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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Health Policy and Management
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Health Policy and Administration
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Volume & Issues
Volume 3, Issue 2 - Nov 1993
Volume 3, Issue 1 - Jun 1993
Selecting the target year
Appropriateness of Bed Utilization in One University Hospital
Health Policy and Management, volume 3, issue 1, 1993, Pages 1~24
This study is designed to find clues to make a plan for efficient hospital bed utilization. Author has tried to estimate the level of appropriateness and to find out factors affecting intra-hospital variation of inappropriate bed utilization using modified Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol of which criteria are based on service intensity and patients' conditions. Systematic random sampling was done from the population of inpatients during one month in on university hospital. Data were collected by concurrent and retrospective medical record review and analysed by multiple logistic regression. In medical services, 83.5% of admission reveals appropriate and the level of inappropriate admission shows significant differences by patients' residence, type of department admitted to, admission 개\ulcorner, and length of stay. In surgical services, 97.3% and 34.7% are appropriate in location and timing of surgery respectively. Inappropriate timing of surgery differs significantly depending on patients' age, type of department admitted to, admission route, and length of stay. Sixty two percent of hospital days shows appropriate and the level of inappropriateness show marked differences by patients'age, type of services, admission routes, part of the month, part of the stay, and length of stay. Inappropriate hospital days are due to inappropriate level of care, premature admission, improper scheduling of diagnostic or therapeutic procedures, and problems in scheduling surgery in sequence. In conclusion, substantially high proportion of inappropriate hospital bed utilization was confirmed. To reduce it, it is necessary to develop alternative services with which can replace inpatient services, and to introduce utilization management system which may include internal peer review.
Inpatient Cost Variation among Hospitals in Some Tracer Diseases
Health Policy and Management, volume 3, issue 1, 1993, Pages 25~52
Variation in the utilization of medical services is a very important issue in cost containment and quality assurance of health care. Practice variation directly affects health care expenditure especially in fee-for-service system, which is the payment system of health insurance in Korea. In addition to cost issue it is generally accepted that variations in medical practice and the cost of inpatient care suggest the possibility of inappropriate quality of care. This study is to closely examine the patterne and degrees of variation in cost structure of inpatient care among types of hospital and individual hospitals in some tracer diseases, and also to inquire into the service items which contribute much to the variation of total medical care cost. Foru common diseases, i.e. Cesarean Section, appendectomy, cataract extraction and pediatric pneumonia, were selected as tracer diseases. In most tracer diseases there were statistically significant differences in total medical care cost among hospitals in same type of hospital as well as among types of hospital(p<0.01). When total medical care cost were subdivided into the types of service, cost of medication and diagnostic examination varied the most prominenly. When the cost of medication were subdivided again, cost of parenteral antibiotics showed the most prominent variation. Of total medical care cost, medication was most contributory to the variation of total medical care cost(58.1~82.3%), and cost of antibiotics was most contributory to the variation of medication cost(63.9~92.2%). The results of study implicated that reducing the variation of medication may plays a significant role in containing the cost of inpatient care. In order to sort out the factors affecting practice variations including drug prescription pattes further researches are required.
An Analysis on the Characteristics of High Cost Patients in the Regional Medical Insurance Program
Health Policy and Management, volume 3, issue 1, 1993, Pages 53~83
A small number of high cost patients usually spend a larger proportion of scarce health resources. Korea is no exception. Under the national health insurance, 12% of the insured persons have consumed approximately half of the national health insurance expenditures. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the characteristics of the high cost patient group, if we would like to reduce them. This study has defined high cost patients as those who have spent one and half million won and over per 6 months. The study reveals that high cost users are those who have a longer length of stays(LOS), 40days of LOS in the 6 months, have multiple admissions, 2 to 3 admissions per 6 months and are the elderly patients. They have spent 814.126won per on the average, and commonly suffered from malignant neoplasms, circulatory diseases, fracture, diabetes mellitus, etc. Unlike the case of western developed countries, early readmissions are not the major causes of high cost spending in Korea. Undoubtedly, a lengthy admission is the main cause of large spending. Health policies should vigorously be explored to respond appropriately. There are evidences that hospital beds are often misused. As the Korean health care system is lacking in a mechanism of patient evaluation under the fee-for-service remuneration system, an idea of progressive patient care needs to be tested. The Goverment should set up health policy to diversify the role of long-term care facilities and encourage people to establish them. Further studies are needed to identify factors influencing large medical bills necessary for formulating the health policy on cost containment.
The Development of the Composite Index as a method of rate adjustment
Health Policy and Management, volume 3, issue 1, 1993, Pages 84~101
The current method of rate adjustment is based on the evaluation of the financial performance of hospitals. The method has the disadvantages such as too complicated, expensive process as well as low reliability due to small sample size. This study, therefore, develops a new model for the rate adjustment with the use of the composite index. In addition to that, it examines the validity of the model by comparing the result of the new method with that of the conventional method. The idea of the new model comes from the Medicare Economic Index(MEI) on which physician fees for the Medicare patients are adjusted periodically in the United States. Medical costs are classified into three groups : labor costs, materials and other expenses. Labor costs are subdivided into physicians and other personnels. Materials are subdivided into drugs and others. Other expenses are subdivided into 5 items. Macro economic indices are selected for each cost item in order to reflect the cost inflation during the specific period. Then the composite index which integrate all items according to the ration of each item in the total costs is calculated. The result from the application of empirical data to the new model is very similar to that of the current method. Furthermore, this method is very simple and also to easy to get social concensus. This model can be replaced the current method based on the analysis of the financial performance for the adjustment of medical fees.
The Relationship between HMO's Organizational Structures and Cost Reduction
Health Policy and Management, volume 3, issue 1, 1993, Pages 102~123
This study investigates effcts of HMO internal structural arrangements on performance, specially cost reduction measured by hospitalization rate. This study formulates formalization, centralization measured by decision-making participation, differentiation, and coordination as structural factors, considering coordination as an intermediate factor between the rest of structural factors and hospitalization rate. The commonly used HMO types is assumed not effective in explaining performance differences. For the empirical test, I use bootstrap regression analyses with 48 HMOs. The results of the analyses show that HMO types fail to explain differences in hospitalization rate. However, dicision-making participation and differention effectively reduce hospiatalization rate, while frmalization increases hospitalization rate and coordination has nonessential effect on hospitalization rate. And, formalization and decision-making participation positively contribute to achieve coordination in HMO. These findings suggest that the theoretical framework derived from rational-citingency theory of formal organization better explains performance differences of HMOs than HMO types.
A Study on the Most Frequent Diseases of Health Insurance Program and the Primary Care Physicians in Korea
Health Policy and Management, volume 3, issue 1, 1993, Pages 124~145
General practitioners, internists, pediatricians, and family physicians are classified as so-called primary care physicians in the United States. We carried out this study for the purpose of answering the following question; "Who are the primary care physicians in Korea\ulcorner" We analyzed the 663, 154 claims which were drawn from the health insurance processing file made during the period of one month, April 1992 on the basis of systemic random sampling technique. The 663, 154 cases were matched with the doctor's file registered at the National Federation Medical Insurance by using the indivisual physician code number and analyzed according to the kind of specialty. If we follow the Geyman's definition of primary care physician in the United States, this study shows that they can take care of 43.2% of the total private clinic's claims in Korea. Provided that general practitioners and family physicians are considered the same way as in the United Kingdom, they could with only 8.3% of the total claims in Korea. The most frequent diseases are those which rank first to 46th in the total private clinic's claims. The proportion of the most frequent diseases was highest for pediatricians(90.4%) and followed by internists(81.4%), otolaryngologists(78.7%) and family physicians(76.5%). The proportion of the most frequent diseases in the most common 46 diseases was highest for radiologists(80.4%) and the next was as follows : general practitioners(78.3%), family physicians(67.4%), and internists(67.4%). We classified the most common 20 diseases of each specialty into 17 categories of ICD-9 and compared it with those of general practitioners. The specialists who had managed a similar disease pattern to those of general practitioners were identified as anesthesiologists, family physicians, general surgeons, and internists. Some specialists practicing at private clinics managed the diseases which were not quite appropriate for their specialties. After we evaluated each specialty by the most common diseases, the most frequent diseases, and the most frequent 20 diseases of each specialty in terms of the 17 categories of ICD-9, a tentative assumption is made that the primary physicians in the Republic of Korea are general practitioners, anesthesiologists, family physicians, internists, and general surgeons. This study has concluded that the categories of the primary care physicians are so diverse that their roles and distributions are distorted accordingly. Vigorous health policy efforts in correcting the malcomposition need to be made for the better provision of primary health care in Korea. in Korea.
The Supply and Demand Projection of Nurses in Korea
Health Policy and Management, volume 3, issue 1, 1993, Pages 146~168
The study was conducted to project supply and demand of the nurses till year 2010 based on analysis of supply and demand of nurses up to year 1991. Results of the study will provide invaluable information for nurses manpower planning as well as overall health manpower planning for the 21th century. It is projected that nurses will be oversupplied based on the current prductivity which is undesirable situation if the quality of care is considered, and undersupplied based on the the medical law as well as optimal productivity. Thus, it is desirable to increase active supply of nurses. One of the ways of increasing active supply would be increasing the size of training and education. But, considering low employment rate of nurses which is about 59% better way of solving problems related to nurses shortage would be improvement in nurses' employment rate. According to simulation study done as part of this study, if nurses' employment rate goes up to 80%, there is no need for increasing the size of training to meet the demand at the level of medical law.