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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation
Editor in Chief :
Moo Jong Park
Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 14, Issue 5 - Oct 2014
Volume 14, Issue 4 - Aug 2014
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Jun 2014
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
Selecting the target year
Fire Resistance Evaluation of Linear Joints for Ultra Tall Buildings Depend on Movement Test
Yoo, Yong Ho ; Cho, Kyung Suk ; Yeo, In Hwan ; Shin, Hyun Jun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1~8
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.1
It is well known that ultra high-rise buildings are constructed to accommodate many facilities in a limited area. However, in this type of buildings, the spread of fire to the upper floor can cause immense financial loss and casualties, compared to normal sized buildings. Hence, to prevent the loss due to the spread of fire, it is recommended that each room or space of building structures should be separated by fire-proof barriers or fire-proof walls. The linear joint system is a key area to determine the spread of fire, so that the gap in the joint must be fully protected from fire. In Korea, it is true that the linear joint applied to practice does not take account the effect of natural thermal movement of building structures that can deteriorate the fire-proof performance of the system. Thus, in this study, a ISO movement test was adopted to reflect the long term condition of the linear joint system in a real world. A new apparatus was developed and used in the tests, in order to follow the ISO code. In this study, two specimens were prepared for a comparison purpose: one is conventional specimens (specimen 1) and the other is the specimen with additional insulation (specimen 2). Mineral wool and fire-stopping spray were the conventional materials, applied to specimen 1, and glass wool was an additional material applied to specimen 2, together with the mineral wool and fire-stopping spray. Test results showed that specimen 1 resisted fire-induced damage for 180 min, whereas specimen 2 did for 153 min. As expected, the fire-proof performance of specimen 2 was better than specimen 1. However, the results obtained from the specimen 2 still did not satisfy the required level. This was due to the ignition of glass wool. Hence, it is required to further explore to find the other insulating materials that can increase the fire resistance time.
Priority Analysis of Core Compact City Indicators incorporating the Preventive Planning Factors Against Urban Disaster
Jeong, Gwang-Seop ; Park, Gyu-Yong ; Lee, Joo-Hyung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 9~19
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.9
It is necessary to concern new city planning and related policy changes due to urban population, economic crisis and changes in the weather and the circumstance. So, Compact City emerges major issue being useful alternative to carry out possible sustainability within a new paradigm of the urban planning. However, it has one of difficulties to apply them in metropolitan cities like Seoul because it is not considering Preventive Planning Factors. As importance of urban preventive plan becomes more crucial, it has to be concerned reflecting evaluation indicators of preventive characters such as urban safety and natural disasters. Therefore, this research aimed to evaluate their priority comparatively using the Analytic Network Process (ANP) after it established compact city indicators reflecting the planning factors in terms of prevention. According to the result, there were 5 essential indicators in priority among total 30 compact city indicators following; Crime prevention through Environmental design (Sixth), Safety in Maintenance and Construction works (twelfth), Epidemic prevention and medical health services (sixteenth), Traffic safety management (eighteenth), Fire and natural disaster prevention (twentieth). Especially some of indicators such as Crime prevention through Environmental design and Safety in Maintenance and Construction works were included in each top 20 and 40 percent.
A Fire Risk Assessment of Sandwich Panel by Comparison Fire Test
Yoo, Yong-Ho ; Kim, Yeong-No ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 21~26
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.21
Regarding the composite materials for buildings, accurate combustion performances are quite difficult to be evaluated if external nonflammable materials and internal flammable materials are used for the existing test of combustion performances for single materials. Therefore, a standard of classification has been proposed and a mock-up test has been carried out to evaluate the combustion performances in the study. The styrofoam and glass wool sandwich panels have been used for the mock-up test to fabricate the actual size model with
size and timber cribs have been set as a fire source. Temperature changes for the internal core material have been measured in total 6 points of the ceiling. For the styrofoam sandwich panels, a flashover has been taken place by collapsing the ceiling in 2 minutes of the test starting and the glass wool sandwich panels have not have any problem even after finishing the test.
Crack Width Properties on RC Members with Non-seismic Details
Kim, KyungMin ; Lee, JungHan ; Oh, SangHoon ; Back, EunLim ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 27~33
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.27
The quantitative damage index considering structural types are essential for the effective post-earuthquake safety evaluation. This paper is the fundamental research in order to present the quantitative damage index for reinforced concrete members with non-seismic details. The crack width changes related with seismic response were studied based on the static test results of one-span and -story specimen with non-seismic details. According to the test result, cracks mostly occurred on the beam-column joints and the upper- and lower- part of columns. The flexural crack width on the column end section and shear crack width on the upper column were widely opened by loading. The residual crack widths were also getting larger since yielding of reinforcements. Meanwhile, the maximum residual crack width was lower than the 1/2-fold of the maximum crack width before yielding, and got the 1/6- and 1-fold of the maximum crack width after yielding.
Evaluation of Seismic Responses of a Regular RC Building Considering Vertical to Horizontal Peak Ground Acceleration Ratio
Kim, Sung Jig ; Kim, Myeong-Han ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 35~41
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.35
The paper presents the assessment of the effect of vertical ground motion on the 12-stroy regular RC fame considering the vertical-to-horizontal peak ground acceleration (V/H) ratio increases. The effect of vertical ground motion on the structure is monitored by evaluating the drift ratio, fluctuation of axial force on columns and the shear capacity of columns through the nonlinear time history analysis. It is observed that the inclusion of the vertical ground motion has an important effect on the response of the selected structure, particularly for axial force on the interior columns and shear capacity of the interior columns. It is therefore concluded that vertical motion should be included in analysis for assessment and design in the near fault area.
A Study of the Effect of Spray Droplets on the Smoke Behavior during Sprinkler System
Seo, Dong Goo ; Kim, Dong Eun ; Koo, In Hyuk ; Matsuyama, Ken ; Kwon, Young Jin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 43~50
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.43
This study contemplated the descending air current from the smoke layers related to the smoke logging phenomenon in the sprinkler applied design for effective evacuation safety design. To do this, using the PIV(Particle Image Velocimetry) device, the property of watering spray for each sprinkler head types available in Korea were experimented and the descending air current from smoke layers for each size of fire source or the type of sprinkler head was analyzed. As a result, database on the average particle diameter, particle velocity and distribution of sprinkling was obtained and the relationship between the water amount and particle diameter was obtained. Also, in relation to descending air current, the movement of smoke layer to the bottom at the descending air current velocity of 0.6m/s was observed and stable descending air current was observed in existence of fire source over 100kW in size.
Performance Evaluation for Steel Wire-Integrated Deck Plate with New-Type Shear Connector
Kim, Sung Bae ; Kang, Min Joung ; Hwangbo, Chan ; Kim, Sang Seup ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 51~61
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.51
Recently, due to the decreased work term and the convenience of construction work, the steel wire-integrated deck plate has been widely used in the construction sites. In deck plate, Shear connectors are installed to resist horizontal shear force on the interface between steel beams and reinforced concrete slabs. Also vertical bars are installed at upper wire of the ends of steel truss girder to insure safety during the construction. Therefore, this study attempts to develop the new-type shear connector which function as vertical bars while securing a higher shear capacity, and tests have been conducted on 30 specimens to evaluate the structural safety of the proposed deck plate system during the construction step. The test results show that the new-type shear connectors sufficiently perform the roles of the Vertical bars.
Seismic Retrofitting Effects of Retrofitted Unreinforced Masonry Walls Using Metal Laths and Steel Plates
Lee, JungHan ; Kim, KyungMin ; Kim, HyeWon ; Kim, JinSun ; Oh, SangHoon ; Lee, SangHo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 63~70
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.63
In this paper, the novel retrofitting method using metal laths and steel plates for unreinforced masonry(URM) walls was presented, and the seismic retrofitting effects of URM walls were evaluated by the static test. The main variables were the presence of openings, and the application of the novel retrofitting method. The test results showed that the strengths of the retrofitted specimens became 1.27~2.51 times higher than those of the non-retrofitted specimens irrespective of whether there were openings or not. The ductilities of the retrofitted specimens were also 1.21~2.28 times higher than those of the non-retrofitted specimens. In the case that the steel plate for retrofitting located at the upper and lower end of a specimen was additionally fixed to the loading frame, the strength and ductility were even higher. Meanwhile, the specimens retrofitted by the novel method showed the highest energy dissipation capacities, and the metal lathes were considered to be very effective on dissipating energy.
A Study on the Development of the Safety Scaffold System for the Metro High Platform
Ryu, Kyungshin ; Kim, Jin-Wook ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 71~76
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.71
As a result of the handicapped's moving trait, the rate of urban railway use is the highest except for walking. The safety security is the most important factor while the handicapped are taking the train or getting off urban railway. In this study, we had investigated the causes of occurrence of the gap between the train and the platform and the architectural design codes and standards in terms of the introducing of the safety scaffold system of the urban railway high platform. In case of accidents of urban train, it leads directly the loss of lives and the huge economic loss. Therefore, it is meaningful to present the standards of the safety scaffold for preventing and reducing safety accidents. If the study of the safety scaffolds continues, it could be the important materials for the safety security of urban railway that has been the meaningful role of urban transport.
Evaluation on the Noise Reduction Performance of the Dry Cutting Demolition Method for RC Structures
Park, Ki-Chan ; Kim, Sung-Chil ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 77~82
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.77
The dry cutting demolition method prevents basically the wastewater and sludge driven in cooling water when the structures are cut and broken up by a diamond wire saw. In addition to the environmental issues caused by coolant, noise is essential design factor in demolition process for the reinforced concrete structures. In this study, cutting test and sound field analysis were conducted to investigate the noise performance of newly developed EDCS demolition method. The study results show that EDCS method is eco-friendly dry demolition method to decrease the noise pollution which can be suitable for multiplex facilities and structures in water pollution prevention area.
Vibration Control of Bridge Using Multiple Tuned Mass Dampers
Lee, Yongkyo ; Park, Yoen-Jun ; Park, Inn-Joon ; Kwon, Hyungo ; Park, Jinwan ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 83~89
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.83
It have been increasing traffic, vehicle weight and speed because of recently rapid economic development and the improvement of living standards. As a result, problems such as excessive vibration, deflection of the bridge threatens the safety and usability. In developed countries, Studies have carried out actively on the methods to reduce the excessive vibration of the bridges. But, there were no such a practical technology in korea. In this study, the vibration response of bridge at the time of vehicle operation and to analyze the dynamic characteristics of bridge may cause excessive vibration response was investigated. For different frequency bands of vibration, In order to reduce effectively the vibration, Multiple tuned mass damper was applied. As a result, Bridges for various frequency bands could be reduces effectively by the vibration. In this study, The effective vibration control technology on the different frequency band of vibration bridge was secured.
Development of Predictive Model for the Number of Potholes Using Multi Regression Analysis
Lee, Sangyum ; Kim, Do-Wan ; Choi, Yeon-Woo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 91~98
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.91
Recently, the number of potholes in the principal cities of korea has been increased because of the rapid climate change and the city population concentration. This study is to predict the number of potholes occurred in the Seoul metropolitan area. The prospective models for the pothole can help preventing the risk factors for the pothole. To finding the effect elements for the pothole occurrence, the empirical approach regarding the road engineering and analytical approach with stochastic analysis were used. The design of experiment regarding the surface response method was used to constitute the predictive model. The primary factors were utilized in the constitutive equation model using the multi regression analysis. The empirically predictive model makes little odds in p-value, coefficient of determination value and root mean squared error compared to the analytically predictive model. But, the analytical model has a lower incidence of error than the empirical model when the MPE(Mean Percentage of Error) analysis related to the maximum and minimum MPE was conducted.
A Study on the Database for Analyzing Life Cycle Cost of Road Facilities in Seoul
Bae, Yoon Shin ; Lee, Sangyum ; Kwon, Wan Taeg ; Jeon, Jong Myung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 99~105
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.99
The purpose of this study is to manage road facilities effectively and to make safety ensure consistently in Seoul. To build the effective maintenance management system, it is necessary to investigate various road management systems of Seoul. In addition, the present databases based on management systems of Seoul were analyzed to build compact database of the management system of Seoul. The summary of this study was described and condition of database for LCC analysis was assessed through survey. Finally, the method of obtaining database to develope LCC analysis was suggested and necessary plans of proceeding LCC analysis described.
A Study on Soil Contamination Plans in Seoul Metropolitan Area
Won, Jong-Seok ; Bae, Yoon-Shin ; Lee, Sang-Yum ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 107~115
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.107
Soils in Seoul Metropolitan Area are prone to contaminations from many sources and The Contaminated Soils are hard to be recovered. But Seoul Metropolitan Government(abbereviated to SMG)'s measures are limited to be some usual managements. So, SMG needs to have Soil Contamination Mitigation Plans for Preventing Soils in Seoul from being contaminated. This Study proposes Plans to develop preventing systems from Soil Contaminations. The Study consists of three parts. The first part exmaines cases of soil contaminations. The second part analyze soil contamination in Seoul. and The third part proposes the Soil Contamination Mitigation Plans in Seoul. The Proposed Plan by adding future projects for Soil Contamination Mitigation can support preventing soils from being contaminated. Further, it can contribute to improved satisfaction of safety services for citizen.
Urban Inundation Forecasting Using Predicted Radar Rainfall: Case Study
Yoon, Seong-Sim ; Bae, Deg-Hyo ; Choi, Youngjean ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 117~126
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.117
It is important to predict the possibility of flood and inundation occurrence in advance using predicted rainfall information to prevent the flood disasters, which are increasing recently, in urban area. In this study, urban inundation is forecasted using predicted radar rainfall for Samsung area that was damaged by the heavy rain in September 21, 2010. SWMM is employed to solve the storm sewer flow component and to provide the surcharged flow hydrographs. The surcharge flow is used as inflow of two-dimensional diffusive model has been developed to simulate inundation in urban areas. The inundation simulation results using predicted rainfall are compared with the results of gauged rainfall. The compared results are similar and the occurred area is similar with the real inundation area. The predicted rainfall can secure the lead time for evacuation and will be useful for flood damage mitigation in urban area.
Drought Assessments Using Satellite-based Drought Index in Korea; Southern Region Case in 2013
Sur, Chanyang ; Kim, Kyungjun ; Choi, Woojung ; Shim, Jaehyun ; Choi, Minha ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 127~131
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.127
The objective of this study is to derive and evaluate the drought index by using satellite data. The satellite-based drought index was spatially assessed at Southern part of Korean peninsula in 2013. We estimated hydrometeorological parameter-based drought index (Evaporative Stress Index, ESI) by using various products of multispectral sensor, MODerate resoultion Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The ESI analyzed other spatial distribution of drought indices provided by drought information system from related organizations. Regional capability of ESI through time series analysis compared with PDSI(Palmer Drought Severity Index) and SPI(Standardized Precipitation Index) was assessed. Based on the results in this study, it can be concluded that the derived ESI showed better regional capability than the other drought indices.
Evaluation of Shear Modulus of Sand Using Earthquake Records in Dynamic Centrifuge Tests
Segismundo, Ezequiel Q. ; Lee, Byung-Sik ; Kim, Nam-Ryong ; Choo, Yun Wook ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 133~141
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.133
Evaluation of the shear modulus of soil is of great importance in understanding both the fundamental soil behavior and its practical application in dynamic geotechnical problems as well as accurate analysis of seismic response of soil deposit and soil-structure interaction. There are traditionally several available techniques in measuring shear modulus of soil using laboratory tests. In this paper, calculation methods to evaluate shear modulus were reviewed from previously published works. A simple procedure was established using the previous equations. This procedure successfully obtained shear modulus of a sand deposit used for dynamic centrifuge tests. It also captured non-linear shear modulus with shear strain and effect of confining pressure. The shear modulus and normalized shear modulus versus shear strain curves from the experiment are compared with empirical curves proposed in literature. The shear modulus curves from the centrifuge tests are in reasonable agreement with the previous curves.
Characteristerization of Environment-Friendly Soils Stabilized with Biomass Wood Ash
Jung, Jong-Won ; Grau, Francisco ; Ahn, Jaehun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 143~149
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.143
Biomass has been used as agriculture, forest and energy resources. The combustion of biomass matter becomes biomass ash that is dumped without control or disposed in landfills. Thus, the recycling or treatment of biomass ash is required. Wood ash is one of largest portion of biomass ash. Therefore, the recycling of wood ash in construction area will provide both new types of renewable energy sources and an environmental solution reducing the waste. The main objective of this study is to explore the physical, mechanical properties of Ottawa 20/30 sand, wood ash and mixture of them including Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), hydraulic conductivity, and consolidation. It was observed that, small addition of wood ash to Ottawa 20/30 sand reduced the permeability significantly without increasing compressibility much.
Studies on Behavior Characteristics of Raised Reservoir Levee Using Centrifugal Model Test
Lee, Chung-Won ; Maeng, Young-Su ; Kim, Yong-Seong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 151~161
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.151
This study aims to investigate the behavior of raised reservoir levee via centrifugal model test. The experimental results demonstrate that the overflow failure occurred at crown, at a part of front side and at rear side of the original reservoir levee, while, the stability of the raised reservoir levee was ensured at the same water level although the subsidence of crown of the raised levee due to the water level raising was larger than that of the original levee. Thus, it is significant to redevelop the superannuated reservoir levee through the levee raising for countermeasure to climate change and storage capacity improvement of reservoir. In addition, the real-time monitoring of pore water pressures and displacements is required to ensure the levee's stability.
Estimation of Porosity Based on the Electrical Resistivity
Byun, Ji-Hwan ; Park, Chung-Hwa ; Won, Kyung-Sik ; Yoon, Hyung-Koo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 163~169
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.163
The electrical resistivity survey has advantages of obtaining high reliable values in wide area through economical method. The objective of this study is estimation of porosity profile by using electrical resistivity. The electrical resistivity survey is performed in alluvium and the two electrode arrays are applied with 135 m profiles. The Archie's law is used to obtain the porosity through the electrical resistivity and the factors in Archie's law is estimated by using the consolidation test. The predicted porosity in a depth is compared with N-value measured by Standard Penetration Test and the trend shows reasonable. The study demonstrates that the geophysical method may be widely applied to obtain the design parameters.
A Evaluation Study of Local Smoke Control Facility for the Smoke Spread Prevention on Tunnel Fire
Yoo, Yong Ho ; Park, Sang Hun ; Han, Sang Ju ; Shin, Hyun Jun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 171~175
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.171
The modern tunnel tends to be long and deep and therefore has a lot of difficulties for effective smoke ventilation on fire due to the semi-hermetic structure. Also, it has difficulty on evacuation and fire fighting by toxic gases together with high increase rate of temperature. The smoke occurring on fire is to avoid spreading over adjacent area and secure a escape road for prolonging the escape time. Accordingly, test on performance evaluation has been carried out applying air curtain, local smoke extraction facilities, in this study. As a result of the test, it can be seen that the smoke barrier formed by the air curtain has an effect on prevention of the smoke layer spreading. In addition, in the result of the measurement on the carbon monoxide inside and outside the barrier by the air curtain, there was difference of 40-time carbon monoxide inside and outside. Therefore, it has been shown that the effect to prevent the smoke from spreading is expected on fire of the tunnel applying the air curtain.
Development and Application of Leakage Detection Model for Water Distribution Networks considering Uncertainty Analysis
Yoo, Do Guen ; Yoon, Jung Soo ; Lee, Ho Min ; Kang, Doosun ; Kim, Joong Hoon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 177~185
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.177
The leakage management of water distribution networks is one of the significant work for supply water with efficiency and stability. This study suggests the improved leakage detection model, which includes hydraulic analysis simulator considering the uncertainties of nodal demand and pipe roughness coefficient. The nodal demand and pipe roughness coefficient are important element that contains a high degree of uncertainty when modeling networks. Here, the Emitter function of EPANET2 is used to simulate the leakage in water distribution networks. The developed model is applied to the P city network in Korea which is calibrated, and the results show the proposed model is superior to other reported models. The suggested model is proved to be efficient in detecting the location of the leakage and it can supports to leakage detection operations in real fields. Furthermore, the model also can be used to estimate the position and the number of monitoring points.
A Study on Recognition of Administration for Flammable Material
Kang, Min Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 187~192
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.187
This study investigated the recognition of administration and definition of flammable material related to fire or forest fire. Acts and administrative rule relating to flammable material was confirmed, and the civil complaint that the administration was conducted by using the query. Order to answer, the recognition about flammable material analyzed. As a result, other criteria for each administration was used, flammable material on 16 administration was recognized with combustible of the nature easily set on fire, Korea National Park Service has confirmed that it is recognized as a ignition source of inflaming substances.
A Study on Personal Safety Improvement of the Gaseous Fire Extinguishing System
Ku, Jae-Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 193~199
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.193
Personal safety accidents due to incorrect gas discharge of a gaseous fire extinguishing system continue to be generated. Gaseous fire extinguishing agents is analysed as hazards to the human body depending on the concentration of the gas to be analysed in self-toxic, its own toxicity, the chocking effect of breathing and combustion by-products. Also, Compared with an advanced regulations, domestic regulations of a gaseous fire extinguishing system is analysed insufficient in life saving breathing apparatus, prevention plans for system malfunction, warning signs, education and training in terms of personal safety. As a result of analyzing personal safety accident cases by a gaseous fire extinguishing system, personal safety accidents from the carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system occupies a large proportion and most accidents occur due to the system malfunctions, failures and on-site verification after gas discharge. Consequently, four improvement schemes for personal safety of a gaseous fire extinguishing system is proposed including in equipped with breathing apparatus for life saving in terms of safety management of especially halogenated extinguishing systems and clean agent fire extinguishing systems, strengthening the legal and regulatory carbon dioxide extinguishing system, qualified warning signs and preventing incorrect gas discharge.
Development of the Evaluation Program Based on Fire Resistance Performance Design of Steel Structures
Yang, Seungcho ; Lee, Jae-Sung ; Yeo, In-Hwan ; Na, Okpin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 201~207
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.201
To introduce the performance-based fire resistance design for buildings in Korea, it is necessary to secure the reliability of the analytical formulae and to study the computation methods for fire resistance performance for buildings. The purpose of this study is to establish the process of the evaluation tool on the fire resistance performance from analysis for the theories on the fire performance-based designs from advanced countries. The program based on the computation method of fire resistance performance, which is suggested from this study, can be used simply to evaluate the steel structures under a fire.
A Study on Comprehensive Management of Building Evacuation Facilities Standards -Focus on Egress routes and Refuge Areas-
Hwang, Eun Kyoung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 209~218
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.209
As buildings in today's world become taller, larger, more spacious and complex, casualties from fire is likely to increase due to prolonged evacuation time and limited fire rescue capacity. Also, the conflict between current fire protection codes and building codes are causing confusions in the operation and application of the regulations. The overlapping standards are mainly on occupancy, refuge area establishments, underground open space, exit area width, and steps and effective width of evacuation stairway. It is difficult to know what the actual standard is as similar standards are often amended in different laws and the application of standard becomes complex as some standards often contradict each other or are inconsistent. Also some standards directly cite foreign standards and this causes significant confusion for Korean regulatory process and application. In this study, operational plans for administrative cooperation and managing standards of evacuation facilities more comprehensively have been proposed. This would eventually call for comprehensive codification of building and fire protection sectors and formation of an online system.
Study on Improvement of Evacuation Experiment Design Factors through Analysis of Evacuation Experiments from Buildings in Korea
Woo, Sujin ; Hwang, Eun-Kyoung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 219~225
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.219
The awareness for danger of fire and the importance of response to fire has risen since the Daegu Subway Fire (2003) in Korea, and recently the risk of fire is increasing as the number of high-rise buildings and large complex increase. Buildings in Korea have been adopting performance based fire safety design since 2005, but many of the design still follows the foreign standards. This study aims to overview the current state of evacuation research based on actual building evacuation experiments in Korea, and to propose methods to optimize evacuation experiment process and its design factors. The analysis of building evacuation experiments in Korea are limited to cases found in academic literaby occupant's characteristics, and buildingture such as journal paper and thesis only. The collected cases were classified by year, usage where each specific experiment was attributed by spatial, cognitive, and physical characteristics. The study found that the main problem is in the lack of data credibility due to evacuation procedures which don't consider evacuee profiles and due to an absence of structured research process. This study can be used for providing evacuation experiment standards for buildings in Korea and optimizing evacuation experiment design factors.
A Study on the Actual Management of Toxic Gas Leak Site using the Remote Sensing Spectrometer
Min, Se-Hong ; Park, Yoon-Chul ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 227~233
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.227
This study measured harmful gas leakage of W and C which are Korean industrial park by using remote sensing spectrometer(SIGIS2) as measuring equipment of harmful gas leakage. Remote sensing spectrometer using principle of a long distance spectrum analysis was applied to the field and grasped usefulness of system by analyzing the risk. Therethrough, we could detect harmful gases like
. It is possible to prevent and cope with a big accident if SIGIS2 is applied to large industry field as a petrochemical plant and electronic component manufacturing plant handling wholesale harmful gas plus venue where unspecific people gather. SIGIS2 forge not only analyzable 50 species constituent but also harmful gas DB over 500 species. consequently the usefulness was confirmed by analyzing and measuring of harmful gas.
A Study on Development of Optimization Algorithms for Electric Power System in Fire Protection
Son, Bong Sei ; Choi, Seung Kyou ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 235~242
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.235
In designing an electric power system for fire protection, special consideration should be given to the effects of shortage of power capacity and voltage drop in preparation for emergencies. If fire protection design is ever made without considering emergencies, it can cause serious results by improper operation of fire protection systems in case of emergencies, especially due to the shortage of power capacity and main power line voltage drop. As such, this study carries out theoretical calculations of power capacities and main power line voltage drops of actual buildings which are being protected by fire protection systems, finds out the resultant problems, develops optimal algorithms for power supply calculation of electric power system by using a linear regression analysis and optimal algorithms for distributed arrangement considering a load center, and proposes an optimal method for electric power source for fire protection, which is based on optimal design flow charts in electric power system for fire protection. As a result of performing simulations, applying the proposed optimization method to electric power system for fire protection for which problem analysis has been made, it is found that the electric power system operates safely and properly, maintaining the rated voltage.
Mechanism of Horizontal Flame Spread (Focusing on Fire Behavior of Bed Mattress according to ISO 12949)
Park, Kye-Won ; Jeong, Jae-Gun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 243~251
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.243
This paper intends to analyze horizontal flame spread effect in fire. For its analysis, bed mattress which generally shows the high HRR in fire was applied as specimen, and several experiments regarding horizontal flame spreading effect according to ISO 12949 were conducted. First, a series of reaction-to-fire behavior's phenomenon such as HRR, flame height, burning area, and temperature were measured the results of reaction-to-fire behavior of bed mattress products to the ISO 12949 method. Then, Calculation model on flame spreading speed was proposed based on opposed-winded flame spread equation of Quintierie. Finally comparing the measured result and the calculation result, mechanism on bed mattress were analyzed. In brief, the mean flame spread speed interpolated from the measured temperature at several points on the bed was consistent with the proposed calculation model.
A study on the Improvement through the Comparison of Occupant Density in Domestic and Foreign Countries
Park, Su-Roh ; Hwang, Eun-Kyoung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 253~261
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.253
Recent buildings are becoming more high-rise, even larger, and more complex. Consequently fire safety and evacuation plan are a lot of attentions as these buildings contain numerous facilities and occupants in limited spaces. Especially the occupant density is critical in determining the evacuation load and evacuation time. Therefore this study aims to review building occupant density standards of some of more advanced countries in evacuation and suggest more effective occupant density regulations accordingly. The analysis results show the necessity for additional defining of building space types by usage considering the occupant characteristics, and classification and groupings to increase relationship between space usage and building usage.
Estimation of Flame Heat Flux and Surface Emissiviy of Railway Vehicle Flooring by Using Optimization Method
Park, Won-Hee ; Yoon, Kyung-Beom ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 263~267
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.263
Surface temperatures, ignition times and mass loss rates of the synthetic rubber for railway vehicle flooring are measured for different external heat fluxes by the cone calorimeter. The flame heat flux on the surface can reach the better value by applying the repulsive particle swarm optimization algorithm. During optimization process the critical heat flux and ignition temperature are calculated using measured results. Finally we estimated the optimized flame heat flux. The calculated surface temperatures obtained by using optimized flame heat flux on the surface in this study are matched well with those from the test. The suggested process of determining flame heat flux proposed might be a very useful engineering method for ensuring the validity of a fire simulation for railway vehicles.
Development of Method for Acquisition of 3-Dimensional River Geographic Information Using R2V2 and UAV
Jeong, Changsam ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 269~275
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.269
The hydraulic and hydrological changes in river are expected due to the global climate change and four-river restoration project. The river geographic information is a vital material to predict and understand the natural phenomenon and a base data of various river information that is demanded for river management. The method to enable to provide an information with time, economic efficiency and high reliability was developed in this study. For this, a geographic information of river bed in low flow plain was measured by a remote controlled boat with ADCP and a geographic information in high flow plain was measured by an unmanned aerial vehicle. As a result, the constructed 3D river geographic enables to extract the river cross section and longitudinal section without discontinuity, and these information are considered as useful data in river management and facility plan.
Inundation Analysis of Urban Area Considering Climate Change Using SLEUTH Model
Kim, Munmo ; Kim, Uggi ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 277~290
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.277
In this study, inundation and impact assessment due to climate change and land coverage use change for the basin of Namyang-ju city and its vicinity. This study used three Global Climate Models (GCMs) over South Korea at 30 meter resolution based on IPCC SRES scenario. The SLEUTH model was utilized to predict land-use change modelling and its impact on discharge. As the results, rainfall for each scenario had been increased as the frequency was shorter and decrease ratio also increased relatively. Namely, increase ratio of 10-yr frequency was bigger than the ratio of 30-yr frequency in the same condition of 60-min duration. Possibility of inundation had significantly increased as the frequency shorter, therefore, urban planning in the plan should be reflect the result. In the case of climate change considered only and the case of climate change and forecasted landuse change, inundation characteristics value had been significantly increased in the section from C1 to C5 and a little changes had been shown in the section from C5 to C7. Thus, effective countermeasures for increased future damages for climate change and landuse change is necessary and considered. Future landuse change and climate change is a clear fact, therefore, evaluation of the runoff and the effect is necessary for the global change of hydrologic environment. And the result of this study can be applied to the establishment of adaptation strategy of urban planning for landuse change and climate change.
Experimental Study on Erosional Behaviour of Fine-Grained Sediments
Choi, In Ho ; Kim, Jong Woo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 291~298
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.291
Experiments on erosional behaviour of fine-grained sediments were carried out in a small annular flume with increasing the initial concentration, pH value and the consolidation time. Quartz was used as sediment material. The suspended concentrations were measured using a CCD Camera. Results indicate that the solution pH and consolidation time significantly affect the erosion rate of quartz. Under acid conditions(=pH4.2), the erosion rate of quartz was slowly increased, whereas in a neutral pH(=pH6.8), the erosion rate was rapidly increased. The erosion rate of quartz decreased at increasing consolidation time in distilled water. However, the erosion rate of the initial concentration of 7 g/L was higher than that of the initial concentration of 1 g/L. Thus, the critical shear stress for erosion ranged from approximately 0.013 to
under increasing the initial concentration, pH value and the consolidation time.
Review of Landslide Forecast Standard Suitability by Analysing Landslide-inducing Rainfall
Ham, Dae Heon ; Hwang, Seok Hwan ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 299~310
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.299
After the typhoon Rusa in 2002, Maemi in 2003, Megi in 2004, heavy rain in July 2006, landslide disasters are repetitively occurring every year. Also, landslides have become a national concern along with the losses of lives and properties which occurred due to the landslide in Woo-myun mountain and Cheonjeon-ri, Chuncheon pension in 2011, In this research, we collected the records of key landslides which took place in Korea and analyzed the adaptiblity of Korea Forest Service's landslide standards according to rainfall intensity and antecedent precipitation, in 12 rainfall events where rainfall observation points are located near by and also where occurrence spots, areas are relatively distinct. Looking at the results, we believe the previous 1 day rainfall standard is somewhat insufficient to consider landslides from short-term rainfall as well as from heavy rainfall. Especially, it seems that in case of complex heavy rainfall types, it is more effective to judge based on continuous rainfall. Taking these factors into consideration, the landslide forecasting standard revised in 2013, was restructured to correspond more to the purpose of this research. We view that it will be possible to secure spatial accuracy via reflecting probability rainfall. Also, we will be able to conduct fast respondence and analysis on landslides by utilizing below hourly unit timescale rainfall data for forecasting landslides. Moreover, it seems more reasonable to set 150mm as a standard for continuous rainfall, by using Korea Meteorological Administration's neighborhood forecasting data based on areas classified by current geological features.
Estimating Optimal Design Factors of Reverse-Wedge Hole Type Labyrinth Weir for Exclusion of Sediments
Kim, Sooyoung ; Im, Jang Hyuk ; Lee, Seung Oh ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 311~317
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.311
Various transverse artificial structures have been constructed in rivers and streams. A weir, one of representative transverse structures, plays a significant role in maintaining the upstream depth of water and securing water resources. However, it has generic disadvantage of undermining sediment continuity due to sediment deposition at direct upstream of weir. Because of these things, ecosystems of the weir downstream could be effected or disturbed. In this study a trapezoidal Labyrinth weir was modified to increase sediment exclusion efficiency upstream, called as the Sediment Exclusion Labyrinth weir (SEL weir). Various effective factors, the ratio of hole area (a/A), the hole number (n) and the ratio of height of holes and weir (
), were examined in order to find optimal design factor with numerical simulation. As numerical results, when the ratio of hole area was less than 0.069, the reduction rate of upstream height was less than 3.0%, where the upstream water depth was approximately was maintained. When the hole numbers became 4, the maximum accumulated sediment exclusion efficiency was occurred. However, the role of hole number was not played important to accumulated sediment exclusion efficiency. And the maximum accumulated sediment exclusion efficiency was occurred at
. In this study, it is expected to increase sediment exclusion efficiency and availability with relatively simple and easy modification in terms of construction and management. In the future, the validation of design adequacy and sediment exclusive efficiency will be asked through construction of model and prototype using design factors presented in this study.
Estimation of Flood Water Level for Small to Medium Streams
Koo, Kang Min ; Jun, Kyung Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 319~328
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.319
A method is proposed of estimating flood water level for small to medium streams. It is a combination of discharge prediction by Muskingum-Cunge flood routing and conversion of thus calculated discharge into stage using pre-determined discharge-stage relationship. Muskingum-Cunge parameters for the Dorim stream were estimated using either uniform or steady nonuniform flow model. Uniform flow model was used to estimate reach-by-reach parameters. For the locations under backwater effect, dependence of cross-sectional area on the downstream boundary water level as well as the discharge was considered to estimate Muskingum-Cunge parameters. and varied flow model to estimate pointwise parameters. Varied flow calculations were made for various combinations of discharge and downstream boundary condition to derive discharge-stage relations. Functional relations between the stage and the discharge and downstream water level were derived for locations under backwater effect of the Anyang stream junction.
Development of Hydraulic Model to Enable the Simulation for Operation Rule of Multi-function Weir during the Flood Season
Lee, Jae Young ; Kim, Ki Young ; Shin, Dong Hoon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 329~339
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.329
An advanced hydraulic model was developed by improving the numerical implementation of internal boundary condition and the prediction of scour depth to analyse hydraulic effects in operation of multi-function weir during the flooding season. The proposed model calculates overflow at fixed weir and gate discharge controlled by movable weir depending on the computed water stages on the upstream and downstream reach compared to conventional model applying internal boundary condition specified as prescribed stage or rating curve. In addition, it can predict time-dependent scour depth considering soil properties under unsteady state in order to investigate the hydraulic effects on bridge structure located downstream. A historical flood event was applied to demonstrate the verification of the model as simulation results were compared with observations on monitoring station. It was shown that the prediction of water stages, gate discharges, and scour depth enable gate operation rule to minimize the effect of flood stage rising by movable weir and scour depth development by fixed weir.
Prediction of Service Life for Marine Concrete Structures by Exposure Experiments
Lee, Chang Soo ; Kim, Meyong Won ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 341~349
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.341
In this study, based on the theory, a basic model for predicting salt damage was made in the laboratory experiment, and a maintenance simulation system was developed by constructing a numerical model using the basic model. The basic model was modified through data trends by periodically analyzing the specimens, which were exposed to marine environment for a long period of time, following the experimental plan. The chloride content distribution of 6 marine concrete structures, which were completed about 30 years ago, was analyzed to test the model. In the basic model equation for predicting chloride, the surface chloride content was modified to be
times the surface chloride concentration, reflecting the research which suggested that the chloride concentration in concrete could gradually increase under dry-wet cycling due to the effect of evapotranspiration within the pores. The data predicted from the modified model was compared with the field data, and by estimating the timing of threshold chloride content (i.e., repair time), it was suggested that the model and maintenance system proposed in this paper can be used to predict the service life.
Feasibility Assessment of RCP 8.5 in Extreme Air Temperature
Sim, Hyun-Jun ; Ahn, Mijin ; Kim, Sangdan ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 3, 2014, Pages 351~359
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.3.351
RCPs have been proposed in IPCC 5th report. Based on it, KMA has developed and provided future climate information to meet Korea. This study investigates whether KMA RCP 8.5 data can be appropriate in applying to analyze future extreme air temperature. For this purpose, first the reproducibility of past extreme air temperature is evaluated by comparing RCP 8.5 data with observed data. Based on this evaluation, simulated future extreme air temperature is assessed. As a result, KMA RCP 8.5 is thought to be appropriate in applying to analyze future normal air temperature, but to be necessary to revise in applying to analyze future extreme air temperature.