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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Health Promotion
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Dec 2003
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Sep 2003
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Jun 2003
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Mar 2003
Selecting the target year
Development of Wed-Based Courseware in Oral Health Education for Elementary School Children
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 1~18
The purpose of this study was to develop game style courseware in oral health instruction for elementary school children. The manufacturing equipment and languages which were used to develop the courseware were： Photoshop version 7.0, Illustrator version 10.0, HTML, Dream Weaver MX, Editplus, CSS and Java - script. The data base was built up by using PHP and mySQL over Internet Explorer version 4.0. The contents of courseware for oral health education were based on the list of oral health affaires of the Department of Health and Welfare, 2002. The story of the game ‘Saving Hayani locked down in a castle of a cavity man’ was developed for the learners to learn oral health by inducing learning motivation. A character named ‘Chan i’ was introduced to the learners to be more friendly with the program while they were learning. As the game was made of three step education levels, the learner most pass the prepared test given at each step to advance to a higher level. A database connected to web was constructed to store the scores the learners earned at each step. In conclusion, the courseware will help the elementary school children learn oral health care efficiently through the internet regardless of time and space.
Effects of Health Promotion Education Program on the Knowledge, Attitude, and Self Efficacy in Sexuality, Drinking, and Smoking Among College Women
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 19~33
A simulated control group pretest-posttest design was used to investigate the effects of a health promotion education program on knowledge, attitude, and self-efficacy in sexuality, drinking, and smoking among college women. The subjects included 17 women in the experimental group, and twenty in the control group. This program was carried out for a total of four sessions, two hours per session once a week. The results were as follows； 1) Knowledge on sexuality, drinking, and smoking increased significantly in the experimental group compared to the control group (U＝66.50, p＝.001 ； U＝23.50, p＝.000； U＝29.50, p＝.000). 2) For attitude, only the attitude to drinking showed a significant difference between the two groups (U＝76.00, p＝.004). 3) For self-efficacy, only self-efficacy on drinking showed a significant difference between the two groups (U＝55.00, p＝.000). In conclusion, the health promotion program for college women increased their knowledge on sexuality, drinking, and smoking. This program affected their attitude and self-efficacy towards moderation in drinking. A even more appropriate education program on sexuality, drinking, and smoking for college women could be developed using this program by addressing the limitations in this study and repeating the study with a more varied sample.
A Study on the Development of Multimedia CAI in Smoking Prevention for Adolescents
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 35~61
Background： The purpose of this study was to develop a structured and individualized smoking prevention program for adolescents by utilizing a multimedia computer-assisted instruction model and to empirically assess its effect. Method： For the purpose of this study, a guide book of smoking prevention program for middle and high school students was developed as the first step. The contents of this book were summarized and developed into an actual multimedia CAI smoking prevention program according to the Gane ＆ Briggs instructional design and Keller's ARCS motivation design models as the second step. At the final step, the short-tenn effects of this program were examined by an experiment. This experiment were made for middle school and high school students and the quasi experimental design was the pretest - intervention - posttest. The measured data was attitude, belief, and knowledge about smoking, interest in the program, and learning motivation. Result： The results of this study were as follows： First, the guide book of a smoking prevention program was developed and the existing literature on adolescent smoking was analyzed to develop the content of the guide book. Then the curriculum was divided into three main domains on tobacco and smoking history, smoking and health, adolescent smoking and each main domain was divided into sub-domains. Second, the contents of the guide book were translated into a multimedia CAI program of smoking prevention througn Powerpoint software according to the instructional design theory. The characteristics of this program were interactive, learner controllable, and structured The program contents consisted of entrance(5.6％), history of tobacco(30％), smoking and health(38.9％), adolescent smoking(22.2％), video(4.7％), and exit(1.6％). Multimedia materials consisted of text(121), sound and music, image(still 84, dynamic 32), and videogram(6). The program took about 40 minutes to complete. Third, the results on analysis of the program effects were as follows： 1) There was significant knowledge increase between the pre-test and post-test with total mean difference 3.44, and the highest increase was in the 1st grade students of high school(p＜0.001). 2) There was significant decrease in general belief on smoking between the pre-test and post-test with total mean difference 0.28. In subgroup analysis, the difference was significantly higher in the 1st grade of high school (p<0.001), low income class (p<0.001), and daily smokers (p<0.01). 3) There was no significant difference in attitudes on his personal smoking between the pre-test and post-test. 4) The interest in the program seemed to lower as students got older. The score of motivation toward this prevention program was the highest in the middle school 3rd grade. Among sub-domains of motivation, the confidence score was the highest. Conclusion： To be most effective, the smoking prevention program for adolescents should utilize the most up-to-date and accurate information on smoking, and then instructional material should be developed so that the learners can approach the program with enjoyment. Through this study, a guide book with the most up-to-date information was developed and the multimedia CAI smoking prevention program was also developed based on the guide book. The program showed positive effect on the students' knowledge and belief in smoking.
A Study on the Depression and Anxiety of High School Students in an Urban Area
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 63~79
This study has examined the degree of depression and anxiety among high school students in an urban area and then explored the factors influencing their depression and/or anxiety status. Self-administered questionnaires were offered to 2,381 students from ten high schools in Daejon Metropolitan City. The items for investigation included such factors as various characteristics of school and family life, daily life style, and the degree of depression and anxiety. Based on the study results, the following conclusions were made； 1. The distribution according to the depression degree has shown that 61.9％ of students were normal, 32.9％ of students had mild depression, 5.0％ moderate depression, and 0.3％ severe depression. As for anxiety, 40.2％ of students were normal, while 19.1％ were classified as having anxiety and 40.7％ borderline anxiety. 2. As regards to the degree of depression and anxiety, it was greater in girls than boys, in 3rd graders than 1st and 2nd graders, and in the groups who have recieved lower grades in studies, who had poor relations with their friends and a low feeling of satisfaction with school life. In particular, concerning various characteristics of family life, the scores of depression and anxiety were higher in the groups whose financial conditions were poor, whose parents' interests were lower, whose degree of satisfaction with their family and school life was lower, than their counterparts. 3. According to their life styles higher scores of depression and anxiety were found in the groups whose sleeping time was inappropriate, whose breakfasts were skipped, who ate daily snacks, who didn't take regular exercises, and who had poor health habits, compared to their counterparts, respectively. 4. As for the correlation between the degree of depression and its associated variables, the higher scores of depression were in positive correlation with the groups who had lower grades in studies, poor relation with their friends, low feeling of satisfaction with school and home life, low parents' interest, poor subjective condition of health, breakfast skipping, lack of regular exercises, and lower indices of health habits. 5. As for anxiety, the higher scores of anxiety were in the positive correlation with the groups with poor relation with their friends, low feeling of satisfaction with school and family life, poor subjective condition of health, lack of regular exercises, and poor health habits. 6. The influential factors on the depression of students were selected such as subjective condition of health, sex, feeling of satisfaction with family and school life, grades in studies, relation with their friends, presence of regular exercises, degree of interest of parents, sleeping time, cigarette smoking and eating breakfast. 7. The influential factors on the anxiety state of students were selected such as subjective condition of health, feeling of satisfaction with family and school life, sex, sleeping time, regular exercises, cigarette smoking, snacking and relations with their friends. The present study results suggest that girls rather than boys, higher graders than lower ones are more vulnerable to anxiety and depression state, and besides, various characteristics of school and family life, and daily life style can be influential on students' emotional states. Therefore, better management of psychological status of students is thought to require a wide variety of measures to modify the influencing factors and to encourage social support.
The Effects of Smoking Prevention Education on High School Students
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 81~94
Purpose： This study was to develop a smoking prevention educational program and to verify the effects of the program as an intervention to prevent smoking among high school students. Method： This study was designed by using a nonequivalent Quasi-experimental control group pretest-posttest. The instruments used in this study were scale on smoking prevention knowledge and attitude. The experimental group received 8 smoking prevention educational classes, each lasting 50-minutes every week. The collected data was analyzed by real number and percentage, Chi-Square test, t-test, ANCOVA, Pearson correlation coefficients, Cronbach's α, using the SPSS WIN 11.0 program. Result： 1) After the completion of the smoking prevention education program, the experimental group's smoking knowledge scores(16.05±3.40) were higher than the control group's scores(14.39±3.81). Mean scores of smoking knowledge were statistically significantly different between the experimental group and the control group(F＝38.700, p＝.000). 2) After the completion of the smoking prevention education program, the experimental group's smoking prevention attitude scores were 47.52±5.30 and the control group's scores were 47.l0±5.54. Mean scores of attitude toward smoking prevention were statistically significantly different between the experimental group and the control group. 3) The relationship between smoking knowledge and attitude toward smoking prevention indicated positive correlation though the degree of positive correlation was low. Conclusion： Smoking prevention educational program which included self-search, smoking influence, adolescent smoking, family smoking, secondary smoking, self assertion using refusal skill was proved to be effective as an intervention for smoking prevention in high school students.
Dental IQ and Oral Health Care Status of Elementary School Students
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 95~112
Objectives： Oral health care program for the elementary school children (ESOHCP) should be met the first priority because dental caries are highly sensitive and prevalent among them. This study was performed to enhance the efficiency of ESOHCP, and their oral health promotion. Methods： The Subjects were 346 students (3rd grade 163, 6th grade 185) of one elementary school in Busan. Dental IQ and actual oral health status； the decayed, mixing and filling teeth were checked through questionnaire and oral health examination from April to June 2002. Dental IQ was presented out of one hundred, and data analysis was done using SAS (ver 8.1) program. Results： The students' cognitive level about the causative and preventive factor of dental caries was relatively high. However, the practical aspects of preventive behavior - tooth brushing； three times per day (20％), three minutes per time (22％), oral health examination； one time per three months (10％) left much to be desired. And, only 27％ of the subjects had experienced in school oral health education. The mean level of dental IQ was 79 out of 100, and 51 ％ and 42％ of them had the decayed and teeth with filling, respectively, with the rate of DMFT 82％, DT 43％, FT 57％. The level of dental IQ was higher in case of having his (her) own tooth brush (p＝0.072), standard tooth brushing (p<0.001) three times per day, post meal, three minutes per time, present experience of oral health examination (p<0.001) and dental clinic visit (p<0.001). The grade of caries was more serious in case of 6th grade (p＝0.059), an absence of his (her) own tooth brush (p＝ 0.090), present experience of oral health examination (p＝0.021), and an absence of regular dental clinic visit (p＝0.003). The frequency of oral health examination (γ＝ 0.620), tooth brushing； times per day (γ＝0.445), post meal (γ＝0.355), expending times per brushing (γ＝0.352), right cognition to the treatment of caries (γ＝0.401), positive attitude to dental treatment (γ＝0.387), the frequency of dental clinic visit for the past one year (γ＝0.152) showed significant correlation with dental IQ. In the multivariate analysis, dental IQ was influenced by the frequency of oral health examination, right cognition to the cause of caries, times of teeth brushing per day, right cognition to the treatment of caries, etc., with adjusted R2＝0.857. Conclusion： Though the students' cognitive level about the causative and preventive factor of dental caries was high, the practical aspects of preventive behavior left much to be desired. Ant the current ESOHCP considered to be still inefficient. However, frequent dental visits had apparent correlation with hish level of dental IQ. The specialized and practical program should be needed for the efficient ESOHCP. Harmonized effort from educational, health and dental society is essential.
Relationship of Adolescent Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk Factor and Childhood Obesity in High School Student in Jeju Island
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 113~125
Background： Recently, adolescent obesity was increased and tended to become obese adults, facing increased risk for diabetes, cardiovascular disease. Even before reaching adulthood, adolescent obesity already was experiencing hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to find prevalence of obesity of high school students in Jeju island and association between obesity and cardiovascular risk factors and association between childhood obesity and adolescent obesity. Method： The study subjects were 6,064 students of twenty-two high school in Jeju island and health survey data was gathered from high school health examination data and hospital health examination data from Aug. 1999 to Dec. 1999. Adolescent obesity was evaluated by ideal body weight method in 1998 and body mass index. Cardiovascular risk factors were checked total cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood sugar. In 1,534 students, obesity at primary school is checked by primary and middle school health record. Results： Prevalence of obesity in Jeju island high school students is 12.6% in male students, 13.3% in female students by ideal body weight method and 8.7% in male students, 8.5% in female students by body mass index. Prevalence of obesity of male students in city area and district area of Jeju island were each 12.9%, 10.3% and that of male students in city area was significantly higher. Prevalence of obesity of female students in city area and district area of Jeju island were each 12.9%, 14.2% and not significantly different. Prevalence of obesity of male students in general and commercial school group were each 13.9%, 10.1% and that of general school group was significantly higher. In female students, Prevalence of obesity general and commercial school group was not significantly different. Total cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly associated with degree of obesity in male and female students(p＜0.05) and fasting blood sugar was only significantly associated with degree of obesity in male students(p＜0.05). In 1,514 students checked by health record, Odds ratio of obesity at primary and middle school that at high school were 12.96∼22.77 and was significantly associated. Conclusion： Prevalence of obesity of high school students in Jeju island is very high and adolescent obesity was significantly associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Mostly childhood obesity tended to become adolescent obesity and program of control of obesity at childhood and adolescence is required.
A Study of the Factors Influencing Health Promoting Behavior and Satisfaction of Life in Female College Students
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 127~147
The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing health promoting behavior and satisfaction of life in female undergraduate students, to provide the basic data for health promoting intervention in order to improve satisfaction of life. The subjects of this study were 345 female undergraduate students living in Jecheon city who were selected by convenience sampling. The data was collected through self-reported questionnaires from Oct. 2 to Dec. 20, 2001. Research instruments used in this study were the health promoting lifestyle profile developed by Walker et al(1987), satisfaction of life developed by Pavot and Diener(1993), perceived health status by Lawston et al(1982), self-esteem by Rosenberg(1965), self-efficacy by Becker et al(1993), health locus of control by Wallston et al(1978). The data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics, pearson correlation coefficient, stepwise multiple regression with SPSS/Win program. The results of this study were as follows； 1) The mean score of health promoting behavior was 2.31 point out of 4. Among the sub-levels of health promoting behavior, the order of importance was the following self-actualization(2.76), interpersonal support(2.75), stress management(2.31), nutrition(2.06), health responsibility(1.83), exercise(1.76). The mean score of satisfaction of life was 4.11 point out of 7. 2) The health promoting behavior showed significant positive correlation with perceived health status, self-esteem, self-efficacy, internal health locus of control, powerful others health locus of control. The satisfaction of life showed significant positive correlation with perceived health status, self-esteem, self-efficacy, internal health locus of control, health promoting behavior. 3) In the relationship between general characteristics and health promoting behavior, there was a significant difference in majors(F＝8.50, p＝.000). In the relationship between general characteristics and satisfaction of life were significant differences in a grades(F＝2.67, p＝.04) and economic status of parents(F＝8.59, p＝.000) 4) The most powerful predictor of health promoting behavior was self-efficacy. A combination of self-efficacy, self-esteem and powerful others health locus of control accounted for 34.7% of the variance in health promoting behavior. The most powerful predictor of satisfaction of life was self-esteem. A combination of self-esteem, health promoting behavior, perceived health status, economic status of parents and grade accounted for 34.0% of the variance in satisfaction of life. In conclusion, we need a health promotion program focusing on exercise, health responsibility and nursing strategies enhancing self-efficacy and self-esteem should be developed to promote a healthy lifestyle and satisfaction of life in female college students.
A Survey of Sexual Behavior, Attitude and Knowledge of Juvenile Delinquence Adolescents
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 149~162
The purpose of this study was to investigate of the sexual behavior, attitude and knowledge of delinquence adolescents. Data were collected by self-report from 224 delinquence adolescents of the juvenile protection and education organizations in Gwangju city from June 18 to 21, 2002 in Korea. The results were as follows； The concern of subjects on sexual education was pregnancy, delivery and miscarriage(17.4%), date with boy-girl mends(13.9%) and sexually transmitted disease/AIDS(13.1%). The experiences of sexual behavior was masturbation(86.5%), sexual intercourse(79.6%), sexual desire(70.0%) and pregnancy(27.6%). There were statistically significant differences between age and contraception(p＜0.05), age and pregnancy(p＜0.05). The average score for sex attitude was 38.32. The average score for sex knowledge was 7.65. There were statistically significant correlation between sex attitude and sexual intercourse(p＜0.01), sex knowledge and intercourse(p＜0.05), sex knowledge and contraception(p＜0.05), sex attitude and pregnancy (p＜0.05), sex knowledge and sexual desire(p＜0.05). In conclusion, juvenile delinquence adolescents should be educated on sexuality continuously to express there sexual behavior patterns with the right morality and knowledge in any sexual arousal situation.
A Study of Knowledge, Attitude and Needs for Education on Sex of Korea Female Students in College
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 163~178
This study was done to examine knowledge and attitude towards sex and the needs for sex education of korea female students in college. Data for this study was collected through questionnaires filled-out by 464 female students from September 2002 to December 2002. The result of this study were as follows； The subjects' scores of sex knowledge was 19.60 on average devided into the lovest 1 to the highest 25. Reproductive physiology scored highest at 0.82 and the contraceptive method was the lowest at 0.54. The subjects showed a positive sex attitude as 48％ were for the abortions before marriage, a they appeared the most negative as 4.3％ were for extramarital coitus of women. The subjects who responded that sexual education is necessary were 423 (91.2％), and they wanted ‘the sexual mentality of men and women’ most, 419 (99.1％). Also, ‘contraceptive method’ of 404 (95.5％), ‘veneral disease.’, ‘sexual behavior’, ‘sexual physiology’, ‘reproductive physiology’, ‘sexual morals’ etc followed. Based on above results of the study, it is more essential to organize the sex education programs centering around ‘contraceptive method’, ‘veneral disease.’, ‘sexual behavior’ etc which are not too difficult but more needed than ‘reproductive physiology’. It is required to develope sex education programs through research between specialists in various fields rather than through specialists in one field. It is considered that sex education programs can lead female students to forming and maintaining a correct sexual identity.
Health-Promoting Life-Style and Related Factors Among Teachers
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 179~196
This study was aimed at examining the self-reported health-promoting life- style (HPL) and related factors among teachers assumed to be role models for students. The subjects were 300 teachers who were conviently drawn from nine elementary schools and three high schools. The conceptual framework for this study was based on the Pender's revised Health Promotion Model(1996). Data was collected by a mailed survey (response rate, 62.5％) with structured questionnaire. The score of health-promoting life-style was 2.8(full mark： 5.0), harmonized relationship was the highest(3.2), and professional helath management was the lowest(2.0). The related factors to health-promoting life-styles were age, marital stauts, career, perceived health status, self esteem, intermal locus of control, perceived benefit, perceived barrier, self efficacy, and social support in univariate analysis. In the final regression model, predictors of HPL were social support, self esteem, perceived benefit. self efficacy, and perceived health status after control the effects of demographic characteristics (p＜.0001, R2＝0.494). The results generally supported the Pender Model. It is recommended to develop the health promotion program for teachers based on these results, and to evaluate the effect of that program for teacher.
A Study of Elementary School Pupil's Knowledge and Attitude on Sex
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 197~216
This study has been done in order to examine elementary school pupil's knowledge and attitudes on sex. The subjects of the study were 1904 elementary school pupils in the 5th and 6th grade of three elementary schools in Kyonggi-do, Korea. A guide book for the teachers on sexual education published by the Ministry of Education and Human Resources has been used as the tool for the study. Data analysis has been performed by using SPSS Win(l0.0) with mean, standard deviation, t-test, F-test(ANOVA), and Pearson's Correlation. The results show that the human relationship area showed the highest, next were physical development, sexual culture and sexual ethics, and the last were sex health and sexual psychology. The Pearson's correlation between each area of knowledge and attitude on sex show a significant correlation statistically in the level of p＜.001 in all areas. When examined individually the highest correlation was demonstrated between physical development and sexual health and human relationship by r＝.573, while it demonstrated only r＝.265 the lowest between sexual ethics and physical development.
21세기 보건교육사업의 중요성과 보건소의 역할
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 217~221