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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Health Promotion
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Dec 2005
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Sep 2005
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Jun 2005
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Mar 2005
Selecting the target year
Computer Game Usage and Needs for Education on the Prevention of Computer Game Addiction among Elementary School Children
Oh, Won-Oak ;
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 1~16
Objectives: This study was conducted to identify the computer game usage of elementary school children and their needs for education on the prevention of computer game addiction. Methods: The subjects of this study were 455 elementary school children. The data were collected from an open and structured questionnaire on the subjects' computer game usage and their needs for education on the prevention of computer game addiction. Results: The boys played computer games more than the girls. There were statistical differences in the durations of the computer game use, the main locations of the computer games they played, the times of the day when they used computers, the times of the day when they played computer games, the number of times in a week they visited Internet cafes, what motivated them to play computer games, and their partners in playing computer games according to gender. From an analysis of 714 statements of the subjects with respect to their need to be educated on computer game addiction prevention, six domains and 19 themes were drawn. The six main domains identified were Definition & Status, Etiology & Process, Influences, Prevention, Diagnosis & Coping with Computer Game Addiction, and General Information on Computer Games. This study results revealed that elementary school children have to be comprehensively educated on how to prevent computer game addiction. Conclusion: A computer game addiction prevention program concerning these themes and domains must be developed. A study should also be conducted to identify the educational needs of parents of elementary school children on computer game addiction prevention.
The Development and Effect of Web-based Alcohol Preventive Education Program for Elementary School Students
Kim, Young-Me ; Jung, Moon-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 17~40
Objective: The purpose of the this study was to test the effect of the alcohol preventive educational program for elementary school students through developing the web-based learning instruments. It will prevent the serious alcohol problem for adolescents and be the opening-learning according to learner's needs beyond the traditional classroom learning which has limitation of space and time. Method: This research designed based on web-based instructional system design by In-sung Jong(1997). This study was performed on the elementary school students who are the six grade in M city. The number of experimental group was 72 and control group's number was 72, totaled 144. Data were collected from September, 30th, 2004 to November, 5th, 2004, totaled 37days. The pretest and the posttest for web-based alcohol preventive education program were tested about knowledge and attitudes toward drinking. After the performance, the posttest was also tested the effect of this program under items by the interest of web-based learning, satisfaction, adequateness of material and so on. The data analysis was done using SPSS/Win 11.0 program. Result: The results of this study are as follows: 1) Compared with control group, experimental group which was educated the web-based alcohol preventive educational program for elementary school students was improved the knowledge on drinking, thin there was no significant difference. However, it showed significant difference between two groups after education. It was, therefore, partially supported. 2) Compared with control group, the experimental group which was educated the web-based alcohol preventive educational program for elementary school students showed significant difference in attitudes toward drinking. After education, it showed no significant difference attitudes. toward drinking between experimental group and control group. It was, therefore, partially supported. 3) The degree of learning motivation was an average.595 of 1 after learning applied to by the web-based alcohol preventive educational program for elementary school students. Then, it is relatively more higher than the result of existing studies. So, it showed that the motivation was done well. 4) Correlation among study variables It showed that there was the significantly positive correlation between knowledge and attitudes toward drinking of pretest experimental group. Also, there was the significantly positive correlation between attitudes toward drinking and learning motivation of pretest and posttest experimental group. Conclusion: I found that the web-based educational program helps the elarning process for the health education in the school field which the instructional materials lack. As a result, the web-based education motivates the learner's pleasure and promotes the learners interest. Also, it is possible for students to learn according to their own learning pace, repeated learning and active learning participation in the necessary parts. Therefore, I think the web-based educational program is worth as a intervention to get positive influence for the health education.
Students', Teachers', and Parents' Safety Concerns Affecting Students' Safety Behaviors of Elementary Schools in Korea
Lee, Myung-Sun ;
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 41~56
Objectives: More than 80% of unintentional injury was related to risk-taking behaviors involved in child accidents. Therefore, diverse care and concerns on safety should be provided from teachers as well as parents to build child safety behaviors. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of safety concerns from students, teachers, and parents on elementary students' safety behaviors in Korea. Methods: The 5th and 6th grade students participated in this study in 14 elementary schools in Korea and the total number of students was 1,033. The study schools were selected by the stratified cluster sampling method throughout 7 metropolitan areas in Korea. Data were collected by the self-administered survey and the questionnaires were delivered to the vice-principals of the designated schools by ground postal service and the vice-principals conducted survey data collection. The questions on students' safety concerns, teachers' safety concerns, parents' safety concerns, safety practices, safety education, and demographics were included in the survey. All survey responses were encoded into SPSS program and t-test, ANOVA, and multiple regression analysis were utilized. Results: The students taking accidents one time more per year were more than 60% and the two thirds of them recognized that their accidents were due to their risk behaviors. Parents' education on safety practices was more frequent than teachers' education; furthermore, teachers' concerns on safety behaviors were poorer than students' or parents' concerns. In terms of safety behaviors, the scores of fire and home-related safety behavior were high but the scores of traffic and bicycle, in particular, helmet wearing practice were low. Three concerns from students, parents, and teachers all were significantly related to children's safety behaviors. Conclusions: In conclusion, safety concerns from the close networks are the important indicator of child safety behaviors and, the safety training programs, therefore, for parents and teachers as well as for students need to be developed for improving children's safe behaviors.
Status of Health Education by Elementary School Nurses
Moon, Jung-Soon ; Sohng, Kyeong-Yae ; Lee, Jong-Eun ;
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 57~72
Objectives: To investigate the status of health education in elementary schools. Methods: 620 school nurses were surveyed by questionnaires from September to December in 2003. Results: 1) Among the school nurses under inquiry of planning of health education, 3.3% and 9.3% of them did not prepare for teaching plan. 2) The average time for health education by a school nurse was 96.8 hours a year, and handouts for health education were distributed 10.6 times. Among the contents of health education, sex education took the largest portion of health education with 24.6 hours a year. 3) With regard to the contents of health education covered by school nurses, sex education ranked first with 90.2%, next came drug abuse with 78.4%, dental health, CDC, disease control, healthy life and smoking, body structure and function and growth and development safety, alcohol, nutrition and environmental health followed them. 4) The main contents of education were CDC, dental health sex, healthy life and disease control for 1st, 2nd and 3rd grade students, sex, CDC, disease control and safety for 4th grade students, and sex, CDC, drug abuse and smoking for 5th and 6th grade students. 5) 72.6% of school nurses used class room for health education, 20.0% and 7.4% of them used grade and others such as broadcast, respectively. 6) 42.1% of school nurses used blackboard, 37.0% and 18.6% of them used visual media and handout as a teaching aids for health education. 7) 31.6% of school nurses replied that education time was insufficient 9.5% and 15.9% of them replied the contents of health education were inadequate and methods of health education were inappropriate, respectively. Conclusions: For the successful school health education, it would be in need of sufficient time for health education by opening health education course and of modify the various working conditions of school nurses, and those of effective educational materials and media for health education.
Decision-Tree Model of Long-term Abstention from Smoking: Focused on Coping Styles
Suh, Kyung-Hyun ; You, Jae-Min ;
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 73~90
Objectives: Smokers who had failed to quit smoking were frequently reported that life stress mostly interrupted their abstention. Stress vulnerability model for smoking cessation has been considered, and most of contemporary smoking cessation programs help smokers develop coping strategies for stressful situations. This study aims to investigate the appropriate coping styles for stress of abstention from smoking. The result of investigating the relationship between abstention following smoking cessation program and coping styles would suggest useful information for those who want to stop smoking and health practitioners who help them. Methods: Participants were 69 smokers (62 males, 7 females) participated in a hospitalized smoking cessation program, whose mean age was 44.89 (SD=9.61). Participants took medical test and completed questionnaires and psychological tests including: Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence and Multidimensional Coping Scale. To identify participants' abstention, researchers followed them for 2 years. To identify whether abstained or not and encourage them to abstain, researchers called them on the telephone once a week for 3 months. After 3 months, they were contacted every other week till 6 months passed since they left smoking cessation program. And they were contacted once a month for other 18months. Researchers also contacted their family to identify their abstention. Data Mining Decision Tree was performed with 37 variables (13 variables for the coping styles and 24 smoking-related variables) by Answer Tree 3.0v Results: Forty four (63.8%) out of sixty nine for 2 weeks, 34 (49.3%) for 6 months, 25 (36.2%) abstained for 1 year, and 22 (31.9%) abstained for 2 years. Participants of this study abstained average of 286.77 days from smoking. Included variables of a Decision Tree model for this study were positive interpretation, emotional expression, self-criticism, restraint and emotional social support seeking. Decision Tree model showed that those (n=9) who did not interpret positively (<=7.5) and criticized themselves (>6.5) abstained 23 days only, while those (n=9) who interpreted positively (>7.5), expressed their emotion freely (>6.5), and sought social support actively (>11.5) abstained 730 days, till last day of the investigation. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that certain coping styles such as positive interpretation, emotional expression, self-criticism, restraint and emotional social support seeking were important factors for long-term abstention from smoking. These findings reiterate the role of stress for abstention from smoking and suggest a model of coping styles for successful abstention from smoking. Despite of limitation of this study, it might help smokers who want to stop smoking and health practitioners who help them.
School-based Educational Programs for Anti-tobacco Use at Busan Middle and High Schools
Kang, So-Young ; Kim, Sook-Nam ;
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 91~105
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the current status of managing educational programs for tobacco use prevention at middle and high schools located in Busan. Methods: Using a survey method with a 29-item self-administration questionnaire, the data were collected from January 10 through February 18, 2005, from school nurses as well as teachers major in healthcare of 227 participant schools. Results: A strategic plan for school-based educational programs of tobacco use prevention was mainly developed by a school nurse at middle school and a teacher in charge of school discipline at high school. The educational programs for tobacco use prevention were implemented for approximately 40% of schools in Busan with the budget ranged from 110,000 won to 200,000 won a year. Eighty five percepts of the schools had anti-tobacco regulations and guidelines in place. Twenty two percents of the middle and high schools collected the data regarding adolescents' smoking status periodically. Over 70% of schools provided tobacco use prevention education programs as a part of regular semester curriculum. Conclusions: For making the management of educational programs for tobacco use prevention effective and consistent with government's anti-smoking policy, schools need (a) development of tobacco management guideline and regulations with participation of teachers, students, and parents, (b) clear job and role descriptions for personnel to plan and implement anti-tobacco programs, (c) compilation of the budget enough to implement the programs, (d) periodically assessment of adolescents' smoking status, and evaluation of the programs to monitor whether those are effective for adolescents' health promotion; and (e) to make an effort to less range of quality in educational programs for tobacco use.
Korean Middle School Teachers' Intentions to Participate in Adolescents' Smoking Prevention Programs
Choi, Mi-Young ; Lee, Myoung-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 107~122
Objectives: To prevent smoking among adolescents, we should facilitate school-based smoking prevention programs and provide supports for teachers to participate actively in these programs. This study investigated Korean middle teachers' intentions, perceptions, and attitudes toward participating in smoking prevention programs. Methods: The study design was cross-sectional. Our conceptual framework utilized the Theory of Planned Behavior by Fishbein and Ajzen. We conducted open-ended elicitation interviews with teachers. We developed the survey questionnaire contents with data from these interviews, and distributed the questionnaires in 2002 to 194 school teachers from four schools in Seoul and Kyounggi-Do. Teachers' beliefs(behavioral, normative & control) and intentions about participating in smoking prevention programs were measured by 7-point scales. Results: The majority of teachers surveyed reported participating in adolescents' smoking prevention programs, while only less than 10% teachers reported having educational training for such programs. Teachers' attitudes toward participating in smoking prevention programs were positive, but they did not feel strong subjective norms about participating in the programs. They reported several barriers as well as facilitating conditions in participating in those programs. In correlation analysis, teachers' subjective norms and attitudes toward participating in smoking prevention were significantly correlated with their intentions to participating in those programs. Teachers with positive perceptions about smoking prevention programs were more likely to have strong intentions to participation in them, while teachers who received educational training and instructions on how to teach in smoking prevention programs were more likely to have positive perceptions than those who did not. Conclusion: We concluded that smoking prevention programs for adolescents can be made more effective by increasing societal expectations that teachers participate in these programs, and by providing additional resources dedicated to facilitating teachers' active participation in them.
Gender Differences in the Association between Psycho-social Factors and Smoking, Drinking in Adolescents
Park, Nam-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 123~136
Purpose: This study was to investigate the gender difference of relationship between psycho-social factors ana smoking, drinking in adolescents. Method: The stratified cluster sample consisted of 925 adolescents. Data were collected from May to March 2002. The instruments used in this study were Perceived Stress, DES-D, Social Support and Self-Esteem. Results: The results showed that female had more perceived stress, depressed than male. Male had more social support network, smoke than female. Male who smoked cigarettes were more perceived stress, depressed than those who did not smoke. Female who smoked cigarettes were more social support network, and had less self-esteem than those who did not smoke. Also male who drank alcohol were more perceived stress, depressed than those who did not drank. Female who drank alcohol were perceived stress, depressed, social support network, and had less self-esteem than those who did not drank. Conclusion: It is hoped that much more research on gender difference in adolescents who smoked cigarettes, drank alcohol will be implemented in the future. In addition, it is suggested the application of various interventions to deal with drinking and smoking behavior among female and male adolescents.
The Protective Effects of Development Assets on Health Risk Behaviors among Korean Adolescents
Lee, Myoung-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 137~154
Objectives: This study aims to examine the positive effects of developmental assets on the prevention of health risk behaviors among Korean adolescents. The framework of developmental assets was introduced as building blocks for healthy child and adolescent development by Benson and his colleagues. These assets represent positive external environmental factors and internal personal qualities which strongly influence the quality of life of adolescents. Methods: In 2001, we administered self-reported questionnaires to 3,739 girls and boys in grade 9 at eight schools in two cities, Chinju and Suwon in South Korea. The data was compiled into a 'Korean Youth Health Related Behaviors and Developmental Assets Survey' and then analyzed Youth health risk behaviors, which we measured in terms of their frequency, included tobacco, alcohol, and substance use, sexual intercourse, anti-social behaviors, violence, feelings of social isolation at school, depression or attempted suicide, absenteeism from school, gambling. Results: Overall, with respect to developmental assets, the Korean adolescents surveyed only 12.6 of the 40 assets, and 88 percent of adolescents had 20 or fewer of the assets. Based on their number of developmental assets(DA), adolescents were categorized into four groups: Group I(DA 0-10): Group II(DA 11-20): Group III(DA 21-30): Group IV(DA 31-40). We examined the differences in the frequency of each health risk behavior across the four groups, Group I-IV, and found that the frequency of most health risk behaviors decreased as the number of developmental assets increased. Conclusion: We therefore concluded that in order to make effective approaches for the prevention of health risk behaviors among adolescents, we should consider and develop more comprehensive and adolescents-based policy and programs to promote various aspects of adolescents' health and quality of life.
Influential Factors on Mental Health of High School Students in Seoul
Choi, Mi-Kyoung ;
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 155~166
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine factors influencing the mental health of high school students in relation to sociodemographic variables, family function, self-esteem, social support, and self-identity. Methods: The survey was carried out on a convenience sample of 332 high school students. Data analysis procedure included stepwise regression using mental health as the dependent variable, and sociodemographics, family function, self-esteem, social support, and self-identity, as independent variables. Results: Stepwise multiple regression revealed that the factors such as self-esteem(
, p<0.001), self-identity(
, p<0.001), and sex(
, p<0.001) turned out to be significant affecting factors. Twenty seven percent of varience in mental health was explained by these factors(22% of varience by self-esteem). Conclusion: Self-esteem was turned out to be the most important effective factor of mental health in high school students. These results suggest that it is important for high school students to promote their self-esteem to keep their good mental health.
Clustering of Lifestyle Risk Factors in Urban Poor and Rural Adults
Lee, Jung-Jeung ; Hwang, Tae-Yoon ; Yang, Jin-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 167~177
Objectives: This study was performed to examine the clustering of lifestyle risk factors for chronic diseases in urban poor and rural adults. Methods: As a cross-sectional study, a questionnaire survey was conducted in 2003. Data was collected from 468 urban poor adults and 385 rural adults. And 848 persons data was used for final analysis. We surveyed their smoking habit alcohol consumption, exercise habit education and disease histories. Result: In mea about 25% of the urban poor subjects and about 20% of the rural subjects had three lifestyle risk factors(Prevalence ratio was 1.29). And, in women, about 1.5% of the urban poor subjects and about 0.5% of the rural subjects had three lifestyle risk factors(Prevalence ratio was 4.00). Especially in men, clustering of smoking and excessive alcohol consumption was strongest both the urban poor and rural subjects(Observed/Expected ratio(O/E): 1.4 in the urban poor subjects, 1.3 in the rural subjects). Conclusions: These findings show that the lifestyle risk factors cluster among the urban poor and rural adults. And the clustering is stronger in the urban poor adults than the rural adults. This tendency was important for health education and health promotion. We suggest that more intensive health promotion strategies for the urban poor adults are needed.
Development of the Tailored Health Promotion Program for Rural Elderly: Based on the PRECEDE Model
Oh, Yun-Jung ; Park, Jeong-Sook ;
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 179~202
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop the health promotion program for rural elderly through PRECEDE process. Method: The health promotion program was developed based on the preliminary diagnosis. The data collection was performed from March 10th to April 9th, 2003. The subjects were selected at Mari Myun, Geochang Gun, in Korea. The preliminary diagnosis was examined with the 115 elders. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistics and Cronbach's n test with SPSS/Win 10.0 program. Results: The health promotion program was developed based on diagnostic result using PRECEDE model. The developed program was corrected and revised with the advices from 6 experts. The final program included health responsibility(cancer prevention and early detection, hygienic, false teeth management no smoking and moderation in drink, and chronic disease prevention and management), physical activity(6 kinds of exercise), nutrition(low sodium diet calcium intake, and right eating habit), spiritual growth(spiritual demand and death preparation teaching), interpersonal relations(relationship with couple, children, grandchildren, neighborhood), and stress management(sports dance, foot massage, positive thought, and song class). Conclusion: I propose that it is necessary to identity the effect of health promotion program for rural elderly. And strategy development that can spread the health promotion program elderly is needed.
Home Environmental Hazards of Falling Accident in the Elderly
Park, Young-Hae ; Moon, Jung-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 203~213
Purpose: To assess the environmental hazards of falling accident in the homes of the elderly. Method: 222 homes of the elderly were assessed by the home environmental Checklist from May to July in 2003. Results: The mean score of home environmental hazards for fall were 13.19 with the highest score being 49, ranging from 4 to 24. The bathroom was the most hazardous place in the home, porch came next bedroom, kitchen, living room and stair followed them. The floor surface such as finishes and non-skid mats was the most hazardous interior factor in the home, using bathroom came next furniture and illumination followed them. The floor surface such as finishes and non-skid mats in the bathroom, kitchen, living room and porch, illumination of bedroom and stair were the most prevalent hazards in the home of interior. Of the 49 potential hazards, bathroom grab bar was the most prevalent one with 89.9%, and non-skid rugs in the porch, bathroom and kitchen, safety of dinner table, the threshold and furniture of porch, and illumination of bedroom were prevalent more than half of the home under assessing. Men, living in the separate house or villa with stairs were in more hazardous environments. Conclusion: To reduce the potential hazards of fall accident in the home, improving hazards relating to floor surface such as slip resistance surface and mats is important specially those of the separate house or villa with stairs.
Health Literacy: Development of A Korean Health Literacy Assessment Tool
Kim, Sung-Soo ; Kim, Sang-Hyun ; Lee, Sang-Yeoup ;
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 215~227
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to develop a Korean Health Literacy Assessment Tool (KHLAT) and to encourage researchers in the public health education field to look at the concept of health literacy as one of the possible strategies to design and develop more effective health education campaigns in Korea. Methods: Data with 117 sample subjects was collected from various classes such as continuing adult classes and undergraduate classes. REALM, well-known and widely used health literacy tool in the US, was translated and modified for cultural considerations. The Korean modified version of the REALM was administrated to the targeted subjects who were asked to fill the survey questionnaires. Results: The findings appear to be consistent with the OCED reading literacy among Koreans. Health literacy among Korean seems to be more serious problem than we have expected before and this could be a major obstacle to effective health public education campaigns. Conclusions: In order to develop better public health education materials as well as health education programs, it may be critical for us as health educators to inform future physicians as well as practicing physicians of the important link between health literacy and the effective health education(or communication). It is now time for us to make sincere efforts in understanding health literacy one of effective strategies toward improving the public health.
A Study on the Preventive Attitudes and Health Behavior of Life-style Related Diseases in College Students
Yoon, Hyun-Suk ; Cho, Young-Chae ;
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 229~244
Objectives: An investigative effort was made to provide basic data upon which effective public health education can be constructed for schools. Methods: The research was made by delivering self-administered questionnaires to 536 men and women with unknown names from a national university during 1-month period on September of 2004. The questionnaire items included preventive attitudes, interests, anxiety, health behavior, consciousness, etc. centering upon life-style related diseases. Results and Conclusions: The preventive attitudes against life-style related diseases was of a higher level in female than male students, The smaller number of students had knowledge of the definition of life-style related diseases, willingness to learn, and gathered information on them. The number of students who had anxiety about them was also small and as low as 54.3% of students were willing to undertake periodic health examination. A great variation ranging from 4.7% to 81.7% was shown in the accuracy rate of answers on the questions asking about three leading causes of death, overconsumption of dietary salt, obesity, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and colon cancer. With regard to health behaviors, a smaller number of students were involved in health behaviors. On the other hand,
of students had everyday exercises and breakfasts, 65.5% had no tobacco use. The study results showed that the survey subjects had deficient knowledge as well as a low level of preventive attitudes and interests against life-style related diseases. Moreover, their health behavior and health consciousness were undesirable apart from their low rates of taking periodic health examinations. Accordingly, the college students should be encouraged to take health education and to make more effective the existing health education in the university.
Knowledge and Preventive Behavior on Work-related Musculoskeletal Disease in Beauty Artists
Kwon, Hyun-Sook ; Park, Yong-Euk ; Lee, Eun-Sook ; Yang, Sook-Hee ; Nam, Chul-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 245~256
The purpose of this study is to research the situation and related knowledge and behavior of Korean beauty artists on their musculoskeletal disorders and the factors on them. It was researched by questionnaire from March 1 to May 31, 2003, and the subjects were 984 of beauty artists who were working as hair designers, skin care specialists, and make-up artists over 1 year in big cities including Seoul, Daegu, Busan and Gwangju. The analyzation was done by frequency, percentage,
, t-test. The results can be summarized as follows; 1. As for their degree of pain according to part of their body, the highest was shoulder as 88.3%, and next were neck(cervical region) as 83.2%, waist as 77.6%, and wrist(hand) as 71.8%, in order. 2. The level of knowledge on the muscloskeletal disorder was 65.6 points on the basis 100points. As for their level of protective behavior and knowledge on the disorders of musculoskeletal system according to their educational experience, the higher educational level they had the higher knowledge level they showed, as 42.6% of 'high', 30.4% of 'medium', and 27.0% of low; and as for degree of performing the protective behavior, they showed the higher protective behavior level when they had the higher educational level. 3. As for their level of knowledge on disorders of musculoskeletal system according to their general uniqueness as beauty artists, they showed statistical significance on the field of their marriage status, educational degree, specialized field, and numbers of customers they manage; and as for the degree of their protective behavior, they showed statistical significance in the field of age, marriage status, specialized field, and rank in their jobs. 4. The level of protecting behavior on the muscloskeletal disorder was 57.4 points on the basis 100points. As for their degree of pain on each part of their body according to their protective behavior and knowledge on musculoskeletal system, it had statistical significance on their elbows and hips, and the less pain they showed when the higher knowledge they had; it had statistical significance on their neck(cervical region), shoulders, backs, waists, knees and ankles(feet) according their protective behavior, and the less pain they showed when the higher level of protective behavior they did.
Health Educator System of Japan
Nam, Eun-Woo ; Kim, Hye-Kyeong ;
Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 257~273
Objectives: The study was to analyse health educator system of Japan and to suggest some implications to certification system of health education specialist in Korea. Methods: A content analysis carried out for the study which is an establishment the central operating organization, and curriculum of health educator system of Japan. Related documents of Japanese Association of Health Education were reviewed and personnel of the central operating body was interviewed in 2005. Result: Major findings were as follows: 1. Health educators in Japan were trained and certified through a non governmental organization, named Health Educator Training Organization in cooperation with Japanese Society of Health Education and Promotion. 2. Certification system was developed by Japanese Society of Health Education and Promotion, and health educators were certified through fulfillment of professional training and examination administered by Health Educator Training Organization. 3. The professional training sessions were held twice a year and the credential should be renewed every five years. 4. The eligibility of participation in the professional training sessions and renewal requirement were defined in the regulations of Health Educator Training Organization. 5. There were two kinds of health educators in Japan. The first one was a practical health educator, and the other was a professional health educator. The training for a professional health educator was more intensive than the practical one and consigned to a graduate school designated by Health Educator Training Organization. Conclusion: Review of operating system, clarity of operating process, and the development of renewal system of health education specialist would be necessary for the improvement of certification system in Korea.