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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Health Promotion
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Sep 2001
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Jun 2001
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Mar 2001
Selecting the target year
Hospital Patients' Smoking Behaviors and Perceptions of Smoking Policies in Pusan.
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 18, issue 3, 2001, Pages 1~10
The purposes of this study were to identify patients' perceptions toward regulations of smoking in general hospitals and hazards caused by smoking. Moreover this study also identified smoking behaviors and punishment experience due to in-hospital smoking and education experiences of smoking in general hospitals. Around 88.0％ of all respondents regardless of either smokers or non-smokers knew that hospitals are non-smoking area. However, 71.6％ of smokers smoked during their hospital visits. For their smoking, only 51.0％ of smokers utilized smoking rooms or areas for their smoking. Only 55.1％ of smokers experienced punishments or notifications of warning due to their smoking. Around 93.0％ of inpatients and outpatients acknowledged hazards toward their health caused by smoking. However, smokers did not realize the dangerous effects of passive smoking to other persons. Only 38.1％ of smokers said that passive smoking causes hazard of others' health. 63.8％ of smokers hoped for secession of smoking but only 42.8％ of them sustained their non-smoking periods over 5 moths. Based on these results, this study insists that a more enforced smoking policy in general hospitals be desperately needed for protecting patients' health and controlling smoking at unapproved areas. Moreover hospitals should take proactive actions to prevent smoking in hospitals. A health education program in hospitals should promote patients' self-efficacy to stop smoking and patients' understanding of the hazardous effects of passive smoking in hospitals.
A Study of Health Behavior through Comparative Analysis of Self-perceived Health Status and Health Examination Results
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 18, issue 3, 2001, Pages 11~36
The purpose of this study is to analyze health behavior by comparing the difference between self-perceived health status and health examination results. The study subjects consist of 7,702 people aged over 20, surveyed by Health Interview survey, Health Examination survey, Dietary Life survey, Health Consciousness and Behavior survey. Data used in the study are drawn from raw data from a 1998 National Health and Nutrition survey. General characteristics variables are sex, age, education level, residential area, marital status, occupation, and living standard while dichotomous variables, ‘not healthy’ and ‘healthy’ are used to measure self-perceived health status. Variables for health examination results are high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, liver diseases, liver inflammation, kidney diseases, normal weight, regular diet, optimum sleeping time(7-8 hours), regular health examination and health behavior practice group. Major findings of the study are as follows: 1) Analysis of self-perceived health status and health behavior by disease: Variables significantly correlated with high self-perceived health status have strong associations with high health behavior practice, which supports the hypothesis that as one has high self-perceived health status, one is more likely to practice health promoting behavior. The results of analysis of health behavior differences by dividing subjects into two categories, ‘cases of illness’ and ‘cases of no illness’ indicate that drinking, sleeping time, health examination are significant variables (p〈0.001, 0.05) whereas smoking, weight control, regular exercise, regular diet are not significant. 2) Analysis of disparity patterns between self-perceived health status and health examination: The hypothesis that health behaviors would be different according to the disparity pattern between self-perceived health status and health examination is supported as a result of χ2 test. Among Type I : Self-perceived health status is high and actual health status is good (no disease) Type II: Self-perceived health status is high and actual health status is poor(have disease) Type III: Self-perceived health status is low and actual health status is good(no disease) Type IN: Self-perceived health status is low and actual health status is poor(have disease) Type I and Type IV show no disparity, Type I shows the highest health promoting behavior whereas Type IV shows the lowest health promoting behavior. Type II, and III, compared to Type I, practise lower health promoting behavior. Multi-logistics regression analysis was conducted to find out the degree of impact on health behavior. Independent variables are general characteristics, self-perceived health status and health examination result and presence of illness, while the dependent variable is health promoting behavior. The analysis of the impact of self-perceived health status on the health promoting behavior shows that smoking, drinking, weight control, regular exercise, health examination practice, and/or regular diet are significantly correlated to self-perceived health status. High self-perceived health status is inversely related to high health promoting behavior. This finding supports the hypothesis that the higher one perceives one's health, the more likely one is to practice health promoting behavior. On the contrary, the presence of illness has little impact on health promoting behavior. 3) Multiple logistics analysis on how disparity patterns between self-perceived health status and health examination affect health behavior: The results of multiple logistics analysis made on health behavior variables compared to the standard variable are as follows: When analyzed on the standard of Type I, smoking is a significant risk factor for the Type IV. In case of drinking, all the patterns show a high probability of relative risk ratio. With regard to weight control, it is a risk factor for Type II while all the patterns show high probability of not practising when analyzed on the standard of type IV. Type III and IV show high probability of not doing regular exercise while Type IV, shows a high probability of not taking appropriate sleeping time. When analyzed on the standard of type IV, all the patterns show a high probability of not taking health examinations. Type III and IV show a high probability of not having regular meals. As for overall health promoting behavior, Type III and IV show a high relative risk ratio. These two groups have low self-perceived health status. It implies that self-perceived health status has significant impact on health promoting behavior. This is also supported by the fact that Type I with high self-perceived health status and no illness shows a high practice rate of health promoting behavior. Types II and III the groups with high disparity between self-perceived health status and health examination results, show a low practice rate of health promoting behavior when compared to Type I. Type IV, that is the group with low self-perceived health status and actual illness, shows the lowest practice of health promoting behavior. It is highly probable that this type proves to be the poorest health group.
A Study on the Relationship between Adolescent Misconducts and Harmful Environment Based on Health Belief Model
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 18, issue 3, 2001, Pages 37~58
This study placed its objectives in suggesting the basic data for setting up an approach to protect the educational environment, by analyzing the relevance between the misconducts of adolescence and the harmful environment around the school, as an object of study, middle school students and high school students all over the country. Thus, this study carried out the questionnaire survey, by the multi-stage of stratified sampling in 2,114 middle school and high school students from June 29, 2000 through July 29, 2000. And the results of analysis were as follows: 1. In case of the ratio of students using harmful environment, the electronic game room had the highest ratio (78.3％); next, the PC room (75.6％), the singing room (71.6％), and the cartoon room (34.3％). 2. In terms of the experiences of using the harmful environment according to the personal characteristics, high school students used it in a higher ratio, compared with middle school students (p〈0.001); the students, whose father graduated from a high school, comparatively used it much more(p〈0.05). Also, when a school is located near to amusement quarters or shopping centers, students used the harmful environment most highly (p〈0.001). And the differences were found to be statistically significant. 3. In case of the perceived susceptibility factors, the harmful environment was found to be used in lower ratio, by the students who answered “very so” to the question item, The more harmful environment facilities are positioned around school, the more student have the opportunities to use them. (p〈0.001). That is, the findings showed that the higher students' degree of perceived susceptibility factors was the less students used harmful environment facilities. The differences were statistically significant. In terms of the ratio of using harmful environment according to perceived seriousness factors, it was founded out that the students, who answered, “If I use any harmful environment facilities, it will be very harmful to myself.”. had the less opportunities of having used them, compared with the students who did not answer so (p〈0.001). This indicated that the higher the degrees perceived seriousness of students, the less they used harmful environment facilities. And the differences were statistically significant. In the side of the ratio of using harmful environment according to the perceived barriers, it was found out that there were any special large differences. That is, perceived barriers had nothing to do with students' using harmful environment. 4. As the result of having analyzed the factors influencing the behaviors of using harmful environment, the factor to explain the behaviors of using harmful environment was found to be the degree of perceived seriousness, among individual perceiving factors; next, the location of a school - one of personal characteristics, the degree of perceived susceptibility and ages, m sequence. 5. Among students' misconduct experiences, drinking was highest (21.6％), next, smoking (11.9％), drug abuse (4.3％), and sexual relations (1.6％), In sequence. Among other problematic behaviors, excessive waste was highest (14.6％); next, disobedience and lie (10.7％), night wandering (7.8％), and bad dressing and making-up (5.5％), in sequence. 6. In terms of the misconducts according to the behaviors of using harmful environment, compared with the students who did not commit any misconducts, harmful environment facilities were used more highly, by each group of students who experienced drinking (p〈0.00l), smoking (p〈0.001), sexual relations (p〈0.05), excessive waste (p〈0.001), disobedience ＆ lie (p〈0.001), and bad dressing ＆ making-up (p〈0.05). And the differences were statistically significant.
Research on the Cognition and Education of Safety for Children
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 18, issue 3, 2001, Pages 59~75
It is necessary to examine from primary school children's viewpoint to perception of safety as to how they cope with a condition threatening safety at the realistic world with risky environment and whether knowledge obtained through education is transmitted to action in a correct way. For this, this study explored and analyzed children's perspective to safety felt in life, their achievement of education to safety as trainees, and their perception extent to safety. As a result of it, following conclusion could be obtained. First, as for safety on their way to school and home, the lower grade they were, the more they felt safe, but the higher they were, the more they felt uneasy, which was examined that they generally had uncomfortable mind. Second, as for whether safety education was performed or not, it was indicated that safety education was generally executed, but lower graders responded that safety education was executed, but high graders responded that it was not executed. Third, as for observance of traffic rules, it was examined lower graders kept them well, but higher graders did not do so. Fourth, as for safety of play, it was indicated lower graders wore protective equipment by parents' concern, but higher graders did not wear them since they were full of confidence counting on their capability. Fifth, as for life safety, it was indicated the area most preferentially educated from parents' viewpoint was traffic safety, and the next ones were gas and fire safety. Sixth, as for fire safety, it was indicated they did not play with fire, but higher graders compared to lower ones, played with fire as the means of curiosity and play. Thus, curricula for children's safety education executed from adults' viewpoint should be established, and assessment of children's safety education should get out of the limitation of execution of safety education to habituated action by the transmission of children's knowledge. Also it is urgent to develop programs with which to perform children;'s education at the level of children, establish and operate safety education facilities for practice education that teachers and children can receive safety education through experience by building up children's safety education related entities. And it is thought that safety should not left to only children, but their safety would be kept by developing and training safety education programs to all organizations and individuals related to safety.
Middle and High School Student' Knowledge Level on First Aid.
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 18, issue 3, 2001, Pages 77~88
This study was conducted to examine middle and high school students' knowledge level of first aid, health promotion, and safety. Data were collected from 1.165 students from March 6, 2000 to April 4, 2000. The results of this study are summarized as follows. 1. 80.1％ of the respondents felt the necessity of first aid. The sources of information about methods of first aid were school (43.9％), mass media (15.6％), and self-study (10.5％). 30.0％ of them never learned the methods of first aid. 2. In the case of obtaining information on first aid through mass media, 58.2％ of them got it from TV. 7.3％ of them obtained it from magazines, while 5.8％ of them got it from newspapers. According to their viewpoints of adequate time to teach the methods of first aid, 38.6％ of them thought that the methods had to be taught in the primary school and 25.2％ of them thought that they had to be taught in the kindergarten. 24.9％ of them replied that the methods had to be taught in the middle school, while 11.3％ of them replied that they had to be taught in the high school. 3. The points for knowledge of first aid were 98.29:t20.91 on the basis of 150 points (65.5 points on the basis of 100 points). The points showed significant differences in the variables of sex, education level, numbers of siblings, parents' education level, and guardian's occupation.
The status of quit-smoking, abstinence and exercise of patients with chronic disease in a hospital
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 18, issue 3, 2001, Pages 89~102
Background: Many chronic diseases are associated with the lifestyle such as smoking, alcohol drinking and exercise. Attention is increasingly paid on the effect of exercise for the management of chronic disease these days. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the status of the smoking habit, alcohol drinking and physical exercise of the patients with chronic diseases. Methods: Total 793 persons(normal:422, chronic disease patients:371) in a hospital were questioned regarding the habits of smoking and alcohol drinking, and a practice of physical exercise in 1999. The patients with chronic illness were divided into three groups(Group I included the patients of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Group II includes respiratory disease and cancer. Group III included liver disease). The rate of exercise, the rate of smoking cessation and the rate of abstinence were assessed. In logistic regression analysis with each independent variables in each disease groups (I, II and III, odds ratio for the presence of disease was controlled for age and education. Results: The rate of exercise, the rate of smoking cessation and the rate of abstinence was 31.5%, 27.3% and 9.5% in the patients with chronic disease, respectively. In control group, those were 31.5%, 21% and 2.1%, respectively. In logistic regression analysis with exercise as independent variable, odds ratios(95% CI for age and education were significantly high, with smoking cessation, odds ratio for age was high and with abstinence, odds ratio for disease with high in all disease groups. Conclusion: It was suggested that an effort for proper changes of lifestyle related to disease such as smoking, alcohol drinking and exercise should be intervened in the patients with chronic diseases.
The Study on Health Promoting Lifestyle of the Elderly
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 18, issue 3, 2001, Pages 103~115
This study was done describe health promoting lifestyle and to determine affecting factors in elderly based on the health promoting behaviors. The specific purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of life satisfaction, self-esteem and the demographic characteristics to health promoting lifestyle and to determine causal factors affecting the elderly. The subjects were a volunteer sample of 200 elderly in Kyungsan city. The instruments for this study were Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile(47 items), Life Satisfaction Scale(20 items) and Self-Esteem Scale(10 items). Frequency, percentage, t-test, ANOV A, Pearson's correlation coefficient and stepwise multiple regression technique with SAS program were used to analyze the data. The results of the study are as follows; 1) The average item score for the health promoting lifestyle was 3.3; the highest score on the sub scale was self-actualization(M=3.5) with the lowest being exercise(M=2.9) 2) Health promoting lifestyle was significantly different according to marital status and religion. 3) All of the subscales on health promoting lifestyle were positively related to life satisfaction(r=0.534, p〈0.001 and self-esteem(r=0.608, p〈0.001). The life satisfaction was positively related to self-esteem(r=0.593, p〈0.001). 4) Life satisfaction, self-esteem and marital status explained 28.04% of the variance for the total health promoting lifestyle. The results of this study show that life satisfaction, self-esteem and marital status predicted the health promoting lifestyle of the elderly. So health promoting programs that increase life satisfaction and self-esteem should be developed to promote a healthy lifestyle of the elderly.
The measuring tool development of the stress and coping method of the Korean obese adolescents
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 18, issue 3, 2001, Pages 117~131
This study was attempted to develope a highly reliable and valid tool which is useful to assess the Korean obese adolescents' stress and coping method. The data were collected from the total of 600 obese students from middle and high schools in Pusan. The author used a convenience sampling method. The data collection was done from March 2 to July 11, 1999. The analysis of the data was done with SPSS Win(10.0) for descriptive statistics and factor analysis. The preliminary tool was composed of 72 items(stress items: 34, coping method items: 38) with the five point Likert scale. Item analysis and inter consistency were calculated for reliability and validity through pre-test. The preliminary tool was analyzed for reliability and validity. Finally, the tool was of 65 items(stress items: 33, coping method items: 32). The results were as follows: 1. Cronbach Coefficient Alpha for the 33 items of stress was .9485 and the 32 items of coping method was .8534. 2. The factor analysis was done in order to confirm construction and the items were extracted Oblimin rotation and Maximum likelihood extraction method. 3. The factor analysis showed 6 factors in stress and 10 factors in coping method. These 6 factors of stress explained 62.4％ and 10 factors of coping method explained 57.4％. 4. Six factor of stress lable were 〈outward appearance〉, 〈boyfriend/ girlfriend〉, 〈occur an outbreak of disease〉, 〈mutual relation of family〉, 〈an obese figure〉, 〈be a burden on exercise〉. 5. Ten factor of coping method lable were 〈be concerned about another affairs〉, 〈recreation activities〉, 〈self-violence〉, 〈relaxation〉, 〈hobby activities〉, 〈avoid a situation〉, 〈communication〉, 〈music〉, 〈negative behavior〉, 〈positive thinking〉. The results of using this scale in a study will contribute to design an appropriate school health management of obese students, and also it will contribute to the development of nursing research.
Needs Accessment of Safety Education of High School Students in Seoul
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 18, issue 3, 2001, Pages 133~162
Unexpected accidents in school has been gradually increased every year, and student's mistaken was the first reason of the accident. To preventing the students from Unexpected accidents in school, safety education is more important than having strong facilities to have much more strong protecting forces for the accidents. Therefore, systematic education of safety is needed most of all, and especially, strengthening safety education in school is needed. Hereby, this study is aimed at investigating and analysing the actual condition and demand of safety education. It also conducted a survey with the target of 1,255 students in the second grade of high school in Seoul from April 20 to May 19, and the result of this study is as follows. 1. In the general features of the subject of the survey, boy students and girl students occupied 50.8％ and 49.2％ each, and boys' high school (34.3％), girls' high school(32.2％) and co-ed(33.5％) participated in balance. In the location, north from Han river occupied 54.6％, south were 45.2％. 2. According to the status of experiencing an accident, boys were more experienced then girls(p〈0.05). From the section, home accident(56.8％) occupied most followed by school accident, traffic accident, sports accident and poisoning. The accident happening most often in detailed category is sports accident such as basket ball, foot ball and dodge ball. The actual condition of the subject's using a school health facility shows that boys students use it more often than girl students(p〈0.01) 3. In attitude toward safety, the subject showed lower interest in safety issues than other social issues. But attitude in seriality of safety problems were high. Also, they responded ‘individual citizen’(63.1％) as the one who should make efforts for safety. Regarding knowledge of preventing safety accidents in attitude toward individual safety, 42.2％ answered ‘they know a little’ and 32.6％ of respondents say ‘they do not know’. To a question of the degree of the subject's following safety rules, 36.4％ were answered ‘keeping’ and the group using a school health facility shows more ‘keeping’ the others(p〈0.05). 4. To a question of asking if they have experienced safety education, 51.2％ answered ‘yes’. Teachers who mainly take care of safety education are answered as training teacher(48.7％). As for education time, training class(51.3％) is said to have safety education most followed by health-related event and PE(Physical Education). Frequency of education shows once or twice a session (62.8％) most often, but in case of co-ed school, 5-7times a session or more(20.1％) are being practiced. Looking at education time, 1-2 hour(s)(22.1％) or for a short time(22.1％) during class are being practiced. As an education method, instruction(43.8％) and video education(32.5％) are being practiced, and when it comes to education evaluation method, ‘not practiced’(70.0％) answered. To the question if they are satisfied with school safety education, they answered more ‘no(43.1％)’ than ‘yes(6.7％)’, and the reason is that safety education class is just for formality's sake, and the fact they already know is being repeated. The contents of safety education is composed of school safety, home safety, and first aid. 5. It is turned out that 56.5％ of the total boy students and 61.1％ of the total girl students recognize the necessity of safety education. To the question if safety education is needed in an elementary and middle education course, 46.4％ of the subject answer answered' it's necessary'. The most reason for their answers are ‘safety education is directly related to life’. 6. Regarding the requested time of safety education is ‘one hour a week’ by 55.9％. For safety education, safety education teachers(38.7％) are answered to be the most proper. As a request for safety education, video education is answered to be the most appropriate(30.6％), followed by practical skills, lecture and discussion(p〈0.05). Demand of educational evaluation, practical skills, interview and observation are answered to be needed. To the question if they want to participate in the way of demanded safety education, 41.9％ of respondents answer ‘have a mind to participate in’ (41.9％). To benefits followed by completing safety education, 72.0％ of respondents answer ‘agree’, and 24.7％ ‘do not agree’, which means lout 4 disagrees with completing safety education. 7. Looking at demand of safety education according to the features of the subject, ‘our position for the person who has handicapped’ was answer to the most.
Weight Control Practices and Body Image of Female College Students
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 18, issue 3, 2001, Pages 163~175
The purpose of this study is to collect fundamental data for weight control education based on obesity, weight control practices and body image in female college students. Those surveyed were 364 female college students attending universities in Seoul, Kyoung-Gi and Chung Cheung Buk Do. The data were collected from June 1, 1999 to September 10, 1999. The resulting data are as follows: 1. The mean BMI of the female college students was 19.78:t1.87kg/
, which comes within the range of normal weight. Underweight, normal weight and overweight students were respectively 27.2%, 66.8% and 5.5%. As many as 7.1% of the underweight students and 42.8% of the normal weight students described themselves as being "fatty". 2. Of these subjects, 83.5% reported wanting to lose weight, and the primary reason of weight control was to improve their appearance. The mean weight that they wanted to lose was 5.2
2.7kg, and 68.7% of the respondents had tried to lose weight. Among them, the most frequently reported weight control behavior was dieting followed by exercise, 30% reported fasting, 3.6% reported using drugs, 4.4% reported smoking and 3.6% reported vomiting. As to the weight loss effect, 96.7% of the subjects used behavior modification, 82.5% of the students exercised, and 76.1% of the dieters reported they had lost weight. 3. As to body image, many female college students were dissatisfied with their body figures, especially thighs(70.3%), hips(60.4%), abdomens(60.2%), and weight(55.2%). The body image of the students that perceived themselves as "fatty" was the lowest. 4. There were significant differences in the mean weight that they wanted to lose and the weight control attempts according to weight perception. Those that perceived themselves as "fatty" wanted to lose more weight, and had more weight control experiences. In conclusion, attempts at weight control are common in the female college students and many students appear to be dissatisfied with their body shapes. It is important to educate about healthy weight control methods and raise their awareness of the positive body image.ss of the positive body image.
The Effect of Health Exercise Program on the Body Composition, Cardiopulmonary Function, Physical Fitness in Middle-Aged Women
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 18, issue 3, 2001, Pages 177~186
The purpose of this study was to investigate the of regular worksite health exercise program participation on related fitness. Subject for study were 34 middle-aged women in Kwangju-city. To achieve this, body composition, cardiopulmonary function, physical fitness of every subjects were measured before and post regular health exercise program participation during 12 week. The results of this study were as follows: 1. Regular health exercise program participation result from improving the body composition, but there is not significant different statistically(p〈.05). 2. Significant differences were observed in the cardiopulmonary function(vital capacity, VO
max) after regular exercise program during 12 week(p〈.05). 3. Significant differences were observed in the flexibility(sitting trunk flexion), abdominal endurance(sit-ups), power (standing high jump), agility(trunk reaction time) after regular exercise program during 12 week(p〈.05).