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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation
Editor in Chief :
Moo Jong Park
Volume & Issues
Volume 11, Issue 6 - Dec 2011
Volume 11, Issue 5 - Oct 2011
Volume 11, Issue 4 - Aug 2011
Volume 11, Issue 3 - Jun 2011
Volume 11, Issue 2 - Apr 2011
Volume 11, Issue 1 - Feb 2011
Selecting the target year
Anti-seismic Capacity Improvement of Bridge Pier by Nickel-Chrome Alloy Bar
Jang, Il-Young ; Kim, Sung-Soo ; Park, Jong-Kwon ; Kim, Seong-Kyum ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.001
The newly bridge, as amended by the Highway Bridge Seismic design standards and by performing the construction. But, prior to the construction standards apply seismic. Reinforced concrete piers may be vulnerable to an earthquake by the lateral loads. In this study, modeling performed seismic reinforcement and reinforcement techniques through experiments of various types of best seismic reinforcement techniques. It has not been applied Seismic techniques to apply to the existing bridge seismic reinforcement. So, It will be able to performance. In this paper, reinforced through the numerical modeling for the pier reinforcement. The results compared to the after reinforcement against. Displacement was confirmed that more reduction. A non-seismic design for a circular pier models produced. It subject to reduction as a high seismic reinforcement material properties of nickel-chrome alloy using a strip, spiral, horizontal and vertical mixed-seismic reinforcement. It was applied to the experimental. As a result, that the form of a spiral is better than the horizontal and vertical mixed stripes type and strip shape in seismic reinforcement performance was confirmed.
A Study on the Adhesive Strength of Capsule Chemical Lot Anchors
Seo, Seong-Yeon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 9~15
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.009
Recently the use of post-installed anchors has been increasing because this constructing method is flexible and easy to attach or fix structural members when we repair, reinforce, or remodel structures. And the design standard formula of expansion anchors, one method of post-installed anchors, has been settled to a certain level through continual experimental studies for the last about ten years. But analyses or experimental studies of chemical anchors, which are adhesive anchors, are yet insufficient. Accordingly, designers and builders of Korea depend on foreign design codes since there are no exact domestic chemical anchor design codes that they could credit. There are two objectives in this study. The first objective is to investigate the effects of the variations like anchor diameter, anchor interval, embedment depth and edge distance on adhesive strength of capsule chemical lot anchors embeded in plain concrete through drawing experiments of chemical anchors. The second objective is to supply basic data for enactment of domestic chemical anchor design codes.
Comparative Study on Stair verses Elevator Shaft Pressurization for Fire Smoke Control
Park, Kyung-Hwan ; So, Soo-Hyun ; Yoon, Myung-Oh ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 17~23
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.017
Pressurization of stair and elevator shaft is used to prevent the diffusion of smoke over the whole building through the elevator shaft and stair in high rise building. At the apartment which combines the vestibule of a special evacuation stair and the platform of an emergency elevator, the pressurization test of stairway and elevator shaft was carried out. At the elevator pressurization test, the amount of air was 150 CMM, which was necessary to sustain the pressure difference of the standard, 50 Pa, at the condition of all closed doors. When an elevator door was opened, the average velocity went beyond the standard value, 0.75 m/s, at the swelling door and kept the pressure difference of 10 Pa was sustained at the non-opened floor. On the other hand, in the case of the pressurization of stairway, when a low-floor door was opened, the pressure difference of 10 Pa could not be kept at the closed floor even though the amount of air of 180 and 360 CMM was supplied. When a high-floor door was opened, the pressure difference of 10 Pa was made at the non-opened floor, but the overpressure was caused at the low-floor. Therefore, the comparision result of two methods of smoke control showed that the pressurization of elevator shaft have better performance than that of the pressurization of stairway.
Experimental Study on Bond Performance between High Strength Concrete and Steel Pipe
Han, So-Jeong ; Lee, Young-Hak ; Kim, Dae-Jin ; Kim, Hee-Cheul ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 25~32
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.025
For design of composite members, the behavior between two materials; concrete and steel pipe is considered importantly. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the bond performance between two materials: high strength concrete and steel pipe. The composite members are manufactured by using headed shear stud as shear connector. The presence of shear connector, diameter of shear connector, ratio of diameter to height of shear connector and covering depth were considered as variables for experiment. And failure mode, maximum load and bond stress were evaluated. The test result showed that the bond stress of the specimen using shear connector with diameter of 19 mm and H/d ratio of 4 was approximately 26% than that of the reference specimen using shear connector with diameter of 13 mm and H/d ratio of 4. The bond stress of the specimen using shear connector with diameter of 13 mm and H/d ratio of 5.5 were 12% than that of the reference specimen. The test results indicate that the bond strength between concrete and steel pipe is most improved when the diameter increases and H/d ratio is up to 5.5.
Structural Behavior of Compressive and Flexural Members Due to Corroded Reinforcing Bars and Different Bonding Interfaces
Jung, Woo-Young ; Kwon, Min-Ho ; Ahn, Mi-Kyoung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 33~39
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.033
This research presents an experimental study on the load capacity of reinforced concrete(RC) compression and flexural members induced by chloride corrosion. The parameters considered in this study are both the increased corrosion ratios of reinforcing bar and the variation of partial corroded length. Some test specimens are corroded by using Accelerated Potentiometeric Corrosion Method and the others which are fabricated by using compressive rubber tubes at the contact surface between concrete and steel bar are tested in order to investigate the load capacity of the structure in the events of the degradation of bonding strength at the interface between concrete and steel bar. It is finally shown that the overall load capacity of compression member with corroded reinforcing bars is decreased because it is mainly influenced by not the bonding strength at the concrete-steel contact surface but the reduction of the effective section area at the corroded reinforcing bar; while for the flexural members, compared to the compression member, the degradation of load capacity is remarkable. It is evident that the flexural member is influenced by both two parameters like the effective area and bonding strength at the contact surface except initial corrosion ratio 2%. The reduction of the load capacity of this member leads to occur severe crack and prematured failure after yielding the member.
Strengthening Effect of CFRP Sheets and Steel Fibers for Enhancing the Impact Resistance of RC Beams
Kim, Mi-Hye ; Min, Kyung-Hwan ; Yoo, Doo-Yeol ; Yoon, Young-Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 41~47
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.041
In this study, a numerical analysis to investigate the effect of each reinforcing method on the impact resistance was performed by simulating the impact loading test of the RC beams strengthened with CFRP sheets and steel fibers using the finite element analysis program. LS-DYNA, which is the explicit finite element analysis program, was used to analyze the dynamic behavior of RC beams effectively. The energy absorption capacity and plastic strain aspect of RC beams were estimated as the applied impact energy increases step by step. Analysis results indicate that the absorbed energy rates of specimens strengthened with CFRP sheets and steel fibers were higher than those of other specimens. According to the evaluation result of plastic strain aspect, the those concentration was relieved by the dispersion of the impact energy due to the strengthening effects of CFRP sheets and steel fibers. In addition, the tendency of Shear-Plug crack for each specimen was similar to the experimental result of the previous study.
Economic Structural Systems of 3-Bay Venlo-Type Greenhouses
Park, Jong-Sup ; Kim, Young-Hee ; Seo, Kwang-Kye ; Kim, Young-Sik ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 49~54
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.049
This study investigates the structural safety and economic of typical 3-bay venlo-type greenhouses. Maximum design loads in the Greenhouse Design Specifications(1995) were considered to evaluate and develop new 3-bay venlo-type frame greenhouse system. Numerical studies using a general finite-element program, ABAQUS(2007), were conducted to determine optimal design sections. Twelve of the frame systems and five of the cross section types were investigated in this study. Finally, the new 3-bay venlo-type frame greenhouse system was developed. The new systems can be simply and economically used during the design and construction of the 3-bay venlo-type greenhouses.
Estimation of Frequencies for Track Loading and Loop Type Precast Deck with Tracking Tests
Sung, Ik-Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 55~61
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.055
Increase in traffic intensity and speed requires more complex analysis of structures than it was case before. today it is necessary to consider dynamic behaviour of structures that has been induced by loads moving over a structure. To Investigate about dynamic coupled effects on the simple supported precast segment bridge deck and moving vehicle tracking behavior. In this paper, an experimental study is performed in other to determine the frequencies to find the effects of interaction between vehicle and structures. Tracking vehicle is consist of real rubber tire and adequate mass and weight. Results presented in this paper show that a real vehicle tracking effects are expressed more realistic dynamic behavior.
A Numerical Study on Performance-Based Design for Pier and Superstructure in Pile Supported Modular Pedestrian Pier
Yoo, Sang-Ryang ; Park, Jong-Sup ; Yoon, Ki-Young ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 63~73
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.063
There are making many pedestrian piers in the West Coast due to the increase of tourism population. The Coastal and Harbor Design Specifications(2005) are used to design domestic pedestrian piers, but the Specifications produce very conservative design for the pedestrian piers because of the heavy design loads. This paper presents the comparisons and evaluations of several domestic and foreign design criteria to determine the design load of the pedestrian piers. Numerical analyses using finite-element program MIDAS were performed to suggest some of performance-based design sections in pile supported modular pedestrian piers(PSMP). Five of analyses parameters and Four of loading conditions were applied to 324 analyses models. Deflections, stresses, and natural frequencies from the analyses results were investigated to evaluate the design sections. Finally, this study suggests the performance-based design sections of the PSMP based on the specifications and the design parameters considered in this paper.
Damage Analysis of Underpass Columns by LW Grouting
Hwang, Chul-Sung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 75~82
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.075
Labiles Waterglass Grouting(LW Grouting) is one of the ground improvement methods to protecting water leakage and reinforcement in underground structures. Some of central columns of an underpass are damaged during injection of grouting liquid which is to improve loose soil for the construction of tunnel directly across beneath the underpass. Three dimensional analysis are performed with construction stages including the construction of underpass, the excavating of construction base and LW grouting to investigate the grouting influences to the underpass and the cause of damage. Even though the injection pressure of LW grouting is relatively low to the other grouting methods, the injection pressure is directly affect to the underpass while the bedrock layer which confine the pressure. The columns of underpass are damaged by shear force since the grouting arrangement is curved and the lateral component of injection pressure occurred. To improve the LW grouting effect and avoid similar pattern of accident, it is necessary to take account the injection pressure in primary design stage, grouting arrangement and injection order to prevent the unequal upheaval.
Study on the Distribution Characteristics of Crack Width and Length in the Existing Concrete Building : Case Study
Park, Se-Jung ; Lee, Young-Dai ; Kim, Won-Sik ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 83~90
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.083
The cracks in the existing building are the most frequent and severe defects. Cracks affect the durability of buildings and are the sources of dispute. In this study, the crack data from the field were collected and analyzed the characteristics of them. The numbers of cracks in the low floors per unit area are few more than upper floors, however there were no significantly corelation. The frequency of cracks increases rapidly when the width of crack changes from 0.2 mm to 0.3 mm, and the ratio of cracks less than 0.5 mm of width consists of about 80% of total frequencies. The ratio of frequency in length is about 80% less than 2.7 m in vertical cracks and 3.5 m in the horizontal crack respectively. In this study 0.3 mm was suggested as allowable crack width, and about 55% of total crack was needed to be repaired. This study shows there is no significant relationship between the width and the length of cracks.
Flexural Experiment of Over Reinforced Prestressed High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete Girder
Han, Sang-Mook ; Guo, Qing Yong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 91~97
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.091
A flexural test of 20 m over reinforced prestressed concrete girder made by high performance fiber reinforced concrete which has 93 MPa compression strength was carried out. To reduce the production cost, domestic fine aggregate, steel fiber which has 0.5 mm diameter and 30 mm long are substituted and silica flour is removed from typical ultra -high peformance concrete mixing portion. Due to the relatively big ultimate compressive strain 0.004 of powder concrete and confinement of volume ratio 2% steel fiber, over reinforced prestressed girder showed 275 mm displacement at 600 kN failure load. Cracking Moment considering the linear relationship of compressive and tensile stress block before crack displayed very close results compared with the test.
An Improved Integral Method for Dynamic Analysis of Bridge on the High Speed Railway
Oh, Soon-Teak ; Shim, Young-Woo ; Lee, Dong-Jun ; Yun, Jun-Kwan ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 99~104
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.099
A dynamic analysis procedure is developed to provide a better estimation of the dynamic responses of bridge during the passage of high speed railway vehicles. Particularly, a three dimensional numerical model including the structural interaction between high speed vehicles, bridges and railway endures to analyse accurately and evaluate with in-depth parametric studies for dynamic responses of bridge running high speed railway vehicles. Three dimensional frame element is used to model the prestressed concrete box bridge(40 m simply supported) Track irregularity employed as a stationary random process from the given spectral density functions and irregularities of both sides of the track are assumed to have high correlation. The high-speed railway vehicle (KTX) is used as 38-degree of freedom system. Three displacements (vertical, lateral, and longitudinal) as well as three rotational components (pitching, rolling, and yawing) are considered in the 38-degree of freedom model. The dynamic amplification factors are evaluated by the developed procedure under various traveling conditions, such as track irregularity camber, train speed and ballast. The dynamic analysis such as Newmark and Runge-Kutta methods which are able to analyse considering the dynamic impact factors are compared and contrasted.
An Estimation of Fire Resistance Performance of Concrete Shield Tunnel Lining
Lee, Chang-Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 105~113
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.105
Fire in a tunnel may cause the devastating damage to the structure, and indirect economical loss due to closure of tunnel as well as direct loss like the further expense of repair and reinforcement. Thus, concrete lining in the shield tunnel must be secured the fire safety. Recently, hybrid fiber is developed to be used for concrete tunnel lining, which could satisfy the fire resistance performance. In this study, tests for the fire resistance of normal and hybrid fiber reinforced concrete shield tunnel lining were performed with full scale models to assess its fire safety. As a result, it was found that the concrete shield lining with hybrid fiber imposed the higher fire resistance than normal lining, arising from the good performance in temperature distribution, explosive spalling, residual compressive strength.
Assessing Long-term behavior of Disk Bearings Installed Under Steel Railway Bridges
Choi, Eun-Soo ; Cho, Sung-Chul ; Park, Tae-Hyo ; Cho, Baik-Soon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 115~120
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.115
This study conducts two field tests of a steel railway bridge supported disk bearings to assess the long-term dynamic behavior of the steel railway bridge and a disk bearing in the service for 5.5 years; the length of the bridge is 12 m. Displacement and acceleration in vertical direction, deformation of disk bearings and natural frequency of the first mode are measured and analyzed. In addition, the vertical stiffness of the disk bearing is estimated, and the deformation of the disk bearing due to static loading is calculated using the estimated stiffness and compared to the measured dynamic response. Vertical displacement at mid-span, deformation of a fixed disk bearing, and the first natural frequency do not vary due to the 5.5 year service. However, deformation of an expansion disk bearing increases sharply comparing to other components.
Tangential Modulus Equation of the Steel Axial Member with I-section Considering the Pattern and the Maximum Value of the Residual Stress
Lee, Kyung-Suk ; Kim, Seung-Jun ; Choi, Jin-Hee ; Kang, Young-Jong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 121~131
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.121
This paper suggests a reasonable tangential modulus equation of a steel I-section member subjected the axial force considering residual stress. In general, there are three analyses methods which can be used to inelastic analysis using a beam element, a plastic zone analysis, an elastic-plastic hinge analysis, and a refined plastic hinge analysis. Among these three analysis methods, a refined plastic hinge analysis has been performed by many researchers because of its efficiency as well as reasonability. In a refined plastic hinge analysis, the CRC tangential modulus equation is adopted to consider a gradual yielding effect when the member is applied the axial force. But, this CRC tangential modulus equation can consider only restricted residual stress pattern and maximum value of the residual stress which is a half of a yield stress. By inelastic finite element analysis in this research, this limitation of the CRC tangential modulus revealed. In this research, new tangential modulus equation of a steel I-section member subjected the axial force was derived. This equation can consider different residual stress patterns, maximum value of the residual stress, the geometry of the section, and the direction of applied axial force. And this equation is validated by the inelastic finite element analysis using ABAQUS V6.9.
Experimental Investigation on Flexural Behavior of Concrete-Filled FRP Tube
Chung, Won-Seok ; Lee, Chang-Sun ; An, Zu-Og ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 133~139
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.133
This study presents the experimental investigation of concrete filled FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer) tube system. A new structural system was developed that combines a FRP shell with a reinforced concrete core for use as flexural members in civil structural applications. The experimental program involved two phases. First, the dynamic characteristics were identified. The second phase involved the measurement of the nonlinear static behavior until failure. The failure mode of FRP only was known to be brittle. However, the results of the proposed system showed that the failure mode was ductile as the system was a hybrid system with reinforced concrete. The proposed system takes advantages of structural advantages of FRP structure as well as the failure mode of reinforced concrete material.
Strength Properties of Subgrade Soil Modified by Cement
Lee, Kwan-Ho ; Jang, Tae-Young ; Hwang, Tak-Jin ; Song, Young-Sun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 141~147
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.141
In this research, unconfined compressive strength and stiffness of modified subgrade soil by cement or fly ash were evaluated. Gyratory compactor, which could simulate the field compaction, was adopted to make the test specimen. The testing soil from Cheonan area was used and its classification was SP. The optimum moisture content and maximum dry unit weight of soil were determined, and cement or fly ash was added, 4%, 8% and 12%. Curing times, such as 7, 14 and 28 day were adopted. An unconfined compressive test, an impact resonant test and an LFWD(Lightweight Falling Weight Deflectometer) were carried out to evaluate the strength or stiffness of modified soil. The strength of modified soil increased as the amount of cement and its curing time were increased. However, the strength or stiffness of fly ash modified soil was not significant. The correlation of unconfined compressive test and impact resonant test was relatively good.
The Status of Disaster Map and Integrated Utilization Plans
Choi, Seon-Hwa ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 149~157
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.149
Although the disaster map, a non-structural mitigation measure, should be built and utilized for flood hazard mitigation by the local governments by law, this mitigation measure has not been practiced with activity because there is no standard model of the disaster map, no specific and detail method for building and utilizing the disaster map, and under-budgeted. Since an integrated and standard system for managing the disaster map built by local governments was not prepared, government has not utilized the disaster map for analyzing inundation area and planning flood hazard mitigation measures. In this paper, we investigate and analyze the status of the domestic disaster map, and draw problems of building and utilizing the disaster map in the local governments. Finally, we present the invigoration of the disaster map's utilization.
2-D Inundation Analysis in Urban Area considering Building and Road
Cho, Wan-Hee ; Han, Kun-Yeun ; Hwang, Taek-Jin ; Son, Ah-Long ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 159~168
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.159
The purpose of this study is to construct topography data considering buildings and roads that have an important effect on flow of flood wave by using GIS and to improve the accuracy of 2-D inundation analysis according to constructed topography data. The effect on buildings and roads is considered in the area, where inundation occur, including Bexco and roads around Centumcity in 2009 and goodness of fit of 2-D inundation analysis is analyzed from grid size. When considering building effect, the goodness of fit compared with real inundation area is 83.24% and when having no consideration for the effect, the results of simulation are 63.99%. It is expected that the study results will be utilized as basic data for the establishment of identification of inundation risk area and measure of flood damage mitigation in urban area.
Relationship Changes of Married Couples after Disaster
Chung, Soon-Dool ; Kim, Jong-Hee ; Kim, Go-Eun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 169~174
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.169
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship changes of married couples after the disaster occurred in 2007 in South Korea and to seek solutions to improve their relationship by identifying factors associated with the change. Subjects for the study were 186 married couples either who were victims of Typhoon in Koheung and Jeju island in September or who have suffered from oil spill in Taehan in December, 2007. The result showed that 51 respondents (27.4%) reported that their relationship had been changed negatively, compared to a total of 37 respondents (19.9%) were changed in a positive way. Negative change occurred approximately 2.5 times higher than positive change. The result of multi-nomial logistic regression analysis showed that factors affecting married couples' relationship were relationship with their children, subjective health status, degree of anxiety or depression symptom, state of recovery, and religion. Based on the results, solutions to prevent marital relationship from deteriorating after going through disaster and implications of social work to enhance the relationship were discussed.
The Realization of Disaster Information using Virtual Simulation based on 3D Spatial Information
Cho, Myeong-Heum ; Seo, Jung-Taek ; Lee, Chol-Young ; Park, Young-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 175~183
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.175
Recently, large-scale natural disasters have frequently hit our life from extreme climate change. Especially summer typhoons and regional downpours have caused more flooding damage than ever before. To effectively prevent the natural disasters, it is required to establish an emergent information system making use of spatial and geographical information and the state-of-the art technologies such as GIS, IT and Remote Sensing. In addition, it is necessary to overcome the limits of the existing two-dimensional GIS and to respond to various, complex demands from users. Accordingly, this study was aimed at making Database about damage information with the use of high-definition spatial images and field investigations, and thereby at expressing three-dimensional information on the damage beyond the existing two-dimensional information. This study had been conducted on the region at Seobyeok-ri, Bonghwa-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do, which suffered a massive damage caused by downpour at the end of July, 2008. Based on the investigation, this study explored the status of relevant damage, and divided the damage according to the "2008 Guidelines on the investigation of natural disasters and the establishment of restoration planning." In addition, it extracted contour lines and elevation points from a 1/5,000 digital topographic map to create a digital elevation model (DEM), and with the use of the height values in the DEM, it produced a three-dimensional disaster simulation of the damaged region. Therefore, it is determined to allow the public to raise awareness on the disaster due to its realistic description and to help policy makers make a decision on relevant issues.
Physiological Responses of Human Body Wearing Fire Fighting Equipment by Surrounding Temperature Change
Bang, Chang-Hoon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 185~189
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.185
The aim of study intends to investigate the physiological responses of human body wearing fire fighting equipment by surrounding temperature change and to provide the base data for the safety of firefighter. Mean skin temperature rose by
. The maximum oxygen consumption increased 21.6% in WBGT
) case than case of WBGT
) and the results are statistically significant. The metabolic equivalent increased 22.1% in WBGT
) case than case of WBGT
) and the results are statistically significant. The weight loss increased 45.8% in WBGT
) case than case of WBGT
). It was concluded that physiological responses of human body varied considerably and reflected the differences in external heat load.
A Study on the Design of Multi Function Complex Damper for Ventilation and Fire Protection
Lee, Dong-Myung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 191~196
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.191
This study carried out the design and analysis of multi function complex damper as basis study for development of multi function complex damper for ventilation and fire protection. This study established analysis theory of multi function complex damper based on process, kinematics mechanism and mechanism modelling of multi function complex damper. And this study established engineering data construction and a source technology that can design each element of multi function complex damper through motion analysis simulation based on analysis theory. Therefore, it can give flexibility and elasticity of multi function complex damper for ventilation and fire protection from this study. Also, it sees that can ready control means and technological countermeasure of smoke by development of multi function complex damper and secure high reliancity and stability of smoke control systems.
A Study on the Combustion Characteristics of the Interior Flooring Materials for the Fire Identification of Residential Buildings
Park, Young-Ju ; Lee, Hae-Pyeong ; Kim, Hae-Rim ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 197~206
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.197
In this study, we investigated the combustion characteristics of the interior flooring materials to provide the basic data on the identification of fire. The ignitibility, fire spread, and product of combustion were analyzed for three kinds of flooring materials( reinforcement, plywood, hardwood) and two kinds of common linoleum(PET mat, monorium mat). As a result, common linoleum ignited in less time than flooring materials and the fire risk appeared relatively higher. The flooring materials was slower to ignite but, once it set fire, the maximum heat release rate was generally higher and the fire size was typically higher than those common linoleum. In addition, the time to reach the maximum heat release rate was proportional to the ignition time at all floors. The amount of smoke release was relatively larger on flooring materials than on common linoleum, and the extinction coefficient of flooring materials and common linoleum depending on the volume of smoke release ranged at 0.8~5.3. Toxicity index was relatively higher at flooring materials than common linoleum, and among common linoleum, monorium mat had a toxicity index of 7.8, which was at the highest level. Therefore, the result shows that in case of fire, flooring materials will have relatively larger fire scale but relatively lower fire risk than common linoleum, and common linoleum will have higher risk of casualties due to toxic gases.
A Study on the Performance of Fire Extinguishing of the Waterworks Direct Couple Sprinkler System
Jung, Jong-Jin ; SaKong, Seong-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 207~212
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.207
In this paper, in order to evaluate performance of fire extinguishing of waterworks direct couple sprinkler system fire test was executed. The experimental result, when emission pressure of sprinkler head is 0.1 MPa and size of lumber clip is
, the fire became completely the extinguishment, then a heat release rate is 250 kW. When emission pressure of sprinkler head is 0.2 MPa and size of lumber clip is
, the fire did not become the extinguishment and when emission pressure of sprinkler head is 0.3 MPa. the fire was soon extinguished. Then a heat release rate of fire source is 400 kW. As the result, when waterworks pressure of the general residence is 0.3 MPa, it could verify that the fire of a heat release rate 400 kW class goes out.
Study on GPR Prospecting Utilization for Fire-Prevention System of Gyeongbok Palace
Shin, Jong-Woo ; Oh, Hyun-Dok ; Kim, Dae-Yeon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 213~218
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.213
The fire-prevention system of the four major palaces, at which a considerable portion of the major architectures are concentrated, might be rated to be very inadequate. At present, the fire-extinguishing facilities at each structure are equipped with only a few extinguishers, so they're in acute need of the establishment of a systematic fire-prevention system. Accordingly, this study understood the installation risk consequent on the distribution scope of the buried cultural properties by each path on the basis of the design for fire-extinguishing piping paths which is in progress as a part of the establishment of the fire-prevention system of Gyeogbok Palace among the four major palaces. In this study, GPR(Ground Penetrating Radar)-prospecting was used for the distribution of the buried cultural properties at major areas of Gyeongbok Palace. And we analyzed the buried cultural properties for risk of potentially damaging the historical site in time of installing fire-extinguishing piping through GPR survey results. The characteristic of this study is noteworthy in that it was done by linking up the establishment of the fire-prevention system of Gyeongbok Palace with GPR-prospecting of the buried cultural properties. This research hopes that GPR-prospecting method of buried cultural properties will be aggressively made the best use of an minimization damage of theirs through the further establishment of fire-prevention system for the structures in historical sites.
A Study on the Active Earth Pressure against Retaining Wall with Narrow Backfill
Lee, Seung-Hyun ; Jang, In-Sung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 219~224
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.219
Numerical analysis was carried out in order to find out the distribution of active earth pressure acting on the rigid wall with narrow backfill. The analysis was executed by varying value which was defined as the angle between the horizontal line and the line which connects the heel of the wall to the end point of ground surface of the backfill. The
values considered in numerical analysis were
. The value of lateral thrust corresponding to the
was 11 percent lower than the value calculated for the backfill with large backfill. Furthermore, the height of the resultant force for the lateral thrust decreased as the
value increased. The locations of the resultant forces correspond to the
were 0.38 and 0.35 times lower than the wall height respectively.
Development of Computer Program for Designing Segmental Retaining Wall
Lee, Seung-Hyun ; Yune, Chan-Young ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 225~229
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.225
In this study, detailed design requirements for segmental retaining wall (SRW) which were concerned with external stability, internal stability, and local stability were investigated and a computer program for designing the SRW was developed as well. There are little differences in the estimation of the external stability between the algorithm of the developed program and the conventional method for the design of the SRW. Methods for accounting tension failure and pullout of the reinforcement were incorporated in the developed program, which were essentials in the internal stability. Methods for accounting the connection strength between a reinforcement and a facing block and for accounting the bulging concerned with the shear strength of the interface between two blocks were also incorporated in the developed program, which are essentials in the local stability. Design example run by the developed program is presented in order to enhance the knowledge of the developed program.
A Study on Portable Cone Penetration Tester to Measure the Degree of Compaction
Hwang, Seong-Chun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 231~239
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.231
Construction work for soil electric power distribution pipeline are mostly done at night time when road traffic is low. But current tester to measure the degree of compaction cannot operate at night time due to certain limitations. So reliability and safety for night-time construction cannot be achieved so far. I propose that development of new type tester to measure that can be used at night time be initiated. This study was developed portable cone penetration tester to measure the degree of compaction for soil electric power distribution pipeline back filling material. To evaluate developed tester, the compaction tests were performed range of water contents is 2~13% and degree of compaction is 75~95% using the domestic river sands. At the range 3~13% of water content, The correlation coefficient of degree of compaction between cone penetration tests and compaction tests was 0.97. As results of tests, It is considered to able to measure the degree of compaction exactly and reliably using developed cone penetration tester.
Estimation of Discharge Adapting Changes of River Environment
Choo, Tai-Ho ; Kim, Chul-Moon ; Ha, Gyeong-Bae ; Yoon, Hyeon-Cheol ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 241~246
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.241
This study suggested method that can estimate river discharge through F(M) eq. considering hydraulic characteristics such as bed slope, wetted parameter, width, depth, velocity etc, and based on entropy concept adopting probabilistic approach. The entropy parameter M is estimated by result of F(M) eq. using highly relible and measured discharge data of oversea and this is used to calculate the maximum velocity having difficulty of observation in open channel. The
(M) presenting the equilibrium state and the mean velocity and river discharge are estimated through regression analysis between maximum and mean velocity. The relationship between estimated and measured discharge is analyzed through the discrepancy ratio and confirms that this result presents very approximate value to measured data.
Safety Analysis of Check Dam according to Sediment Yield in Gangwon Mountain Region
Kwon, Hyuk-Jae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 247~254
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.247
Estimation of accurate sediment yield considering watershed characteristics and rainfall depth is important for optimum design of check dam. In this study, MSDPM is used to estimate the sediment yield for the check dam in Gangwon Province. Parameters of MSDPM was calibrated to give sediment yield of the target watershed by dredging information. A reliability function in which sediment yield was set to be a load function and capacity of check dam to be a resistance function is formulated to calculate the probability of capacity failure of check dam. Result shows that the probability of capacity failure of check dam do not vary much for different rainfall return periods. However, the probability of capacity failure vary significantly in case of wild fire and the ratio of burn area.
Decision of Basin Representative Concentration Time and Storage Coefficient Considering Antecedent Moisture Conditions
Lee, Ji-Ho ; Yoo, Chul-Sang ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 255~264
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.255
This study evaluated how effective the use of selected rainfall events is for the decision of runoff characteristic such like concentration time and storage coefficient. The antecedent moisture condition (AMC) was adopted as the selection criterion. That is, the storm events were divided into three groups depending on the AMC and evaluated their spatial distribution, also the runoff characteristics derived were analyzed corresponding to each AMC group, and then it was proposed what rainfall events should be used for the decision of the runoff characteristics. In conclusion, the rainfall events of the AMC-III group were found to be more suitable for the decision of runoff characteristics of a basin.
Flood Mitigation Analysis for Abnormal Flood at the South Han River Basin
Ahn, Jae-Hwang ; Yi, Jae-Eung ; Choi, Chang-Won ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 265~272
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.265
The rainfall characteristics is changing in Korea due to a climate change and global warming occurring all over the world. Because mean annual precipitation is increasing while the total precipitation days are decreasing, ultimately the rainfall intensity is increasing. Considerable losses are expected because of abnormal floods. Accordingly, it is necessary to establish the reasonable countermeasures to cope with disaster due to a climate change by suggesting diverse alternatives. The goals of this study are to assess the vulnerability for abnormal floods, to analyze the disaster decrease capability by applying the diverse disaster prevention alternatives, and to derive the suitable alternative. The South Han River Basin selected as a test basin controls floods only with Chungju multi-purpose reservoir and levee. Since the flood control capacity of Chungju reservoir seems not to be sufficient compared to its large catchment area, the operation of Chungju reservoir may affect the state of flood damages in the upstream and downstream of the reservoir. The flood discharge close to the design flood occurred at Yeoju bridge, which is the one of the main control points in the test basin, from July of 2006 storm. That shows the weakness for flood protection in the test basin. Accordingly, the flood event of 2006 is analyzed and the storm events equivalent to 1 ~ 1.5 times are simulated for the basin vulnerability. Finally, the flood decrease alternatives are established based on the analyzed flood vulnerability and the capability of flood management is assessed for each alternative in case of PMF occurrence in Chungju reservoir basin. The results show that the development of a new reservoir, one of the structural methods is the most efficient alternative if the suitable reservoirs system operation is accomplished.
Estimation of the Reservoirs Flood Attenuation Index In Upper Geumgang Catchment
Ko, A-Ra ; Lee, Hyo-Sang ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 273~280
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.273
Dams and reservoirs have been charged as important flood protection structures; likewise, attenuation effects of flooding have been highlighted due to recent climate change. However, it is difficult to generalize effects of flood attenuation by reservoirs in catchment scale because the flood attenuation index has not yet been used in Korea. This study estimates Reservoirs Flood Attenuation Index (RFAI) for catchment based on 739 reservoirs in 15 upper Geumgang catchments. The RFAI employs the method of Flood Attenuation by Reservoir and Lakes index (FARL), Flood Estimation Handbook, UK. All hydrological data for RFAI are provided by Water Management Information System (WAMIS) and Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). The value of RFAI range from 0.859 to 0.990; The Jincheon catchment with the lowest RFAI values (0.859) shows the highest attenuation effects in study catchments, while the Sangjocheon has 0.990 which indicates the low influence of attenuation effects. Yeongdong catchment is examined for the effects of built of large reservoir on RFAI; The RFAI is changed 0.894 from 0.980 due to the built of Yongdam Dam, which was constructed in 2001. In this study RFAI is shown as an useful index in assessing flood characteristics for catchment managements.
Discussion for the Ranking of Annual Maximum Storm Events
Park, Min-Kyu ; Park, Moo-Jong ; Kim, Hung-Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 281~291
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.281
In this study, the return periods of storm event is investigated using bivariate frequency analysis. Ranking storm events is known to be very ambiguous due to contradictory characteristics of storm events components. This make it difficult to use storm event analysis in the hydrologic design. Bivariate frequency analysis of storm events is helpful to deal with ranking storm events, the caution is needed to select bivariate variables and choice appropriate joint return periods. Storm duration or conditional joint return periods adversely affect the decision of magnitude order for storm events. Only mean rainfall intensity is major factor in this case. It is useful for a appropriate ranking of storm events to select total depth and mean intensity of storm events and to use AND joint return periods.
Design Rainfall Duration Based on Extreme Storm Events
Park, Min-Kyu ; Park, Moo-Jong ; Kim, Hung-Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 293~304
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.293
Rainfall duration of design storm is one of most important factors of hydrologic design. However the study is rare to investigate the characteristics of rainfall duration, this make it difficult the efficient design procedure. In Korea, the critical storm duration has been used for calculating peak discharge for design. The critical storm duration is defined as the storm duration which produces the biggest flood peak discharge in considering various storm durations. However the suitability of this critical storm duration has not been proved in actual rainfall runoff relationships. In this study, annual maximum storm events and observed maximum rainfall-runoff data at dam stations are evaluated to assess the design rainfall duration, and the results are as follows. The most frequent rainfall duration is about 24 hours as extreme storm events in Korea. There was no significant trend between basin areas and design rainfall durations. The bigger basin area shows wider rainfall durations. The duration of 24 hours is most appropriate for the fixed design storm duration if the rainfall is uniformly distributed throughout the whole basin area.
Analysis on the Hydraulic Characteristics of Sub-channel in the Flood Plain for Management of Landforming
Lee, Gun-Goo ; Yeo, Chang-Geon ; Im, Jang-Hyuk ; Ahn, Won-Sik ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 305~312
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.305
Laboratory experiments were carried out to analyze the hydraulic characteristics of the sub-channel in the flood plain able to manage landforming process. Hydraulic analysis was conducted based on the measurement of mean velocities and turbulent intensities along the sub-channel in the flood plain including the change of an inflow angle. Quantitative characteristics of inflow into the sub-channel in the flood plain were estimated by mean velocities and velocity vectors around the sub-channel in the flood plain obtained using LSPIV. The capacity of sediments flushing in the sub-channel in the flood plain was evaluated with turbulent intensities and friction velocities. It was found that when the elevation of free surface was higher than that of floodplain, the effect of sediments flushing through the sub-channel in the flood plain was not much effective, while it became much effective when the elevation of free surface descended below that of floodplain. In the case of rivers confluence, a conveyance of river branch increases with the increase of an angle of inflow. However, in the case of the sub-channel in the flood plain, the case of inflow angle of
was the most effective to flush sediments inside the Mugol because turbulent intensity, friction velocity and unit conveyance became higher than other cases. Results from this study can be used to establish the design guidelines for the sub-channel in the flood plain. In near future, more laboratory experiments conducted with movable bed and fields monitoring would be provided much reliable quantitative analysis of sediments flushing in the sub-channel in the flood plain to resist landforming.
Comparison and Analysis for Performance of Flood Stage Prediction Regression Model according to Type of Input Rainfall
Choi, Seung-Yong ; Han, Kun-Yeun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 313~325
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.313
Recently to overcome limitations of hydrological and physics based models for flood stage forecasting, the regression model as one of data-derived models has been widely adopted for predicting flood stage. One of the advantages of regression model is able to use data such as point rainfall without handling of data. But most of the rainfall-runoff models need converting point rainfall to basin mean rainfall. The objectives of this study are to compare performance of different flood stage predicting regression models according to point rainfall and basin mean rainfall and determine the most effective predicting flood stage regression model. To do this, the time scale was determined through the autocorrelation analysis of input data and different flood stage forecasting models were developed using point rainfall and basin mean rainfall. To evaluate the performance of established models, fours statistical indices were used, namely; Root mean square error(RMSE), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient(NSEC), mean absolute error(MAE), adjusted coefficient of determination(
). The results show that the flood stage predicting regression model using point rainfall can carry out the river flood stage prediction better than the flood stage predicting regression model using basin mean rainfall.
A Study on Flood Damage Estimation Using DEM-based Flood Inundation Model and MD-FDA
Lee, Gi-Ha ; Park, Kyoung-Won ; Yu, Wan-Sik ; Jung, Kwan-Sue ; Jang, Chang-Lae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 327~336
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.327
This study aims to simulate a flood inundation propagation due to Janghyeon and Dongmak dam breaches by the typhoon 'Rusa', 2002 in the Kangwon-do using the 2-D flood inundation model and also estimate flood damages of the study site using the MD-FDA method. Flood inundated areas increased gradually from simulation time of 0.5 h to 9 h since the reservoir water surface elevation exceeded the design flood elevation. The maximum inundation depths of downstream area were simulated at 4.73 m of the Janghyen and 4.3 m of Dongmak, respectively. The simulated inundated area showed a very good agreement with the field-surveyed inundated area. The estimated results using the MD-FDA with spatially-distributed inundation depth information showed that the damages of the MD-FDA were overestimated at 7.3 billion won than the reported damages of 45 billion won. However, the flood damage estimation result using the MD-FDA was recalculated at 46.4 billion won under no considerations to the dead and wounded because of early evacuation and it was then acceptable.
A Study on Discharged Coliform into Coastal Bathing Water after Rainfall Event
Byeon, Seong-Joon ; Choi, Gye-Woon ; Jo, Hyoung-Geun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 337~343
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.337
Coastal areas are excellent venues for tourism and recreational activities promoting health and therapeutic benefits for its users. Thus, needless to say, it is very important to ensure good water quality in these bathing areas to protect people's health. Various guidelines regarding beach water quality exist throughout the world. However, proper monitoring systems for efficient collection and analysis of water quality and up-to-date dissemination of information are yet to be widely implemented. In this study, bathing water quality modeling and analysis is performed through the conjunctive use of several powerful modeling softwares. MOUSE, a physically-based model, was used to represent a one-dimensional pipe network model simulating the hydrodynamic and water quality behavior of the urban drainage system of Gentofte, Denmark. MIKE 3 FM was also applied to simulate coastal hydraulics and bacterial advection.dispersion considering biological decay. For the simulated rain events, checking exceedance (where concentration is greater than 500 counts per 100 ml) in defined bathing points identified a maximum total duration of 58 hours in Bellevue beach. However, checking for the entire coastal area revealed a maximum exceedance duration of 212.5 hours. This indicates the importance of comprehensive determination of bathing water quality in the area.
Record Breaking Occurrence Frequency of Air Temperature and Precipitation
Cho, Seon-Ju ; Jun, Hwan-Don ; Park, Moo-Jong ; Kim, Sang-Dan ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 11, issue 5, 2011, Pages 345~352
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2011.11.5.345
The current observed value of the ratio of daily record high maximum air temperatures to record low minimum air temperatures averaged across the Korea is about "2.5". This is because records that were declining uniformly earlier in the 20th century following a decay proportional to 1/n(n being the number of years since the beginning of record keeping) have been declining less slowly for record highs than record lows since the late 1980s. The results used the same approach in the ratio of daily record high maximum moving average precipitation statistics to record low minimum moving average precipitation statistics averaged across the Korea has not characteristic value but large variance.