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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation
Editor in Chief :
Moo Jong Park
Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 6 - Dec 2012
Volume 12, Issue 5 - Oct 2012
Volume 12, Issue 4 - Aug 2012
Volume 12, Issue 3 - Jun 2012
Volume 12, Issue 2 - Apr 2012
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Feb 2012
Selecting the target year
Real Scale Fire Test for the Karaoke Fire Risk Analysis
Yoo, Yong Ho ; Choi, Young Hwa ; Kweon, Oh Sang ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1~6
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.001
Karaoke is the structural feature that it is located underground or composed of no window layer secret room even over the ground so that it has quite high risk of airway obstruction due to smoke at the fire. In this study, a real scale fire test was performed for actual karaokes at the zone under reconstruction. The results showed that oxygen concentration of the room at which fire occurred decreased to 13.99% around 5 minutes later, and 0.58% of carbon monoxide was generated. Especially, 0.8% or more of carbon monoxide was measured in the room next to it around 8 minutes after fire occurrence. Thus, it was found that air way obstruction would probably occur due to toxic gas such as carbon monoxide by incomplete combustion of sound proofing material rather than flame spread by fire re-spread. Consequently, fatal toxic smoke reaches the surrounding space in around 3 minutes without quick early measures at the fire of sealed room so that many causalities result.
A Framework of Realtime Infrastructure Disaster Management System based on the Integration of the Building Information Model and the Sensor Information Model
Oh, Eun-Ho ; Lee, Seongki ; Shin, Eun-Young ; Kang, Tae-Kyung ; Lee, Yoo-Sub ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 7~14
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.007
The research is aiming to propose a framework of real-time infrastructure disaster management system by combining the building information model (BIM) and the sensor information model. Open BIM such as IFC (Industry Foundation Classes) has been widely adapted as a data exchange standard in AEC/FM domains and its application to the broader purpose has been explored as in facility management. The final goal is to establish an integration system of spatial information of the infrastructure disaster management system and real-time data of the monitoring systems of infrastructures. To reach the goal, a computing platform that interoperates from interfaces of tiny end nodal sensors to varied purposeful visualizers is necessary. Theoretical aspects in BIM and its relevant ICT are thus discussed first. And then the real-time Infrastructure Disaster Management System is suggested and the detailed explanation on the components of the system, such as extended BIM model, database management, sensors, operation process, and visualization method, is followed. To validate the system, a scenario based approach using a building fire accident is substantiated. The result of this research can contribute to the field of disaster research area by establishing the framework that can provide a novel method of integration of spatial information and real sensor data in order to understand holistic system configuration.
A Research for Pathological Analysis of Hydrogen Fluoride(HF) Toxicity
Kim, Sung Soo ; Cho, Nam Wook ; Oh, Eun Ha ; Rie, Dong Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 15~21
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.015
Polymer materials are well-used for Modern building constructions. Combustion gas of construction material has different components between natural and polymer. Recently research shows, Apart from combustion gas of natural construction material contain CO.
species. Also polymer combustion gas include HF, HCN, HBr, HCl, NO,
additionally. It analyzed that species product from Polymer compounds. These species can act as major disturbance factors in the evacuation from the building`s fire. Because, polymer will increase the proportion in building materials. In this research, effects from HF gas are analyzed by pathological method. Histopathologic examination, DNA toxicity evaluation experiments were conducted for mouse exposed by HF standard gas. Exposing HF gas were caused extensive hemorrhage and necrosis in the liver and lung from experimental animals. and blood and DNA damage were analyzed quantitatively by comet assay.
Numerical Analysis on Velocity to Prevent Smoke Backflow of Pressurized Stairwells in High Rise Building
Ahn, Chan Sol ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 23~29
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.023
In high-rise commercial buildings, the smoke that occurs in case of a fire tends to be spread rapidly to the horizontal and vertical direction due to the structural characteristics of the buildings. In particular, since the smoke spread to evacuation stairwells and elevator shafts results in the toll of lives, "Design Guidelines for Smoke Control System of Special Evacuation Stairwell and Lobby" of NFSC 501A was proposed in Korea as one of fire safety standards to prevent the penetration of the smoke into the above mentioned areas. Towards this end, the vestibule pressurization method was largely used in the past, but the stairwell pressurization method is introducing in recent years. This study attempted to analyze whether air egress velocity suitable for the standards is secured, targeting the actual buildings designed with stairwell pressurization system through numerical analysis. For this, a real-size model for numerical analysis was made by measuring the floor plan, airflow, pressure and flow area of any floor in a fire, and velocity to prevent smoke backflow was analyzed.
An Experimental Study on Fire Resistant Performance of Legally Prescriptived Slabs
Yeo, In Hwan ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 31~37
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.031
This study aimed to secure the test data for improving the classification scheme of related regulations about fire resistant slabs by testing the structural member of RC, SRC and SWM slabs which legally prescriptived. Test result may be summerised as follows. (1) In the equal thickness condiion of covering, the deflection of specimen of RC, SRC and SWM showed to have equivalent performance at the rate of 40~44% in the case of 40 mm, 34~37% of 50 mm to the proportion of allowed criteria. It can be placed in order, however, RC, SRC and SWM as a view of fire resisting rate. (2) An increase of 10mm cover thickness of slab lead to the fire resisting rate up to 8% and 7% in SRC and SWM, respectively. This showed that the fire resisting rate increases in proportion to the cover and whole thickness, with few influenced by structural type. (3) The insulation performance of slabs improved by increasing whole thickness, with few influenced by structural type or covering thickness, but in the case of over the 200 mm of thickness of slab it was not further improved.
Fire Resistant Performance of High-Strength Concrete Column Covered with Aerogel Composite Inorganic Blanket and Gypsum Board
Yeo, In Hwan ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 39~45
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.039
This study aimed to develop and evaluate of fire resistant covering systems for HSC(high-strength concrete) column which has mainly constructed with ACB(Aerogel Composite inorganic Blanket) and FGB(Fire protective Gypsum Board). The ACB-FGB fire resistant covering system showed that it clearly secure the fire resistance performance for HSC column when the reinforcing measures had achieved for four cross-sectional edge sides of member and the system is well continued during test period with no significant deformation or seperation. It was checked out the 20 mm thinkness covering system consist of ACB(5 mm)+FGB(15 mm) can have a rating of 3 hour-fire resistance performance adequately; 20 mm thinkness is only 50-70% level of exsisting gypsum board covering systems that can show an equivalent capacity.
Experimental Study for Fire Behavior and Heat Transfer Properties for Types of Fire Protection Method for 60 MPa High-Strength Concrete Column
Kim, Hyung-Jun ; Kim, Heung-Youl ; Cho, Bum-Yean ; Kim, Kyung Ok ; Kwan, Ki-Hyuk ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 47~52
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.047
In this study, we intend to propose a method for improving fire resistance performance by adding Fiber-Cocktail made by hybridizing steel fiber and Polypropylene fiber as the materials for reducing explosion to enhance the fire resistance performance of high-strength concrete and the effect on the fire resistance performance under standard fire loading conditions, in case of applying pre-stressed wire rope to 60 MPa high-strength reinforced concrete column. According to the test result, in case of applying hoops, the fire performance for 147 minutes has been secured and the wire-rope for 180 minutes. However, it was shown that the temperature of the main reinforcement exceeded
at maximum specified in the notices related to fire resistance performance of high strength concrete. However, in case of applying both of wire-rope and fiber-cocktail, it was shown that the fire performance for more than 180 minutes has been secured.
Experimental Study for Fire Resistance and Heat Transfer Properties on the Compressive Strength of High-Strength Concrete Column
Park, Kyung-Hoon ; Kim, Heung-Youl ; Kim, Hyung-Jun ; Kwon, Ki-Hyuk ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 53~59
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.053
In this study, we have intended to evaluate fire resistance performance by analyzing fire behavior according to the strength property(60 MPa, 100 MPa) of high strength concrete column. With 2 variables(60 MPa, 100 MPa) for the strength of high strength concrete column, the fire behavior and the heat transfer property according to strength has been evaluated. In addition, we have evaluated fire resistance performance of the test object in the condition of mixing wire-rope method and fiber cocktail with comparing to the one of general test object(applied by hoop) to evaluate the improving method of fire resistance performance. In the result of the experiment, the fire resistance performance is shown as lower, as the concrete strength gets higher, and this can be analyzed to result from bigger cracks and spalling for 100 MPa high strength concrete, compared to 60 MPa high strength concrete. Also, in case of applying wire-rope and fiber cocktail, the fire resistance performance has been shown as enhanced. In this case, it can be judged because the softness has been increased more than the case we applied the hoop after applying the wire-rope, and that the spalling of test objects has been reduced due to mixing the fiber cocktail.
Real Scale Experiment For Assessing Fire Model of Office Compartment
Kweon, Oh Sang ; Yoo, Yong Ho ; Kim, Heung Youl ; Kim, Jung Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 61~65
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.061
The fire spread prevention in the buildings is designed to protect life and assets by prohibiting the fire spread to the adjacent space and, for this design, the outside through setting fire separations, and it is important to predict the accurate size of fire inside the unit separation. Therefore, in this paper, we have intended to select a office compartment from the building classification for use, and to propose HRR[Heat Release Rate], the engineering fire size, through the real fire experiment according to this. The fire experiment has been conducted with arranging real combustible substances and wood creep into the unit separation with
size after analyzing fire load for the use of the buildings. The fire load of the office compartment is indicated as
. In the result of the experiment, the fire experiment with real combustible substances and with wood creep are shown as
, in separate. The fire size shown through these positive fire experiment can secure prediction of the fire spread of the buildings in further, and reliability on prevention designing.
The Verification for reliability of Domestic Evacuation Program from Building (K-Evac)
Youn, Ho Ju ; Hwang, Eun Kyoung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 67~72
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.067
In this study, we have developed "K-evac", an evacuation program, to secure evacuation safety performance of domestic buildings and implemented the verifications to secure feasibility and reliability of the program prior to commercialization. The verifications of K-evac has been conducted for 11 functional compositions, based on "GUIDANCE ON VALIDATION/VERIFICATION OF EVACUATION SIMULATION TOOLS" of IMO guidelines utilized in verification and validation of overseas` evacuation program and has passed the standard point with embodying most functions. However, There is a limit in detailed verifications for the evacuation program by IMO guidelines, as they have only a verification for functional composition of the program. Through further pilot operation of the evacuation program, K-evac, the verifications is due to progress, and we have intended to utilized in evaluating evacuation safety of the buildings through advancement and improvement of user`s convenience.
An Experimental Study on Establishment of Classification System of Fire Resistance for RC and SRC Columns
Park, Jisun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 73~79
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.073
The current building code for fire-resistance construction provides for a uniform standard of max. 3 hours fire resistance performance considering only structure type in building. Therefor it leads to unreasonable design fire resistant design regardless of the recent variety and complexities in building. In addition, substantial amount of time has passed since the enactment of this code, which is unable to adequately reflect the revisions to the KS fire resistance testing methods made in 2000. As a result, there is a need to confirm the performance of the current building code for fire-resistance construction. Accordingly, in this study, fire test with loading was performed for reinforced concrete and steel framed reinforced concrete columns, the results of which were compared with current domestic and overseas fire resistance standards to propose a system of more narrowly segmented fire resistance ratings.
An Experimental Study on the Fire-Resistant Performance of Extruding Concrete Panel using Crushed Stone Powder
Park, Jisun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 81~86
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.081
Crushed stone powder generated during processing of artificial stone plates and stone tiles is improperly disposed, owing to the fact that many stone processing companies are small and poor, and because of rising costs for disposal by consignment. An efficient recycling and disposal plan is therefore required to address this situation. In this study, extruding concrete panels were made using crushed stone powder as a means to utilize this unused recycled resource and then the fire resistance test was performed to verify application of building materials. Fire resistance performance testing was carried out according to the current provisions of KS F 2257-1, 8. Pilot testing provided primary confirmation of the fire resistance performance of crushed stone powder substituted silica powder, and based on these results a full scale specimen was tested. Test results showed that crushed stone powder substituted silica powder sufficiently satisfied current fire resistance requirements for non-loadbearing vertical separating elements.
An Experimental Study on the Themal Properties of High Strength Concrete Exposed to High Temperature
Kim, Dong-Joon ; Kang, Seung-Goo ; Kwon, Young-Jin ; Lee, Jae-Young ; Harada, Kazunori ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 87~92
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.087
There is a strong possibility that high strength concrete(HSC) has a serious chance of decreasing efficiency or loss of dfficiency in case of exposure to high temperature. It is thought that in fire, the Spalling of High Strength Concrete will more seriously occur because of water tightness. Generally, heat conductivity depend on transition between a object and heat, so a physical and chemical reaction inside concrete has an important role. In this experiment, we measure heat conductivity(W/mK), thermal diffusivity(
), and specific heat(J/gK) in points at a range of from
to review the thermal characteristics of high strength concrete exposed to high temperature. In results, fundamental data, which has experimentally examined and is to achieve fire resistive performance of HSC, is provided.
The Study on the Comparative Analysis on the High-rise Building Laws in Korea
Hwang, Eun Kyoung ; Yun, Ho Ju ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 93~98
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.093
Recently, many buildings were large size, complex and high rise. The attention has been being increased for the safety of the building occupants. It caused the government to enact the new law or enhance the exiting law related with the high-rise building. But the scattered regulations with individual laws confused to apply the regulations. So this study are proposed the improvement direction for the high-rise building laws through the comparative analysis among the high-rise building laws. There were the high-rise building laws like Building Act, Fire-fighting system installation business Act, Installation maintenance and safety control of fire-fighting system Act, etc. The elicited problems among the high-rise buildings laws were mixed regulations in the individual laws, the different standard in the same regulation, the ambiguity between the law and a local government guideline. On the basis of them, this study suggested the improvement direction like as the integrated design guidelines for high-rise buildings, the unified standard for the same regulation, the introduced performance based design for the evacuation.
Wind Fragility Development for Roof Sheathing System of Light-Frame Wood Structure
Ham, Hee Jung ; Lee, Sungsu ; Kim, Ho-Jeong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 99~105
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.099
This paper presents a fragility assessment for roof sheathing in light-frame wood constructions built in high wind regions. A fragility methodology is developed to assess the performance of roof sheathing subjected to wind-induced building pressures. The goal of this study is to develop a fragility model for roof sheathing system using available resistance test data, recently developed wind load statistics and building code. A typical baseline building considering different geographic locations is investigated using a Mote Carlo simulation method. Fragilities of the baseline building considering three different levels of damages are developed as a function of 3 second gust wind speed. The fragility methodology described in this paper can be used to estimate physical vulnerability and financial loss of light-frame wood construction in high wind regions.
A Study on the Weights Development of LQI(Living Quality Indicator) Indicators for High-rise Residential Building
You, Yong Heum ; Kim, Jin Wook ; Jung, Seung Woo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 107~114
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.107
As there are more tall buildings over 60 stories planned and executed nowadays in Korea, High rise buildings over 100 stories has been planned. Considering this situation, Living quality of high-rise residential building is becoming required and also, studies regarding the living quality has been widely conducted. In this research, through previous research, This study develops assessment standards of living quality of high-rise residential building for comparison and Analysis. However, Each required performance must have hierarchy based on basic direction. Especially, Qualitative assessments of living quality maybe different in the Importance according to individual`s valuation. This difference in the Importance is priority for value judgement in each index of this study. Thus, the purpose of this study is to research the difference in the Importance focusing on basic direction and required performance in the Index developed through previous research and based on this, to develope weights of the Factors.
Damage Assessment of Two-Mica Granite under Uniaxial Cyclic Incremental Loading Using Acoustic Emission
Lee, Chang-Soo ; Lee, Kyung-Soo ; Kim, Jin-Seop ; Choi, Hey-Joo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 115~123
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.115
In this study, damage assessment of granite under uniaxial cyclic incremental loading was analyzed by the acoustic emission (AE) techniques and the obtained results were compared with stress-strain curve data. As the loading cycle number increased, the dissipated energy result obtained from stress-strain curve was only shown the rock samples were gradually damaged, then damage degree increased 0.23 to 0.48 from the 5th cyclic loading in stress-strain curve data. AE energy result also began to increase the damage degree dramatically at the same stage and it was similar to the result of dissipated energy. Thus, AE result was correlated with dissipated energy measurement and it was highly correlated (
An Experimental Study on the Seismic Performance of Precast Pier without PC Tendon
Lee, Young Ho ; Song, Jae Joon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 125~131
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.125
In this study, the tests of seismic performance for full-scale models of the precast pier were conducted in order to verify the seismic performance of the precast pier using general rebar without introducing prestressing force such as a PC tendon. The constructability of the precast blocks was improved by inserting three rebars on an axis direction into a one hole. The tests for three piers with identical form were carried out, with use of precast and FRP reinforcement as test variables. The ductility for failed shape and cyclic transverse loads was evaluated. The damping ratio, stiffness reduction, and energy dissipation according to reducing stiffness were compared. These tests proved improvement of constructability and seismic performance for precast pier and of seismic performance for FRP reinforcement in their results.
Evaluations of the Structural Safety Under Construction and the Vibration Serviceability in Service for the CFTA Girder Bridges
Lee, Sang Yoon ; Park, Kyung Hoon ; Kim, Jung Ho ; Kim, Doo Ki ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 133~141
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.133
The CFTA (Concrete Filled Tubular Arch) Girder bridge is a new type of bridge which improves the structural efficiency and the aesthetics by combining the characteristics of the CFT (Concrete Filled Tube) structure, PS (Pre-Stressed) structure, and arch structure. Before applying the proposed type of bridge to the real bridges, the structural safety should be evaluated not only in service but also under construction. Because the CFTA Girder bridge has the relatively slim section in the middle of the span, the vibration serviceability should be evaluated additionally. In this study, the real-scaled specimen of the CFTA Girder bridge was fabricated and the vibration test was conducted to evaluate the structural safety under construction and the vibration serviceability in service. The dynamic analysis considering the moving load was conducted by using the FE (Finite Element) model verified with the results of the vibration test. The results of the dynamic analysis reveal that the CFTA Girder bridge has the structural safety under construction and the excellent vibration serviceability.
Flexural Tests for the Evaluation of Effective Tendon Area in PSC Beams with A Corroded Tendon
Youn, Seok Goo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 143~150
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.143
Ultimate flexural tests are conducted to evaluate the effective area of corroded prestressed strands in prestressed concrete beams with corroded strands. Corroded prestressed steel wires in prestressed concrete beams can be disconnected before ultimate load, and thus, ultimate flexural strength can be less than the calculated flexural strength using the residual area of corroded strand. Therefore, considering premature wire fractures of corroded strand, effective area rather than residual area is required for obtaining the conservative flexural strength of PSC beams with corroded strands. In order to investigate the effects of the loss of strand area on the flexural strength of prestressed concrete beams, nine test beams were fabricated with varied loss of strand area and static load applied to obtain the ultimate flexural strength of the test beams. Based on the test results, a method for evaluating the effective area of corroded strand is proposed.
Adaptive Finite Element Mesh Generation for Dynamic Planar Problems
Yoon, Chongyul ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 151~156
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.151
In structural design and analysis used for hazard mitigation systems, automation is becoming an essential feature. For analysis, the finite element method has proven to be an effective approximate method if proper element types and meshes are chosen. Recently, the method has been successfully applied to solve complex dynamic and nonlinear problems; and with a properly chosen element type and mesh, reliable results have been obtained. However, in automation and in complex analyses of a structures, using the initial mesh throughout the analysis may involve some elements to go through strains beyond the elements` reliable limits. Thus, the finite element mesh for these types of analyses must be dynamically adaptive, and considering the rapid process of analysis in real time, the dynamically adaptive finite element mesh generating schemes must be computationally efficient. In this paper, a computationally efficient dynamically adaptive finite element mesh generation scheme for dynamic analyses of planar problems is described. The concept of representative strain value is used for error estimates and the refinements of meshes use combinations of the h-method (node movement) and the r-method (element division). A coefficient that depends on shape of elements is used to correct overly distorted elements. The validity of the scheme is shown by a deep cantilever beam example under a dynamic concentrated load. The example shows reasonable accuracy and efficient computing time. Furthermore, the study shows the potential for the scheme`s effective use in complex structural problems such as those under severe environmental hazards such as seismic or erratic wind loads.
Analysis on Runoff Reduction Effects of Detachable Permeable Block
Lee, Soo Hyung ; Kim, Je Won ; Yoo, In Kyoon ; Kim, Nak Seok ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 157~162
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.157
Heat island effect and urban floods have become more frequent in urban areas. It is widely known that such phenomena are mostly attributed to an increase in impermeable surface such as buildings and road pavements by urbanization. The permeable block pavement is preferred as one solution to manage this problem, but it is reported that their drainage function is rapidly decreased by clogging in most cases. In this study, we developed permeable blocks that consist of top plate, bottom plate and grids with a hollow inside. There are small holes on the top plate that are 4 mm in diameter, which facilitates drainage, and 3 mm-thick grids make their durability better. For performance evaluation, runoff tests in both lab and site test showed that the new permeable blocks reduced stormwater runoff by more than 30% compared to the conventional blocks.
A Study of Material Model Behavior for the Analysis of Reinforcing Effect of Geocell on Granular Material
Lee, Soo Hyung ; Lee, Chang Joon ; Kim, Je Won ; Yoo, In Kyoon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 163~169
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.163
Geocell is one of the effective tools for reinforcing geotechnical materials such soil, sand, and so on. In this study, we investigated the reinforcing effect of geocell on unbounded granular material (UGM), which is used for subbase of pavement structures. For this purpose, a mathematical model for UGM reinforced with cylindrical geocell was formulated. A MATLAB program code for the mathematical solution was developed. In oreder to investigate the reinforcing effect of geocell on the UGM, a parametric study was conduced using the MATLAB code. The parameters used for the study were Young`s modulus of geocell(
Countermeasures on Heat Wave related Disasters Increasing due to Climate Change
Heo, Bo Young ; Song, Jai Woo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 171~177
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.171
According to IPCC(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), the earth temperature is expected to increase
from global warming in the 21st and increase average summer temperatures and the frequency and intensity of heat wave. The heat wave of Europe in 2003 caused 35,000 deaths and economy losses of above 13 billion dollars. All countries of the world recognized the importance to response heat wave from 2003 event of Europe. Every country is developing warning system for heat wave response, establishing activities to heat wave plan. In this study we suggested effective methods for heat wave response in Korea through investigating heat wave damage and responses of abroad.
A Study on Sound Level of the Fire Alarm System in the Factory
Lee, Young-Sam ; Rie, Dong-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 179~184
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.179
If a fire occurs in the workplace delay of danger warning transmission because of a lot of inner workplace noise increases the RSET (Required Safety Egress Time) and increases the death rate. This is especially true when there is a lot of noise from a machine room and also the possibility of doors between the machine room and the fire alarm system. In addition, most workers in a noisy environment wear protective earplugs. In this study, the transmission characteristics of fire alarm sound were researched according to KOFEIS 0305 and the US Fire Protection Handbook to analyze the problems. In a experiment done using eight different fire alarm systems under conditions such as distance from the alarm system, open and closed doors, machine sounds, and with and without earplugs. As a result of the measurements it was found that in the case of wearing earplugs the alarm systems didn`t meet the standards and the alarm sound volume was changed per door open or shut in the machine room. Also every machine sound volume exceeded the 85dB in the case of machine sound(Background noise) except air compressor. NFPA suggests that when the background noise exceeds 85dB or more than that, alarm system should be considered of other methods to know alarm sound. Therefore it was concluded that the design of the fire alarm systems should not be applied to machine sound volume and that there needs to be improvement with regulations and the systems.
A Study on the Improvement of the Field Survey for the Scientific Investigation Analysis
Yang, Dong Min ; Lee, Me Ran ; Choi, Woo Jeong ; Kim, Ji Tae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 185~190
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.185
The frequency and intensity of disaster are increasing and the establishment of disaster management policy and its application are important. Disaster field survey is one of the important disaster management but field survey has resulted in the incorrect disaster cause analysis because of nonstandard method. In this study, disaster finds survey find problems and suggests improvement methods and roadmaps. The results of this study are expected to utilize establishing scientific disaster investigation system.
Risk of Accidents Analyzed in the Laboratory of the University
Chung, Yeong Jin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 191~199
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.191
Recently at the University accidents such as fire and explosion occur frequently on the laboratory and is increasing interest in this subject. In this study, in accordance with Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Notice No. 2008-134, Guidelines for laboratory safety tests and precise guidelines for safety inspection, One of the selected universities in 2011 for 200 laboratories examined the overall problem. As a result, the laboratory was 57.5% rated as grade 1, grade 2 in 46.0% rated the lab, the lab evaluated as grade 3 (2.5%), respectively. Content of the experiment, laboratory safety incidents with the fire safety field was highest (44.3%), followed by 14.8% field of electrical safety, 10.9% field of chemical safety, 10.6% field of general safety, 7.7% field of machine safety, 6.1% field of industrial hygiene, and 5.6% field of gas safety in order. And for pointed out that the cause of the accident, the safety measures were proposed.
Fire Hazards of a 9 Volt Battery in Case of Short-Circuit
Ha, Hun Woo ; So, Soo Hyun ; Lee, Un Kun ; Kong, Ha Sung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 201~205
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.201
In this study, the riskiness of fire accidents on 9 V primary battery and secondary battery was investigated experimentally, their batteries were likely to occur the short circuit with a conductor contact. For this experiment, conductors of which short circuit are probable if they are left with 9 V batteries were selected as samples. And the possibility of a fire was experimented by bringing samples in contact with tissue paper, assuming that the 9 V battery and a sample have in short circuit. To consider a fire accident by the short circuit of a battery and a conductor, the theoretical resistance was calculated and the correlation between the experimental results and the theoretical resistance was studied. As a result, the sample(ball point pen`s spring) of which length was the longest, cross-section was small and shape had a rolled like a coil was caught a fire. It is proved experimentally so the ball point pen`s spring was likely to occur the concentration of heat that it was caught a fire.
Fire Analysis of the Refrigeration Warehouse by Fire Simulation Program
Lee, Eui Cheol ; Lee, Byung Kon ; Jung, Gil Soon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 207~216
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.207
Forty people died in the fire of refrigeration warehouse at January 7th, 2008. In this thesis, Computater-simulation has been performed to understand the cause of deaths and fire diffusion processes of the refrigeration warehouse fire by using the FDS program. Also, the effect of sprinkler system was examined hypothetically. The results showed that smoke flew along the corridor and reversed after crash into the end of corridor, so the mechanical and electrical room were filled with smoke earlier than other rooms. CO density of corridor exceeded to the safety upper value, and it could be a cause of 8 persons died in corridor. CO density of mechanical room increased rapidly up to safety lower value from the beginning of fire and the CO density of adjacent corridor was higher than the mechanical room. It presumed the cause of 20 persons died in mechanical room, and they could not escape to adjacent corridor. The density of
were lower than the limit of safety value, its could not be an immediate causes of death. The effect of sprinkler was not much because water droplets descended the flame and smoke to the height of breath.
Study on a Policy for Forest Fire during Joseon Dynasty(during 1392~1910)
Kim, Donghyun ; Kang, Youngho ; Kim, Chanbeom ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 217~221
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.217
This study surveyed historical records on forest fire polcis during Joseon Dynasty`s 518 years (1392~1910) in being and analyzed the Annals of Joseon Dynasty(朝鮮王朝實錄), The daily records of royal secretariat of Joseon dynasty(承政院日記), Daejonhoetong(大典會通), Koryosachulyo(高麗史節要), Bibyeonsadeungnok(備邊司謄錄), Shinbo Sugyo Jibrok(新補受敎輯錄), Sugyo Jibrok(受敎輯錄), Chungbo munheon bigo(增補文獻備考), Kyeonggukdaejeon(經國大典), Hwanghaedoyeonhaekumsongsamok(黃海 道沿海禁松節目), Jedosongkumsamok(諸道松禁事目), Taezonsokrok(大典續錄), Kumjojeolmokimun(禁條節目移文). Notes recorded in the history of literature wildfire policy is included such as general forest policy, Kumsan(禁山) and Bongsan(封山), citadel in the forest fire policy, Jongmyo(Royal tomb) Shrine of forest fire policy, hunting ground, salvage, defence, pest extermination. In conclusion, forest policy of Joseon Dynast was performed wildfire prevention policy and livelihood stabilization policy. In addition, forest fire prevention policies and how to manage in the major facilities are included.
A Study on Surface Absorption Dynamic Mechanism due to the Addition of a Surfactant in Cellulosic Combustibles
Kim, Nam Kyun ; Lim, Kyung Bum ; Rie, Dong Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 223~229
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.223
In the case of Seo-Moon market in Deagu (2005), fire relapse after fire suppression has led the accident to a large fire due to secondary fire occurred because the fire fighting water did not penetrate until deep place. Thus, in the case of using a common fire fighting water extinguish a fire in the place where a large amount of cellulosic combustibles is loaded, there is a risk of fire relapse and that has digestive limitations for a combustion in the deep of cellulosic combustibles. However, a standard exist only on the surface tension in the current domestic wetting agent technology standards, so it is difficult to the performance evaluation of the wetting agent through the standard. Therefore, in this study, surface absorption mechanism were studied by measuring that wetting speed and wetting area according to the concentration of the surfactant for cellulosic combustibles(the paper and textile). Through this study, Depending on the degradation of the surface tension by surfactant addition, it was confirmed that the absorptiveness is improved on the surface.
An Experimental Study on the Characteristics of Lightweight Foamed Concrete Used as the Refractory Filler
Kim, Dae Hoi ; Choi, Dong Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 231~237
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.231
Lightweight foamed concrete is typically used in the insulation layer of the apartment floor. And Lightweight foamed concrete used as a refractory of lightweight panels, fireproof safe and has been used for a variety of purposes. The existing research focused on the part of the building insulation research primarily. But, for a systematic study has not been made on a portion of which is used as a refractory of fireproof safe. Fireproof safes is used to protect the securities and various documents and valuables from fire. And korea safe is high market share in the world. Therefore, this study basically using a foaming agent lightweight foamed concrete. And perlite and expanded polystyrene beads were used as the aggregate. Density, compressive strength, thermal conductivity, and fire performance tests conducted by the results presented here. And, I hope Lightweight foamed concrete has been widely used.
Sediment Budget Analysis of Watershed Using SWAT and HEC-RAS
Kim, Dae Gon ; Cheong, Tae Sung ; Yu, Kwon Kyu ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 239~245
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.239
Various river projects have caused sediment transport relate problems such as sediment yields, foundation damages of river facilities by riverbed degradation, siltation on reservoir and erosion in coast. To understand comprehensively these behaviors related on sediment erosion, transport and yields from inflows to outflows in river watershed, usually, the sediment budget analysis is used. This study propose a new sediment budget analysis method using both sediment transport models of the watershed runoff model and riverbed fluctuation model. To calibrate and validate the model, the method is applied in the Naeseong-cheon which typical alluvial river is one of the main tributaries of the Nakdong river and Yeong-ju dam is planned to be built. The results show that proposed sediment budget analysis method represents well sediment transports in the natural river watershed. Specifically, sediment loads calculated by the method is fit well to the measured sediment loads in the Naeseong-cheon watershed. The sediment budget analysis results show that the soil loss of 17,040,000 tons due to erosion in many parts of river bed is estimated in the Naeseong-cheon. The suggested method can be used for sediment budget analysis and sediment related disaster risk reduction in the natural streams.
A Study for a Reasonable Application of the SWMM to Watershed Runoff Event Simulation
Kang, Taeuk ; Lee, Sangho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 247~258
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.247
Rainfall runoff process differs depending on if it occurs in a rural area or an urban area. While surface flow is dominant in an urban area, in a rural area, groundwater flow is also important. However, in Korea, most studies for a watershed runoff event simulation by the storm water management model (SWMM) have used only the surface flow module regardless of the runoff characteristics for a basin. The purpose of the study is to evaluate application results of the SWMM for a rural area and to suggest the necessity of considering runoff characteristics of a basin in a watershed runoff event simulation. Two basins, which can represent urban and rural areas, are selected: the Guro 1 Pumping Station Basin and the Milyang Dam Basin. Watershed runoff event simulations were conducted by including the groundwater module of the SWMM and the results were derived by an automatic calibration. The calibration results for the watershed runoff event simulation model of the Guro 1 Pumping Station Basin were quite similar to the observed hydrograph, even when the groundwater module is not included. On the other hand, calibration results for the watershed runoff event simulation model of the Milyang Dam Basin were poorly done when the groundwater module is not considered. When we derived the calculated runoff hydrograph by the watershed runoff event simulation model with the groundwater module for the Milyang Dam Basin, the results were well fitted into the observed data. Thus, runoff characteristics should be considered for a watershed runoff event simulation by the SWMM.
2-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of the Behaviors of Knickpoint in the Channel with Noncohesive Materials
Jang, Chang-Lae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 259~265
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.259
In this study, a two dimensional numerical simulation was conducted to investigate the behaviors of knickpoint, planimetric changes, and flow characteristics in the short oversteepened reach of the channel with noncohesive materials. The numerical model was verified with the laboratory experimental results of Brush and Wolman in 1960. The numerical model simulated well the generation of hydraulic jump and the behavior of dune due to the sediment eroded upstream, which migrated downstream and caused locally to steepen at the lower end of the oversteepened reach. The knickpoint migrated upstream with time. The slope of the bed below the knickpoint decreased as time progressed. The numerical experimental results showed that the knickpoints upstream migrated with speed as the slope was steep. The migraiton speed were dependant on the discharge.
Improvement of 2-D Finite Element Model Using Analysis of Initial Water Surface Elevation
Kim, Sang Ho ; Oh, Hyeon Wuk ; Choi, Seung Yong ; Han, Kun Yeun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 267~274
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.267
Initial condition of water surface elevation with boundary condition is required to simulate two-dimensional finite element model. In general, in order to perform two-dimensional finite element model, unrealistic initial water surface elevation which is above all-terrain bed elevation and unmatched downstream boundary condition is used, which will make it difficult to perform stably. In this study, the water surface elevation caused by the actual river bed rather than a fixed value is applied automatically as the initial condition of a two-dimensional finite element model. The algorithm to automatically extract river cross section for simulation of one-dimensional hydraulic analysis from a two-dimensional element mesh is developed. And the accuracy of two-dimensional model tried to upgrade by improving the two-dimensional finite element model, which used the results of one-dimensional non-uniform analysis as the initial condition of two-dimensional model. To examine the applicability of an improved model, the model was applied to the rectangular channel with a rapid slope, mild-steep slopes channel, steep-mild slopes channel and Han River. The results of the model, which the initial water surface elevation of one-dimensional flow analysis is used, were more stably converged than those of existing model and the stability of numerical computation was improved by using physical initial water surface elevation.
Estimation of Design Flood-Hydrograph for Unsteady Seepage Analysis Through River Levees
Seo, Lynn ; Yoon, Kwang Seok ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 275~286
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.275
Our objective is to compose design flood-hydrograph for analysis of unsteady seepage through river levees. Flood data in the study area, whose observations period are sufficiently long, were collected. Design water surface level and design flood of the study area were analyzed. The method that was introduced in design criteria guideline for river levee in Japan was modified and applied in this study for decision of design flood-hydrograph. For examination of applicability of composed flood-hydrograph, the relation of slope of falling limb and duration of flood-hydrograph was analyzed. It was estimated that flood duration in composed flood-hydrograph was longer than one of design flood-hydrograph, that represents duration of design flood-hydrograph can not take duration of real flood into account. Slope of falling limb of composed flood-hydrograph was more gradual than one of design flood-hydrograph in most study area. Although the results showed that the larger area of a basin accompanies the gentler slope, the pronounced correlation, which can be seen between basin area and flood duration, did not exist. The present study suggests that employing duration of composed flood-hydrograph and slope of falling limb of design flood-hydrograph is safer design when analyzing unsteady seepage through river levees. This study proposed a practical approach to estimate design flood-hydrograph using past flood data. This study applied the methodology to the study area in five river basins and identified the validation.
Development of Technique to Estimate Inundation Hazard Level Caused by River Levee Failure
Park, Jae Hong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 287~296
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.287
The inundation prediction of protected area due to river levee failure should be carried out simultaneously by unsteady analysis of the time-varying aspects of the flow in the river and the process of the collapse of the levees and inland flooding. However, previous studies associated with levee failure cannot exactly explain actual non-linearity of levee failure, because of using multi-purpose commercial model with assuming instantaneous or linear levee collapse. In this study, the modelling of the process of levee failure by river flow is tried, introducing soil mechanical theory based on levee stability theory. Through the introduction of the levee failure analysis module, inundation analysis, the river flows and levee failure model are organically combined to comprehensive levee failure analysis model. The developed model is applied to Gamcheon and the results shows that in case of river flood, this model simulate reasonably inundation depth on the inland area, 2 dimensional floodwave propagation, breach flow velocity etc. according to aspect of development of breach width. If the accuracy and applicability of this model is improved by the more application to practical cases, the model is expected to effectively analyze levee collapsed flooding and establish action plan against inland inundation.
Development of the Risk Assessment and Evaluation System for Small River Using Vulnerability Indicators
Jang, Dae Won ; Yang, Dong Min ; Moon, Seung Rok ; Choi, Woo Jung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 297~303
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.297
In small river extent of damage and has been increasing due to the recent rainfall patterns with local characteristics for abruptly changing. Existing flood risk and vulnerability analysis for many studies were carried out for National rivers and local streams. In order to quantitatively estimate the risk of each Small Streams In this study, risk, vulnerability, considering mitigation Small river Risk Assessment Index (SRAI) is proposed. Consists of a total of 10 items, risks, vulnerabilities, mitigation and SRAI in the risk assessment results were divided into 10 grades expressed. Small river in the risk assessment index that can be analyzed in this study, the system was built.
Database for Tsunami Hazard at Harbor Zones
Lee, Ha Woo ; Shin, Jaewan ; Kim, Kye Yeong ; Cho, Yong-Sik ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 305~314
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.305
Recently, many catastrophic tsunamis have been occurred around the Pacific Ocean Area. They have deprived of a huge number of lives of human beings and property. A tsunami hazard-free information system is essential to mitigate casualties and property damage. In this study, a tsunami evacuation system has been developed through web-based geographic information system. The selected target area are major harbors vulnerable to unexpected tsunami attacks. The optimal evacuation routes, designated and temporary shelters and other keen information are included in the system for each major harbor along the coastline of the East Sea.
A Study on Short to Mid-term Runoff Prediction based on Non-Scenarios Considering Climate Change Effects
Kim, Mi Eun ; Shon, Tae Seok ; Jang, Young Soo ; Kang, Doo Ki ; Shin, Hyun Suk ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 315~324
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.315
Climate change occurring globally destroys the balance of equilibrium of water cycle connected to precipitation, ground water recharge, outflow, storage, and evapotranspiration. IPCC said that change of precipitation pattern generated variation of climate system in the weakest part among the impacts of future climate change on human environment so researches on the tendency of runoff and precipitation for the variation of characteristics are carried out globally. These have studied a wide of tendency for analyzing the variation of precipitation characteristics due to climate change in Korean. By collecting observed precipitation and runoff data from 1966 to 2001 at 24 points in the country, extracting at the units of year, these were used as basic data for predicting mid-term runoff by 2020. The result of mid-term hydrological prediction from observed data was the better than other and more effective to predict. This study on the basis of long term observed hydrological data contrary to GCM-RCM method on the primary purpose is to develop hydrological prediction model using non-scenario methods over the mid-term.
A Study on Mid-term Prediction of Hydrological Factors based on Non-scenarios on Han River
Kim, Mi Eun ; Shon, Tae Seok ; Shin, Hyun Suk ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 325~331
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.325
Studies for predicting climatic factors using GCM-RCM methods have limited applications to various area. It also showed different simulated results by each of runoff models. It is possible to make some problems for reliability of results in case of applying to runoff model, as long as uncertainty of effect assessments to runoff models is great. In this study, prediction of hydrological factors over the mid-term with a concept of non-scenarios on the 7 sites in Han river was conducted based on observed hydrological data from the past to the present. This study is not used to GCM scenarios and applies to statistical models like Sen test of trend analysis methods based on non-scenarios in seven points of Han river. The trend and elasticity analysis were performed after detecting the characteristics in each of the sites using statistical methods with observed annual rainfall and runoff from 1966 to 2001. Using the results, prediction of hydrological factors (2013, 2015, 2017, 2020) was carried out by trend analysis and elasticity method. The prediction result using the elasticity method of the results of this study was more reliable than result from trend analysis.
The Feasibility Evaluation of CDM Projects of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants for Energy Independence
Shim, Hyung-Joon ; Kim, Sung-Keun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 333~342
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.333
A total of 57 anaerobic digesters in 357 municipal wastewater treatment plants(MWTPs) were operated as of end of 2007. However, the rate of operation efficiency has been low. Therefore, in order to improve energy efficiency of digestion gas, the ministry of environment plans to execute CDM projects in the targeted 26 MWTP in energy independence plan for wastewater treatment systems by 2015. For the previously stated reasons, this research carried out feasibility study of CDM project to have done qualitative and quantitative comparison analysis of Bundling CDM and Programme CDM for the 26 MWTP. The result of the qualitative and quantitative comparison shows that both alternatives have the potential to be effective ways of CDM projects for the 26 MWTP, and Programme CDM is much better than Bundling CDM.
Long-term Monitoring and Analysis for Discharge Characteristics of Nonpoint Source Pollution by Land Use Types in Geum River Basin
Lee, Jung Ho ; Park, Suyoung ; Kim, Dongho ; Lee, Young Joon ; Park, Moo Jong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 343~350
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.343
The aims of this study are the characterization of discharge from nonpoint source, the analysis of the pollutant loads and an establishment of a management plan for nonpoint source of Geum river basin. For this purpose, 6 monitoring points was selected to the investigated. During the period from March 20 to September 29 in 2011, the water automatic sampler system has been installed in each monitoring points and parameters such as
, SS, TN and TP were analyzed. The nonpoint source pollutants seem to be washed out along the stream water in the beginning of rainfall, remain in water and cause the stream pollution. The runoff during heavy rainfall, especially, much higher concentration of SS than those during dry period. Therefore the basic data were build up to estimate the basin unit of nonpoint source according to land use in Geum river basin.
Correlation Analysis between Rainfall and EMC by Land Use Types based on Monitoring of Nonpoint Source Pollution in Geum River Basin
Lee, Jung Ho ; Park, Suyoung ; Kim, Dongho ; Lee, Young Joon ; Park, Moo Jong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 351~358
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.351
During the dry periods, many types of pollutants are being accumulated on the land surface and the accumulated various pollutants are inflowing in th the near watershed areas for the rainfall periods. Then, the monitoring study needs to analysis of the pollutant loads and an establishment of a management plan for nonpoint source. In this study, a field monitoring was conducted in order to find out the discharge characteristics of nonpoint source pollutants in Geum river basin. Event Mean Concentration (EMC) of
, SS was calculated based on the monitoring data of 56 rainfall events at 7 monitoring points. The land use of the studied basins were divided into forested land and grassland. As the results, a significant relationship was observed from the correlation between EMCs and rainfall characteristics. The present study is achieved to provide the correlation between rainfall events and nonpoint source pollutants. And the data which were build up in this study will contribute to establish the management policy for the nonpoint source pollutants.
A study on the behaviour of sandbag applied on the slope
Kim, Gwang-Ho ; Im, Jong-Chul ; Jeong, Hoyune ; Seo, Minsu ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 12, issue 6, 2012, Pages 359~369
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2012.12.6.359
Currently, when the collapse of the embankment and slope, sandbag is used into recovery method. However, the surface breakage of the sandbag has caused problems. To improve such problem, sandbag by attaching Velcro that increase shear strength was developed. In this study, indoor model test and numerical analysis was carried out using in order to analyze the mechanical properties of sandbag. As an indoor model test result, the bearing capacity was increased by 20% when using the Velcro. Also, numerical analysis was performed to estimate the Young`s modulus of sandbag. It is 1.3~2 times of the values by laboratory model tests.