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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Health Policy and Management
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The Korean Society of Health Policy and Administration
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Volume & Issues
Volume 3, Issue 2 - Nov 1993
Volume 3, Issue 1 - Jun 1993
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Performance Evaluation of Information System for Health Center
Health Policy and Management, volume 3, issue 2, 1993, Pages 1~24
The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of the health information system on the productivity and behavioral aspects of health workers as well as quality of services to the visitors using the Vaccination room at the Kwon Sun Ku health center located in Suwon city as a study subject. Three survery were conducted to measure the changes in productivity and adoptation process(knowledge, attitude, activity, and satisfaction) of health workers over time during the period of 20 months. In addition, the effects of the information system on the quality of services to the visitors were also masured 7 months after the 3rd survey by comparing the quality of services between the study health center and the similar health center as a control group. The following results were obtained. First, productivity of health workers has improved over time as they became familiar with the system. Second, knowlege and activity did not significantly changed, but attitude score unexpectly decreased in the second survey. This may be due to an effect of intensive training prior to the first survery. Third, quality of services for the study center was better than other health center. While the health information system had positive effects on the productivity as well as the adoptation process, there are several limitations to establish a causal effect relationship between the two variables. For example, the system has kept modified since its development to meet the changing needs of the workers, and this may affect the productivity more than the adoptation process. Furthermore, since the study subject was only one health oenter, it lacks representativeness to generalize the study findings. Therefore, more health centers should be included in the study to solve such problems in the future.
Community-based Hypertension Control Program in Hwachon : Problems and Possibilities
Health Policy and Management, volume 3, issue 2, 1993, Pages 25~56
Hypertension has already become a serious health problem in many countries. Treatment is effective, however, and the detection and long-term management of those at risk pose sustained challenges. Community programs can be an important strategy for primary prevention of hypertention and for monitoring the progress and promoting compliance of hypertensive patients. Hwachon Health Demonstrain Project has designed community hypertention control program, especially emphasizing role of public health sector, and operate that model from 1990 at Hwachon county, Kwangwon province. This paper appraise the effectiveness of curent activities. Many paper appraise the effectiveness of curent activities. Many hypertensive persons who have not recognized his disease were identified and began hypertension treatment. However about two thirds of patients have not complied continuously with medical advice. Consequently, the project team redirects its efforts. Less emphasis is being placed screening and identification of patients, while more emphasis is being placed on increasing compliance with treatment recommendations. Some approches to improve hypertension control program are also discussed in the context of the field experience and literature on this suvjest.
The Factors Affecting Patient-Flow
Health Policy and Management, volume 3, issue 2, 1993, Pages 27~80
It is widely known that patients' utilization pattern for medical care facilities and the patientflow are influenced by multi-factors, such as demographic characteristics, structural characteristics of society, socio-psychological characteristics(value, attitude, norms, culture, health behavior, etc.), economic characteristics(income, medical price, relative price, physician induced demand, etc.), geographical accessibility, systematic characteristics(health care delivery system, payment methods for physician fees, form of health care security, etc.), and characteristics of medical facilities(reliability, quality of medical care, convenience, kindness, tec.). This study was conducted to research the mechanism of patient-flow according to changes of health care system(implementation of national health insurance, health care referral system and regionalization of health care utilization, etc.) and characteristics of medical facilities(ownership of hospital, characteristics of medical services, non-medical characteristics, etc.). In this study, the fact could be ascertained that the patient-flow had been influenced by changes of health care system and characteristics of medical facilities.
Geographical Distribution of Physician Manpower under the Influence of Public Health Physician
Health Policy and Management, volume 3, issue 2, 1993, Pages 81~99
The purpose of this research is to assess the geographical distribution of physicians and dentists and the degree of maldistribution of the physician. Data were obtained form the Korean Medical Association's report on physicians registry and census for 1990. To assess the degree of disparity in the rural-urban distribution of physician manpower and to identify changes in the distribution pattern, the Gini index of concentration was used. Major findings are as follows; 1. Urban-rural disparity in the distribution of physician manpower exists in all categories of manpower, i.e. physician, dentist, oriental medical doctor, general practitioner, medical specialist, practitioner, public health physician and public health dentist. Urban area which had 74.4% of nation's population, accounted for over 90% of all physician manpower. 2. In terms of the ration of physician manpower per 10, 000 population, in urban area, they were 8.2 physicians, 2.7 general practitioners, 5.5 specialists, 3.0 practitioners, 1.8 dentists and 1.3 oriental medical doctors. In rural area, the ratios were 1.4 physicians, 0.6 general practitioners, 0.9 specialists, 1.0 practitioners, 0.4 dentists and 0.4 oriental medical doctors. 3. Gini indicies computed to measure inequality of physician manpower distribution were 0. 3675 for physicians, 0.3372 for general practitioners, 0.3338 for specialists, 0.2263 for practitioners, 0.3132 for dentists and 0.3293 for oriental medical doctors. 4. Inspite of increase in the number of physician manpower, urban concentration of physician manpower intensified from 1980 to 1990. However, the Gini index for all physician manpower fell by 18.3~36.7% from 1980 to 1990, indicating more even distribution. 5. In rural area, the public health physicians and dentists had increased the ratios of physicians, general practitioners, practitioners and dentists per 10, 000 population remarkebly, and had decreased the Gini indicies of physicians, general practitioners, practitioners and dentists. Thus, public health physicians and dentists contributed to improve the distribution of physician manpower in rural area. Based on the results of this study, long-term and rational manpower policies should be developed to solve the problem of geographical maldistribution of physician manpower as well as short-term policy for inducing physicians to the rural areas.
Chracteristics of Primary Health Practice and Diagnosis-Cluster Pattern in Health Insurance
Health Policy and Management, volume 3, issue 2, 1993, Pages 100~129
This study is designed to find out some intra-clinic factors affecting the content of practice provided by primary care physicians in Korea, and proposed factors in this study are characteristcs of each private clinc --- physician-related variables(age, sex, specialty), bfed-related variables for inpatient care, laboratory-related variables for precise diagnosis. We have tried to estimate the difference of disease entities cared by each primary care physician according to above factors by analyzin gdisease data claimed during one month(April, 1992) to National Federation of Medical Insurance. The diagnosis codes by ICD-9 in the research disease data were reclassified to 'diagnosis clusters' by virtue of clinical similarities for effective analyses. We have converted frequent-tsing ICD-9 codes to 86 diagnosis clusters, which incorporated 97.4 percents of all ambulatory visits to private clinics. This result means proposed diagnosis-cluster method is effective tool for analysis of the content of ambulatory medical care carried out by primary care physicians. Comparisons and analyses of multiple diagnosis-clusters made on the basis of presented factors were done and the results were as follows; - Major factors affecting the difference between diagnosis-cluster pattern by each variables were phyusician's age, sex, specialty and bed counts of each private clinic for inpatient care and the size of laboratories of each clinic. - Middle aged(30th to 40th) group physicians are providing more comprehensive care than 20th or above 50th aged groups. Male physicians are more adequate for comprehensive care than female physicians, because woman-doctors are providing narrow-spectrum care. The content of practice of obstetricians and gynecologists shows much difference from primary medical practice, and they cannot be included in primary care physician, this study suggested. Pediatricians are also providing short-spectum acre, and nearly all visits to pediatricians were incorporated only 2-3 diagnosis-clusters. General surgeons' practices are very similar to general practioners' or family physicians' practices, the means they are providing primary care rather than special surgical care. And small number of beds(under 5 beds) and only basic(2-3 sorts of)diagnostic apparatuses are sufficient for primary physicians' clinic to carry out primary care. In conclusion, to reinforce primary care department in Korea, there must be support with health policy to expand office-based primary care practice-- with small number of beds for inpatient care and only basic laboratories-- provided by general practitioner of family physician.
The Influences of Health Insurance on the Contents of Medical Services for Selected Hospitalized Patients
Health Policy and Management, volume 3, issue 2, 1993, Pages 130~158
This study was written to discover the changes that may exist in the contents of medical services after introduction of health insurance system, and to identify the net-effect of health insurance system on medical services. Uncomplicated nornmal delivery and appendectomy patients were divided into 4 groups, the non-insured in pre-NHI periods(group A), the insured of health insurance for employees in pre-NHI periods(group B), the insured of regional health insurance for city residents in post-NHI periods(group C) and the insured of health insurance for employees in post-NHI periods(group D). The mehtod of matching was applied to control for major demographic differences among these 4 groups of each disease. In pre-NHI period, the medical services and the variation of medical services of the non-insured were compared with those of the insured. The difference between the change of medical services from group A to those of group C, and the change of medical services from group B to those group D is defined as the net-effect of health insurance. The results are as follows. First, in length of stay after delivery or operation, total length of stay, some laboratory examination, amount of several drugs used in appendectomy patients, frequency of sitz bath in delivery patients, there was net-effect of health insurance in increasing direction. Second, length of stay after delivery or operation, total length of stay, some laboratory examination, amount of several drugs used in appendectomy patients and frequency of sitz bath in delivery patients were significantly more in the insured than in the non-insured group in pre-NHI period. Third, the variation of medical services of post-NHI period was not less then those of pre-NHI period. Fourth, antenatal care on which the third party does not pay and the patient pays for all, was diffrerent by socioeconomic and educational level of patients.
A Ppoisson Regression Aanlysis of Physician Visits
Health Policy and Management, volume 3, issue 2, 1993, Pages 159~176
The utilization of outpatient care services involves two steps of sequential decisions. The first step decision is about whether to initiate the utilization and the second one is about how many more visits to make after the initiation. Presumably, the initiation decision is largely made by the patient and his or her family, while the number of additional visits is decided under a strong influence of the physician. Implication is that the analysis of the outpatient care utilization requires to specify each of the two decisions underlying the utilization as a distinct stochastic process. This paper is concerned with the number of physician visits, which is, by definition, a discrete variable that can take only non-negative integer values. Since the initial visit is considered in the analysis of whether or not having made any physician visit, the focus on the number of visits made in addition to the initial one must be enough. The number of additional visits, being a kind of count data, could be assumed to exhibit a Poisson distribution. However, it is likely that the distribution is over dispersed since the number of physician visits tends to cluster around a few values but still vary widely. A recently reported study of outpatient care utilization employed an analysis based upon the assumption of a negative binomial distribution which is a type of overdispersed Poisson distribution. But there is an indication that the use of Poisson distribution making adjustments for over-dispersion results in less loss of efficiency in parameter estimation compared to the use of a certain type of distribution like a negative binomial distribution. An analysis of the data for outpatient care utilization was performed focusing on an assessment of appropriateness of available techniques. The data used in the analysis were collected by a community survey in Hwachon Gun, Kangwon Do in 1990. It was observed that a Poisson regression with adjustments for over-dispersion is superior to either an ordinary regression or a Poisson regression without adjustments oor over-dispersion. In conclusion, it seems the most approprite to assume that the number of physician visits made in addition to the initial visist exhibits an overdispersed Poisson distribution when outpatient care utilization is studied based upon a model which embodies the two-part character of the decision process uderlying the utilization.