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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Health Promotion
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 2, Issue 1 - Dec 1984
Selecting the target year
An Analysis of Determinants of Health Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Housewives in Korea
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 2, issue 1, 1984, Pages 3~50
The levels of health knowledge, attitude and practice of housewives considerably effect to the health of households, communities and the nation. This study was designed to grasp the levels of health knowledge, attitude and practice of houswives and analyse the various factors effecting to health in order to provide health education services as well as materials for effective formulation and implementation of health policy to improve the health of the nation. This study has been conducted through interviews by trained surveyers for 4,281 housewives selected from 4,500 households throughout the country for 40 days during July 11-August 20, 1983. The results of survey were analysed by stepwise multiple regression and path analysis are summarized as follows; 1. Based on the measurement instrument applied to this study, the levels of health knowledge, attitude and practice of housewives were extremely low with 54.5 points out of 100 points in full. Higher level with 72 points and above was approximately 21 percent and lower level with 39 points and below was approx. 24 percent. The middle level was approx. 55 percent. In order to implement health programs successively, health education should be more strengthened and to improve the level of health knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the nation, political consideration as a part of spiritual reformation must be concentrated on health. 2. The level of health knowledge indicated the highest points with 57.3 the level of attitude was the second with 55.0 points and the practice level was the lowest with 50.0 point. Therefore, planning and implementation of health education program must be based on the persuasion and motivation that health knowledge turn into practice. 3. Housewives who had higher level of health knowledge, showed their practice level was relatively lower and those who had middle or low level of it practice level was the reverse. 4. Correlations among health knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) were generally higher and statistically significant at 0.1 percent level. Correlation between total health KAP level and health knowledge was the highest with r=.8092. 5. Health KAP levels showed significant differences according to the age, number of children, marital status, self-assessed health status and concern on health of the housewives interviewed (p<0.001) 6. Health KAP levels also showed significant differences according to the education level, economic status, employment before marriage and grown-up area of the housewives interviewed. (p<0.001) 7. Heath KAP levels showed significant differences according to health insurance benificiary and the existence of patients in the family. (p<0.001). 8. Health KAP levels showed significant differences according to distance to government organizations, schools, distance to health facilities, telephone possession rate, television possession rate, newspaper reading rate and activities of Ban meeting and Women's club. (p<0.001) 9. Health KAP levels showed significant differences according to electric mass communication media such as television, radio and village broadcasting etc. and printed media such as newspaper, magazine and booklets etc., IEC variables such as individual consultation and husband-wife communication, however, there was no significance with group training. 10. Health KAP of the housewives showed close correlation with personal characteristics variables, i.e., education level (r=.5302), age (r=-.3694) grown-up area (r=.3357) and employment before marriage. In general, correlation of health knowledge level was higher than the levels of attitude or practice. In case of health concern and health insurance, correlation of practice level was higher than health knowledge level. 11. Health KAP levels showed higher correlation with community environmental characteristics, Ban meeting and activity of Women's club, however, no correlation with New-village movement. 12. Among IEC variables, husband-wife communication showed the highest correlation with health KAP levels and printed media, electric mas communication media and health consultation in order. Therefore, encouragement of husband-wife communication and development of training program for men should be included in health education program. 13. Mass media such as electric mass com. and printed media were effective for knowledge transmission and husband-wife communication and individual consultation were effective for health practice. Group training was significant for knowledge transmission, however, but not significant for attitude formation or turning to health practice. To improve health KAP levels, health knowledge should be transmitted via mass media and health consultation with health professionals and field health workers should be strengthened. 14. Correlation of health KAP levels showed that knowledge level was generally higher than that of practice and recognized that knowledge was not linked with attitude or practice. 15. The twenty-five variables effecting health KAP levels of housewives had 41 per cent explanation variances among which education level had great contribution (β=.2309) and electric mass com. media (β=.1778), husband-wife communication (β=.1482), printed media, grown-up area, and distance to government organizations in order. Variances explained (R²) of health KAP were 31%, 15%, and 30% respectively. 16. Principal variables contributed to health KAP were education level (β=.12320, β=.1465), electric mass comm. media (β=.1762, β=.1839), printed media, (β=.1383, β=.1420) husband-wife communication (β=.1004, β=.1067), grown-up area and distance to government organizations, in order. Since education level contributes greatly to health KAP of the housewives, health education including curriculum development in primary, middle and high schools must be emphasized and health science must be selected as one of the basic liberal arts subject in universities. 17. Variences explained of IEC variables to health KAP were 19% in total, 14% in knowledge, 9% in attitude, and 10% in health practice. Contributions of IEC variables to health KAP levels were printed media (β=.3882), electric mass comm media (β=.3165), husb-band wife com. (β=.2095,) and consultation on health (β=.0841) in order, however, group training showed negative effect (β=-.0402). National fund must be invested for the development of Health Program through mass media such as TV and radio etc. and for printed materials such as newspaper, magazines, phamplet etc. needed for transmission of health knowledge. 18. Variables contributed to health KAP levels through IEC variables with indirect effects were education level (Ind E=0.0410), health concern (Ind E=.0161), newspaper reading rate (Ind E=.0137), TV possession rate and activity of Ban meeting in order, however, health facility showed negative effect (Ind E=-.0232) and other variables showed direct effect but not indirect effect. 19. Among the variables effecting health KAP level, education level showed the highest in total effect (TE=.2693) then IEC (TE=.1972), grown-up city (TE=.1237), newspaper reading rate (TE=.1020), distance to government organization (TE=.095) in order. 20. Variables indicating indirect effects to health KAP levels were; at knowledge level with R²=30%, education level (Ind E=.0344), newspaper reading rate (Ind E=.0112), TV possession rate (Ind E=.0689), activity of Ban meeting (Ind E=.0079) in order and at attitude level with R²=13%, education level (Ind E=. 0338), activity of Ban meeting (Ind E=.0079), and at practice level with R²=29%. education level (Ind E=.0268), health facility (Ind E=.0830) and concern on health (Ind E=.0105). 21. Total effect to health KAP levels and IEC by variable characteristics, personal characteristics variables indicated larger than community characteristics variables. 22. Multiple Correlation Coefficient (MCC) expressed by the Personal Characteristic Variable was .5049 and explained approximately 25% of variances. MCC expressed by total Community environment variable was .4283 and explained approx. 18% of variances. MCC expressed by IEC Variables was .4380 and explained approx. 19% of variances. The most important variable effected to health KAP levels was personal characteristic and then IEC variable, Community Environment variable in order. When the IEC effected with personal characteristic or community characteristic, the MCC or the variances were relatively higher than effecting alone. Therefore it was identified that the IEC was one of the important intermediate variable.
A Study on Knowledge, Experience in Venereal Disease and the Needs of Sex Education for the Middle and High School Students in Urban Area
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 2, issue 1, 1984, Pages 51~55
In order to study middle school and high school students' knowledge and experiences in sexually transmitted diseases(STD) and needs of sex education for them, a survey was conducted at four schools in Seoul from December 7 to 12, 1983. The subject of the survey was 403 of middle school students(boy-199, girl-204) and 672 of high school students(boy-419, girl-353) who were randomly sampled. 1. Knowledge: The level of students' knowledge on venereal disease was relatively low. Boy students have more knowledge on STD than girl students. 2. Experience: 3.7% of the respondents have experiences in venereal disease. 20.0% of the middle school students and 80.0% of the high school students whom 3.7% of the respondents. 3. Need of sex education: 32.5% of the respondents suffer from sexual problems and 80.0% of the respondents want to learn more about sex education. In conclusion, sex education for students is required and should be included in regular curricula of all level of Korean schools.
An Evaluative Study on Physician's Health Education Activities in Outpatient Medical Care
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 2, issue 1, 1984, Pages 56~80
The main objectives of the present study is to evaluate Physician's Health Education Activities by means of physician's direct response to the prepared questionnaire and patient's perception to the physician in the course of medical care. For the data collection, the present study was conducted from Aug. 16 to Oct. 7, 1983 for 739 patients and 91 physicians who were attended outpatient clinics of 5 general hospitals in Seoul. The major findings are summarized as follows: 1. Self-evaluation on Physician's Health Education Activities (1) In consideration of health education services for the patient, the data revealed that 9.9% of the sampled physician wanted to strength public health and preventive medicine lecture in the curricula at medical education. On the other hand, only 1.1% expressed that they wanted to make it short. (2) In consideration of the necessity of health education service, it was shown that 95.6% of physicians agreed to take it into consideration. Self expression for the practice of health education was placed on the 3.15 score when 5 point scale used. (3) To evaluate the degree of an explanation about medical care for the patient, Index score with 4 point scale was employed. The Index score for the first time was shown that scale was placed on 3.23 for 'diagnosis', 3.12 for 'progress of the disease', 3.11 for 'discription of procedure' and 3.02 for 'cause of the disease' respectively. In comparison of the physician's explanation about the status of disease for the first and the second visitors to clinic, they evaluated themselves as giving more detailed explanation for the second visitors rather than the first visitors. 2. Physician's Health Education Services evaluated by patients (1) To evaluate physician-patient communication at beginning time for taking history about disease, the Index score with 5 point scale was employed. The data on taking history have shown that the score placed on 3.07 for those patients who visited the first time and 2.53 for second visitors. And the score about listening from the patients was placed on 3.52 and 3.42 respectively. (2) The Index score with 5 point scale, as used before, was also employed to evaluate medical care services for the patient. The data evaluated by the patients was shown that the score placed on 4.21 for patient treatment in general, 4.58 for physician's credibility, and 3.6 for physician's kindness. However, approximately 80% of those who failed to understand physician's explanation was caused by highly sophisticated medical terminology. (3) According to the Index score with 4 point scale, to evaluate physician's explanation, the data was shown that the patient who visited the first time gave 2.51 for 'diagnosis', 2.35 for 'progress', 2.11 for 'cause of the disease' and so on. It is acknowledged on the whole that the patients who visited the second time have more satisfaction in physician's explanation about their disease, than those who visited the first time. 3. Comparison of self-evaluation of Physician's Health Education Activities and patient's perception. (1) There was communication barriers between physicians and patients in expressing some medical terminology. For example physician understood that they explained more than 50% of medical terminology into common words for the patient, but 30% of patient complained medical terminology used by physician. (2) Comparing the index score of health education practice recognized by patients and physicians for both first visit and revisit groups, it was shown that the Index score of health education activities evaluated by physicians themselves were slightly higher than the score evaluated by patients.
A Study on Knowledge and Attitude of a Group of Regional University Students
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 2, issue 1, 1984, Pages 81~92
To find out the amount of knowledge and the attitude which a group of students attending local universities have toward family health, I distributed 690 questionaires to three local universities which I chose. I arrived at the following conculsion after 628 questionnairs were returned. 1) 431 male students(89.8%) and 126 femals students (86.2%) felt that family health science is important enough to be part of the cirriculum. 2) 374 male students (74.5) and 132 female students (90.4%) answered that they get a basic knowledge of health and disease through massmedia. 3) Should an information bureau for health and diseare be retup, 369 students(63.2%) answered that they would join information bureau. 4) In regard to a basic knowledge of health, the report says that 419 ma1e students(83.4%) and 117 female students(80%) don't know about Blood pressure, and 422 male students(84%) and 124 female students (84.9%) don't know about normal pulse and 467 male students(93%) and 128 femal stdents(87.6%) don't know about normal respiration. 5) In regard to communicable disese, 186 male students(37.1%) and 61 female students(41.7%) have a basic knowledge of these disease. In regard to diseases which commonly afflict the eldrly, 157 male students (31.2%) and 62 female students (42.4%) have a basic knowledge of these diseases. In regard to other diseases, the finding of this report are that on the average male students(74.6%) and female students of(73.4%) don't have a basic knowledge of family health. 6) 182 male students (36.2%) and 50 female students (34.2%) anwered that the way to promote health and prevent disease is to have a medical examination regularly and also 142 male students (28.2%) and 33 female students(22.6%) answered that it is necessary to have knowledge about how to keep health. 7) 254 male students (50.4%) and 90 female students (61.6%) said that when they are sick they depend on help from the pharmacist.
A Survey on Communication Status between Parents and their Adult Children
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 2, issue 1, 1984, Pages 93~106
Today, elderly people has desperately felt isolation and desolation due to the loss of activity at home and society by the change of social structure and the tendancy of nuclear family. The mutual-relationship between parants and their children is important to solve the problem of eldery people's isolation and desolation. The present study was conducted to investigate the status of mutual-communication by visiting, telephone and letter on 678 parents over 55 years of age and 1,316 their adult children from September 1st to 30th, 1982. It was investigated with questionaire by students. The frequency of communication from children to parents was highest in 25.4% by telephone and 21.6% by visiting, 4 times a month. Correspondence of letter showed only 18.1% in a year. The frequency of communication from parents to children was highest 16.1％ by telephone and 15.6％ by visiting, 4 times a month. Correspondence of letter showed only 11.3％ in a year. Urban parents showed higher frequency than rural parents by visiting and telephone, but lower by letter. The older age group of children showed higher frequency than the younger by visiting and telephone but 3rd decade was highest by letter. The younger age group of parents showed higher frequency than older age group. Mother was showed higher frequency than father by visiting and telephone, but father by letter. Higher education level group showed higher frequency than lower education level group. Merchants and factory workers showed the highest frequency by visiting and telephone, but officials by letter. Upper class group in socio-economic status showed higher frequency than lower class group generally, but lower class group dy letter from parents to children. The group within samedistrict between parents and children showed the highest frequency by visiting and telephone, but the group within long distance by letter.
A study on the school dental health care in rural area
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 2, issue 1, 1984, Pages 107~112
In order to develop the school dental health care in rural area, the author collected data about the population of all 6-17 year students living in Young dong-gun county, and Surveyed their dental health cares during one year of 1982. From the collected data, several dental health indices such as percentage of students of all population, percentage of students who visited dentists once or more during one year, average annual dentist visit and average annual dental treatment case were calculated and discussed. The obtained results were as follows; 1. The percentage of students of all population in Young dong-gun county was 29.65%. 2. The percentage of students who visited dentists once or more during one year was 4.67%. 3. The average annual dentist visit per student was 0.11. 4. The average annual dental treatment case per student was 0.16. 5. The oral examination case was 0.05, intraoral radiograph 0.01, oral prophylaxis 0.00, filling of dental carious lesion 0.02, pulp treatment 0.02, extraction of teeth 0.04, and others 0.02 annually in the average. In comparison with detectable need for dental treatment cases, oral prophylaxis was not supplied at all, filling of dental carious lesion was supplied about 1% and extraction of teeth was supplied about 10% of detectable need. 6. It was recommended that school incremental dental care project should be developed for school dental health programme in order to supply all of the detectable need for dental treatment.
A Study on the Utilization of Instructional Materials in Dental Health Education.
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 2, issue 1, 1984, Pages 113~121
How can the educator help learners to learn? The old way was to tell learners as much as possible, passing on the educator's knowledge. Now the educator acts as a helper. She will organise experiences which allow the learners to do health behaviors, she may utilize instructional materials, she may write downsome questions for a group of learners to discuss. In all these ways the teachers is helping learning. Some educators feel that they must do all the talking themselves. They feel that they are not really teaching the learners some new information, but this is quite wrong. In fact if a educatorgives a lecture and learners do not learn, then the educator is talking not teaching. So the devlopment of instructional materials is much needed to be a learner education. And the selection of materials may be very important for the level of maturity of the learners in interest, complexity of ideas, opportunity for self-identification, speed of learners' ability to observe and length of concentration. Author studied the several instructional materials which can be utilized in the field of dental health education and also studied their values, limitations and considerations when they are used. The learning activities are poster, puppet, model, mock-up, specimen, flannel board, chalk board, bulletin board, psychodrama, role play, field trip, exhibition, laboratory method.
Current Status of Tetanus in Korea
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 2, issue 1, 1984, Pages 122~132
Aiming to obtain knowledge and information on tetanus occurrence in Korea, an analystical survey was carried out for registered and admitted patients in four large hospitals in Korea during January 1, 1974 through December 31, 1983. Tile results showed as follows: 1. 175 among total 453 tetanus patients died in the hospitals, therefore fatal rate showed as 24.1%. However, the discharged patients against doctors' advices were not included in these died cases. 2. Sex ratio of admitted tetanus patients between male and felame was shown as 3 : 1. 3. Home delivery in neonate tetanus and laceration and abrasion in non-neonate tetanus were observed as the most dominant cause of death respectively and the wound of foot lead the most dominant cause of death in the latter. 4. Clinical features of the tetanus patients on admission showed the following order in the frequency: sucking and disphagia failure(50.8%), convulsion (53.8%), trismus (50.8%). 5. The tetanus patients were terminated with mainly respiratory ani cardiac failure. 6. In the treatment for tetanus patients, airway (58.3%), intubation (45.3%) and tracheostomy(9.7%) were applied respectively.
모유수유실천을 위한 교육홍보
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 2, issue 1, 1984, Pages 133~139