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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Health Promotion
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Dec 2004
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Sep 2004
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Jun 2004
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Mar 2004
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Adolescent Smoking Behaviors and the Related Risk Factors in Korea: A Descriptive Literature Review
Moon In-Ok ;
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 4, 2004, Pages 1~13
This study conducted descriptive literature review on adolescent smoking and the related factors to realize significance of adolescent smoking onset in Korea and to identify risk factors of smoking incidence. Korean adolescent smoking status was generated based on the cumulated data of the Korean Association of Smoking and Health. Risk factors of adolescent smoking were identified based on 18 studies written in English, with cross-sectional research design and published as a peer-reviewed journal article between 1994 and 2003. The results were as follows. 1. Korean adolescent smoking rate was the highest among OECD affiliated countries; in particular, male adolescent smoking incidence was very serious. 2. Risk factors related to smoking of adolescent population were personal factor, friend factor, family factor, and mass-media factor. Demographic characteristics, attitudes on smoking, and willingness of smoking, and health behaviors were selected as personal factor of smoking. 3. Best friends smoking was a strong factor of students' smoking set. Prevalent popularity of smoking in peer-group allowed students to feel free to smoking. 4. Concerning family factor related to smoking status, parents' smoking and sibling's smoking were significant indicators of adolescent smoking status. 5. Seeing smoking behaviors and scenes through films, TV shows, drama, and advertisement was a significant risk factor of adolescent smoking status.
Effectiveness of Worksite Intervention on Stress Management: An Analytic Literature Review
Park Kyoung-Ok ;
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 4, 2004, Pages 15~33
With growing significance of psychological well-being in the worksite, the purpose of this analysis was to overview the empirical studies on worksite stress management and to identity the overall effect of worksite health promotion programs on stress management through meta-analysis. Literature retrieval was conducted on-line first in MEDLINE, EBSCOhost Academic Search Premier, and PSYCHINFO databases in public health, psychology, sociology, and human resource management areas. All studies written in English and published in the peer-reviewed journals during 1990 and 2002 were recruited. Key words used in literature retrieval were 'worksite,' 'intervention,' 'program,' 'work stress,' 'strain,' 'burnout,' 'management,' 'prevention,' 'education,' and 'health promotion.' A total of 18 worksite intervention studies with 48 effect sizes were analyzed and the results were as follows. Approximately 60％ of the studies had quasi-experimental design and were conducted in manufacturing company and public sector. General psychological strains and burnout were frequently used measures of psychological stress. The lecturing and discussion typed intervention and the participatory problem-solving typed intervention were employed more than others in the studies. The average effect (r: pearson's simple correlation coefficient) weighted by sampling error was -0.14 (-0.32 to 0.05). In the conventional category of effects this is a small effect ranging from -0.59 to 0.05. Binomial effect size showed that success rates increased from 43％ without intervention to 57％ after an intervention. Sampling error explained 47.14％ of the observed variance and its effectiveness on stress management were heterogeneous. In regression analysis with suspected moderating factors affecting the worksite interventions, research design was the only significant moderating factor. The studies with quasi-experimental design had greater effects than the studies with experimental design.
Relationship of Smoking with Self-perceived Health and Selected Health Behaviors
Choi Eun-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 4, 2004, Pages 35~49
The purpose of this study was to analyze variables associated with smoking and selected health behaviors. This study targeted adult men and women over 20 of age. The sample population was drawn from the national sample, and the samples were chosen from the telephone book. A total of 1,500 cases were collected through a telephone based interview survey. As a tool for this study, a structured questionnaire was developed. the variables included self-perceived health status, and selected 7 health behaviors; smoking behavior, physical activities, eating habit, weight control, alcohol consumption, stress management, and cancer exam. The healthy life practice actions of Trans-theoretical model have been classified into five stages. Smokers were more likely than non-smokers to positive attitudes toward smoking and the impact of smoking in this study. This means that smokers's awareness toward the impact of smoking is very week. Smoking behavior was significantly related to other health related behaviors based on the correlation analysis. However, gender, engaging in regular physical activities, moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages, and receiving a cancer examination were the variables that can explain and predict a person's stages of adopting a non-smoking behavior. Self perceived health status was closely related to other health behaviors. Gender, age, and monthly household income were important demographic variables that have significant relationship with the self-perceived health status. Among the health behaviors, regular physical activities and weight control were significant predictable variables. Similar results have been found in the National health and Nutrition examination survey in Korea. As a result of this study, it was found that among the selected health behaviors, engaging in physical activity was an important variable to increase positive sense of health and non-smoking behaviors. Educational and policy level input is needed to increase awareness and provide chances to participate in fitness activities. To those who maintain exercise, the environmental support and diffusion of knowledge information and education data should be strengthened. To change attitudes toward smoking, more in-dept awareness campaign and education should be provided according to people's different behavioral status. In addition, not only diffusing health education data and delivering knowledge information through related programs, but also environmental support system that helps an individual maintain his/her action is required. Such a support system means settlement of the health enhancement base of school, workplace and community should be carried out, and the policy level support and regular programs should be provided and spread to the unit of community.
The Effects of a Preventive Educational Program on the Osteoporosis Knowledge among the Middle-Aged Women in Korea
Yee Jung Ae ; Lee Kyu Eun ; Yom Young-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 4, 2004, Pages 51~62
The purpose of this study was to assess whether the osteoporosis preventive educational program has changed the middle-aged women's knowledge on osteoporosis. A one group pretest-posttest design was used. A total of 27 women (at pretest) and 27 women (at posttest) who were volunteers participated. The intervention program content included lecture and exercise entitled The Prevention of Osteoporosis. This program design consisted of one 3-hour session per week and lasted over 4-week period. Osteoporosis Knowledge Questionnaire (OKQ) was used. The OKQ contains 20 true-false items to measure the knowledge levels about osteoporosis. The Kuder-Richardson test (KR 20), used as an estimate of internal consistency for knowledge, was .7783. Overwhelming majority of the participants (96.2％) were ranging in age from 40 to 60. About half of the participants were college graduates and the majority of them (77.8％) had no jobs. The educational program significantly increased osteoporosis knowledge in middle-aged women. Results of this study shows that educational program is effective in increasing knowledge of osteoporosis. Further study using the same program with different age group is needed to measure knowledge, behavior and attitude on osteoporosis.
The Correlation Study on Health-promoting Behavior and Life Satisfaction of the Elderly in Urban Area
Choi Yeon-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 4, 2004, Pages 63~73
Purpose: This study was to identify the correlation between the health-promoting behavior and life satisfaction in elderly of the urban area. Method: The subjects of this study were 202 people aged over 65 who had been living in urban area. Data was collected through questionnaires from April 10th to September 30th, 2002. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient with SPSS statistical program. Result: The health-promoting behavior was given the informations that nutrition practices were most highly ranked, followed by interpersonal relationships, self-actualization, stress management, health responsibility, and exercise. The mean scores of health-promoting behaviors were significant differences in age and educational level. Life satisfaction was significantly related to only living situation. Health-promoting behavior of the subjects was found to be statistically significant and positively correlated with life satisfaction. Conclusion: These results suggested that elderly people in urban areas with high degree of quality of life is likely to be in practice with high degree of health-promoting behaviors. Therefore, it is necessary to develop health promotion programs in order to enhance the quality of life of elderly people in urban areas.
Regional Contextual Factors and Self-Rated Health: a Multilevel Study of Korean Adults
Lee Sang Gyu ;
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 4, 2004, Pages 75~97
Objectives: To examine whether the socioeconomic characteristics of communities (contextual effects) are related to the self-rated health of community residents after controlling individual characteristics (compositional effects). Methods: A linked data set including information on individuals from raw data of 1998 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey(KNHNS) and information on the regions where the individuals lived from the socioeconomic statistical indices of Si-Gun-Gu (city-county-ward) in 1998 was established. The contextual factors of communities were generated from these socioeconomic indices through factor analysis. The contextual effects of community over and above the individual characteristics on the self-rated health were investigated using multilevel analysis. Results: The contextual factors of the community expressed as the factor scores have influence on the self-rated health of their residents above the compositional factors. When the communities were categorized into 5 groups (highest, high, middle, low, lowest) according to each of their factor scores, for factor 1 reflecting urbanization reversely, the residents of the communities that had the high, middle, and low factor scores showed significantly poor subjective health status than the residents of the lowest (most urbanized) group. For factor 2 reflecting community services and health resources, the subjective health status of the residents gradually became poorer when the group went from the highest to the lowest, and the low and lowest groups showed a significant difference. For factor 3 reflecting the manufacturing industry, as compared with the communities that have the highest factor scores, the other 4 groups showed significantly poorer subjective health status. And for factor 4 reflecting the scale of the regional government, as compared with the middle group, the rest of the 4 groups showed significantly better self-rated health. Conclusions: There existed regional contextual effects on their residents' health in Korean adults. To make policies tackling these contextual effects possible, more elaborate researches to find more specific factors and to explain the mechanisms of how health is influenced by the contextual factors are needed.
The Study of Correlation between Physical Fitness and Stress of Female
Lee Han-Yong ; Yang Yoon-Kwon ;
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 4, 2004, Pages 99~108
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical fitness, and physical and psychological stress of females. The subjects of this study were 139 adult women, without a specific medical illness. The stress level was evaluated by Derogetis's checklist-90-Revision symptom of physical and psychological stress (Cronbach's a=0.88, 0.87). The physical fitness factors in this study were cardiopulmonary endurance, muscle endurance, muscle strength, power, agility, and flexibility. To analyze the data to examine the relationship between the physical and psychological stress, and physical fitness, correlation analysis was applied. The findings of this study were as follows. First, among the physical fitness factors, cardiopulmonary endurance, along with muscle strength and power had significant relations with physical stress (p<.01). Second, among the physical fitness factors, cardiopulmonary endurance showed a significant relation with psychological stress (p<.05).
The Association between Health Behaviors and Mental Health in Middle Aged
Choi Mi-Kyoung ;
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 4, 2004, Pages 109~119
This study was conducted to examine factors influencing mental health of middle-aged adults(N=203) in relation to sociodemographic variables, health behaviors, and social support. The survey with questionnaire was carried out for the subjects of the residents in two communities of a local city located in Gangwon-do, Korea from September 3 to 15, 2003. Data analysis procedure included stepwise multiple regression using mental health as the dependent variable, and sociodemographic variables, health behaviors, and social support as independent variables. There were significant differences in the mental health by birth place(t=-1.67, p<0.10), religion (t=2.27, p<0.05) and subjective economic status(F=2.29, p<0.10). Mental health showed significant positive correlations with both health behavior (r=0.462, p<0.001) and social support (r=0.142, p<0.05). Stepwise multiple regression analysis for mental health revealed that the most powerful predictor was health behavior(β=0.453, p<0.001). Health behavior and religion explained 24％ of the variance. The results suggest the necessity of a intervention that considers the health behaviors should be included in middle-aged adults so as to promote mental health.
Analysis of Oral Health Status for the Elderly
Seung Jeung-Hee ; Park Chun-Man ; Mun Sang-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 21, issue 4, 2004, Pages 121~135
This study aims to analyze the oral health status of the elderly. Study subjects were 9,340 elderly aged over 65 who took the health examination (the first) for the local insured when the National Health Insurance Corporation carried out its survey from January to December, 2002. The subjects took an oral examination and filled in the questionnaire. Major results from the analysis are as follows: 1. Analysis of Oral Health Behavior For oral health behavior, 38.2％ of total subjects had visited a dental hospital (or clinic) in the last one year in the order of the elderly of big cities (48.3％), the elderly of medium cities (43.9％), and the elderly of rural areas (29.0％)(P<0.001). Elderly men had a higher rate than elderly women, and the younger age had a higher rate(P<0.01). For experience of oral prophylaxis, 12.3％ of the total elderly had experienced it in the order of the elderly of big cities (18.8％), the elderly of medium cities (16.0％), and the elderly of rural areas (6.4％) (P<0.001). For elderly men, the younger age had a higher rate of oral prophylaxis. The number of toothbrushing in order was twice(47.5％), once (26.7％), three times (25.0％), and none (0.7％). The younger age brushed their teeth more often (P<0.001). 2. Analysis of Oral Health Status The rate of caries was 10.6％ of the elderly surveyed. By area, the elderly of rural areas had a higher rate of caries than the elderly of cities (p<0.001) and elderly men were higher than elderly women (p<0.001). By age, many elderly aged over 80 had more than two caries. For missing teeth, the elderly of rural areas had a higher rate than the elderly of cities (p<0.001) and the older age had a higher rate(p<0.001). The rate of periodontal disease was 43.2％ of the total elderly. By area, the elderly of big cities (46.2％) had a higher rate of periodontal disease than the elderly of medium cities (39.4％) and rural areas (43.6％)(p<0.001), and elderly men (46.4％) were higher than elderly women (40.2％)(p<0.001). By age, the lower age had a higher rate of peridontal disease (p<0.001). Dental abrasion was observed in 16.9％ of the total elderly. The elderly of cities (21.0％) had a higher rate than the elderly of rural areas (12.0％)(p<0.001) and elderly men (21.3％) were higher than elderly women (12.8％)(p<0.001). Also the lower age had more dental abrasion symptoms (p<0.001). For needing a denture, the rate among the elderly was 48.5％ and was higher for the elderly of rural areas(20.9％), than the elderly of big cities(7.0％) and medium cities (10.5％)(p<0.001). For the rate of denture wearing, the elderly of rural areas(41.8％) were higher than the elderly of big cities (27.7％) and medium cities (28.2％ )(p<0.001). For the relation of drinking and smoking to oral health, the elderly who had a higher frequency of drinking, had a higher rate of caries (p<0.001)periodontal disease(p<0.001) and missing teeth(p<0.001) Smokers had a higher rate of caries (p<0.001), periodontal disease (p<0.05), and missing teeth (p<0.001) than nonsmokers.