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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Health Promotion
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Dec 2004
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Sep 2004
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Jun 2004
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Mar 2004
Selecting the target year
The Structural Path Model of Adolescents′ Internet Addiction and Expected Self-Control
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 3, 2004, Pages 1~17
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the roles of expected self-control and expected self-control results in explaining adolescents' Internet addiction. In the study model, expectations of self-control and self-control results directly determine Internet addiction and Internet use time meditates the impacts of expectations of self-control and self-control results on Internet addiction. The study subjects are 1,080 middle and high school students in Busan. Stratified cluster sampling is applied by school type and school year. The response rate is 96%(l,037cases). This study develops the scales of expected self-control and expected self-control results. The scales of Internet addiction are devised by using the concept of functional dependency such as salience, withdrawal symptoms, mood modification, tolerance, relapse, and conflict. For verifying the study model, path analysis and multiple regression models are applied for identifying path significants and evaluating confounding effects of control variables, respectively. Moreover, multi partial F-test is performed for selecting the best regression model. Expected self-control is a significant determinant of Internet addiction and Internet use time that also significantly explains Internet addiction. The total effect of expected self-control towards Internet addiction is -.95. The total effect is comprised with the direct effect (-.71) and the indirect effect(-.24). In this result, the direct effect refers a curative effect since expected self-control directly reduces the level of Internet addiction, and the indirect effect refers a preventive effect because self-control can reduce time of Internet use that is a direct determinant of Internet addiction. In the test of the confounding effects of control variables, there are no confounding effects in the models of multiple regression. It implies a robustness of the study model as regards control variables. In conclusion, improving adolescents' expected self-control can control Internet addiction level. This finding implies that a health promotion program for improving expected self-control can be a cost effective method compared to other approaches.
Comparative Study on the Health Promotion Policy in Korea and Japan
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 3, 2004, Pages 19~33
The focus of this paper is to critically evaluate the contemporary health promotion policy of g Korea and Japan. The primary purpose of this comparative research project is to stimulate policy debate and to strengthen the design and implementation of evidence-based policies that improve population health and reduce health related disparities. For the purpose of the research object we adopted analysis of health promotion(HP) sources. The HP Source which is still under development in Europe, is a potentially valuable tool for global use. This European Commission funded project lead by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine has brought together organisations from all of the European Union Member States, plus Norway, Iceland, Latvia, Switzerland and the Czech Republic to contribute their data. The findings of this research will be conclude by making recommendations for further comparative studies and in particular how EUHPID and the HP Source tool and database can be expanded for use at global level through the IUHPE. The result as follows: 1. The Health Promotion Act enacted 1995 in Korea and 2000 in Japan. The government has a national document on HP titled Health Plan 2010 and Healthy Korea 2010 in Korea and Healthy Japan 21 in Japan. 2. The Health Plan 2010 of Korea contains 14 goals, i.e. life expectancy, smoking, nutrition, mental health, dental health, reproductive health, hypertension, cerebrovascular diseases, arthritis, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. It should be emphasized that the Korean HP national document adds 3 goals of health expectancy, reproductive health, and arthritis to its Japanese counterpart. Health Plan 2010 of Korea specifies 37 objectives in 14 goals, and Healthy Japan 21 proposes 48 objectives and 80 targets in 9 goals. 3. Health Plan 2010 and Healthy Japan 21 have not been evaluated yet, and no regular systematic monitoring reporting of HP policies is available in Korea and Japan yet. 4. National Health Promotion Fund is a financial source of HP programs at the national level in Korea. Its annual amount is 736 billion Won(equivalent to approximately 640 million US$), otherwise no specific Health Promotion Fund in Japan.
Health Promotion Behavior of the Labor Workers at the Cement Manufacturing Company
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 3, 2004, Pages 35~51
The purpose of this study was to identify the health promotion behavior(HPB) of the labor workers at the cement manufacturing company based on the Health Promotion Model by Pender(1996). Data were collected by self-reported questionnaire from 180 blue workers at the 2 cement factories under the permission of data collection and cooperation with managers in the factories. For data analysis, Descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation, Multiple regression with SPSS/PC + 10.0 version were used. The results were as follows: 1. The average scores for the HPB, consisted of 6 subdimensions was 2.74. The highest mean score was 2.88 in 'Exercise' and the lowest on was 2.58 'Responsibility of health'. 2. The score of the HPB was statistically different according to educational level(p<.00l), perceived health status(p<.00l) and satisfaction of working environment(p<.05). 3. HPB was positively related to age(p<.05), perceived health status(p<.00l), job satisfaction(p<.05), and satisfaction of working environment(p<.05), while it showed negative correlation with educational level(p<.01). 4. According to the results of multiple regression analysis, factors affecting HPB were perceived health status and education level explained 20.3% of variance. From this research findings, we need to different approach in develop health promotion program of Cement manufacturing company workers and focusing on improvement to job satisfaction and satisfaction of working environment.
A Comparative Study on Gender Differences in BMI, Body Weight Perception, Body Weight Satisfaction and Eating Behavior in Middle School Students
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 3, 2004, Pages 53~66
Purpose: To compare differences in BMI, body weight perception and satisfaction, and eating behavior by gender among middle school students. Methods: From 19 middle schools in W city four classes in two middle schools were selected by cluster sampling with multi-stage sampling. A structured questionnaire was answered by 143 adolescents. Results: Differences in BMI between boys and girls were significant (x
=13.15, p=.00l). Boys reported higher ideal body weight than girls (t=6.33, p<.000l), and discrepancy between ideal body weight and body weight perception in girls was significantly greater than in boys(t=-5.0l, p<.0001). There was no significant gender difference in body weight perception but more boys were satisfied with their body weight(t=-4.48, p<.0001). Comparison of eating behavior showed that girls reported high scores in disinhibition (t=-2.29, p<.05) and hunger (t=-2.81, p<.01), while boys reported higher scores in cognitive restraints (t=3.22, p<.01). Conclusion: Interventions to help girls improve body image and satisfaction with body image are crucial. In order to establish proper diet habits and balanced nutritional status for adolescents, educational interventions should address characteristics of eating behaviors.
Alcohol Dependency of College Students
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 3, 2004, Pages 67~86
This study attempted to investigate the factors influencing alcohol drinking habit of college students in Korea. To find how many students are alcohol dependents and what factors are related to problem drinking habit, the current study estimated problem drinkers and analyzed the relationship of problem drinking and various factors. In 2000, 736 students reported the questionnaires. Estimated rates of problem drinkers standardized by age were 0.7% of male and 0.5% of female students by NAST, amounting 9,300 college students. Age of initiation of alcohol drinking, alcohol or drug use problems of parents or mends, psychological factors, emotional factors, and two of MMPI scales were significantly different between moderate drinkers and alcohol dependents. The moderate and problem drinkers were significantly different in Mf and Pa average scores. However, economic factors were not significantly different between the moderate drinkers and alcohol dependents. Based on the results, this study suggested that further multivariate studies with large sample need be conducted to investigate the relationship between alcohol dependency and its factors.
The Effect of Sex Education based on ICT(Information and Communication Technology) to Sex Knowledge and Attitude of 5th -year Elementary Students
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 3, 2004, Pages 87~100
Objective: This research has been conducted in order to conduct sex education using information and communication technologies (ICT) which is currently taught to elementary school students, understand how this method of education affects the knowledge of and attitude towards sexual health in them, so that it could be actually applied in classrooms. Subject: 115 students were divided into three different groups: a comparison group of 38 students (who were given no sex education at all), control 2 group of 39 students (who were given sex education via video programmes), and control 1 group of 38 students (who were given sex education using ICT). Research Tool: A questionnaire used by the literature studies. After verifying content validity, it was modified and supplemented in this way: sex knowledge was reduced to 26, and sex attitude was also reduced to 11. The reliability of the research tool was Cronbach's a=0.86 for sex knowledge tool, and Cronbach's a=0.81 for sex attitude tool. The collected data have been analysed using SPSS 11.0 program. The content validity was analysed by factor analysis and multiple regression analysis, and hypothesis verification was analysed using repeated measure ANOVA test. Result: 1) In sex knowledge marks, there was a significant difference according to the group (p=.009) and point of time (p=.000), and there was a significant interaction between the groups and point of time(P=.000). As a result, it turned out that both video programmes and ICT were significantly effective in improve the knowledge. 2) In sex attitude marks, there were no significant differences according to the group (p=.213), but there was a significant difference according to point of time (p=.002), and there was a significant interaction between the groups and point of time(P=.018). As a result, it turned out that only the education method using ICT was effective in improving the attitude. Conclusion: From the results of this research, it can be said that the sex education using ICT was the most effective method in improving the sex knowledge and attitude of students at elementary school. Therefore, it is advisable that the sex education methods using ICT should be developed and applied continuously.
The Effectiveness of WBI(Web-Based Instruction) on the Knowledge and Attitude of Traffic Safety among Middle School Students
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 3, 2004, Pages 101~116
Korea has the highest traffic accident occurrence rate in the world. It means that we are forced to face a tremendous amount of economic loses and great cost of life. Even though this phenomenon consistently has arose as a public issue every year and many researchers have emphasized the importance of safety education as the fundamental solution, we are still trying to make a long-lasting and effective traffic safety education programs for children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of web-based learning for traffic safety in Korea middle school. For this purpose, the instructive model was constructed based on the ASSURE model and a special web-site of education was developed on behalf of practical use of multi-media learning materials for the traffic safety. The research subject was represented by 259 students from second grade in 2 middle schools located in Seoul Korea. The traffic safety education program using web-site was preceded to the 136 students as a case group for 45 minutes total 3 times. Other 126 students are control group those who did not get with this program. The survey was conducted before and after the education. The results of this study were as follow: 1. The knowledge analysis from the comparison between before and after of the lesson showed case group and control group scored average at 11.25 points and 10.97 points. However, after they attended programs, case group scored 13.57 points and control group scored 10.85 points. The difference from the result of the case group was statistically significant(p<0.001). 2. The attitude analysis from the comparison between before and after of the lesson showed case group and control group scored averages at 29.59 points and 28.21 points. However, after they attended program, case group scored 37.23 points and control group scored 32.71 points. The difference from the result of the case group was statistically significant(p<0.05). 3. Regarding the domain analysis by means of web-based traffic safety education, only the case group had a statistically significant score in the case of knowledge 'safe utilization of bicycle' and 'The Characteristic of Automobile and Safer Mode of Walking for Pedestrian'(p<0.01, p< 0.001), and in the case of attitude 'safe walking and crossing' 'The Characteristic of Automobile and Safer Mode of Walking for Pedestrian'(p<0.01, p<0.001). 4. Web based instruction for traffic safety was effective in terms of improving students' knowledge and attitude for traffic safety.
A Study on Health Behaviors and the Risk Factors of Blood Pressure of Adult Women in a Rural Area
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 3, 2004, Pages 117~131
Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate the health behaviors and to find out risk factors of blood pressure of adult women in a rural area. Method: The convenient sample consisted of 159 adult women who lived in G-gun. The data was collected using a self-report questionnaire for health behaviors and mercury type sphygmomanometer for BP, between Jun I and August 15, 2003. Health behaviors measured smoking, alcohol, salt, lipid, stress, exercise, coffee, BMI and medication. To accomplish the goal of study, descriptive statistics, t-test,
-test, ANOVA and multiple regression analysis were. performed with SPSS 10.0. Results: The average age of subjects was 49.2(SD7.34)years old. The average SBP and DBP of subjects were 126.22mmHg(SDl6.73) and 8 1.25mmHg(SDl 0.31). There were significant differences in smoking(p=.000), cigarette consumption(p=.001), smoking duration(p=.000), BMI(p=.033), medication (p=.001), family history(p=.000) between normotensive and hypertensive. The main risk factors on SBP were medication, age, BMI, family history and smoking duration by 35.7% of the total variance these variables explained SBP. The main risk factors on DBP were BMI, education and medication by 17.60% of the total variance these variables explained DBP. Conclusion: These results suggest that health professional have to emphasize prevention of obesity, lasting medication and no smoking for prevention and management of hypertension in community health promotion program.
A Study on the Supply and Demands for Worksite Health Promotion Programs
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 3, 2004, Pages 133~149
This study investigates the worksite resources and programs for health promotion services, especially in areas of smoking cessation and acohol-reducing. Health promotion program is important for employees and employers to promote their productivity and enhance their quality of life. To explain the worksite health promotion programs, a three-stage survey model was established and 111 worksites filled up the questionnaire. Stages of the model included the supply status of worksite health programs, attitudes to get rid of health risks, and behavioral intentions to provide health promotion programs in the near future. The results of this study are as follows. First, the facility and personnel for health promotion services are not equipped sufficiently in the middle-sized worksites. Second, provided programs are not good enough in both quantity and quality, because most worksites provide inefficient and low-cost programs. Third, worksites provide the programs such as advertisement, education materials especially in large-sized worksites, but not in middle-sized worksites. Therefore, worksites need to be supported with a public institution for efficient programs and continuing legal and systematic support for middle-sized worksites should be emphasized.
A Study on the Comprehensive Approach to Health Education: Cooperative Learning
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 3, 2004, Pages 151~177
Recently, the educational community has attempted to implement the theory of multiple intelligences. In approaching multiple intelligences, teachers have applied the same structural approach which has been so successful with cooperative learning. Cooperative learning is easy to learn and implement, fun for teachers and students, and produce profoundly positive outcomes along a remarkable number of dimensions. Different structures are designed for different outcomes, including enhanced mastery of subject matter, improved thinking skills, team building, class building, development of social character and social skills, communication skills, classroom management, classroom discipline, and development of and engagement of each of the multiple intelligences. Cooperative learning is becoming an increasingly popular teaching strategy. In this study, it is aimed to clarify the application of cooperative learning in health education. Cooperative Learning in health education enhances student learning by: 1) providing a shared cognitive set of information between students, 2) motivating students to learn the material, 3) ensuring that students construct their own health knowledge, 4) providing formative feedback, 5) developing social and health group skills necessary for success outside the classroom, and 6) promoting positive interaction between members of different cultural and socio-economic groups. Cooperative Learning structures and techniques in health education are following. Flash Card, Focused Listing, Structured Problem-solving, Paired Annotations, Structured Learning Team Group Roles, Send-A-Problem, Value Line, Uncommon Commonalities, Team Expectations, Double Entry Journal, Guided Reciprocal Peer Questioning, What if. Because the purpose of health education is the practice, therefore health specialists have to guide powerful and effective teaching method The application of cooperative learning in health education may improve its effectiveness.
Evaluation of an Internet and a Mobile-Based Smoking Cessation Program
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 3, 2004, Pages 179~193
The potential contribution of the internet and mobile phone to smoking cessation seems huge, given that a majority of Koreans now use internet and have mobile phones. The Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare developed and has been offering an internet-based smoking cessation program from the January, 2002 and a mobile-based program from the April, 2004. Despite the anticipated effectiveness of internet and mobile-based smoking cessation programs, there is little empirical evidence regarding the efficacy of both types of programs. Therefore, this study intended to evaluate the effectiveness of an internet and a mobile-based smoking cessation program and to provide the basic database for the development of effective smoking cessation strategies for the health promotion for the whole nation. Cessation and satisfaction data were obtained from the 434 participants in both programs. The data were analysed for the comparison of quit-smoking rate and the degree of satisfaction between an internet smoking cessation program and a mobile smoking cessation program. The main results of this study were as follows: 1. For the internet program participants, there were statistically significant differences in cessation rate by gender(P<0.05) and age(P<0.01). In contrast, none of general characteristics provided statistically significant differences in cessation rate for the mobile program participants. 2. For the internet program participants, smoking related characteristics(average smoking amount and the reasons for smoking) didn't have an effect on smoking cessation. But, for mobile program participants, there was a statistically significant difference in cessation rate by the reasons for smoking(P<0.05). 3. The cessation rate was 31.9%(abstinence for the previous 30 days) for internet program participants and 17.8% for mobile program participants.
Effects of Health Behaviors on Perceived Physical and Psychological Job Stress Among Korean Manufacturing Workers
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 3, 2004, Pages 195~211
Stress is a primary health promotion issue in worksite research because psychological distress is closely related not only to workers' health status but also to their job performance. This study identified the significant health behaviors affecting workers' job-related stress in Korean manufacturing industry with the national survey data conducted by the Korean Occupational Safety and Health Agency in 2003. A total of 7,818 factory workers in 1,562 manufacturing companies participated in the Korean nation-wide occupational health survey and 3,390 workers answered that they had any stressors in their workplace among the 7,818 workers finally participated in the analysis. Participants were selected by the stratified proportional sampling process by manufacturing industry classification, company size, and company locations (8 metropolitan and 8 non-metropolitan regions) in Korea. Trained interviewers visited the target companies and interviewed the factory workers randomly selected in each company. Smoking, drinking, weight control, exercise, sleeping, break time at work, and perceived fatigue were included in the health behavior construct. Stress symptoms was consisted of physical and psychological stress with 8 items. All survey responses were anonymously coded into the SPSS statistical program and testified using stepwise multiple regression analysis. Male workers were 73.5% and the 30s were 40.0% among the age groups. The married and the high school graduate were majority with 52.1% and 61.8% each. Current smokers were 44.7% and More than 50% of the participants drank alcohol sometimes. No exercise group was 59.3% and the participants who dissatisfied with their daily sleeping hours were 43.5%. In t-test and analysis of variance, the significant general characteristics associated with physical and psychological job stress were young age (p<0.001), single marital status (p<0.001), and short working period at the present company (p<0.001). The health behaviors related to physical job stress were current smoking, weight change during the past one year (p<0.001), weight control effort (p<0.001), exercise (p<0.001), daily sleeping dissatisfaction (p<0.001), break time, and perceived fatigue (p<0.001). All 10 health behavior factors were significantly associated with psychological job stress (p<0.05). Weight change, weight control effort, exercise, daily sleeping dissatisfaction, little break at work, and high perceived fatigue were significant factors affecting job stress. Daily sleeping dissatisfaction, little break at work, little exercise, weight change for the past one year and young age were selected as the significant health behavior and general factors affecting physical job stress symptoms in stepwise multiple regression analysis. The five factors explained 18.9% of the physical stress score variance. Six factors were selected as the significant health behaviors affecting psychological job stress: daily sleeping dissatisfaction, little exercise, frequent drinking alcohol, high perceived fatigue, little break at work, and little weight control effort. The six factors explained 10.6% of the psychological stress score variance.