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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation
Editor in Chief :
Moo Jong Park
Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 6 - Dec 2012
Volume 12, Issue 5 - Oct 2012
Volume 12, Issue 4 - Aug 2012
Volume 12, Issue 3 - Jun 2012
Volume 12, Issue 2 - Apr 2012
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Feb 2012
Selecting the target year
An Experimental Study on the Adhesive Strength of Lot Anchors with Adhesive Type
Seo, Seong Yeon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 1~9
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.001
The use of post-installed anchors with adhesive type has lately been increasing when it is necessary to repair, reinforce, or remodel structures because this constructing method has flexibility and simplicity of construction in adhering or fixing structural members. Meanwhile, Strength evaluation of anchors with expansion type among post-installed anchors systems has nearly reached setting-up stage like design code through continual experimental studies for the last ten years, but analyses or experimental studies on anchor system with adhesive type are not sufficient yet. Accordingly, designers and builders of Korea depend on foreign design codes since there are no exact national design code that they could credit. In this study, the objectives are investigating the effects on adhesive strength of anchors embedded into plain concrete by drawing experiments of lot anchors with variables such as anchor diameter, anchor interval, embedment depth, and edge distance and supplying basic data for enactment of national design code.
Estimating Tension Force of Elevator Wire Rope Using Frequency
Kim, Byeong Hwa ; Jeong, Seon Jong ; Lee, Do Hyung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 11~15
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.011
This study introduces the estimation technique of tension force on elevator wire rope using measured frequencies. The proposed approach estimates tension force of elevator wire rope by appling the measured frequencies into the taut string theory or linear regression technique. Such frequencies are measured by accelerometers attached on elevator wire rope. To validate the proposed approach, the various experimental cases for real elevator wire ropes are conducted. The results reveal that both the taut string theory and the linear regression technique show an error bound of
. Thus, in practice, the proposed approach could be used for the estimation of tension force on elevator wire rope.
Analysis of Support Reactions of RC Slab Bridges with Various Skews
Mha, Ho-Seong ; Won, Jeong-Hun ; Park, Inn Joon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 17~22
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.017
The support reactions of two-span RC slab bridges with various skews are studied through the time history analysis for moving vehicles. Dynamic behaviors of bridges are evaluated by using the commercial FEM code and the bridge is modelled using shell elements. The analysis method is verified by comparing measured values and analysis results. Parametric analysis are performed for various skew angles. The bearing below the end slab with an obtuse angle shows the largest reaction forces. As the skew angle is reduced(a skew angle of
means a straight bridge without skew in this study), the distribution of reaction force is growing uneven and the largest reaction force is increased. In case of the model having skew angles under
, the bearing located near the bearing with the largest reaction force shows the uplift force. Thus, it is concluded that the bearing in RC slab bridges with skew should be selected carefully by considering the variation of reaction force and uplift force.
Optimal Leakage Detection Model of Water Distribution Systems Using Semi-Pressure Driven Analysis and Harmony Search
Yoon, Jung Soo ; Yoo, Do Guen ; Lee, Ho Min ; Kim, Joong Hoon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 23~31
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.023
During maintenance and managing of water distribution systems, reducing water losses is a critical component. To achieve reduction of water losses, active leakage management is required. In this study, we propose optimal leakage detection model, which is the combination of simulation of hydraulic analysis and optimization technique. Through the use of hydraulic analysis method can able to achieve in creating a real-life based Semi-Pressure Driven Analysis (Semi-PDA) model without having to use the highly uncertain Head Outflow Relationship (HOR) is applied. EPANET2 created a model of emitter coefficient`s optimization, and it decides leakage location. For optimization technique, Harmony Search (HS) is applied that was developed in Korea and has been used in various cases recently. When we apply proposed method to sample network, it practically searches the leakage location. Especially, in optimization technique, we have a research of comparing the results of Harmony-Search (HS) and Genetic-Algorithm (GA); HS` result is more accurate. Also we verify that increasing of leakage location detection uncertainty by decreasing of number of observed data is less than GA. Therefore, suggested technique can be substituted to existing experiential leakage detection method. Therefore, this basic technology can be used as future proactive water resource management environment like Smart Water Grid.
Feature Parameter Extraction based on the Z-SCORE Method for Intelligent Fault Diagnosis of Rotating Machinery in Nuclear Power Plant
Jeoung, Rae Hyuck ; Lee, Byung Kon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 33~39
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.033
Recently, uses of rotating machinery have been increased sharply and failure occurrence also was significantly increased along with the industrial development. To solve these problems, intelligent fault diagnosis was tried. In this paper, feature parameters for the rotor with high frequency of failure occurrence, which are used as algorithm input, were suggested. To do this, 9 fault types from pump historical failure data of nuclear power plants were selected and simulation testing was performed. Total 84 statistical parameters were calculated to quantify fault signal pattern from the acceleration signal and fault discrimination capability for each parameter was evaluated by using the Z-SCORE method. Finally, RAW-P7, RAW-P8, RAW-P4, WT2-NNL, WT2-EE through verification of fault classification status using the SVM were proposed as the superior parameters for intelligent fault diagnosis of rotor.
Probabilistic Seismic Performance Evaluation of Open-Cut Tunnels for Subway Systems
Park, Jihwan ; Kang, Yun Suk ; Lee, Tae-Hyung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 41~48
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.041
In addition to recent strong earthquakes in neighboring countries, mid-size earthquakes in Korea have brought up attention. Since the Earthquake Disaster Measures Act has been established, the needs for researches on the seismic performance evaluation and seismic retrofit techniques have increased in Korea. Dynamic soil properties affect the seismic performance of underground structures. Therefore, uncertain soil properties will cause an uncertain seismic performance of underground structures. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of uncertain soil properties to the seismic performance evaluation of underground structures using the First-Order Second Moment method. Uncertain soil properties are considered as random variables and uncertainty is propagated to the decision variable of the performance evaluation process. The proposed methodology is applied to an open-cut tunnel of a part of Seoul Metropolitan Subway system where the N-value is considered as a random variable. The example shows that the proposed methodology is simple, and yet practical.
BIM based Reliability Analysis and Automated Quantity Calculation
Shin, Jae Choul ; Hwang, Ju Hwan ; Lee, Sang Gyu ; Lee, Si Won ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 49~55
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.049
In recent years apply BIM, design method of information integration, the field of architecture as well as the field of civil engineering is activated. As part of this process, in this study, a NATM tunnel and PSC Girder bridge were the target. Quantities with BIM modeling and quantities with traditional 2D-based reliability analysis was performed using the error rate. In addition, as the beginning phase of information integration, quantity document automation program has been developed for activation of BIM. BIM-based standard classification system for NATM tunnel and PSC Girder bridge is proposed to target. And automatically enter the program code number, linkage and manual volume calculation program, quantity document automation programs, such as the development is now underway, and step-by-step procedures and methods are presented.
Analysis of Meteorological Disasters Generated in Gangwon-do Region Using Synoptic Pressure Patterns
Kim, Yu Jin ; Lee, Jae Gyoo ; Yang, Ah Ryeon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 57~70
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.057
Based on the contents of `yearbook of calamities` from 2001 to 2010 provided by the National Emergency Management Agency, meteorological disasters, generated by heavy rain, heavy snow and strong wind in the Gangwon-do region, were classified in accordance with synoptic pressure pattern to survey the damage of disaster with the pressure pattern types and to reveal regions vulnerable to disasters. In Gangwon-do region, total 32 events of heavy rain occurred for ten years, which lead to about 2,203 billion won of the total damage amount. Especially, Pyeongchang-gun and Inje-gun had outstanding damages of about 604 billion won and 579 billion won, respectively. In case of migratory low type, the amount of disaster damage caused by heavy rain was about 303 billion won while there was damage of about 1,900 billion won in case of Changma front type. The amount of disaster caused by Changma front type was six times more than that caused by migratory low type. Since regions vulnerable to disasters from this survey were Pyeongchang-gun and Inje-gun, these regions would need to have priority to heavy rain prevention and measurement aid. The total damage amount caused by the heavy snow events was 24 billion won in Gangwon-do region. Especially, Hongcheon-gun and Chuncheon-si had damage amount of about 4.9 billion won and 4.4 billion won, respectively. In case of cP high air pressure expansion type, the disaster by the heavy snow events caused the damage of about 4.1 billion won while the damage amount of 19.6 billion won was mainly caused by the migratory low type. Finally, there were two strong wind events for 10 years, leading to the damage of about 15 million won and 63 million won in Samcheok-si and Gangneung-si located in the Yeongdong coastal region, respectively.
Analysis of Non-stationary Characteristics for Rainfall with the Trend Analysis of L-Moments
Kim, Wansu ; Shin, Ju-Young ; Um, Myoung-Jin ; Heo, Jun-Haeng ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 71~80
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.071
In this study, the non-stationary characteristics of rainfall were analyzed with the trend analysis. Among the observations in KMA (Korea Meterological Administration), the 10 sites having at least 40 years of sample data were selected such as Seoul, Daejeon, Daegu, Busan, Gwangju and Chucheon because it was difficult to estimate the trend of rainfall when the period of data was short. The L-moments such as mean, L-CV and L-skewness were estimated with over 30-year data for the four durations (1-, 12-, 24- and 48-hours). And then the trend analysis was conducted using the results of L-moments. As the results of trend analysis, among the 600 cases, the 438 cases (73%) have the tendency of rainfall data. The results show that seven stations show increasing trend for 24-hour-duration rainfall while two stations show decreasing trend, and Kwangju station does not show any trend. Thus, non-stationary frequency analysis may be required for those stations with trend.
Damage Analysis and Prevention Measures of Tropical Cyclones in Fiji
Yu, Soon Young ; Kim, Chang Yong ; Park, Kyung Ho ; Park, Dug Keun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 81~91
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.081
Korea became the 24th member nation in the Development Assistance Committee(DAC) in OECD from an aid recipient. We are obliged to transfer our advanced disaster prevention technologies to developing countries, which requires the understanding of aid recipients and aid programs. Meanwhile, the Pacific Islands are prone to natural disasters, such as sea level increase, coastal erosion, flooding and tropical cyclones due to climate change. They are in desperate need of cooperation with developed countries to cope with natural disasters given the lack of management capacity as well as geographical difficulties. This study deals with damage analysis and prevention measures of tropical cyclones, particularly in Fiji. Damage assessment reports of six tropical cyclones(TC-Ami, TC-Cliff, TC-Daman, TC-Gene, TC-Mick and TC-Thomas) are used to conduct the damages analyses, including cyclone tracks, fatalities and causes, damage costs in social, productive and infrastructure sectors, and lessons learned. Based on the damage analyses, disaster management measures, such as early warning system, disaster telecommunication system, integrated hazard information system & tools, building codes, disaster insurance, environment-friendly road pavement and coastal erosion stabilization, are suggested. The study results show that the korean knowledge and knowhow on Disaster Risk Management(DRM) seem to be useful in improving the Fiji`s DRM system given the similarity between tropical cyclones and typhoons. In addition, the results are expected to be helpful for developing an Official Development Assistance (ODA) program to strengthen the Pacific Islands against tropical cyclones, with korean disaster prevention technologies.
Deformation and Stability Analysis of Embankment Foundation Soil Supported by DCM (Deep Cement Mixing) Columns and Geotextiles
Rahman, Md. Mizanur ; Lee, Young Dai ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 93~100
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.093
This study is based on finite element analyses performed by PLAXIS code to investigate the feasibility of modeling the effect of DCM (Deep Cement Mixing) columns in two dimension by a newly proposed method namely `Replacement Weighted Area`. The results of new method have been compared with the existing method of `Same Area Replacement Ratio` as well as with field observations. It has been found that the `Replacement Weighted Area` in plane strain element has provided reasonable predictions. In addition, a parametric study of the stability of geotextile-reinforced soil was performed in different layers of embankment with factors like the effects of tensile stiffness, number and length of reinforced layer. It has been observed that vertical settlements and lateral displacements have been reduced with increasing in tensile stiffness, number and length of reinforcement. However, over certain thresholds, number and length of geotextile did not enhance significant settlements and lateral displacements.
Case Study on the Field Characteristics of Road Embankment Slope Failure in the Mountainous Regions of Korea
Lee, Jong-Hyun ; Bautista, Ferdinand E. ; Kim, Seung-Hyun ; Koo, Ho-Bon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 101~107
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.101
The continuous occurrence of embankment slope failure caused by torrential rains during the rainy season has affected the mountainous regions in Korea every year. Numerous lives were lost and extensive properties were damaged in slope related calamities and enormous budget was required to restore the damaged roads and infrastructure. The need to establish an embankment management system was realized and investigation of failure prone embankment slopes recommended by the national road administration office along the national road in the mountainous regions were performed. The field characteristics of embankment failure determined in the field investigation was presented and the efficient methods to mitigate these hazards and disaster were recommended.
Estimation of Basic Properties and Consolidation Characteristics of Clay
Lee, Seung Hyun ; Yune, Chan-Young ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 109~114
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.109
Estimation of basic soil properties and consolidation characteristics obtained from laboratory tests for clay samples was conducted. Comparing the measured unit weight of clay and initial void ratio with those computed by phase relationship, there was little difference in unit weight whereas there was large difference in initial void ratio. Comparing compression index obtained from consolidation test with that predicted by equations, it could be seen that Azzouz method showed high reliability and Nagaraj method gave conservative results. There were large differences in the degree of consolidation between the justified degree of consolidation based on natural water content and Atterberg limits and that obtained from the consolidation tests. It is thought that predicted preconsolidation pressure by US NAVY prediction equation is available in order to minimize the gap.
Prediction of Adsorptive Soil Water Characteristic Curve considering Grain-size Distribution
Lim, Byung-Gwon ; Kim, Yun-Tae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 115~121
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.115
Natural slope failure triggered by rainfall usually occurs due to loss of shear strength, which induced by increasing water content from rainfall infiltration. Therefore, adsorptive curve of SWCC is more suitable than desorptive curve for predicting behaviors of real slope. It regards as an important unsaturated property. To obtain a SWCC is not only costly and time consuming but also difficult to estimate due to uncertainty of natural soil. In this paper, a simple prediction method was proposed using Arya & Paris model and grain-size distribution curve to predict adsorptive SWCC in three weathered granite soils of Korea. Two fitting parameters were also proposed to improve applicability to weathered granite soils in Korea. The predicted results were compared with the experimental results. From results, the proposed method using Arya & Paris model, grain-size distribution curve,
could be applicable to predict adsorptive SWCC of weathered granite soil in Korea.
A State-of-the-Practice Review on Amplification of Earthquake Ground Motion Resulting from Surface Topographic Effects
Sun, Chang-Guk ; Bang, Kiho ; Cho, Wanjei ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 123~131
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.123
Site effects associated with the spatial distribution of geologic and soil conditions have a significant influence on the amplification of ground motions during an earthquake. Exactly, the stratification structure and physical properties of near-surface soils and geology, as well as the surface topography and basin geometry, affect the site effects. Among these several influence factors on the site effects, only the amplification capabilities depending on the near-surface geologic conditions have been incorporated into current Korean seismic design guidelines, which is based on the codes in the western United States. Nonetheless, extensive severe damages caused by the irregularities in surface topography have been observed from the past and recent earthquake events over the world, and their detailed phenomena were investigated in this study. Several important seismic design codes were also reviewed to examine the methodologies for quantifying the topographic effects. Consequently, the methodology to determine the topographic effect in seismic design of Korea was discussed preliminarily and suggested as the quantitative comparisons between one- and two-dimensional numerical models, together with the introduction and modification of current other codes.
Probabilistic characteristics Soil-Water Characteristic Curve of Unsaturated Weathered Granite Soil
Jeon, Kyung Han ; Lee, Seung Rae ; Kim, Yun Tae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 133~139
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.133
Experimental evaluation of soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC) is costly and time consuming. SWCC of unsaturated soil always involves uncertainties associated, making it difficult to obtain a representative value in analyzing the stability of slopes. The deterministic approaches have been employed to analyze the slope stability. However, variables with severe variance sometimes lead to misestimating and hence the consequence also varies from person to person. To address this problem, a probabilistic approach to the analysis of slope stability has been adopted. Even though the probabilistic characteristics of soil are essential for probabilistic approach, it has not been established. Therefore, in this paper, the probabilistic characteristics of SWCC of weathered granite soil in Korea were defined. Based on the probabilistic characteristics, translation models for the joint probability distribution were determined. According to the results of goodness-of-fit test, the lognormal distribution appears to be the most suitable distribution to represent the experimental data of the curve-fitting parameters.
A Study of Vulnerability of Structure by Debris Flow
Choi, Woo Il ; Lee, Su Gon ; Lee, Byok Kyu ; Jang, Seung Jin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 141~146
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.141
The recent domestic research trend with regard to debris flows mainly focused on mapping of landslide hazard and its triggering mechanism. However, as the vulnerability of structure is very important as much as mapping of landslide hazard or its triggering mechanism, this paper is focused on vulnerability assessment of structures impacted by debris flow. The principles of dynamic response of structures to earthquake impact and damage functions proposed in HAZUS-MH were used as the assessment method for estimation of the structural vulnerability, and these methods were verified by applying it to two debris flow cases such as Umyeon-mountain landslide area and Chuncheon landslide area. As the result, it is considered that these methods are suitable for vulnerability assessment of structure impacted debris flows in Korea, but some cases are still limited with regard to practical applications due to the difference of the structure design codes and working behavior between Korea and America.
Compressive Strength Characteristics of PVA Fiber Reinforced Soil-Cement Mixture
Kim, Woo Sik ; Jung, Du Hwoe ; Cho, Il Muk ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 147~156
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.147
The characteristics of compressive strength of PVA fiber reinforced soil-cement mixture has been evaluated through unconfined compressive strength tests. Test specimens were prepared with a variety of cement contents, fiber contents, fiber lengths, and curing periods to investigate the effect of these parameters on the strength characteristics of PVA fiber reinforced soil-cement mixture. In addition, a compresso-meter has been revised to measure the internal strain of test specimen during the process of loading. The internal strain was used to evaluate the secant moduli (
) of soil-cement mixtures. The PVA fiber reinforced soil-cement mixture showed a ductile failure whereas the unreinforced soil-cement mixture showed a brittle failure. The inclusion of PVA fiber in soil-cement mixtures improved the compressive strength characteristics of soil-cement mixtures in several aspects.
Design of High-Performance Longitudinal Flexible Barrier Using Vehicle Velocity-time History
Kim, Kee Dong ; Ko, Man Gi ; Kim, Dong Seong ; Joo, Jae Woong ; Jang, Dae Young ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 157~167
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.157
Vehicle velocity-time histories were used to develop efficiently longitudinal a flexible barrier for the impact condition which is more severe than the existing domestic and foreign impact conditions(a passenger car of 900kg impacts with the velocity of 120km/h and the angle of
, a truck of 14ton impacts with the velocity of 85km/h and the angle of
, and a bus of 13 ton impacts with the velocity of 90 km/h and the angle of
). When the design of longitudinal barriers was implemented such that the initial slopes of vehicle longitudinal and transverse velocity-time history curves were increased as far as possible and the post slopes for the fore and hind portions of the time at which THIV was determined were reduced, THIV which mainly governed the design of longitudinal barriers could be effectively reduced. Various preliminary designs, which had the possibility of producing the above ideal vehicle velocity-time histories, were conducted and the final design of a longitudinal flexible barrier was determined by finite element analyses using LS-DYNA program. The development of a high-performance longitudinal flexible barrier was successfully completed by conducting full scale vehicle crash tests for the final design.
Evaluation of Void Distribution of Hot Mix Asphalt Using Micro CT Scanner
Shin, Kwang-Ho ; Kim, Seong-Kyum ; Lee, Kwan-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 169~175
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.169
The void of asphalt pavement effects very much on the performance of asphalt pavement, including permanent deformation. In recent, lots of multi-functional hot mix asphalt have been developed. The multi-functional properties depend on the void characteristic of hot mix asphalt. In this research, the Micro CT scanner is adopted to verify the void characteristic of hot mix asphalt. Couple of different mixtures, including permeable asphalt pavement, SMA and dense-graded asphalt mixture, were used for void analysis. In case of PA-13 permeable asphalt pavement and SMA 10mm, the effective void, total void and the ratio of connection between void increase as the level of compaction decreases. There is a little difference of the effective void, total void and the ratio of connection for 50 blows/side and 75 blows/side of compaction. In case of dense-graded asphalt mixture, there is a small amount of void, but most of void is isolated, which means little effect on the permeability of asphalt mixtures. Judging from the limited test results, a Micro CT scanner will be an alternative to analyze the void properties of asphalt mixtures. The correlation of unconfined compressive test and impact resonant test was relatively good.
A Study of Perceptions of the Tsunami Evacuation Exercise & Education: In the Case of Samcheok City Officials
Kwon, Gun-Ju ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 177~184
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.177
This study is a survey of the perceptions of Samcheok city officials who participated in the exercise which took place simultaneously all over the country on May 4, 2011. The participants reported that the tsunami safety of the coastal area is low, and the possible occurrence of tsunamis is relatively high. Second, the participants lacked training in the tsunami evacuation exercises. Third, the participants need in-depth orientation and information for the exercise in advance. Fourth, the evaluation of the signal legibility on the evacuation direction boards was well regarded. In addition, in order to enhance the perception of local safety, there was relatively high agreement rate about distributing the tsunami evacuation maps to the residents. Finally, in terms of civil servants who are designated as exercise staff members, their exercise leading abilities did not reach a satisfactory level. Therefore, continued education and trainings about the tsunami evacuations are highly recommended.
A Study on the Fire Safety Evaluation through Disaster Management Criteria for each Legion -In the Case GyeongGido-
Ryu, Tae-Chang ; Choei, Byeongil ; Sin, Gyeonggeun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 185~194
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.185
Even in such regions with highly dense population and huge damage is expected when there is a disaster, government runs through policies that only focuses on expost facto measures such as restoration. Thus this study aimed to secure clear quantitative data of regional fire safety by selecting fire fight and disaster management ability criteria focusing on Gyeongido in where population and building density are high and weight of disaster related works is relatively higher. As for study method, AHP, a kind of multi criteria decision making and GIS were used to schematize data. From the analysis result, higher output data were observed in Hwaseong, Gapyeong, Uijeongbu and Suwon. Based on above results, this study provided political implications.
A Study on Forest Officer`s Recognition of Forest Fire Education
Lee, Si-Young ; Kim, Soon Nyeo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 195~202
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.195
The purpose of this study was to examine the awareness of government workers in charge of forest fire on forest fire prevention education. A survey was conducted on forest fire prevention officers in Kangwon Province, Ulsan and Gyeongsang Province to find out their awareness of the necessity of forest fire prevention education, their preference for a curriculum and courses, and their opinions on the appropriateness of the current forest fire punishment regulations, the right time for forest fire prevention education and forest fire prevention educators. The collected data were analyzed to provide information on the development of effective forest fire education programs.
Questionnaire Concerning the Actual State of Forest Fire Danger for Facilities in Wildland-urban Interface in Gyeongbuk 3 Province
Park, Houng Sek ; Lee, Si-Young ; Lee, Byungdoo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 203~210
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.203
The facilities in the wildland-urban interface were main cause of forest fire occurrence and important point of forest fire protection and safety. The management of facilities and the determining the order of priorities for forest fire attack were very important for protecting human lifes and properties and estates. In this study, orders of danger rating priority and safety priority for facilities in wildland-urban interface were surveyed by questionnaire concerning. In results, the rate of awareness for danger facilities were high, while rate for protected facilities were low, The classification system for these facilities and education systems would be needed for solution of these problem. Officers who worked in the forest part(national and local administration) recognized rice paddies and dry fields, graveyards and orchard as danger facilities. And they recognized cultural assets and a preserved forest as protected facilities. The cultural assets and houses would be recognized as principal damaged facilities.
Development of Fire Proof Clothes for the Multiplex Available Premises Fire
Kim, Hyo-Won ; Jung, Gil-Soon ; Jung, Rae-Hyuck ; Lee, Byung-Kon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 211~215
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.211
Multiplex available premises have many rooms with complicate internal structure and it make difficult to the safe evacuation. The purpose of this study is the development of economic fire proof clothes and supply to multiplex available premises to save the people`s lives. Actual fire experiments in the fire laboratory were conducted to measure the fireproof characteristics of fire proof clothes. Also, fire simulation were performed to predict the temperature and fire damage of the fire proof clothes with the FDS program. As a result, the test persons wear the fire proof clothes can be endured at least 8 minutes in the actual fire experiment, and over 11 minutes in case of using portable oxygen.
A Study on the Reinforcing Investigation Ability of the Fire Crimes to Improve Professionalism of Special Judicial Police Officers
Jeon, Jong Jung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 217~223
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.217
This study considers the significance and purpose of the judicial police officer system focused on the improvement of the investigation authority and the professionalism for the special judicial police officers who deal with fire crimes. The analysis of the special judicial police officer system is followed through the investigation of the judicial precedent in GyeongGi-Do Fire Services and Ansan Fire Station in recent 5 years. Improvement on the problems of the recent special judicial police officers system which deals with fire crimes is proposed to develop the investigation officers education system, to enlarge the range of performance and to revise the regulations which establish the mutual assistance system on the fire crime investigation to develope the professionalism of the special judicial police officers.
Egress Code of Sunken Area in Underground Multiple Occupancy
Kim, Woon Hyung ; Kim, Jong Sung ; Lee, Yong Jae ; Choi, Byeong Bay ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 225~229
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.225
To achieve required safe escape time is first step in a performance based egress design of underground multiple occupancy buildings. A sunken space as a refuge area in a current code expects a meaningful role for achieving life safety design in this kind of crowded facilities. In this study, comparison and analysis of egress time between sunken space and escape stairwell was performed to review egress capacity. Egress Modeling results show that the movement time from ignition to escape into sunken space applying to minimum required area and exit width is shorter than 20~30% than that of stairs, so demonstrate this code can be adopted as a effective and practical egress design alternative.
Analysis of the Situation of Volunteer Fire Brigade Office Symbol System in Japan
Lee, Eui-Pyeong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 231~238
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.231
A volunteer fire brigade has played a role of a governmental fire fighting system before the governmental system was developed in Japan. Although the governmental fire fighting system well functions now, a volunteer fire brigade has well maintained to prepare for natural disasters including an earthquake. However, a volunteer fire brigade in Japan has some problems such as decreased members of fire brigades, changing the members into employee(salaried man), and increased average age. Japan`s Fire and Disaster Management Agency(FDMA) has developed and executed various policies to solve these problems and a volunteer fire brigade office symbol system is a core policy to solve these problems. This study analyzes the background, manual, and situation of the volunteer fire brigade office symbol system.
Estimation of Length of Connecting Revetment around Barriers with Total Head between Upstream and Downstream
Jeong, Seok Il ; Kim, Soo Young ; Yoon, Kwang Seok ; Lee, Seung Oh ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 239~246
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.239
Hydraulic characteristics of scour upstream and downstream of a barrier were analyzed to estimate the length of connecting revetment. In laboratory experiments of this study, inflow rate, height of barrier and downstream water depth were selected as primary variables. All experiments were conducted under movable bed conditions to propound the scour regime around a barrier based on adequate explanation. We decided the balance of total head between upstream and downstream of a barrier as a significant parameter when presenting the relationship with scour length around a barrier, which could be interpreted that turbulent energy conversion due to a barrier might contribute to scour mechanism.
Cost-Effective Analysis for Evaluating Utility of River Levee in Policy Aspects
Kim, Gilho ; Choi, Cheonkyu ; Yi, Choongsung ; Lee, Jinhee ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 247~254
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.247
The study performs the economic analysis to evaluate the efficiency of buyout land project comparing to the conventional levee project. The cost of buying the potential flood prone area which is identified according to the designated design flood and is compared to the cost of the corresponding levee project. The main stream of Nakdong river between Hwang river and Nam river confluence was chosen as a case study area because those area are prone to the 200 year flood and the land is mostly inexpensive crop field. As a conclusion we proposed that the buyout land project is more efficient than the levee project in an economic viewpoint. Although the study analyzed under certain circumstances and focused on the economic efficiency, it is necessary our object of decision making has to be shifted to the flood prone area not on the river itself.
Improvement of GR4J Model Applying Soil Moisture Accounting Process and Its Application in Korea Basin
Im, Sung Soo ; Yoo, Do Guen ; Kim, Joong Hoon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 255~262
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.255
Soil Moisture Accounting(SMA) process is an important topic in rainfall-runoff analysis because it determines the initial discharge in hydrological models. The SMA process is used in continuous NRCS method. However, it can not explain some events due to its assumption of initial rainfall losses. In this study, a modified SMA procedure is applied to solve the problem with the initial rainfall losses assumption of the NRCS method, and a modified GR4J model is developed using the modified SMA procedure. To verify the applicability of the proposed model, the results are compared with those from existing GR4J models in three different Korean basins. In this process, Harmony Search optimization algorithm is used to calibrate model parameters. And the calibrated parameters are verified to check the representability of the target basin. The developed model shows better results than existing models do and can improve accuracy of the rainfall-runoff model. Since the modified GR4J model shows outstanding efficiency while using less parameters, it is expected to be applied to many other Korean basins.
Estimates Extreme Hydrologic Event at Seoul Using Regression Analyses
Kim, Gwangseob ; Lee, Gichun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 263~270
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.263
In this study, we estimated probable precipitation amounts at Seoul for the target year(2020, 2030, 2040 year) using the 1 and 24 hour annual maximum precipitation data from 1973 through 2009. The Gumbel distribution was chosen and the probability weighted moment method was used to estimate model parameters. The behavior of the mean of extreme precipitation data, scale parameter, and location parameter amount using the linear regression and the logistic regression methods. The probable precipitation amount for the target years using the linear regression methods is much higher than that using a stationary frequency analysis. The probable precipitation amount using the logistic regression showed stable increase but probable precipitation amounts was almost same for different target years since the behavior of logistic curve converges before 2040 year. In estimating probable precipitation, the logistic regression is able to reflect the increase behavior of hydrologic extreme reasonably while probable precipitation amounts for target years using a linear regression method have continuous increase.
The Analysis of Flood Hydrograph by Using Vflo
Kim, Keun Yeong ; Choo, Yean Moon ; Yeo, Won Ki ; Jee, Hong Kee ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 271~283
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.271
This research examined a rainfall-runoff relationship containing linearity by applying radar rainfall to grasp more accurate properties of rainfall. In addition, this research improved accuracy of estimated radar rainfall by applying a G/R(Gauge to Radar) technique compensating estimated radar rainfall through using a ratio relationship between estimated radar rainfall and observed ground rainfall. In order to verify applicability of distributed rainfall-runoff model from radar estimated rainfall, this research constructs a
analysis system which is typical distributed rainfall-runoff model and analyzed a discharge aspect while changing the size of a lattice. This research proposed estimation and compensation of radar rainfall as well as the lattice size of distributed rainfall-runoff model.
Determination of Optimal Locations and Size of Storage in the Urban Sub-Surface using Genetic Algorithm
Ryu, Seung Hyun ; Lee, Jung Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 285~290
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.285
Recently, the danger of flooding has increased due to the result of extreme climate change and urbanization around the metropolitan areas. To prevent this kind of problems, installing underground retaining facility around the metropolitan basin has been discussed. Even though the several researches related to the underground retaining facility are on progress, the general consideration of the capacity and the location is unsatisfying. Therefore, this research has developed an optimal model which would help to decide an adequate capacity and location according to the numbers of the facilities that need to be installed. For this optimal technique, genetic algorithm is utilized, and SWMM(Storm Water Management Model) 5.0 DLL is constructed accordingly for the better interpretation of hydraulic, hydrological. The model has been simulated in Sungnae district in Seoul, and it has determined the adequate capacity and the location according to the different numbers of the facilities which need to be installed. Furthermore, by adapting various situations of exceeding rainfall, it has also analyzed the method of reducing inundation while installing the underground retaining facilities.
Improvement of Breakwater Armor Weight Estimation
Yoo, Dong-Hoon ; Yoon, Jong-Joo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 291~298
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.291
The equation of Hudson is world-widely employed for the estimation of minimum or optimum weight of armor block. Various scientific engineers found that the optimum weight of armor block is also significantly influenced by wave period, percolation of slope, and the formation of irregular waves. In this study new surf parameter, which is called `2nd order wave action slope`, is introduced for representing the local wave conditions in shallow waters by employing local values of wave length as well as wave height. The 2nd order wave action slope is formed by the product of the breakwater slope and the celerity ratio to the wave height. The optimum or minimum weight of armor unit is related to the wave action slope which is employed for developing new empirical equations. After analysing van der Meer(1988) laboratory data, we found the armor weights are well related to the wave action slope. Using the new surf parameter, simple but accurate equation is suggested for the estimation of breakwater armor weight. Several empirical equations are applied to the cases of failure experienced in Korean East Coast. The safety values given by Hudson and Van der Meer equation are 47% and 70%. But the result of the present equation shows 86% safety. The increase of safety value might indicate some improvement of the new empirical equation over Hudson equation and Van der Meer equation.
Analysis of Long Period Sea Level Variation on Tidal Station around the Korea Peninsula
Yoon, Jong Joo ; Kim, Sang Ik ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 299~305
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.299
Long period sea level changes were investigated at 17 tidal stations which are located around Korea peninsula with more than 25 years tide-gauge data. Regression analysis was applied to get general rising trend for long-term change(1960~2010) in mean sea level(MSL) at each station. The results showed that rising trends of MSL around Korea is higher than that of global MSL. The linear rising trend of MSL was relatively small along the western coast(on average 1.3mm/year), large along the southern and eastern coasts(on average 3.2 and 2.0 mm/year), and very large at around Jeju Island(on average 5.6 mm/year). The rising rate of around Jeju Island is about 3 times higher compared to the world ocean. According to recently IPCC report, the rate of sea level rising can be accelerating after 21st century. The interannual variation of sea level rising around Korea showed regional difference. This property of sea level rising should be considered to design the coastal structure in terms of coastal disaster prevention.
A Determination of the Acceptable Design Extreme Rainfall for the Improvement of Flood Disaster Prevention Ability
Jo, Deok Jun ; Lee, Na Eun ; Jeon, Byeong Hoon ; Kang, Doo Kee ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 3, 2012, Pages 307~311
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.3.307
In recent years, as the occurrence of torrential rainfall in urban area which caused by global climate change has increased, the flood damage also has increased. It`s because careful consideration of increase tendency for rainfall wasn`t given to the hydraulic structure design standard and the occurrence of rainfall which exceed the design probability rainfall has actually increased. This paper suggests the regression equation which presents the extreme rainfall value in a probability function. The regression equation is made from the observed data and it can be used in design. As a result of the research, it is possible to apply the regression equation to disaster safety assessment of extreme rainfall when the hydraulic structures are designed.