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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Health Promotion
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Dec 2004
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Sep 2004
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Jun 2004
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Mar 2004
Selecting the target year
The Development of a Performance Evaluation Tool for Health Promotion Programs of Public Health Center
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 2, 2004, Pages 1~16
The ultimate goal of health promotion programs is to improve the quality of life through promoting community health. Since the performance of health promotion programs are greatly affected by the quality of the planning and implementation process of the programs, the proper quality assessment of the program process is very important. According to existing literature, the tool for assessing the quality of the process and implementation as well as the outcome. However, no assessment tool for the quality of the process of health promotion programs has been developed in Korea. The purpose of the study is to develop a quality assessment tool for the process of health promotion programs being conducted at public health centers in Korea. The quality assessment tool developed in the study consists of the following four domains： strategic planning (14 items), program management (11 items), monitoring and evaluation (13 items), and resources and information (15 items). The strategic planning deals with the function of the planning staff and committees, community data analysis, the feasibility of the program, and the approach methods for attaining the goal of the program. The program management includes items on the qualification and power of the program staff. Monitoring and evaluation deals with the planning and education for monitoring, reporting and communication among program units, and feedback after monitoring. Finally, the resource and information covers the planning and activities for obtaining resources and information, community networking, beneficiaries' response, and consulting activity of the staff.
Health Related Lifestyle and Stress Among Inhabitants of a City in Korea
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 2, 2004, Pages 17~32
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the patterns of stresses arising from various life styles and their related sociodemographic factors in urban residents. The subjects were recruited from the population of two ‘Dong’s (administrative blocks) representative of Daejeon city through stratified cluster random sampling during the period ranging from June I st to Aug. 31 st, 2003. Self-administered questionnaires, including items asking about subjects' sociodemographic characteristics, daily life styles, measurement of stresses by General Health Questionnaire (Goldberg, 1978), were delivered to 396 residents and their responses were analyzed with the following results. 1. Based on the discriminant scores of HPI, 46.7％ of the subjects were found to have less than 4 points (poor life style), whereas 53.3％ had points higher than 5 (good life style). Higher than 5 points were scored more frequently in females than in the male, in the age group of 40's - 60's than the 30's, in the group with spouse than without, in the group with both spouse and offsprings than without, and in the group owning a house than not. 2. Based on the degree of stress, 17.7％ of the subjects were determined to be healthy, 74.5％ were potentially under stress, and 7.8％ were at higher risk of stress. The proportion of healthy individuals were significantly higher in the male, advanced aged group(40's and 60's), the group with higher education years( over highschool), with higher monthly income over two million Won, and with spouse, than their respective counterparts. On the other hand the proportion of the individuals potentially under stress and at higher risk of stress was significantly higher in the female, in the age group of 30's and over 60's, in the group with academic career lower than middle school, with monthly income lower than two million Won, and without spouse. 3. Based on the relation of HPI with degree of stresses, subjects with HPI scores lower than 4 had increased rate of falling into the groups under potential stress and at higher risk of stress, while on the other hand those with over 5 points were found to be healthy in light of stress. 4. Based on the specific relation of each item of HPI with degree of stress, the proportion of healthy individuals was higher in the groups who take appropriate hours of sleep(7-8hours), who take breakfasts everyday, who take physical exercises everyday, who don't smoke, who don't drink alcohol, who take snacks everyday, who are overweight and obese, whereas the proportion of the group under potential stress and at higher risk of stress was higher in their comparable counterparts. 5. The relation of mean scores of HPI with stress scores in both male and female subjects showed negative correlation that the higher HPI scores, the lower stress scores. 6. Multivariate regression analysis to reveal the factors influencing the stress of the subjects showed that for men the significant factors were age, education, presence of job or not, exercise, subjective health status, with the explanatory power of 26.3％. For women, they included educational years, presence of spouse or not, job, owning a house or not, sleeping hours, drinking habit, taking snacks, subjective health status, with the explanatory power of 31.8％. The above study results suggests that stresses of urban residents have significant correlation with daily life styles and this correlation is also remarkably distinguished by different age and sex.
Study on an Actual Condition and Relevant Factors of Obesity of Elementary School Students
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 2, 2004, Pages 35~54
This study was intended to provide basic data of nutrition education to a prevention of obesity and living patterns of elementary school students. Through the measurment of the actual obesity rate of children for students who were in the fifth and sixth grades of elementary school as well as their mothers, and by analyzing obesity-related factors. Children have started to have the characteristics obesity and obesity problems. 1. There were total 234 children including 133 boys (56.8％) and 101 girls (43.2％) for the study. There were 80 children in the fifth grade (34.2％) and 154 children in the sixth grade (65.8％). 2. Among the subjects 20.1％ were obese. By gender, the obesity rate of boys (27.1％) was higher than that of girls (l0.9％)(p＜0.01). By grade, children in the fifth grade (26.3％) had higher obesity rate than children in the sixth grade (l6.9％)(p＜0.05). 3. In terms of the educational level of parents, the obesity rate of children of parents who received university and／or higher education was 27.5％ (p＜0.05). 44.1％ of parents answered ‘I almost never give snack’s’(p＜0.01). 4. There was 32.8％ for an irregular quantity of meal. There was no obese child who under-ate (p＜0.05). In terms of impulse eating, ‘I eat.’ and ‘I don't eat.’ were 24.4％ and 25.9％ respectively. The obesity rate of the case of ‘I eat only food I like.’ was 10.6％ (p＜0.05). In terms of the obesity rate based on the daily average meal frequency, there was the highest rate of 26.1％ for I average meal frequency per day, 13.0％ for 2 daily average meal frequency, and 7.4％ for over 3 average meal frequency per day (p＜0.05). For a degree of a physical activity, the group of active physical activity (p＜0.05) and the group which liked the physical exercise showed a lower obesity rate (p＜0.001). The obesity rate of children who had regular exercise was 11.8％. It was lower than the obesity rate (24.8％) of children who didn't exercise (p＜0.01). The higher exercise frequency per week was, the lower the obesity rate was(p＜0.01). In terms of the exercise time, there was 8.3％ for over 60 minutes and 28.9％ for less 15 minutes. The group which had the long exercise time showed a lower obesity rate(p＜0.05). As the result, the education for obesity must enable students to recognize the warning signs for obesity and control their own weight with proper living patterns, by modifying behaviors considering the degree of obesity. Obesity must be controlled by the prevention and education connected with the family for all students as one of the school health programs. There must be also the development of a program through individual consultation considering the degree of obesity.
Relationship among Health Status, Health Behaviors and Health Practices of Adults in a Poor Area
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 2, 2004, Pages 55~85
The problems of health in poor peoples are various and difficult things to solve it. They are highly susceptible to chronic disease because of bad environment and It is hard to access to medical services because of their Socio-demographic status. Therefore, it is important to address the problem of prevention of chronic disease and health promotion aspect. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among the health status, health behaviors and health practices of poor people in urban slum area. The subject of this study were 298 poor peoples who live in poor area in Daegu metropolitan city and they were asked to answer the survey questionnaires modified for Korean from behavioral risk factor surveillance system of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention USA. The result of the study were as follows； (1) There were significant relationships between health status (prevalence of chronic disease and perceived general health) and socio-demographic factor such as occupation, existence of spouse, number of family educational level, type of medical security. (2) There were some relationships between health risk behaviors such as smoking, drinking and obesity and health status of subject especially in female obesity.(3) There were relationships among health concern activity, prevalence of chronic disease and some social factor such as educational level and occupation. (4) There were relationships among health practice, health concern activity, health status and socio-demographic factors of subject. This study suggest that health status, socio-demographic status, health concerns and health promotion activity of study populations were associated and It is very important things supporting the poor people in the level of community and nation to practice healthy behaviors themselves.
Health-promoting Behavior and Quality of Life of Solitary Elderly in Rural Areas
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 2, 2004, Pages 87~100
Purpose： This study was to identify the degree of health-promoting behavior and quality of life and the factors influencing quality of life of solitary elderly in rural areas. Method： The subjects of this study were 202 solitary elderly, and 65-89, who had been living in four rural areas. Data was collected through 4 questionnaires from July 10th, 2003 to August 30th, 2003. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Duncan's multiple-range test, Pearson correlation coefficient and Stepwise multiple regression with SPSS/PC. Results： The average item score for the health-promoting behavior was 2.43； the highest score on the subscale was self-actualization (M＝2.58) with the lowest being exercise (M＝2.05). 2) The average item score for the quality of life was 2.81； the highest score on the subscale was neighbor relationships (M＝3.27) with the lowest being economic conditions (M＝2.24). There were significant differences in the health-promoting behavior by educational level and leisure-activity, in the quality of life by age and religion. Quality of life scores correlated negatively with depression scores (r＝-.063, p＝.000) and positively with health-promoting behavior (r＝.144, p＝.000), social support scores (r＝.383, p＝.000). Stepwise multiple regression analysis for quality of life revealed that the most powerful predictor was health-promoting behavior. Health-promoting behavior, social support, depression and age explained 51.8％ of the variance. Conclusion： These results suggested that elderly people in rural areas with high degree of quality of life are likely to be high in health-promoting behavior and social support and low in depression. Therefore, it is necessary to develop health promotion programs in due consideration of health-promoting behavior and social support and depression in order to enhance the quality of life of solitary elderly in rural areas.
The Relationship Between Exercise and Perceived Stress in Employees
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 2, 2004, Pages 101~115
Stress at work as well as at home is one of the most important issues in the health sector. However, very little research has been to find the relationship between the levels of stress and exercise. In this study, we used a structured questionaires received from 15th June to 29th October 2002 in order to prove the relation between the degree of exercise and stress. A total number of 1,092( 569 male, 523 female) who have worked more than one year were investigated. The results of the study were as follows： (1) The mean levels of stress were lower in the regualr exercise group than in the non-exercise group； (2) The more time spent in exercise, the lower level of stress was shown； (3) It was shown that the association between the frequency of stress was inversely realted to the frequency of exercise in males whereas the levels of stress was lowest in those who exercised less than 2 times per week in females； (4) The levels of stress was lowest in those who exercised more than 1 hour at a time. In summarizing the result of this study, the degree of exercise is realted with stress regardless of gender. Consequently, it is expected that regular and consistent exercise would be an important tools in lowering and protecting the worker's stress.
The Related Factors to the Health Promotion Behavior of Some Hair Dressers
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 2, 2004, Pages 117~131
In order to obtain basic data for a health promotion program of hair dressers, the health promoting behavior of some hair dressers was assessed with the related factors such as general characteristics and cognitive-perceptual factors. The subjects were 245 hair dressers working at beauty shops having at least two hair dressers. The data was collected by a questionnaire from October 14 to October 20, 2001. The results were as follows： 1. The mean score of health promoting behavior conducted by the hair dressers was 31.17 out of 50.00 in total score. 2. The score of the health promoting behavior was statistically different according to marriage, on-duty hours, holidays, satisfaction in the job, perceived health status, perceived fatigue, health concept, and self-efficacy (p＜.05), while it was not statistically different according to gender, religious faith, residence, eduation, economic levels, career in the job, average income, medical care insurance, employment insurance, control of fortuity, and control over other persons. 3. The health promoting behaviors in the hair dressers showed positive correlation with self-efficacy and internal control, while it showed negative correlation with control over other people, control of fortuity, health concept, and perceived fatigue. 4. The Regression analysis results of the questionnaire showed that perceived fatigue, health concept and office hours were significant factors but the age, the fact of being single or couple, position at the job, holidays, satisfaction of the job, self-control and stresses from other people and self-efficiency appeared insignificant. In conclusion, the hair dressers with less perceived fatigue and better cognitive health concept and short duty hours showed better health promoting behavior. So, In order to conduct health promoting behaviors of hair dressers, the method will need to control of working time and perceived fatigue.
The Factors Related to Obesity Level of Upper Level Elementary Students
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 2, 2004, Pages 133~146
Purpose： The purpose of this study was to investigate the actual conditions of obesity, and the factors related to children's obesity. Method： The subjects were 568 students (5th, 6th grades) of ten elementary schools in a small city of about 350,000. Subjects self-reported after being instructed by researchers to identify health habits and attitudes toward obesity. The Rohrer index was calculated by using annual physical examinations preformed by the schools. Result： 17.5％ of the subjects were under weight, 22.2％ were overweight, and 60.3％ were normal. In girls, the under weight group was much larger, in boys the overweight group was larger. 46.2％ of overweight children had a familial tendency to obesity. 60.6％ of boys and 60％ of girls were on a diet in order to improve their looks or to prevent ridicule from mends. On average, one-third of the subjects misunderstood their own weight level. Subjects spent 3-4hours on weekdays, and over 6hours on the weekend watching TV or using personal computers. The overweight group enjoyed eating meat, fish, beans and vegetables, while the normal group tended to prefer fruit. Conclusion： Health education programs which guide elementary school students to form better health habits, more accurate perceptions of their own body weight, and better attitudes toward obesity and which make students aware of the importance of exercise, a healthy diet, and reducing time spent in front of TVs and computers may help them to keep at their appropriate weight.
School Safety Education Factors Predicting Injury Prevalence Among Korean Adolescence
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 2, 2004, Pages 147~165
Injury is a leading cause of death in the children and adolescent populations. In particular, more than 80％ of unintentional injury was related to risk-taking behaviors involved in diverse accidents around school and home. Therefore, educational approaches should be provided for children and adolescent populations, and schools are the essential and appropriate sites to conduct safety education. This study was conducted to identify injury prevalence and safety education at schools among middle and high school students in Korea. About 1,034 middle and high students in 28 schools participated in a self-administered survey. The target schools were selected from the stratified random sampling method throughout schools of seven metropolitan cities in Korea. The questionnaires were delivered to the vice-principals by ground mailing service and the vice-principals administered survey data collection. The questionnaire asked about safety education provided in schools, injury experience in the last year, needs for injury prevention class in school, and demographics. All survey responses were entered into SPSS worksheet. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and descriptive discriminant analysis (DDA) were used in statistical analysis with SPSS software 11.1. Multivariate analysis of variance was conducted as a preliminary analysis of DDA. According to the result of multivariate analysis of variance, gender (man), grade (poor), living with both parents, and displaying injury prevention messages on school news board were significantly different between the injured student group and the uninjured student group (p＝ .00). These four factors also had significant effects on students' injury experience in DDA, although correlation of the four factors with injury experience was weak overall based on their canonical function coefficients. All structure coefficients of the four factors were greater than .30, which means the four factors have discriminant effects on injury prevalence. The sizes of the discriminant effects, in order, were largly from gender, grade, living with both parents, and safety message display on school news boards.
Risk Factors for Smoking Behavior in Elementary, Middle and High School Students
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 2, 2004, Pages 167~185
Objectives： The rate of adolescent smoking is important because lead to adult smoking. And early onset of smoking is associated with chronic disease in adult life. The purpose of this study is to describe the smoking status of adolescents and identify the risk factors for smoking in each school. Methods： We selected the participant schools that are located in Yang-cheon Gu, Seoul, Korea, considering the social economic status. The subjects were included 719elementary school students,1,251 middle school students and 1,513 high school students. Self-reported questionnaires were administrated between December 16 and December 24 , 2002. Students were informed in writing that the survey was voluntary. The response rate was 98.7, 81.1 and 95.4 in elementary, middle, and high school, respectively. Results： The results of this study were as follows： 1) Students who have attempted to smoke were 8.8% in elementary school, 29.3% in middle school and 35.0% in high school. 2) The current smokers were 2.0%, 7.9% and 11.5% in elementary, middle and high school, respectively. 3) In elementary school, smoking of mends and physical health were significantly predicted the attempt to smoke. Stress, smoking of mends, alcohol, and binge drinking were associated with the attempt to smoke of middle school students. In high school, the attempt to smoke was related to gender, maternal education, depression, school performance, smoking of brothers, smoking of mends, alcohol, and binge drinking. 4) Current smoking was associated with smoking of mends and binge drinking in middle school and gender, school performance, smoking of brothers, smoking of mends, alcohol, and binge drinking in high school in multiple logistic regression. Conclusion： There is a need for health education and specific strategies to help adolescents prevent from smoking. Smoking prevention programs which include risk-taking behavior such as alcohol, method of copying with stress, and supporting environment were required.
A Study on Knowledge and Attitude about Breast Self Examination and the Ability and Practice among Adult Women
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 2, 2004, Pages 187~198
The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitudes and the ability of women toward breast self-examination and to identify factors that may influence the ability of breast examination. The subjects for this study were 105 women in a community health center located in Busan. Data was collected during the period from September I to 20, 2002 by means of a structured questionnaire. The data was analyzed using the SPSS WIN 10.0 program and included descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient and stepwise multiple regression. The results of study are as follows： 1. The mean knowledge score for the total sample was 9.62 and the mean attitude score was 62.95. The mean self- practice score was 5.79. 2. Women's knowledge about breast self-examination was significantly related to attitudes and the ability of women toward breast self-examination (p＜0.05). 3. The ability of women toward breast self-examination was significantly related to attitudes about breast self-examination (p＜0.05). 4. According to the results of stepwise multiple regression analysis, factors affecting women's ability of breast self-examination were practice of breast self-examination and level of education and explained 19.7％ of variance. From the results of this study it can be said that women need to be taught proper breast self-examination so that they can become more proficient in detecting breast abnormalities.
Social Functions among Rural Residents using the Rand Social Health Battery
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 2, 2004, Pages 199~214
This study was aimed to assess the social functions of rural residents and to identify factors related with social function. This study conducted a survey using interview-type questionnaires with the Rand social health battery, and measured social function and the related factors between August 21th and August 23th, at 2001. The study subjects were 546 people (158 males, 388 females) living in Chungju-City. The social functions of the subjects were very weak. 20.7 % of respondents said they had no family in their neighbors and they were not well enough acquainted with neighborhood to visit each other. The 24.2 % of respondents said they had no mend that they felt at ease with and could talk frankly. Social function scores were significantly associated with economic status (p＝0.0494), having a vehicle (p＝0.0019), daily living activity (p＝0.0092) in multiple analysis. However, there was no association with age, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, and chronic disease. Our finding showed that social function was not associated with health behaviors definitely. However, It may be important to change existing social network and social function in order to change health behaviors.
Effect of Health Education Method for Korean Patients with Essential Hypertension on Their Compliance with Health Behaviors
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 2, 2004, Pages 215~231
The purpose of this study was to examine what factors affected patients who suffered from essential hypertension compliance with health behaviors, to help build a successful strategy to step up their compliance with health behaviors, and to seek effective ways to implement health education programs for patients with chronic disease. The subjects in this study were 60 people selected from among the patients who were diagnosed by physicians as having essential hypertension in S General Hospital in the city of P from April 10 through July 30, 2000, after health education was provided four times a month. The quasi- experimental design based on a control group pretest-posttest design was employed. The subjects were divided into three groups of 20 patients each： one was an experimental group to receive education in one-to-one interview, another was an experimental group to receive education as a group, and the third was a control group. The two experimental groups learned the same material through different methods, and the control group was given the same teaching materials and asked to comply with health behaviors on their own without instruction. After the three-week education was implemented in different ways, their compliance with health behaviors was measured. Collected data was analyzed by t-test, paired test, one-way analysis of variance, correlation analysis and regression analysis procedures. The findings of this study were as follows： 1. Concerning the effective type of health education, the group education produced the best results, followed by the one-to-one interviews and the sole use of print media. 2. Regarding the effect of compliance with health behaviors, the group- educated group got the highest score in compliance with health behaviors, but blood pressure lowered more significantly in the individual interview group. And the compliance with health behaviors had a significant negative correlational relationship with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. 3. Parameter that had most significant correlational relationship with compliance with health behaviors was health locus of control, followed by self-efficacy and health perception. But there was no significant correlational relationship between compliance with health behaviors and knowledge of hypertension. 4. As a result of analyzing the impact of knowledge of hypertension, health locus of control, self-efficacy and health perception on compliance with health behaviors, self-efficacy was found to exercise most influence. Above-mentioned findings suggested that group education or one- to-one discussion would be more effective for health care for hypertension in koreans, as they could serve to have patients realize their own responsibility for health and to motivate their compliance with health behaviors, and there was a need to more positively utilize educational intervention for patients with chronic diseases, which could elevate not only compliance with health behaviors but self-efficacy.
Healthy Japan 21 Program and Health Promotion Act
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 2, 2004, Pages 232~252
Japan is experiencing a most rapidly aging demographic. Despite this, the overall morbidity has been increasing due to the proportion of aging population that has increased rapidly along with the proportion of lifestyle related diseases, such as： all types of cancer, heart disease, stroke, diabetes, etc. As a result, the number of people requiring special care has become a serious problem. In response to these emerging health issues, the Strategic Planning force proposed the National Health Promotion Actualization Initiative in the 21st Century (“Healthy Japan 21”) so that it could be achieved by the year 2010. The policies should be conducted by providing adequately as well as with active participation and collaboration, effectively networking with the various organizations dealing with health issue. The Japanese Health Promotion Act passed by the National Assembly, 2001. As well as the many individuals that contributed to the development of this national health plan.