Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation
Editor in Chief :
Moo Jong Park
Volume & Issues
Volume 13, Issue 6 - Dec 2013
Volume 13, Issue 5 - Oct 2013
Volume 13, Issue 4 - Aug 2013
Volume 13, Issue 3 - Jun 2013
Volume 13, Issue 2 - Apr 2013
Volume 13, Issue 1 - Feb 2013
Selecting the target year
An Experimental Study for the Flame and Smoke Spread Analysis in Apartment House
Yoo, Yong Ho ; Choi, Young Hwa ; Kweon, Oh Sang ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 1~6
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.001
Domestic fire accidents in the residence area caused 177 fatalities only in 2011 and are recognised as a serious social risk factor. This study performed full scale fire reappearance experiments for actual apartments to analyze behavior characteristics of fume and harmful gas, major causes of casualties at the fire of apartment building. The outcomes found that carbon monoxide, major cause of suffocation casualty, was measured up to 7,600 ppm, and its measurement was up to 3,400 ppm on just above floor of fire floor as well. Also, it was confirmed that fast fume diffusion through stairs at the time of front door open might make occupants get in serious trouble in securing visibility.
Investigation on the Validity of Current Concrete Design Codes on Shear and Anchorage of Deep Beams by a Concrete Limit Analysis
Kim, Jin-Woo ; Hog, Sung-Gul ; Lee, Young Hak ; Kim, Dae-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 7~14
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.007
The current American Concrete Institute (ACI) and Canadian Standard Association (CSA) code provisions on the shear strength of a simply supported concrete deep beam and its end anchorage details suggest that deep beams should be designed using the strut-and-tie model approach. Although this is a useful methodology to design members in disturbed regions, the quality of the design is highly dependent on the truss model that designers create. In this paper, we investigate the validity of the current ACI and CSA design codes on these issues by comparing the estimates by the codes with those of the shear strength equations of concrete deep beams proposed by Hong et al. (2002) The comparison shows that deep beam members designed by the ACI and CSA strut-and-tie approaches retain the shear strengths close to the values predicted by the shear strength equations, but its requirements on end anchorage details may be rather conservative.
An Experimental Study on the Bond Strength of Re-bar Anchors with Adhesive Type
Seo, Seong Yeon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 15~21
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.015
The use of post-installed anchors with adhesive type has lately been increasing when it is necessary to repair, reinforce, or remodel structures because this constructing method has flexibility and simplicity of construction in adhering or fixing structural members. Meanwhile, strength evaluation of anchors with expansion type among post-installed anchors systems has nearly reached setting-up stage like design code through continual experimental studies for the last ten years, but analysis or experimental studies on anchor system with adhesive type are not sufficient yet. Accordingly, we performed pull-out tests to analyze the bond strength of re-bar anchors with adhesive type embedded in non-cracking plain concrete, with variables such as anchor diameter, embedded length, and edge distance. As a result, we got the following results. 1) As a result of linear regression analysis on the bond strength of re-bar anchors with adhesive type by the anchor diameter, it showed that bond strength reduced by 0.15MPa per 1mm diameter. 2) As a result of linear regression analysis on the bond strength of re-bar anchors with adhesive type by the embedded length, bond strength reduced by 4.9% each when the embedded length reduced by 0.1 times of the standard embedded length. 3) The value of 5% fracture probability, applying the influence coefficient by the edge distance of re-bar anchors with adhesive type, resulted in 1.2.
Characteristics of Vertical Ground Motion and Its Effect on the Response of 3-Story RC Building
Kim, Myeong-Han ; Kim, Sung Jig ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 23~29
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.023
The paper presents the characteristics of vertical ground motion and its effect on 3-story RC building. The characteristics of vertical ground motion are discussed including frequency content, vertical-to-horizontal peak ground acceleration (V/H) ratio, and time intervals between the arrival of the vertical and horizontal peaks. The vertical ground motion effects on the RC structure are also investigated considering V/H ratio. It is observed that the inclusion of the vertical component of ground motion has an important effect on the response of the selected RC building. It is therefore concluded that vertical motion should be included in analysis for assessment and design in the near fault area where V/H is likely to be high.
Analytical Evaluation of Blast Resistance of H-shaped Columns Considering Gravity Load
Lee, Kyungkoo ; Roh, Jieun ; Kim, Seonwoong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 31~36
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.031
The behavior of columns under blast loading is very important for blast resistance and progressive collapse resistance of frame structures. In this paper, the blast resistance of H-shaped columns considering initial gravity load was evaluated using finite element analysis method. To this end, three-step analyses of intial gravity load analysis, blast analysis, and residual compression analysis, were conducted by varying the amounts of initial gravity load and blast load. Based on the analysis results, the blast resistance of a column was evaluated in terms of the deformation of column and the residual compressive strength of the damaged column. Also, the relationship between the blast-induced deformation and residual compressive strength of a H-shaped column was derived.
Numerical and Experimental Studies of the Analysis of Heat Flow in Building Fires
Lee, Ji-Hee ; Kim, Woo-Suk ; Yeem, Hyo-Jin ; Kim, Wha-Jung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 37~42
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.037
Presently in most of developed countries, PBD (Performance-Based Design) is actively being adopted to reduce the danger of fire in large, high-rise buildings. In order to do so, prediction and analysis of heat flow must be conducted in advance. This paper has utilized an MPS (Moving Particle Semi-implicit) method to design a 2-Dimensional Heat Flow Analysis Program and conducted an experiment through the use of a reduced-scale model having the same relative parameters of heat source and size. Two separate results of heat flow following a rise in the fire source temperature were cross analyzed to determine correlation.
Analysis of Constituents of Insulating Concrete using Micro CT Images
Chung, Sang-Yeop ; Han, Tong-Seok ; Yeom, Kwang Soo ; Kim, Ji Su ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 43~48
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.043
Concrete is a multi-phase material whose material properties are affected by spatial distributions of phases. The void distribution in concrete strongly affects physical properties of materials, such as mechanical response and heat conduction. To examine constituents of insulating concrete specimens, micro CT(micro computed tomography) image can be effectively used. Using micro CT images, the spatial distribution of constituents in insulating concrete, such as aggregates and glass beads to ensure the dispersed void distribution, can be detected. It is confirmed that micro CT images are effective in describing the spatial distribution of constituents of insulating concrete.
A Study on the Micro-Crack Development of KURT Granite Using Acoustic Emission Technique
Lee, Chang-Soo ; Lee, Kyung-Soo ; Kim, Jeop-Seop ; Choi, Hey-Joo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 49~56
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.049
In this study, moment tensor analysis in acoustic emission (AE) was adopted to analyze the tensile failure mechanism of granite under three point bending load. Source location result was in remarkable agreement with the real failure plane. However, it was showed that although the tensile failure was initiated by the tensile cracks generated from the tip of V shape notch, the failure was mainly caused by shear cracks occurred along the failure boundary. This is considered due to the irregular arrangement of mineral rock. Therefore despite the fact tensile stress was applied to the specimen, tensile and shear cracks were well distributed. In addition, shear cracks interacted with existing neighboring cracks and when the failure occurred, the cumulative volume reached approximately 62%.
Analysis of Repair and Strengthening Manuals of Domestic and Foreign for Establishment of Repair and Strengthening Manuals of Bridge and Tunnel
Kang, Cheol ; Oh, Kwang Chin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 57~65
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.057
In terms of maintenance of facilities demands of need about establishment of methodical standard of repair and strengthening for extend of service life and guarantee of safety have increased. To achieve this, development and dissemination especially materials quality and performance evaluation after construction for guides, manuals, and standards are needed. Many researchers have been performed about it over the last 17 years after establishment of special law about safe management of facilities, but associated with it, currently in domestic there have been not official standards yet. Therefore in this paper status of domestic and foreign (U.S, Japan, and EU) has analyzed priority for arrangement of standards of repair and strengthening. In particular, we were examined focus on quality-related content, Guides are divided into 3 steps (design, construction, and investigation), and then it was analyzed and it as a basis for improving quality of repair and strengthening technology, we suggested direction for presentation of standards.
An Experimental Study on the Multi-Deterioration Resistances of Concrete containing Waste-glass Sludge
Lee, Hyeongi ; Oh, Hongseob ; Sim, Jongsung ; Zi, Gwangseop ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 67~74
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.067
Subsidiary concrete structures such as a barrier and a side-channel suffer from rapid deterioration due to the excessive use of an de-icing in Korea. Consequently, the needs for replacement and/or repair of the structures has increased significantly, resulting in the increase of the maintenance cost. The preliminary study strongly indicates that it is necessary to improve the durability and visibility of the subsidiary structures in order to reduce the maintenance cost of the structures. Hence, the purpose of this research project is to develop a concrete with high durability by incorporating waste-glass or polymer admixture in concrete. And in order to develop concrete of high durability by utilizing waste glass, a research was focused on an effect of waste glass sludge mixing over concrete strength and durability and measurement for compression strength by each material age performed together with chloride ion penetration resistance and scaling resistance test for properties of multi-deterioration.
Effect of Cap Geometry on Behavior of Steel I-girders to Inverted-T Bent Cap
Lee, Hee Young ; Cho, Dae Yeon ; Chung, Won Seok ; An, Zu Og ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 75~81
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.075
Recently, a new steel girder bridge has been proposed to increase the space under the bridge and to improve aesthetic aspect of the urban area by connecting bent cap and steel girders. The core technology of the proposed bridge entails the introduction of prestressing force to steel girders and inverted-T bent cap by means of high-strength steel bars. This study investigates the effect of cap geometry on the behavior of the propsed bridge consisting of steel I-girders to inverted-t bent cap. Various geometries includes the change of width and height of bent cap. And this study is to ensure the structural safety of the proposed bridge system considering construction stages by means of 3-D finite element analysis. In each construction stage, stress states can be abruptly changed before each component of the proposed bridge works as a system. Variation of stress components for bent cap and girder were given with detail. It has been found that the height of inverted-T bent cap more sensitive factor to the behavior of the proposed bridge than width of bent cap. And analysis showed that sequential 3-D numerical analysis should be performed to ensure structural safety at each construction stage of the proposed bridge.
Section Design Algorithm of Cantilevered Sign Support Structures Subjected to Wind Loads
Kim, Sung-Hoon ; Lee, In-Seok ; Choi, Jun-Kyeok ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 83~88
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.083
In this study, the algorithm to determine sections of the chord and the post member was developed to the cantilevered sign support structures for highway signs subjected to wind loads. To accomplish this, parameter studies to the load parameters effect on the design wind load and related to the sign dimensions were conducted. The graphic charts to choose the minimum diameter of the chord and the minimum section modulus of the post for structural safety of members were obtained, satisfying with the specifications of allowable stress for acting stress and combined stress of the chord and the post. It is shown that the sections of traffic sign support structures satisfied the design specifications can be easily determined with the definition of sign dimensions using the design procedure of this study.
Performance Evaluation and Analysis Model for the Post-Installed Anchor
Kim, Jin-Sup ; Kwon, Min-Ho ; Seo, Hyun-Su ; Park, Jae-Hun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 89~95
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.089
The post-installed anchors were installed in non-cracked concrete. And then pullout and shear strength of the anchor were investigated. The test of pullout and shear was conducted torque, diameter and insertion depth of the anchor. If it subjected to pullout load, the performance of it was affected by torque, diameter and insertion of anchor. It it subjected to shear load, the performance of it was affected by diameter and insertion of anchor, but torque was less affected. In failure mode of pull-out test, steel failure of the anchor and concrete cone failure occur. And shear failure mode, most of the tests showed shear failure of the anchor. A commercially available finite element program, ABAQUS, is used in this study, and then the behavior of pull-out of anchor were analyzed. When the interpretation of the available anchor system are derived for finite element modeling of concrete structure, interpreted the resulted with the installation of a target anchor for a relatively accurate prediction was possible.
Evaluation on the Impact of Extreme Droughts in South Korea using the SPEI and RCP8.5 Climate Change Scenario
Kim, ByungSik ; Sung, Jang Hyun ; Lee, Byung Hyun ; Kim, Do Jung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 97~109
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.097
The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), a method widely used to analyze droughts related to climate change, does not consider variables related to temperature that it is limited in that it can't consider changes in hydrological balance such as precipitation and evapotranspiration from climate change. If we were to consider only the future increase in precipitation from climate change, droughts may decrease. However, because usable water can diminish from an increase in evapotranspiration, it is indispensable to research to project droughts considering the amount of evapotranspiration as well as project and evaluate potential droughts considering the impact of climate change. As such, this study evaluated the occurrence of droughts using the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) as a drought index of a new concept that is similar to SPI but includes the temperature variability. We extracted simulated future precipitation and temperature data(2011~2099) from the RCP climate change scenario of IPCC AR5 to evaluate the impact of future climate change on the occurrence of droughts of South Korea. We thus analyzed the ratio of evapotranspiration to precipitation of meteorological observatories nationwide. In addition, we calculated the SPEI in the process to evaluate the future occurrence of droughts of South Korea. As a result, the farther into the future, the more precipitation increased. But because of an increase in evapotranspiration also from a rise in temperature and continued dryness, the severity of droughts are forecast to exacerbate.
Holding Capacity of a Suction Caisson Anchor in Uniform Cohesive Soils
Lee, Hanmin ; Ahn, Jaehun ; Kim, Yun-Tae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 111~116
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.111
Floating offshore structures have been actively studied mainly for the application of oil productions in the past. Presently, this asset from oil industry finds its way for the application to floating wind turbine systems. Tensile forces in mooring systems pull the anchoring systems at the connection, and due to the combination of anchor weight, wind, wave, and current, the anchor may experience inclined forces. The main scope of this paper is to analyze the ultimate holding capacity of suction caisson anchors according to the anchor dimensions and anchor translation angle based on finite element analysis. The holding capacity is linearly proportional to the embedment depth of anchor when installed in uniform soil. The shape of failure envelope becomes more angular as the anchor gets slenderer. The depth of optimal loading point is found to be at 0.57 times the length.
Amplification characteristics of Mountain Slopes
Park, Duhee ; Kim, Tae-Gyun ; Ahn, Jae-Kwang ; Park, Inn-Joon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 117~123
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.117
Seismic stability of slopes is most often assessed through pseudo-static analysis or Newmark displacement method. In both types of analyses, it is necessary to define the maximum acceleration of the slope. It is current practice to determine the acceleration using the seismic site coefficients. However, the site coefficients are not compatible with slopes, since they were developed for horizontally layered soil profiles. In this study, a series of pseudo-static and dynamic analyses are performed on various mountain slopes, from which the amplification factors are derived. A new method for calculating the amplification factors is proposed in this study. In a slope, the ground acceleration varies in both the vertical and horizontal directions. In the proposed procedure, the calculated accelerations at each node inside the slope failure mass are summed. The amplification factor is defined as the ratio of the average acceleration of the soil mass to the rock outcrop peak acceleration. The factors calculated using the proposed method is shown to be close to 1 for mountain slopes modeled in this study. The factors are approximately 14-50% lower than coefficients developed for horizontal soil deposits. The derived factors are lower because even though the amplification at the slope crest is high, as well as on the surface of the slope, the amplification is low near the bottom of the soil layer. In summary, it is demonstrated that the use of the site coefficients derived for horizontally layered soil profile will lead to significant conservative estimate of the slope stability.
Scour Evaluation of Offshore Foundations by using Ultrasonic Reflection Images and Natural Frequency Variation
Park, Kiwon ; Byun, Yong-Hoon ; Choi, Changho ; Lee, Jong-Sub ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 125~132
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.125
Local loss of geomaterials, which reduces the stability of the structures, around foundation of offshore structure occurs due to the interaction between water and ground. The objective of this study is to evaluate scouring in offshore foundation structures by using ultrasonic reflection method and natural frequency analyses. Sand-cement mixture is prepared to model the ground, which is encountered the scour depth and the scour shape. Ultrasonic wave and natural frequency are measured according to the scour depth. Ultrasonic transducers are used to measure the ultrasonic wave, and strain guages are used to measure the natural frequency. Ultrasonic transducers are fixed on horizontal movement system and rotational movement system for the change of location. Strain guages are attached on upper part of model monopile. Ultrasonic reflection image and strain responses are monitored in laboratory experiment. Maximum scour depth is estimated by natural frequency, and the characteristics of the scour shape are estimated by ultrasonic reflection image. This study suggests that the ultrasonic scanning and natural frequency analyses may be effectively used to monitor the characteristics of the scour depth and shape.
Durability Characteristics and Micro-Structure Properties of Cement-Bentonite Soil Mixtures with Geosynthetics and Metakaolin
Kim, Youl-Gyu ; Kim, Yong-Seong ; Kim, Bum-Joo ; Park, Sung-Yong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 133~141
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.133
In the present study, the characteristics of cement-bentonite-soil mixture were investigated in order to examine its applicability as a waterproofing material to prevent leachate migration in infected livestock burial sites. The effects of geosynthetics and metacaolin as additives were investigated by examining the resistances to freeze-thaw and drying-wetting, and micro-structures using SEM and X-ray refraction of the cement-bentonite-soil mixtures. As the mixture ratios of the cement-bentonite-soil, the cement of 0 and 10%, the bentonite of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20%, and the weathered soil of 80, 85, 90, 95, 100% were used. The investigations of strength and durability depending on mixture ratios and age were made on the mixtures added with the metacaolin (0, 5, 10, 15, 20% of cement weight) and the geosynthetic (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0% of cement weight). The test results showed that the metacaolin of 5~10% increases the early strength of the mixtures due to its pore filling and pozzolan reaction. Moreover, the mixtures exhibited 80~90% of the strength under freeze/thaw and dry/wetting, revealing high durability against environment influence.
Field Applications on Environment-Friendly Permeable Pavements Reinforced by Geocell
Kim, Young Jin ; Jo, Shin Heang ; Lee, Soo Hyung ; Kim, Nakseok ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 143~149
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.143
Increase of paved areas due to urbanism resulted in a rapid increase of impermeable areas. As a result, it caused urban types of frequent floods and water circulation problems. The main objective of the research is to suggest a solution for these typical urban problems. Geocell reinforcement was adopted to improve the bearing capacity in permeable pavements. In this research, a pilot test site was operated to verify the field applications of environment-friendly permeable pavements. In addition, a pavement condition survey was conducted to investigate the performance and durability of the pavements. FWD test results showed that the geocell reinforced permeable pavement was able to get the bearing capacity similar to dense graded pavement. Test results revealed that the environment-friendly permeable concrete pavement could reduce the environmental problems in urban areas.
An Analysis of Disaster Management Response with respect to Supervolcano Disaster Case Studies
Kim, Hye Won ; Park, Jae Eun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 151~156
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.151
Recently, signs of a possible volcanic eruption such as an increased frequency of earthquakes and higher than the average temperature of Cheonji (Caldera Lake) have shown. For that reason, researchers and scholars in the related fields have raised possibility of a volcanic eruption. As a result, it has increased the need for volcanic disaster response as well as the interest in the issue throughout the Korean peninsula. To develop and suggest the volcanic disaster reduction technology and policy, foreign volcanic eruption case and foreign legislation including volcanic disaster countermeasure system are analyzed. From the comparison results of foreign volcanic damage and response cases, advanced volcanic countermeasures for domestic such as maintenance and revision of legislation, volcanic disaster response system and volcanic disaster reduction policy are suggested.
A Study of the Integrated Disaster Resources Service Framework
Lee, ChangYeol ; Kim, TaeHwan ; Park, SangHyun ; Park, GilJoo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 157~161
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.157
When disaster is occurred, disaster resources which consist of the equipments, supplies, and human resources are used to recover and restore. Currently, the disaster resource management is operated with NDMS(National Disaster Management System) and Local government Disaster Management System. Eventually, it is necessary that all disaster resources distributed in the governmental institutes and private sectors are managed. In this paper, we analyzed the several resource management models, and then defined the disaster resource management model. It makes a new central integrated disaster resource manager(IDRM) which collects the resource information from the local disaster resource manager(LDRM). IDRM communicates with LDRM using the protocols such as to publish, register, subscribe, and synchronize. Also we defined the standard core data using XML schema. In the future, IDRM must be supporting the disaster field management system.
A Study on Awareness Rate of the Fire Alarm Sound in the Factory
Lee, Young-Sam ; Rie, Dong-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 163~173
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.163
Most work places operating machines have a lot of background noise that affect evacuation from a factory. Especially, a lot of background noise from utility machines cause delay of awareness of fire alarm sound and also increase death rate. Currently, skyscraper type factories have been constructed at around big cities because of high land price. The complexity of skyscraper type factories leads to increase death rate on fire.This study was to research problems using experiment as the same workplace situation according to KOFEIS 0305 and the US Fire Protection Handbook. The experiment was conducted using the speakers to produce machine sound(70dB, 80dB, 90dB) in the room. The fire alarm sound was produced from a corridor. Also the experiment was done using persons(around 20 years old and without damage of ears) under different conditions such as distance from the alarm system, open and closed doors, machine sounds, and with and without ear protection. As a result of the measurements, it showed that in the case of wearing ear protection, most people could not hear fire alarm sound in the room with closed door. NFPA suggests that the alarm system should be considered of other methods to know alarm sound when the background noise exceeds 85dB or more. Therefore it was concluded that the design of the fire alarm systems should not be applied to the workplace without considering background noise and that there needs to be improvement with regulations and the systems.
Study on Building Cyclical Industrial Security Management Process Model for Industrial Secrets Loss Prevention
Chae, Jeong Woo ; Jeong, Jin Hong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 175~183
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.175
This study is aims to present cyclical industrial security management process model as a non-financial risk management tool. First, the security management process of the international information security management certification system ISO/IEC 27001, KISA(Korea Internet & Security Agency) ISMS(Information Security Management System), PIMS(Personal Information Management System) were compared with their control items. The circulation system improvements are discussed. Based on this, 'industrial secrets life cycle', 'BORaI(Building, Operating, Reviewing and Improvement) cycle' and controls of each cycle are derived. Industrial security professionals verify the validity by Delphi surveys conducted over two times. Completed industrial security management process model consists of three cycles (Industrial secrets life cycle, BORaI cycle, and Industrial secrets infringement risk management process). 'Industrial secrets life cycle' is consist of industrial secrets creation, utilization, disposal stages. 'BORaI cycle' is consist of industrial security policy building, policy operating, operation review, improvement stages. Each step will be implemented sequentially with the positive(+) reflux.
A Study on Actual Status of Tsunami Shelters and Residents Consciousness - Based on Samcheok Area -
Kim, Hee-Dong ; Shin, Ho-Joon ; Beak, Min-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 185~189
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.185
This study was carried out as a case study on the occurence of domestic Tsunami and as review on the foreign case. This research adopted to the case of the Tsunam shelters of Samchok city and check those actual status and deduced some problem and situation. Also residents of the port of Imwon and Samchok, who had experienced Tsunami diaster in two or three decades ago participated in the enquete of the residents consciousness. Through the enquete, the improved methods on Tsunami was issued for the east coast of Gangwon-Do.
A Study on Attitude Survey of Korea Coast Guard in Tsunami
Kim, Seong-Jo ; Shin, Ho-Joon ; Baek, Min-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 191~196
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.191
This paper analyzed the domestic and foreign disaster management systems and Korea coast guard disaster response system on the premise of earthquake disaster response and this study based on the survey of Korea coast guard. This paper also examined the current disaster response awareness level and basic directions necessary for establishing the future disaster management and disaster policy. In addition, the role and significance of Korea coast guard organization at the time of tsunami occurrence and the directions for future development were proposed.
Effects of Workload on Human Body wearing Firefighting Protective Clothing in High Temperature
Bang, Chang-Hoon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 197~201
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.197
The aim of study intends to investigate an effects of workload on human body wearing firefighting protective clothing in high temperature and to provide the basic data for the safety of firefighter. The results of the study are as follows; After firefighting majoring students(n=8; age
) performed workload of 4 METs and 8 METs in high-temperature environment WBGT
, dry bulb temperature of
, relative humidity 34.9%) during 20-minute, tympanic temperature change(120%) heart rate(27.5%), respiration rate(21.6%), RPE(75.6%), thermal Sensation(41.9%), weight loss(200%) are statistically significantly higher and skin temperature change is not statistically significant. It is concluded that physiological responses of human body varied considerably and reflected by high temperature.
Explosion Characteristics of Magnesium Dust according to the Variation of Particle Size
Jung, Woo-Jin ; Nagai, Hiroshi ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 203~208
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.203
We conducted experiments to examine the explosion characteristics of different sizes of micro-sized and nano-sized magnesium dust. These explosion characteristics, such as the maximum explosion pressure and maximum rate of pressure rise, depend on the dust concentration. Changes in the particle sizes do not cause clear differences in the explosion characteristics of nano-sized magnesium dust. However, the explosion characteristic values of micro-sized magnesium dust decrease with increasing particle size. Furthermore, nano-sized magnesium dust showed greater explosion characteristics than micro-sized magnesium dust. The calculated flame propagation velocity showed the same trend as the maximum explosion pressure and maximum rate of the pressure rise. The results of classifying the explosion intensity hazards of a magnesium dust explosion showed that the explosion index increased with the decrease of particle size.
Cause Analysis of Errors in the Judgement of Fire Causes
Lee, Eui-Pyeong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 209~216
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.209
Investigators in fire stations or police stations investigate fires and judge their causes. As the results of judging fire causes play an important role in taking measures for fire prevention and arguing about who is responsible, it is necessary not to make errors of the judgement of fire causes. However, in fact, many errors are made in the judgement of fire causes, resulting in serious side effects. This study analyzed causes for errors in the judgement of fire causes based on five cases which made errors. Main causes to make errors in the judgement of fire causes included: 1) the lack of fire investigators' expertise and experience, 2) superior institutions' urge to report, 3) speeding investigation, 4) the lack of fire investigators' activeness, 5) investigation for shirking responsibility, 6) a limitation on private investigators' participation, 7) lukewarm mutual-investigation and information exchange, 8) some investigators' weak responsibility for investigation results, 9) judging fire ignition sources or causes without on-the-spot investigation, and 10) a trend to treat as electrical fires if the traces of electric fusion are found.
Evaluation of a Raingauge Network Considering the Spatial Distribution Characteristics and Entropy : A Case Study of Imha Dam Basin
Lee, Ji Ho ; Byun, Hyosup ; Kim, Hung Soo ; Jun, Hwan Don ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 217~226
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.217
Currently, several government agencies operate the rainfall station for monitoring of severe weather, flood forecasting and warning, and multi-purpose dam operation. The Entropy theory is usually adopted to evaluate rainfall station network (RSN) installed for special purpose. The Entropy theory, however, evaluates the RSN only by the amount of the total hydrological information, which means it considers only the characteristics of the data collected by an individual rainfall station. However, to obtain the area average rainfall properly which is one of the critical reasons to install rainfall stations, the spatial distribution of rainfall stations is also very important. In general, uniformly distributed rainfall stations produce better the area average rainfall than unevenly distributed rainfall stations do. In this study, the total hydrological information and the soundness of the spatial distribution are two different physical parameters, we adopt the Euclidean distance method to consider them simultaneously. An equation obtained by the Euclidean distance method is used as the objective function in the MOGA (Multi Objective Genetic Algorithm) to determine the optimal combination of the rainfall stations for satisfying the both criteria: the maximum total amount of the hydrological information and the soundness of the spatial distribution. The suggested method is applied to the Imha Dam basin in the Nakdong river basin and the optimal RSN obtained by the suggested method shows more spatially dispersed than an RSN obtain by the entropy theory only. This result implies that the optimal RSN by the suggested method can consider both important aspects which the RSN should have.
Estimation of the Flood Warning Rainfall Threshold Considering Agricultural Reservoirs
Kim, Eung Seok ; Sim, Kuy Bum ; Park, Jae Beom ; Park, Moo Jong ; Choi, Hyun Il ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 227~236
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.227
Most flood forecasting and warning systems provide flood predictions without considering the storage effects of reservoirs for small and mid-sized watersheds in Korea. It is due to lack of data available for the flood routing in most agricultural reservoirs, leading to flood control functions. Therefore, this study has estimated the flood warning rainfall amount for the threshold runoff considering the reservoir storage effects in the Nam River watershed located in Gyeongsangnamdo. The watershed delineation and basin characteristics are constructed using HEC-GeoHMS and ArcGIS, and the flood runoff is simulated by HEC-HMS. For flood warning rainfall estimates, this study has characterized agricultural reservoirs located in Gyeongsangnamdo and performed regression analysis of their four main factors that have significant impacts on runoff in small and mid-sized watersheds, based on results from the previous research. The analysis of agricultural reservoir characteristics analyzed for city/county/town units in Gyeongsangnamdo show that the average of reservoir storage rate is 79.2%, and the actual additional water storage capacity is approximately 20% in the rainy season from June to September. As a result of the new method proposed in this study, the flood warning rainfall threshold for 20-minute duration is obtained from the threshold runoff estimated by the flood simulations considering agricultural reservoir effects.
Identification of Flood Risk Areas using a Multi-criteria Decision Making Method
Choi, Hyun Il ; Park, Seung Yong ; Song, Jae Ha ; Park, Moo Jong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 237~243
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.237
This study has performed the flood risk assessment using PROMETHEE(Preference Ranking Organization METHod for Enrichment Evaluation), one of the multi-criteria decision making methods, for identifying area zones with regional flooding risk in terms of the integrated flood risk management. The 12 representative factors for flood risk assessment are carefully selected and constructed for the three main aspects, such as PF(Pressure Factors), SF(State Factors), and RF(Response Factors) under the P-S-R( Pressure-State-Response) classification system at a spatial resolution of city/county/town units for the Nakdong River Watershed, The entropy weight coefficient method is also applied to calculate the weight of flood risk factors in order to reduce subjective judgement on the effect of weight coefficients. To examine the practical application of the proposed method for identification of flood risk areas, the results with/without the weight coefficients are compared with flooding zones of natural disaster risk areas officially announced in 2010. It is expected that the flood risk assessment method ensured by full verification can establish a rehabilitation priorities of catchments for regional protection plans against flooding disasters with respect to causes and characteristics of past floods.
Classifying Flood Prone Areas in Seoul Using Multivariate Analysis
Park, Changyeol ; Shin, Sang Young ; Son, Eun Jung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 245~255
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.245
The purpose of this study is to classify repetitive flood prone areas of Seoul using multivariate statistical analyses, and to suggest the customized flood control strategies for each areal type. 34 flood prone areas are selected based on inundation trace maps in the past years. A number of factors that influence the inundation damage are used to categorize the flood prone areas according to catchment characteristics. The flood prone areas are classified three groups from the results of clustering and discriminant analyses, The factors, such as green and open spaces, lowland area rate, slope, apartment houses and detached houses, mainly influence on the categorization. Flood mitigation strategies based on the characteristic of each group are suggested. The customized flood control measures suggested by this study could be helpful to prevent more fundamentally flood risk and damage of repetitive flood prone areas.
An Experimental Study for Reduction of Sedimentation Deposit at Straight Path Manholes in Urban Sewer
Kim, Jung Soo ; Kim, Kyoung Beom ; Yoon, Sei Eui ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 257~267
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.257
In general, accumulation of sediment within pipelines, manholes, and other components of urban sewer have a serious effect on sewerage arrangements, such as the resistance of the passage of flows, the cause of urban flooding, the premature operation of combined sewer overflows, and the inevitable pollution of watercourses. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze that the movements and sedimentation shape of sediment loads in straight path manholes need to be explained by experiments. In this study, hydraulic experiment model and conditions were decided by the results of documentary and field survey. The experimental apparatus which can be replaced the manhole shapes(square, circle) and invert types(general type, half circular invert, inclined benching) in straight path manholes were installed to measure deposited sedimentation quantity. The quantity of deposited sediment loads was measured by different conditions, for instance, the inflow conditions of sediment(continuous and certain period) and the amount of inflow sediment. The straight path manhole that was set up a inclined benching demonstrated the considerable effect of reduction of sedimentation in manholes without apropos of the change of manhole shapes. Moreover, the improved manhole showed that the substantial influence of the prevention of sedimentation in manholes because those would be completely removed the deposited sediment in manhole by the ideal designed velocity(1.0s) that was proposed in the design criteria of sewerage facilities. As a results, the improved manholes were able to increase the drainage capacity of sewerage arrangements in urban sewer.
Evaluation for Snowfall Depth Forecasting using Neural Network and Multiple Regression Models
Kim, Yonsoo ; Kang, Narae ; Kim, Soojun ; Kim, Hungsoo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 269~280
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.269
Since snowfall is related to various meteorological variables such as temperature and precipitation, it is generated in nonlinear manner. Therefore this study constructs snowfall forecasting model using neural networks and multiple regression which can consider nonlinear process of snowfall. The study constructs the forecasting models for each station using temperature, precipitation, and snowfall depth observed from starting time of observation to 1999. And snowfalls are calculated for all stations by using temperature and precipitation in the period of 2000 to 2011. From the statistical analysis of the calculated snowfall, the proper model is selected. The selected models show the correlation coefficients
of 0.700 to 0.949 and the adjusted determination coefficients of 41.7% to 89.8%. The applicability of neural network models is superior to other model at almost every station. But in some cases multiple regression models show better results than neural network models due to the lack of observational data during learning period and the extreme peak values which are not learned during forecasting period. According to the study, the results of the models confirm the predicting snowfall depth by using temperature and precipitation is possible and show neural network model is better than the existing statistical models.
Evaluation of Accuracy for Watershed Runoff Continuous Simulation by Infiltration Methods
Kang, Taeuk ; Ko, Donggeun ; Jung, Taehoon ; Lee, Sangho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 281~290
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.281
Infiltration separate precipitation into overland flow and the portion penetrating from the ground surface into the soil. Thus, infiltration is an important component of a hydrologic model. A proper infiltration method may increase accuracy of watershed runoff simulation. The purpose of the study is to compare watershed runoff simulation results by the NRCS (U.S. Natural Resources Conservation Service) method with those by the Green-Ampt equation. The NRCS method is empirically derived from land cover conditions and soil types of the USA, whereas the Green-Ampt equation is derived from physical law of groundwater flow. The SWMM (storm water management model) is used to evaluate the results by the two infiltration methods. We conducted watershed runoff continuous simulations, and calibrated the model automatically for objective comparison. Watershed runoff simulation results by the Green-Ampt equation is more accurate in runoff volume and peak flow than those by the NRCS method. The study results have significance to evaluate applicability of the Green-Ampt equation that is rarely used in Korea, and to suggest an application method.
Evaluation of Resilience in Anyang River Basin for Flood Damage Mitigation
Lee, Lim Yeol ; Kim, Soo Jun ; Kim, Yon Soo ; Kim, Hung Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 291~298
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.291
These days, the damage from natural disasters and unexpected climate change tends to be increasing. Therefore, we need to evaluate the disaster prevention ability for the safe city in the urban area. In this study, the abilities that can restore the damage are divided into four parts of the degree of restoration, physical dimension, economic dimension and social dimension then we evaluated the resilience about 24 basins in the Anyang river. The AHP(Analysis Hierarchy Process) and Entropy methods are used in order to calculate weighting values of each factor and indicator. Also, we combined the AHP and Entropy methods and we compared three kinds of weightings. We estimated the resilience in the Anyang river basin based on the weightings and then compared the estimated resilience with the actual damage from natural disasters in the basin. Some regions near the main stream of the Anyang river showed a high level in the resilience as well as relatively enormous damage. In other words, the regions having a big risk had better facilities in order to prevent and mitigate the damage by the disasters.
The Estimation of Future Pump Capacity on the Urban Drainage System using Climate Change Scenario(RCP)
Kang, Na Rae ; Lee, Keon Haeng ; Noh, Hui Seong ; Kim, Hung Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 299~309
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.299
In the recent years, flash flood and local heavy rainfall have been frequently occurred in Korea and this may be due to the climate change. Korea Meteorological Administration(KMA) and IPCC AR5 reported new greenhouse gas scenario called RCPs(Representative concentration pathways). This study tries to analyze the variability and trend of future rainfall using the new RCP scenarios. Based on this, we estimate the needed capacity(demand) at existing pumping station for the future. The study area is Incheon-city, Korea which has 9 pumping stations. This study uses the RCP 8.5 which is the worst scenario of RCPs for the impact assessment of climate change and there will be no difficulty in the three of nine pumping stations for the future rainfall. But, the capacities of 6 pumping stations will not be sufficient for the future rainfall and runoff. It is expected to construct more pumping stations allowable 6 times of existing pump capacity especially for Target III(2071-2100). Therefore, we may need to prepare for the future flood damage potential by reviewing the capacity of future drainage system in Incheon city.
Rainfall Thresholds Estimation to Develop Flood Forecasting and Warning System for Nakdong Small River Basins
Park, Jae Beom ; Shin, Dong Soo ; Park, Moo Jong ; Kang, Bong Gwon ; Shin, Hyun Suk ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 311~317
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.311
An procedure for the definition of rainfall threshold value is illustrated in order to develop optimal flood forecasting and warnings systems for small river basins. Threshold overcoming could produce a danger situation in river sites and trigger the prevention and emergency system alert. Rainfall threshold values is based both on the quantitative rainfall observed and the hydrological response of the small river basin. Threshold values specify the rainfall amount for a given duration that generates a danger discharge in a outlet's cross section and are estimated by hydrological modeling for several scenarios(e.g, Soil Moisture conditions, Initial Abstraction). Nakdong River basin is separated to 2,268 small river basins by using Hec-GeoHMS, rainfall threshold for small river basins are presented for several scenarios.
A Urban Catchment Runoff Analysis Using Geomorphology-Climatic Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph Based Kinematic Wave Theory
Park, Jae Beom ; Kang, Doo Ki ; Shin, Hyun Suk ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 319~326
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.319
Although urban area is composed of street, pipes and channels, hydraulic elements is included by hydraulic routing at downstream subcatchment in urban stormwater model but the hydraulic elements is ignored and frequently greatly simplified at upstream headwater subcatchment. In this study, we construct a UGMcIUH(Urban Grid based geoMorpho-Climatic Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph), which defines the IUH as the probability density function of the travel time including hydraulic elements in a urban area and evaluate the application for Onchun River. Flow paths are extracted from a spatially processed digital elevation model that incorporates hillslopes, pipes and channels, and travel times are computed in each grid using the average wave celerity from kinematic wave theory. Hydraulic elements in urban catchments has a significant role in determining the travel times and hydrologic response of the watershed.
Analysis of Water Quality Improvement by Lake Dredging
Kim, Eung Seok ; Sim, Kuy Bum ; Kal, Byung Seook ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 13, issue 2, 2013, Pages 327~336
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2013.13.2.327
A lake has multiple functions such as biotope, rain water storage, emergency water supply, and so on. However, there are eutrophication and water quality issues due to the lower velocity and longer residence time in lakes than in rivers. Therefore, this study has performed analysis on water quality in the melodic rock lake located in Asan sity, Choongchungnamdo. The result from Korean Eutrophication assessment by National Institute of Environmental Research shows that the hyper eutrophic phenomena frequently occur. It is mainly due to the contaminated sediment deposited on the bottom of the lake which is from organic fertilizers in the agricultural land around the lake in the past. It is founded from the water quality prediction under the dredging maintenance condition in 2013 that the average reduction rates are about 25% for TN and 32.8% for TP using the completely mixed model theory, and 42.4% for TN and 32.5% for TP using a 3-dimensional water quality model, WASP.