Gilin, China and Korean adolescents in Seoul. Korea. The data were collected from 387 chinese and 74 Korean-Chinese boys and girls of 3 high schools in Gilin, China and 359 boys and girls of 3 high schools in Seoul, Korea. The results were as follow: 1. Forty percent of Korean students were sick during the past 4 weeks, but only 10.8％ of Korean-Chinese students and 9％ of Chinese students were sick. More than 70％ of Chinese and Korean-Chinese students had health concern, but only 26.6％ of Korean students were interested in health. 2. Korean-Chinese and Chinese students had higher health education needs than the Korean. They were not interested in sex education. On the other hand, Korean students were interested in mental health and not interested in consumer health education. 3. Korean-Chinese students had more health education needs than Chinese or Korean adolescents and the difference was statistically significant (p〈0.05). 4. In Korean-Chinese students, family income and academic grades were significantly related to their health education needs (p〈0.05). Among Chinese students, recent illness was related to their health education needs. In Korean students, the better health status and the more family income. the higher health education needs.
A Study on the contact to lascivious computer programs and sexual attitude and behaviour by the grade of middle school students in Pusan and Kimhae area
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 16, issue 2, 1999, Pages 55~66
To evaluate the status of the contact to lascivious computer programs and sexual attitude and behaviour by the grades of middle school boy students, the questionnaire survey was done on 715 students of five middle schools in Pusan and Kimhae area from December 15 to December 24, 1997. The data were analyzed by PC SAS;
-test. The level of significance was 0.05. 404 students (56.5%) had a personal computer in their home. 516 students(72.2%) have experienced of using a computer program. 294(57%) of them usually played a game with computer. 514 students(71.9%) had experiences of the contact to a lascivious computer program, which increased with the grades of the students(p〈0.05). The first exposure to a lascivious program was when they were elementary school students in 24.6% of first grade middle school student, 13.8% of second grade, and 11.3% of 3rd grade students. 92% of the students was introduced to first contact through their friends. 63.7% of them watch the program at their friends home. The most common drives to contact to a lascivious programs were curiosity (53%). Sexual desire was a higher drive in third grade students (20.6%) than lower grades. After contacting to a computer lascivious program, desire of masterbation was more frequent in lower grade students. and feeling disgust was more frequent in higher grade students (p〈0.05). Frequence of masterbation or sexual intercourse was higher in high grade students(p〈0.05) In conclusion, distribution and popular use of computer attributes to the increased exposure to lascivious programs and lowering the age of first exposure. There was the difference according to the grades in the feeling and sexual behaviour after contacting to computer lascivious program. Appropriate methods to protect young students to contact a lascivious program should be sought. The use of computer should be educated in elementary school students accompanied by proper sex education.
Study on Spiritual Well-being and Family Support of Cancer Patients
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 16, issue 2, 1999, Pages 67~80
This study was designed to provide the basic data of nursing intervention for alleviation of effective adjustment of cancer patients by identifying the correlation between the spiritual well-being and family support. The subjects for this study were 69 patients who were diagnosed as cancer and were admitted to a university hospital in Pusan. Data were collected during the period between December 1, 1998 and January 20, 1999 by interviewing with questionnaires. Family support questionnaire consisted of 11 questions answerable on a 5 point Likert scale developed by Kang Hyun Suk(1985). Spiritual well-being questionnaire consisted of 20 questions answerable on a 4 point Likert scale modified by Kang Jeong Ho(1996). The data were analyzed by in descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, t-test and ANOVA using SPSS/WIN program. The results of this study were as follows. 1. The mean score for family support in cancer patients was 49.48, which indicated that cancer patients perceived their state of family support as high level. The mean score for spiritual well-being in cancer patients was 55.87, which indicated that cancer patients perceived their state of spiritual well-being as moderate level. Among the components of spiritual well-being, the mean score for religious well-being was 26.94 and for existential well-being 28.93. From the above, the mean score for existential well-being was higher than that of religious well-being. 2. There were statistically significant differences in family support according to the types of primary caregivers(F=3.48, p=0.008). The spouse caregiver showed the highest family support among the caregivers. There were statistically significant differences in spiritual well-being according to the job(F=2.20, p=0.046) and the level of perceived health status(F=2.71, p=0.05). There were statistically significant differences in religious well-being according to the religion(F=2.42, p=0.004) and the number of family members(F=3.38, p=0.040). And there were statistically significant differences in existential well-being according to the job(F=2.48, p=0.026) and the level of perceived health status(F=2.74, p=0.048). 3. There were positive correlation between spiritual well-being and the family support(r=0.481, p=0.000), between religious well-being and family support(r=0.336, p=0.008) and existential well-being and family support(r=0.519, p=0.000).
A study on the influence of the preparative education on the Elderly's attitude for death
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 16, issue 2, 1999, Pages 81~92
This study attempt to analyze the influence of the preliminary education on the Elderly's attitude for death and to present basic data for the death-preliminary education. The data were collected by administerial the Questionnaire interview with 169 the elderly who was 200 the elderly over 60 year old in silver colleges. The Questions was consists the awareness recognition of death, character, attitudes toward for death. The statistical methods used for the analysis were t-test, factor analysis. The results were the follows. There was no statistically significant relations between the fear of death and the general characteristics the elderly, but the old women felt more anxiety than old men. Especially, more aged, unhealthy the elderly felt it more and the lower educated or the single felt it more severely. The change in the attitude for death: They attitude for death was considerably changed after the preliminary education. Fears and anxiety about death were more reduced and the inevitability of death was accepted positively. This result showed the influence of the preliminary death education had positive affliction of the elderly's attitude for death. Accordingly, with the practice of the preliminary education we can release the elderly from the fear for death and guide them to live meaningly.
A Study on the Actual Condition of the Oral Health Control of the Old
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 16, issue 2, 1999, Pages 93~104
For studying on the actual condition of the oral health control of the old there were invastigations on the Questions with the college of the old in Chonbuk as the central figure from June 1 to June 30, 1998 and the analyses about the frequency and the mutual relation through χ²-test. The results are as follow: 1. According to the result of the investigation into the actual condition about the oral health of the old, two times a day in the frequency of tooth brush per day was the highest at the rate of 50.35％, the use of dentifrice was 45.4％, and the exchanging time of tooth-brush after six months was the highest at the rate of 19.7％. And 96.1％ didn't use dental floss and 73.6％ didn't do scaling. It is thought that since 50％ used tooth sticks and match sticks we have to inform the old of the necessity of dental plague and period oral examination. 2. In oral health situation, it showed that the number of people who were very week was the highest at the rate of 37％ and there was the mutual relation between the use of tooth sticks and match sticks and present situation of oral health. And 54.93％ visited the dental clinic wethin a year, and 22.3％ among them made full denture. There was the mutual relation between the visit of dental clinic within a year and the consultation content and the number of people who teld that the consultation expense was very expensive was the higest at the rate of 27.8％ and 87％ didn't experience the oral education. So it is thought that we have to make an systematic education about the oral to the old and inform them of the necessity of oral health control. 3. We think it needs the establishment and plane of the systematic basis material and the oral education which is necessary in oral public industry for the dental preventive suitable to the characteristic of the old.
The Effect of Physically Challenged Women's Health Condition On Quality of Life
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 16, issue 2, 1999, Pages 105~119
A human being's pursuit is that of a better quality of life and the disabled naturally want to do so. But challenged people's lives have not improved apace with the general development of our society as a whole. Specially, in a patriarchal society like Korea, challenged women are in a less favorable situation. Challenged women can enjoy more healthy and more happy life in a given condition. Thus, in this research, we closely examined the women's general characteristics, disabled characteristics, health condition(subjective health condition, experiences of diseases, stress value, etc), satisfaction value of life who have handicaps of limb or/and body. On the 17th of September through the 14th of October '98, a nation-wide retardation compaign was held and 200 people were served by telephone. Then we analysed primary factors on quality of life. As results, monthly income, how they think of their economic level, their subjective health condition, and the stress level that the success depends on self influenced quality of life.
A Study on Breakfast Related Factors of University Students
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 16, issue 2, 1999, Pages 121~135
This study was conducted to investigate breakfast related factors and utilize the basic information for the development of university student's nutrition and health program in order to help healthy dietary life. The interview was done by trained interviewers on 197 students who visited health clinic in Inje university from May 1 to May 31, 1998. The obtained results were as follows; 1. The rate of having breakfast was 50.5% in male and 45.5% in female, and there were significantly higher rate(62.1%) in freshmen than other grade students(p〈0.05). 2. The rate of smoking and drinking were 24.9%, 86.6%, respectively. The rate of having breakfast was significantly lower in smoking group and drinking group than other groups(p〈0.05). 3. The group that was shown high awareness of the importance of having breakfast was higher than other groups in the rate of having breakfast(p〈0.05). 4. The author calculated odds ratios for past medical history, smoking, drinking, awareness of the importance of having breakfast by logistic regression. The values were 1.77 for past medical history(p〉0.05), 2.09 for smoking(p〉0.05), 2.88 for drinking(p〈0.05), 3.80 for awareness of the importance of having breakfast(p〈0.05). We suggested that better breakfast eating habits for an adequate daily diet should be emphasized through nutrition and health education program for university students.
The Study on Change in Sex-Related Knowledge and Attitude through Sex Education : focusing on the 1st grade students in girls' junior high schools
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 16, issue 2, 1999, Pages 137~155
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of sex education on knowledge and attitude related to sex. The subjects were taken from by 199 students in 3 classes from 1st grade in H girl's junior high school as the study group, and 2 classes from 1st grade in S girl's junior high school as control group. During the survey period(September 21, 1998 to September 30, 1998), 6 times in terms of one-hour class for sex education were taught to the study group. A pre-test was executed on September 19, 1998 and the post-test on September 30. The findings were as follows. 1. According to the research, 20.1％ of the subjects have experienced sex education from parents and 89.9％ from teacher. They have mostly obtained the sex-related information from teachers(59.8％), following movie, radio, TV, or video tape(40.7％), friends(35.2％), reading materials such as books, cartoons, news papers and magazines(31.7％), parents(15.6％), siblings(7.0％), PC(1.5％) and telephone service(1.5％). 2. 27.1％ of the subjects reported that they had sex-related worry concerning from friendship with the opposite sex, following physiological phenomenon(31.5％), sex violence(11.1％), physical characteristics(7.4％), VD and contraception(5.6％), sexual impulse(5.6％), pregnancy and delivery(5.5％), and sexual behaviour(3.7％). The research showed that the adolescents usually solved their problems through the consultation with theifriends(44.4％). However, 16.7％ of the subjects were turned out not to request any solution. The other minor routes to settle their problems were written materials such as books, magazines(13.0％), parents(13.0％), movie, radio, TV, or video tape(5.5％), acquainted female elders(3.7％) and teachers(3.7％). 3. The most interesting part regarding sex was the friendship with the opposite sex(61.8％), following adolescent's emotion(55.8％), physiological differences between two genders(52.8％), AIDS(48.7％), VD(46.7％), pregnancy(45.2％), contraception(45.2％), abortion(41.7％), intercourse(41.7％), masturbation(41.2％), sex violence(41.2％) and genital structure and secondary sexual characteristics(28.6％). 4. In regard to characteristics of the subjects influencing sex-related knowledge, the higher educational career of mother, living with at least either parent and the experience of sex education by teachers were statistically significant factors(p〈0.05). 5. In regard to characteristics of the subjects influencing attitudes toward sex, the experience of sex education by parents or teachers was a statistically significant factor(p〈0.05). 6. The analysis of knowledge score comparing results before and after sex education showed that control group's score decreased from 12.5 to 12.44 while the study group's score increased from 12.33 to 21.31, which was statistically significant(p〈0.001). 7. The analysis of the attitude scores before and after sex education showed that the control group's score slightly increased from 55.57 to 56.36, while the study group's score increased from 54.79 to 61.95, which was statistically significant(p〈0.001). 8. The level of sex-related concerns of the study group after sex education marked both the increase in some items and the decrease in others. 9. Most instructive session among the sex education was the third “to be a good friend to the opposite sex”(27.0％).
Health Practices of University Students
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 16, issue 2, 1999, Pages 157~171
This paper analyzed health practices of students in an university in Chollabukdo Province. It attempted to study how many university students had what kinds of health practices. Furthermore, it tried to find out what are the major problems in health practice among university students. To study health practices of university students, this study sampled 1,469 students randomly. Many of the students had poor practices of teeth care. In tooth-brushing, many students (35.8%) brushed their teeth before breakfast in the morning. Most of the students (95% or more) visit dental clinic only when they had problem(s) in their teeth. For weights, there exists a great gap between perception and BMI (Body Mass Index), especially among female students. Among the female students who perceived their weights were above average, 96.4% of them were normal according to BMI. Many of the students were drinking greater amount of alcohol than safe amount suggested by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia. The proportion of the students drinking harmful or hazardous amount of alcohol were 79.5% of the male students and 74.9% of the female students. It suggests that health promotion fund or tax need to be levied on alcohol to frustrate unhealthful drinking. More than half (59.0%) of the male students and about 6.0% of the female students were smoking cigarettes. The smoking initiation ages were 17.8 for male and 18.2 for female students. It means that many of the students started smoking in their junior high or high schools. It implies that smoking prevention and smoking cessation programs need to be emphasized in these schools. For perception on sex, 27.8% of the male students and 60.9% of the female students thought to keep their virginity before their marriage. The female students were more conservative in perception on sex. The average number of sexual intercourses per year of male students was 17.0 times with their lovers, 7.9 times with prostitutes, and 7.0 times with maids. The female students had sexual intercourses 5.0 times with their lovers and 4.0 times with waiters per year. The proportion of students who had experience of sexual intercourse with homosexual partners was 1.0%. The finding this study was that the university students were vulnerable to poor health practices. It is suggested that public health intervention program be provided for university students to keep them in good healthy lifestyle.
Importance of Mobile Health Education Teams
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 16, issue 2, 1999, Pages 173~186
For happy life, it is first of all essential to live healthily although wealth is important too. Korean government has enforced National Health Insurance Program and has improved it every year. However, health security still leaves something to be desired in Korea. Although Korean government also enacted National Health Promotion Law in 1995, the national health promotion policy has not been effectively carried out because of the problems of institution related to policy implementation and expenses of organizations. Also, community health services have failed to realize the anticipated results. Especially, health education services which are deeply related to national health consciousness are not well accomplished. Therefore, the average life span of Korean people is 73.5 years which display the level of the developing countries, while it is 74.7 years in the developed countries. Various health education services which Korean government and private organizations are carrying out are not activated. At this time, national health behavior and Quality of life will be greatly enhanced if "Mobile Health Education Teams" play active roles with new image, visiting vulnerable areas to health problems all over the country.e country.
Facilitating Health Promotion Programs at the Local Level: An Educational Approach
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 16, issue 2, 1999, Pages 187~203
This paper will discuss about how we can foster educational support mechanisms to facilitate health promotion programs at the local level. Health promotion in Korea is in the early developmental stage; it has only been since the Health Promotion Act was legislated in 1995, the health promotion programs have been planned and implemented. In the context of the recent decentralization process, local health departments have a major responsibility for developing and implementing health promotion programs at the local level. The short history of health promotion in Korea has meant that local public health departments have limited experience and organizational capacity for health promotion planning ＆ practice. The results of one survey for investigating the progress of health promotion at the local level are instructive. The survey demonstrated that the public health workers recognized that the lack of personnels, insufficient budget, the lack of policy ＆ the organizational support, the lack of skill ＆ knowledge to be effective health promotors, the lack of guidance for health promotion practice were major barriers to implementing health promotion programs at the local level. The object of this paper is to suggest some ways of overcoming barriers to implementing health promotion programs at the local level This paper emphasizes on the importance of educational supports as well as environmental supports - legislative, policy, organizational, economical - in building the organizational capacity and infrastructure of local health department for health promotion. It suggests some ways of providing educational supports to the public health workers at the local level. and supports the positions that educational opportunities for training in health promotion can be better provided to the public health workers at the provincial level rather than at the national level. It argues that the educational ＆ training programs should be developed and based on the educational need assessment; that the application of the main educational principles ＆ theoretical models for health promotion be used to develop educational programs for the public health workers; and that professional health organizations should make plans to provide more educational programs at their annual conferences or at other convenient times. These kinds of educational supports facilitate the ability of public health workers to improve their capacity for health promotion practice at the local level and help to alleviate some of the pressure on state resources.
Reform Measures of Health Examination Program in Health Insurance Scheme
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 16, issue 2, 1999, Pages 205~233
This study is an effort to make policy suggestions by analysing the current health examination program as a benefit service provided by the national health insurance system, including health screening for the insured, screening of cancer and chronic diseases for their dependents. Analyses found some issues being gave attention to; 1) The insured under the community health insurance system do not get the health examination benefit. A program for them should be set to have equity in benefit services. 2) Low rates of using screen services compromise purpose and the efficiency the services have first intended to. An immediate attention should be made to increase low rate of use of screen test to detect chronic diseases in particular. 3) Selection of diseases and test items covered by health examination program does not reflect the need of the insured, but to reflect financial resources of the national health insurance system. 4) Lack of health screening facilities and their geographical maldistribution is observed, which with preference of a general hospital as a screening post by the insured may lead to unreliable test. 5) A follow-up system should have been developed for the suspected classified by test results of carrying chronic diseases. They should be cared for within the health examination program. Public health care systems incorporate such a system, along with caring for those who are in need of having a health counselling on preventive care. In conclusion, the national health insurance system should be a medical insurance of giving a higher priority on preventive care benefits, health examination program in particular. That could be done by making rearrangements of test items, screening methods and system, rationalizing current reimbursement system of service fee, increasing accessibility to and utilization of the services, and making an establishment of follow-up system.
Training and Utilization of Health Education Specialist
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 16, issue 2, 1999, Pages 235~249
The National Health Promotion Act passed in 1995 was a milestone for initiating a national and local health promotion program in Korea. And since then local governments and health centers have been developing and providing health promotion programs for the community population. To apply the effectiveness of community health promotion program, it is important to understand the key issue related to health education and the role of health education personnel. The purpose of this study was to define the responsibility and competency of health education specialist, and to develop the activity areas of health promotion program in Korea. Those who provide the service for health promotion and health education should be properly qualified and professionally trained. However, the skills and responsibilities of those who are in charge of providing health education program have not yet been clearly defined in Korea because the areas of health promotion and health education are composed of multi-academic fields. In case of United States, health education specialist is being developed through professional preparation in colleges and graduate schools, and certified through the examination. Also health education specialist is in charge of the planing, implementing and evaluation of health education program in school, hospital, health center, workplace and health food company. Therefore it is important to develop the programs to train and certify health education specialist. Also to extend the activity areas, the government should support continuously program development for health promotion and health education personnel.
A study on the direction and flexibility of health promotion policy
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 16, issue 2, 1999, Pages 251~265
Nowadays a movement of public health awareness has just begun through the recent health promotion law in Korea. Implementation of the health promotion requires a pluralistic process involving public and private participants from many sectors and backgrounds. The most important thing in promoting health is the appropriate role of government in fostering personal behavior change. ‘Health promotion’ has been a highly fashionable term; however it has been used in many different ways unfortunately, often without any clarification of meaning. It is because the meaning of health promotion is diverse and broad. Therefore this article focuses on the categorization of the diverse meaning of health promotion. Additionally. it puts stress on the flexibility of health promotion.