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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Health Policy and Management
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Health Policy and Administration
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Volume & Issues
Volume 2, Issue 2 - Dec 1992
Volume 2, Issue 1 - Jul 1992
Selecting the target year
Comparison of Relative Value on Physician Payment Schedule for reimbursement of health insurance between Korea and U.S.A.
Health Policy and Management, volume 2, issue 1, 1992, Pages 1~16
This study compares the physician payment of national fee schedule for Korean Medical Insurance with that of the United States based on Resource Based Relative Value Scales (RBRVS) which Hsiao developed in 1988 for the Medicare reimbursement. Through the comparison of two fees schedules, this study is purposed to evaluate the appropriateness of relative values which assigned to each physician services of Korean fee schedule. A total of 264 physician services are selected for the comparison. The ratio of Korean schedule to RBRVS is selected as an index of appropriateness. It the score of index shows large variation among services, the relative value of Korean fee schedule is inappropriate with U.S. RBRVS which was developed recently. The Ratios of Korean schedule to RBRVS are widly variated ; the range of those is 8.1 to 379.3. In subgroups which are regrouped to controll systematic differences between two national fee schedules, these ratios are also variated. Services which are relatively less compensated are management/evaluation services, while services which are relatively more compensated are invasive and imaging services. By the way, the service classification of Korean fee schedule is unclear, specially in management/evalutaion services. Therefore, Korean Medical Insurance fee schedule should be modified to be more balanced and rational.
Medical Practitioners' Reasons for Practice in Great Gity(Taegu)
Health Policy and Management, volume 2, issue 1, 1992, Pages 17~41
During the month of October, 1990, 676 practicing physicians in Taegu City were surveyed by mail questionnaires about their general characteristics and the reasons why they chose Taegu as a practice location and 331 out of them responded completely. Collected data were analyzed to provide basic reference data for future health manpower policy which intends to solve the problem of geographical maldistribution of physicians, The major findings are as follows: For the question asking why Taegu area is favored, following lists are as the order of their magnitude of the reasons replied by more than 20% of the respondents: 1) Taegu is a foundation of life until now(81.3%) 2) Better educational environments are available for their offsprings(73.7%) 3) They can have intimate relationship with acquaintances or friends sharing same or similar interests(61.0%) 4) Due to characteristics of their specialty, metropolitan seems to fit better(52.0%), 5) They graduated from the medical school in Taegu(49.8%) 6) Never thought of selecting practice location in other area than Taegu without any specific reasons(45.9%) 7) Intelligent communications are available with other physicians(39.9%) 8) More opportunities to participate in social life, such as medical, or alumni association etc., can be given(33.2%) 9) No specific knowledge or relationships with other area are available(32.6%) 10) They finished internship or residency training in Taegu area(31.4%) 11) Facilitation of transferring patients including emergent patients can be obtained (30.8%) 12) Continuing medical educational programs are available(29.9%) 13) Sufficient medical demands are provided because of the large population(28.1%) 14) More chances to be grown up as a medical professionals can be achieved(25.7%) 15) More leizure time can be utilized for cultural activities(23.9%) 16) They had experiences to work in hospitals or facilities in Taegu area(23.3%) 17) Medical facilities of fellow physicians or alumni can be used(20.5%) In addition, 37% of female physicians answered that their spouse strongly influenced them to choose Taegu, and 33.3% of physicians with age of thirty replied that parents did so. Physicians of specialty in radiology, clinical pathology, anatomical pathology, and anesthesiology considered that patients from other hospitals and medical facilities would be referred often to them and that less competition seemed to be expected in their specialty (30.8%). In contrast, general practitioners anticipated that larger population would increase the medical demand(62.5%). 28.6% of medical practitioners who graduated medical schools in other are than Taegu and 22.0% of medical practitioners who were trained in hospitals of other area than Taegu were influenced to choose Taegu by their spouses. In consideration of above findings, we may conclude that long term and rational manpower policies should be implemented to solve the problem of geographical maldistribution of physicians as well as short term physician-inducing policies, and they have to be incorporated with equitable community development.
Displayed Subjects of Practice and Case-Mix of Private Practitioners in Taegu City
Health Policy and Management, volume 2, issue 1, 1992, Pages 42~65
To survey the specialties or sujects of practice displayed by the private practitioners the authors visited 691 clinics in Taegu from April 1 to May 18, 1991, At the same time, a mail questionnaire was administered to ask the number of displayed subjects of practice, and the reasons for displaying the subjects, reasons for not displaying in case of no specialty was displayed, composition of patients, and role as a specialist. The questionnaire was returned by 308(44.6%) practitioners. The distributions of private practitioners by specialty were 13.9% for internal medicine (IM), 11.7% for pediatrics(Ped), 13.0% for obstetrics '||'&'||' gynecology(OBGY), 11.1% for general surgery(GS), 10.0% for family practice(FP), and 5.3% for general practitioner(GP). Ninety percent of the specialists have displayed their specialty in their offices. Among all the private practitioners, 61.9% of them have displayed their subjects of practice and 23.7% have shown telephone number. Among private practitioners who displayed the subjects of practice, 80.6% have signs of 'subjects of practice'. Mean number of the displayed subjects of practice for the all private practitioners is 1.20, and 1.93 for the private practitioners who displayed subjects of practice. FP and GS have displayed their subjects of practice in 91.2% and 87.0% respectively and OBGY have displayed in 32.2%, the lowest percentage among all the soecuaktues. IM specialists displays pediatrics as a major subject of practice in 72.1% the pediatricians display IM in 88.9% the OBGYs display pediatrics in 77.8%, and the GSs display IM in 51.9%. Most commonly displayed subjects of practice are Ped and IM. Sixty-five percent of the private practitioners answered that they don't display their specialties because their clinics are "primary health care facility". The reasons for displaying the subjects of practice and its relevance with their own specialty(45.6%), and the difficulty in clinic management only with the patients for their own specialty(36.9%). The proportion of clinics whose patients of other specialty are than their own specialty accounted less than 10% was 52.8% and that accounted more than 51% was 16.0%. Specially, 51.4% of GS specialists cared more than 51% of patients of other specialty area than their own specialty. Most of the patients of IM, Ped, and OBGY specialists are the patients of their own specialty. However, 56.8% of GS care more of IM patients and only 24.3% of them care mostly GS patients, The respondents to the mail questionnaire who stated that they can not play the role of specialist well are 30.5% and especially 72.9% of the GS specialists state so. The proportion of respondents who do not suffort the private practice of specialists is 71.1%. Among the surgical specialists, 82.7% of them rarely perform operation. The reasons for not performing operation are insufficient insurance fee (76.9%), and risk of operation(58.0%), so as the OBGY specialists. Above finidngs suggest that most of the specialists, especially surgeons, in the private practice can not play their role as a specialist. It is necessary to develop a policy that facilitates the production of practice and the retention of the specialists in the hospitals.s.
Individual Variations in the Code of the International Classification of Disease for Similar Outpatient Conditions among General Practitioners
Health Policy and Management, volume 2, issue 1, 1992, Pages 66~79
The code of the International Classification of Disease(ICD) is seriously questioned on its effectiveness in identifing an independent disease entity from similar conditions at general practitioner's offices. This study has attempted to show individual coding variations in ICD for similar ambulatory care conditions. It has been assumed that a following outpatient visit is regarded as the sane kind of visit owing to the same disease if a visit to the different source of care would be mad within an interval of less than two days. The 'D' health insurance association was selected for this analysis. The 'D' association had 153,298 members and made claims of 642,605 outpatient care in 1990. Out of the total outpatient claims, 8.6%(55,102 claims) were counted as the same disease which could meet the above assumption. Percent of conditions classified as the 10 leading causes of frequent visits which were matched accurately to the subsequent ICD diagnostic code found to be 15.8% on the average. The URI was noted for the highest concurrence rate of 20.4%. This proportion was even decreased to 11.6% on the case of chronic disease. Despite the fact that the assumption underlying the definition of the above same disease is rather rough and inappropriate, this study reveals that the code of ICD currently in use has weaknesses in seperating a certain independent disease from similar conditions at the outpatient setting. Thus, efforts need to be elaborated to meet the need of a new system of classification for conditions and diseases encountering at ambulatory care.
Models of Social Relief Schemes for Medical Malpractice
Health Policy and Management, volume 2, issue 1, 1992, Pages 80~114
Current compensation schemes for medical malpractice based on negligence is absolutely malfunctioning in Korea. Focussing on the reform of present tort systems for resolving medical malpractice disputes, this paper discusses the alternative models of the Social Relief Schemes for Medical Malpractice (SRSMM). Alternative models of SRSMM should fundamentally be based on either negligence or nofalult compensation principle. On the foundation of the previous relief principle, the SRSMM should be equupped with three major components-the preventio/reduction of the sharp increasing medical malpractice, the effective and efficient resolving process for malpractice disputes and the proper social financing scheme for compensation. The paper deals with pros and cons of the possible alternative models for reform centering on the three major components of the scheme. As conclusions, administrative arbitration machinaries and a compulsory fund for compensating the injured under the negligence principle are proposed to resolve the current problems Korea has faced.
Pathway of Medical Care Seeking of Insured Patients
Health Policy and Management, volume 2, issue 1, 1992, Pages 115~147
The purposes of this paper are twofold : to identify what pathway insured patients are seeking medical care services through, and then, to provide the basis for the prediction and evaluation of the effects of a new policy intervention. To change the patient flow across different types of medical care facilities, this intervention has been enforced since July 1, 1989. It is mainly aimed at discouraging the use of the tertiary hospitals by imposing some restrictions on the patient's choice. The data for analysis were obtained from the claims to the insurance for govermment and school employees. The sample was drawn from the claims for about 1% of the enrollees using medical care facilities during 2 years since January 1, 1985. The sample included 91, 483 for 1985 and 81,914 for 1986, among them the number of patients to initiate the use of medical care service were 66,757 and 59,498 respectively. This paper analysed what types of and how many medical care facilities the patient with same disease had used.
Change of Health Care Utilization Pattern with the Establishment of Health Center Hospital in a District
Health Policy and Management, volume 2, issue 1, 1992, Pages 147~166
The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of the health center hospital on the health service utilization pattern of the rural population in a county. Two field studies had been conducted in Yonchon County, Kyunggi Province, on February 1989 and on August 1991 before and after the establishment of the Yonchon health center hospital. This study revealed that Yonchon health center hospital occupied 7.3% of total outpatient visits and 16.8% of hospitalization of the county population and the self-sufficient rate of the outpatient visit and hospitalization of Yonchon County between two field studies increased by 1.7% and 20.9% each. Yonchon health center hospital contributed to the growth of the public health sector but it weakened the role of health sub-centers. For the efficient health service utilization of the population in that County, more investment to health center hospital would be needed and the primary health activities of the health subcenter should be enforced.
Effects of Regional Health Insurance on Access to Ambulatory Care
Health Policy and Management, volume 2, issue 1, 1992, Pages 167~203
The effects of regional health insurance on access to ambulatory care are examined in this paper. Access is measured as use-disability ratios. The data are collected in a household interview survey at Hwachon county before and after the introduction of regional health insurance. Before the introduction of regional health insurance, low-income class has less contacts with physicians than high-income class. This disparity in accessibility among economic classes is reduced with the health insurance coverage, but not removed, even after adjusting for health need.