Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation
Editor in Chief :
Moo Jong Park
Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 14, Issue 5 - Oct 2014
Volume 14, Issue 4 - Aug 2014
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Jun 2014
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
Selecting the target year
Structural Performance Evaluation for Steel Wire-Integrated Deck Plate According to the Diameter of the Lattice Bar
Kim, Sung Bae ; Kang, Min Joung ; Hwangbo, Chan ; Kim, Sang Seup ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 1~9
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.1
Recently, for the decreasing of work term and the convenience of construction work, the steel wire-integrated deck plate has been widely used in the construction sites. Most of all, owing to its good stiffness and economic consideration, the steel-wire-integrated deck plate system has become very popular in recent years. Upper bar, lower bar and lattice bar of the steel-wire-integarated deck plate work as upper chord, lower chord and diagonal chord of truss respectively. Lattice bar is easy to buckle and effective buckling length is increased when the thickness of lattice bar is small. Therefore, tests have been conducted on 15 specimens with several experiment variables to evaluate the structural safety of the proposed deck plate system during the construction step. The test results show that in case of the steel wire-integrated deck plate with 6 mm lattice bar, it effectively deals with the shear force on the end, therefore considerably strong.
Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis for Ultimate Flexural and Shear Capacity of Void Deck Slab
Roh, Young-Sook ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 11~17
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.11
Concrete void RC slab has its own empty spaces inside on purpose. The nice aspects of this appearance of internal void are basically a reduction of self-weight and possible mitigation of noise between floors especially for a residence building. In the past, it has been great research interests on shape and size of void and fixture for anti-floating during cast of fresh concrete. This was simply the main concern for construction. Nevertheless, this enhancement was achieved by introducing the steel deck plate at the bottom of void slab. Their flexural/shear capacity were needed to be proven by both experiment and analysis. The series of nonlinear finite element analysis were performed in terms of change of slab depth or a/d, presence of steel deck plate, area of longitudinal steel reinforcement in tension. Their failure patterns, load-deflection relations were extensively discussed and compared.
A Study on the Slab-Column Joint Reinforcements using Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis
Lee, Joo Ha ; Yoon, Young Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 19~25
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.19
The needs for high-strength concrete is increasing, especially for high-rise buildings. Given the economics and the structural utility of high-strength concrete, structural elements subjected to axial load like concrete columns are the main targets for its application. Unlike columns, slabs do not have to be made of high-strength concrete so that the slab is generally cast with normal-strength concrete in a continuous fashion through the slab-column joint. Consequently, this lower strength concrete joint may result in problems for transmission of column loads through the joint, and moreover the capability of high-strength concrete column cannot be fully used due to the intervening normal-strength concrete slab. Therefore, it is necessary to provide alternative design or construction strategies for the transmission of column loads through slab-column connections. Current design practice recommends three strategies: puddling of high-strength concrete, reinforcing with dowels and spirals, the effective compressive strength of joint. As an active solution, puddling concrete and vertical dowels are the specific interest of this study. To find other effective methods for enhancing the behavior of slab-column joint, high-strength concrete core in the joint and high-strength steels for the column longitudinal bars were added to variables of this numerical analyses. As a result, some alternative reinforcement methods significantly improved the performance of the joints in terms of strength, stiffness, and ductility.
Development of an Artificial Neural Networks Model for the Required Safety Egress Time of an Office Room
Shin, Dong-Cheol ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 27~33
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.27
The simulation program to determine the required safety egress time(RSET) from an office room to evacuation zone has been developed by using neural networks. The RSET for an office room in K office building at N city was computed based on the neural network and compared with that based on a traditional evacuation simulation program. The maximum error of the neural networks is 5.89% about various occupant densities and 10.98% about various exit widths. The RSET with the conventional evacuation simulation program shows discontinuity curve, but the continuity curve which is generally presented in an engineering problem was obtained with the program with the neural networks. The consistent results with the neural networks subjected to same conditions are computed so that the results are reliable and stable. The conventional evacuation program is time-intensive, but the developed neural networks is capable of fast calculation within 1/100 sec. regarding a new condition. Therefore, The neural networks will enhance the rescue activity and disaster management with real-time decisions for evacuation safety.
A Study on the Development of the Disaster Safety Assessment Model for Multi Use Facilities in Design Process
Yu, Yong-Hum ; Kim, Jin-Wook ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 35~42
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.35
According to increasing victims of the natural and man-made disaster, the facility design assessment for preparation to disaster and accident is getting more important these days. Facility disaster safety capability assessment is the performance to corresponding with fire and diverse disaster. In case of emergency, this performance evaluation is required complicate and multiple assessment method to secure the safety of facility residence and visitors. Through this study, we examined a disaster category system of FEMA(Federal Emergency Management Agency, US) and NEMA(National Emergency Management Agency, Korean) and considered about several risk assessment tools in Britain. As a result of this study, the assessment elements of disaster risk assessments are developed. therefore several important evaluation elements are proposed including the evaluation for weakness of rain storm, flood, heavy rain, earthquake, evacuation, building inside/ouside explosion, social disorder(mass demonstraion), terror and disaster operation center etc. Also, 5 steps assessment process was developed to integrate these elements into overall evaluation system.
The Study of the Cause of the Collapse for the Younggwilu(Pavilion) in Jagyeseowon(Traditional Private School)
Cho, Eunkyung ; Park, Chanmin ; Kim, Jiseo ; Park, Sungho ; Yu, Hyeran ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 43~49
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.43
In general, the horizontal section of the beam element in traditional wooden structures has a very high safety factor as the area is comparably big so it is very rare for the building to collapse in a sudden. Recently the Younggwilu(Pavilion) in Jagyeseowon(Traditional Private School) was collapsed from its natural state without any external load factors like the earthquake or typhoon. This study is analyzing the present state of the collapsed Younggwilu building and examining the structural strength of the upper structure and roof load. Structural analysis of the building was undertaken with the collected data of the investigation for the before and after state of the building and analysis of the collapse condition. The cause of collapse could be indicated as supporting failure of the front right column and the instability of the upper roof load distribution. This research could be provided as basic data for the structural stability of the traditional wooden structures for architectural cultural heritage.
Evaluation and Application of Active Noise Cancellation System for Reduction of Traffic Noise
Kim, Dowan ; Kim, Yeonjoo ; Lee, Sangyum ; Mun, Sungho ; An, Deoksoon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 51~58
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.51
The objective of this study is to evaluate ANC(Active Noise Cancellation) system composed of the prediction model for SPL(Sound Pressure Level) in accordance with the targeted frequencies. The ANC system and prediction model were developed in previous research. Its technical skills were based on ISO 9613. Moreover, we utilized the LimA Predictor to identify the accurate results of traffic noise obtained from measurement and prediction at the receiver points. To measure the traffic noise occurred at the road, the measurement method of Pass-by was conducted. This paper is focused on the reduction and superposition of sound longitudinal wave.: The theory of this paper is based on International Organization for Standardization 9613. In the frequency analysis, we conducted CPB(Constant Percentage Bandwidth) Analysis to determine the traffic noise properties related to the frequencies. In the previous research, FFT(Fast Fourier Transform) Analysis was used to eliminate the engine noise from the friction noise between the road and tire. The LimA Predictor was utilized to simulate the noise propagation and confirm the noise level. Also, the basic wave theory was applied to conduct the reduction of traffic noise from the prediction noise level. The study has shown that the reduction and superposition effect was almost from 11dB(A) to 22dB(A) when the superposition of waves is perfectly applied and the ANC system can be completely compatible with the practical traffic noise. The effect of sound wave reduction using ANC system at the relatively high frequencies was better than the low frequencies. Furthermore the errors of measurement and prediction were small at the range of high frequencies.
A Study of Properties of Self-healing Asphalt Mixtures Containing Microcapsule
Kim, Dowan ; Kim, Yeonjoo ; Kim, Hayeon ; Lee, Sangyum ; Mun, Sungho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 59~64
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.59
With a plan for preventing the pavement damages, this study is to research the properties of self-healing asphalt mixtures containing microcapsule by comparing with Hot-Mixed Asphalt(HMA) mixture which can lengthen the life span of pavement. In this study, selfhealing asphalt mixtures were produced using the microcapsule composed by Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene(SBS) and Benzophenone. For figuring out the properties of self-healing asphalt mixtures, the dynamic load test and indirect tensile test were conducted in this study. In these tests, two tests were complexly conducted for both asphalt mixture specimens and self-healing asphalt specimens to confirm the self-healing effect. In the first indirect tensile test, we simply conclude that SHA mixtures can bear the heavy load comparing to HMA about tensile failure. According to the result of tests, this study demonstrated the self healing effect of SHA composed of microcapsule having SBS and Benzophenone. From finding of this study, the self-healing asphalt has more superb properties than HMA. For about that, the using of self-healing asphalt mixture in many fields can reduce the maintenance cost and increase the life cycle of the construction.
The Study for Sensitivity Analysis of the Dynamic Property for the Damage of the Stay Cable
Lee, Hyun-Chol ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 65~71
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.65
The damage of the stay cable induce very important impact on the structural safety of the bridge, which implies the close monitoring of the cable damage is required to secure sustained safety of the bridges. Most usual avialable maintenance techniques are based on the monitoring the change of the natural frequency and the eigenvector of structures by damages. But existing method are based on measurement, we are difficult to know the damage severity with this method. Thus this study analysis sensitivity to the change of the dynamic property for cable damage and the angle of inclination of the cable using the present method in the research. The study results have been estimated the relationship the angle of rotation of the ellipse and the angle of inclination of the cable, the relationship of the increase of the damage ratio and the natural frequency.
Performance Evaluation of Porous Asphalt Mixtures Using Hydrated-lime
Mun, Sungho ; Kim, Dowan ; Jun, Eunbe ; Lee, Sangyum ; Yoon, Taesup ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 73~82
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.73
The objective of this paper is to investigate the properties for permeability and dynamic resistance of the porous asphalt mixtures which consist of either liquefied lime or powder lime and is to conduct Impact Resonance Test (IRT) and Impact Hammer Resonance Test (IHRT) to proof the public trust in the point of civil engineering. For the performance of permeability, Constant Head Permeability Test based on Korean Industrial Standards of KS F 2322 was utilized for deducting the permeability coefficients of Hydrated-lime porous asphalt specimens. Non-destructive impact tests were conducted for the dynamic moduli. The resonance frequencies of mixtures can be obtained from the frequency analysis for high frequency impact. From the comparison of the resonance frequencies and the dynamic moduli obtained from IRT and IHRT, Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) values of dynamic moduli obtained from IHRT indicated the maximum value of 1.16 GPa comparing to the results of IRT. The result of error analysis between IRT and IHRT results has Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) which was under 8%. To figure out the effect of additives, compared each porous asphalt mixture by using the result of constant head permeability test and dynamic moduli.
Bridge Evaluation Method in Network-Level based on Risk and Value of Bridges
Sun, Jong-Wan ; Park, Kyung-Hoon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 83~90
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.83
This study is proposed a methodology which can be applied in the decision-making of network-level considering all managed bridges by extending evaluation index taking into account the risk and value of individual bridges. A systematic model that converts the intermittent risk level of individual bridges to the continuous and quantitative risk index using utility theory is presented. The formulation model is also proposed to derive performance indices in network-level considering the risk index and relative importance of individual bridges. The applicability of the proposed method in network-level is considered based on the information of real bridges. It is expected that the proposed method is allow for more proactive decision-making, a stable allocation of budget and preparations against structural and environmental risks reflecting the direct and indirect risk and value of individual bridges.
The Study of the Fitness on Estimation of the Flood Warning Rainfall Using UMcIUH in a Urban Area
Park, Jae Beom ; Kang, Doo Ki ; Shin, Hyun Suk ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 91~103
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.91
We estimate the fitness to calculate the flood warning rainfall using UMcIUH(Urban Morpho-Climatic Unit Hydrograph) including hydraulic elements(street, pipes and channels etc) and climatic elements(upslope inflow, effective rainfall etc). Oncheon basin is separated to 7 subbasin and the result of UMcIUH model simulation is compared to the observation data and the result of EPA SWMM simulation. By using local regression equation and HEC-RAS model, danger discharge and flood warning rainfall are estimated according to three stage by considering high flood stage and low flood stage. We found that a methodology based UMcIUH and hydraulic model was very proper in the calculation of the flood warning rainfall at the condition of high flood and low flood.
Comparison of Quantitative Precipitation Estimation Algorithms using Dual Polarization Radar Measurements in Korea
Noh, Seong Jin ; Lim, Sanghun ; Choi, Shin-Woo ; Hwang, Seok Hwan ; Lee, Dong-Ryul ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 105~116
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.105
Accurate estimation of precipitation is essential to predict and prevent natural disasters (e.g. flood, landslide, and heavy snowfall). Recently, weather radars have become a popular tool for quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) with high spatio-temporal resolution. Especially, in the last decade, QPE performance has been improved by introduction of polarimetric technology to observe multiple hydrometeorological variables at various scales. By being able to measure variables such as the differential reflectivity, specific differential phase, and cross-correlation coefficient, the reliability of estimation has significantly improved as compared to the reflectivity-based method (Ryzhkov et al., 2005a). However, QPEs using dual polarization radar data are still subject to uncertainties resulting from rainfall conversion relationships, combination methods of different parameters, and sampling errors. In this study, we assessed the uncertainty and applicability of conventional QPE algorithms, such as JPOLE (Ryzhkov et al., 2005a) and CSU (Cifelli et al., 2011) algorithms, using the dual polarization radar at Mt. Biseul in the south-eastern part of the Korean Peninsula. Analysis results illustrated that the JPOLE algorithm outperformed the CSU algorithm slightly for daily and hourly rainfall analysis using various metrics. The higher accuracy was found in the stations located within less than 60 km from radar and 100 m in the elevation.
Landslide Hazard Prediction Map Based on Logistic Regression Model for Applying in the Whole Country of South Korea
Woo, Choongshik ; Kwon, Hyunjung ; Lee, Changwoo ; Kim, Kyongha ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 117~123
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.117
This study was carried out to develop landslide hazard prediction map for the whole country of South Korea using the data 1,912 landslides that were occurred during the period of 2005 to 2011. These data set were extracted in the aerial photographs. Logistic regression model was developed using the data mentioned above. We built spatial database on landslide of the whole country using aerial photographs because the model based on probability such as logistic regression analysis needs a lot of data concerned on landslide. Nine factors closely related to landslide were selected through logistic regression analysis and the classification accuracy of model were 75.3%. Applied factors are as follows; slope, drainage length, aspect, curvature, TWI, mother rock, soil depth, forest stand, tree diameter. Using the developed model and GIS analysis, The new landslide hazard prediction map of South Korea was made. For the validation of this map, we compared dangerous areas by model to 276 landslide areas that were occurred from 2012 to 2013. As a result, the hit rate was shown in 76% approximately.
Vertical Earth Pressure Beneath Continuously Supported Embedded Rail Track
Lee, Su Hyung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 125~130
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.125
Earth pressures caused by tram operations beneath an embedded rail track were estimated using a three-dimensional finite element method. The numerical results were compared with the measured field data to verify the validity of the numerical approach. Both the measured earth pressures caused by static stationary load and dynamic driving load were reasonably agreed with the numerical results adopting static load only. The dish shaped earth pressure distributions with the maximum pressures occurred at the edge of track slab were found. The tram loads were effectively distributed along the longitudinal track direction up to the distance of 6 m. The earth pressure distributions under embedded rail track according to the locations and loading conditions were presented for the reasonable subgrade design of embedded rail tracks.
A Comparison Study on the Applicability of South Korea Retaining Wall Risk Assessment Method to Urban Area
Kim, Hyun-Ki ; Cha, Wonjun ; Choi, Jeongwon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 131~139
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.131
This study focuses on the applicability of South Korea retaining wall risk assessment method to urban areas with the comparison of Hong Kong method called NPRS(New Priority Ranking System). 18 concrete walls adjacent to the road in Seoul are evaluated with these two methods. Results show that South Korea method can evaluate the walls with respect to structural instability conditions in more details compared to Hong Kong method, but does not have adequate discrimination to evaluate social risk of the walls located in the urban area, and does not consider the water drainage conditions and surface protection in the back of the retaining wall properly enough.
Development of an Apparatus for Rainfall Simulation in Centrifugal Model Test
Lee, Chung-Won ; Park, Sung-Yong ; Kim, Yong-Seong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 141~150
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.141
In general, rainstorms induce slope failures and destroy many infrastructures. However, there are a limited number of physical model studies with rainfall. Hence, in this study, rainfall simulator was developed and its applicability was evaluated. First of all, the rainfall intensity inducing slope failure and the raindrop diameter on heavy rainfall were determined. And then, through the analysis on raindrop-falling locus in centrifugal field, theoretical atomizing angle of simulated rainfall was calculated. After that, actual atomizing angle of rainfall simulator for uniform rainfall simulation was experimentally determined by trial and error method. In addition, actual rainfall intensity and load pressure of simulated rainfall were examined. From the test results, it was confirmed that uniform atomization with target rainfall intensity and prevention of excess rainfall pressure by using angle-adjustable rainfall simulator developed in this study were possible.
A Study on the Major Factors Causing the Sediment Disasters by Case Analysis
Ryu, Ji-Hyeob ; Sung, Hyun-Jong ; Kim, Youl ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 151~157
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.151
Occurrence distribution of landslides and debris flow of natural disasters that occurred during the rainy season is gradually increasing in korea consisting of many mountainous. Urban disaster damage by the sediment disasters continues to increase because residential area and industrial complex are adjacent to the steep slop due to ongoing urbanization and Industrialization. Up to now, Most studies for slope collapse and debris flow damages were performed in the slope adjacent to the road and some limited areas of Gangwon Province and study for the major cause analysis according to the occurrence type of sediment disasters such as slope collapse and debris flow is somewhat lacking. In this study, we ploted the disaster occurrence type as slope collapse and debris flow by analyzing sediment disaster cases occurred in the domestic urban and non-urban in the recent and confirmed that the occurrence distribution of the slope collapse and debris flow is different in the major factors by analyzing the major factors causing the sediment disasters.
A Study on Risk Factors and Response of the Air Traffic Section by the Volcanic Eruption
Park, Keun Oh ; Yoon, Sang Hoon ; Kim, Geun Young ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 159~167
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.159
This research studies the possibility of the volcano erupt and the effects of volcanic ash spread to air traffic control. Firstly it started to find out the peculiar properties of volcano ash and case studies after then it selected some of risk factors and measured hazard analysis and suggested how to deal with them. Finally it presented what is associated organizationís role and some solutions against those harms based on risk rate. According to the research result, the most dangerous risk factor was engine troubles (0.415) and the following next is runway slip effect (0.214) hence it would be risk bearing within airplane navigation and airport landing strip facilities. Therefore, we suggested standard, procedure concerned danger of air traffic by volcanic ash and necessity of organic cooperation system between the central government and relative organ.
A Study on the Development of the Standard Operation Procedures for Disaster Response at Occurring the Urban Forest Fire
Koo, Won-Hoi ; Baek, Min-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 169~176
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.169
In this study, the concept and characteristics of Standard Operation Procedures were inquired, the case of urban disaster was selected, and the limitations and improvement items in case of responses according to the Standard Operation Procedures were analyzed. Also, the requirements to be reflected at the time of establishment of Standard Operation Procedures were identified through the survey on the residents' and experts' opinions. As a result systematic and prompt responses is required through the preparation of integrated Standard Operation Procedures for government agencies in preparation for the occurrence of urban disasters, the damage status for each disaster management stage should be reflected, and the development of Standard Operation Procedures reflecting the roles of central government, local governments, competent authorities and community organizations is necessary. Through these preparations, damage could be minimized and countermeasures could be carried out smoothly in the event of a disaster.
Development of Criteria for Zonning of Debris Flow Hazard Area
Kim, Kyoung-Nam ; Jang, Su-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 177~183
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.177
This study is aiming at reviewing how to set the reference point based on the topography and location characteristics to develop a means of debris hazard management of urban mountain. This study used in each of three models for predicting the moveable debris discharge and reaching distance. According to the results reviewed on Seoul Mt. Umyeon district, it was delineated and divided as the total of 46 watershed. (b), (d) and (e) of the adopted models are specified as reasonable on calculating debris quantity and reaching distance. But predicted quantity and distance are specified as over-estimated when the adopted result values is compared with on-site. Although the models gets excessive estimates, they can demarcate the area of production and deposition. Therefore these models are considered to be adoptable in making the base map for field referencing and managing on a given urban mountain.
A Study on Establishing Methodology of Integrated Urban Climate and Disaster Vulnerability Assessment considering Debris Flows Damage
Choi, Jung-Ryel ; Jee, Yongkeun ; Park, In-Chan ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 185~192
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.185
Vulnerability of debris flow damage in urban adjacent to mountain is raised due to increasement of heavy rain frequency by climate change. Urban climate and disaster vulnerability assessment has been conducted as advanced prevention strategy. However, vulnerability for debris flow damage is not enough to be evaluated because increasement of debris flow damage according to climate change is not considered as well as vulnerable assessment for urban and mountain is conducted separately. In this study, prediction of debris flow damage area in Secho-gu according to climate change is implemented quantitatively using FLO-2D model to propose vulnerability assessment method considering debris flow damage in urban area. The results were applied to integrated urban climate and disaster vulnerability assessment as a factor and method for urban disaster vulnerability assessment combined with debris flow considering climate change was proposed.
Estimation of the Loss Induced by Lightning for the Building Sets
Lee, Youngkyu ; Lee, Chuljoo ; Ahn, Seungil ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 193~201
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.193
In this paper, we proposed the empirical formulas to estimate the incident rate induced by lightning for industrial, commercial, and high-rise building sets. The data used is based on the 2009-213 building sets and lightning observations. The lightning claims are found to increase in proportion to the height of the building that is why the incident rate of the high-rise building set gets to the top. The 5-year moving maximum lightning strikes are more appropriate to use for estimating the lightning loss rather than the 5-year moving average lightning. The accumulated loss during 2009-2013 is 14.6 billion Won and the estimated accumulated loss with the 5-year moving maximum lightning exceeds 1.8 billion Won. We recommend the 5-year moving maximum lighting for loss estimation and expect that the formulas would contribute to the evaluation of pure risk by lightning for the covering insured.
An analysis of Local Authorities' Perception and Interests in Disaster Management through the Assessment of Local Council Minutes
Yoon, Dong Keun ; Kim, Youngjun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 203~211
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.203
The role of local governmental is important as much as central government in disaster management. Local council has a legislative function to enact, revise, and abolish municipal ordinances regarding disasters as a top decision-making institution of local government. The purpose of this study is to examine local authorities' perceptions on disaster management through analyzing local council agendas and minutes. This study compared 8,593 electronic minutes related to disasters among 46,629 minutes of 16 metropolitan and provincial government councils between 1999 and 2011. Ten key words in terms of four phases of disaster management were used to examine local authorities' perceptions on disaster management. This study found that perceptions on disaster management of local authorities have increased over time. Correlation analysis was conducted to examine the relationships between key words and natural disaster damages. Moreover, agendas regarding disaster mitigation and preparedness were discussed more than disaster recovery agendas in local councils in Korea.
A Study on Applicability of the Duration of Target Rainfall for Achievement of Regional Disaster Prevention Performance
Ahn, Tae Jin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 213~219
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.213
The National Emergency Management Agency, the NEMA(2012) in Korea has proposed regional target rainfall with 1, 2 and 3 hour rainfall duration for all 168 counties of our country to enhance regional disaster prevention performance. The proposed regional target rainfall may be defined as the amount of rainfall corresponding a minimum of disaster prevention performance. Target rainfall with 1 hour duration has been suggested for the conveyance facilities and 2 and 3 hour target rainfall for storage facilities and watershed measures. However, some question for applying duration of target rainfall has been raised. Thus, in this study rainfall - runoff simulations by the SWMM for selected 10 sample municipal districts have been conducted to determine applicability of rainfall duration proposed by the NEMA in Korea. Since the peak flow by 1 hour rainfall may be almost same as the peak flow by critical rainfall duration for 10 sample basins, 1 hour rainfall duration in stormwater sewer districts may be selected as design rainfall duration. Furthermore, water level of stormwater storage and detention pond of drainage pumping system by 2 hour or 3 hour rainfall might be almost same as the water level by critical rainfall duration. In addition the critical rainfall durations from the designed 114 projects have been collected with the size of watershed and the durations of design rainfall. According to the analysis of watershed area and critical duration, 2 hour or 3 hour rainfall duration may be used as design rainfall duration for
below watershed area. It has been shown that 1, 2 and 3 hour target rainfall including rainfall distribution proposed by the NEMA in Korea may be used to estimate and to improve the integrated disaster prevention performance in urban area of interest.
An Analytical Review of Disaster Nursing Competencies in Korea: 1995-2013
Lee, Ogcheol ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 221~230
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.221
This study was performed to identify the areas of disaster nursing competencies that were examined in previous studies of disaster nursing in Korea from 1995 to 2013 and to suggest a direction for further research. Data were retrieved from the Research Information Sharing Service (RISS) 2.0 and DBpia 6.1. The exclusion criteria were grey literature, non-peer-reviewed, and connected to victims. The inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed, written in Korean, primary research papers, and those connected to nurses, nursing students, or curriculum. After reviewing 26 full-text articles, ten studies were analyzed by qualitative content analysis to categorize methodological characteristics and the components of disaster nursing competencies based on the Hyogo Framework of Core Competencies Required for Disaster Nursing. The result were shown that various study designs and instruments were included. The frameworks on disaster nursing competencies were not concrete and differed among the research included. Most of the components of the disaster nursing competencies that were investigated by these studies fell into Category II, which consists of the systematic assessment and provision of care, while the competencies in Category III, the category of the provision of care for vulnerable people and their families, were relatively neglected. Nurses and nursing students had low to moderate levels of disaster preparedness. The reviewed studies did not fulfill global perspectives or comprehensively address disaster nursing competencies. Additional studies need to be performed by adopting international frameworks, including the ICN framework, and the Korean framework for disaster nursing competencies needs to be developed based on strong theoretical perspectives and strategies.
Analysis of the Awareness Regarding the Utilization of the Equipments for Extinguishing the Ground Forest Fire -Focusing on the Public Servants of Seoul and Gyeonggi Province-
Kim, Jong-Buk ; Lee, Si-Young ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 231~238
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.231
Recently, forest fires are seen everywhere from metropolitan areas to their surrounding cities, and many forest fires are threatening local residents's households. The study focuses on the availability of the equipments to extinguish the forest fire owned by local government and the level of awareness of civil servants who have a responsibility of forest fire. As a result, 47.8 percent of the survey participants claimed about the quality of equipment. They asked the supply of verification equipments. 44.4 percents composed of eighty people replied that the backpacker pump including rechargeable models has been used the most. Under the category of maintenance, damage, and after-sales service, 85.6 percent composed of one hundred fifty people responded that a standard manual for maintenance would be most helpful. This paper proposes feasible for the establishment of forest fire evacuation procedures and of proper utilization of equipments dependent upon their availability and frequence of usage.
A Analysis Study for Firebrands Simulation with FDS
Yoo, Yong Ho ; Kim, Hag Beom ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 239~243
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.239
In Domestic, as can be seen from the fires that occurred in Haewundae(Busan) in 2010, fire can cause large scale damage if it starts from the inside of the building and grows to a flashover that spreads through windows in a rapid and vertical manner along exterior materials constructed in the building. Specially firebrand is considered as a
factor in the fire spread of urban and urban Interface fire. In the studying, therefore the numerically computational modelling and simulation were conducted with FDS code for firebrand behavior. In the modelling for firebrand were using experimental theory. Numerical simulation results were compared and in good agreement with Manzello et al (2008) experiments.
A Study on the Toxicity Evaluation of Combustion Gas of Fire Resistive Coating of Structural Members Using FT-IR
Kweon, Oh-Sang ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 245~249
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.245
In this study, in order to satisfy fire resistance performances during the fire, inorganic fire resistance cover materials and organic fire resistance cover materials have been tested for evaluating toxicity of combustion gas on fire resistance coating materials applied to main structure of the buildings. In the toxicity evaluation, NES 713 and BS 6853 have been applied. Major test variables are a spray coat, fire resistance gypsum board, fire resistance paints such as 1 hour fire resistance paint and 2 hours fire resistance paint by dividing them into inorganic and organic types. As a result of the evaluation on the toxicity, combustion gas has been highly generated in the organic cover materials compared to the one taking place in the inorganic cover materials. Because 2 hour fire resistance paints generate the largest combustion gas, it is considered that there might make an effort to reduce amount of cover by changing them to the fire resistance materials generating the most combustion gas.
Study on Fire Prevention by Building Fire Insurance Situation Analysis
Han, Sang-Yong ; Lee, Si-Young ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 251~257
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.251
Special building fire can increase each year from 2005 to 2009, and was most plant and apartments. General House against the total number of fires account for about 25% each year. House fire caused by the delay caused by suffocation and psychological sequelae of severe accidents. Building fire prevention is important, but there should be proper compensation after the fire. So building a fire insurance, Special building "Enforcement Rule of the Act on the Indemnification for Fire-Caused Loss and the Purchase of Insurance Policies" should be in accordance with the mandatory insurance. However, compared with developed countries, Korea has a low subscription rate. In this study, the operating status of our country's building fire insurance and social and institutional issues are examined.
An Experimental Study on the Effect of Flame Resistant Treated in Gosiwon Fires
Kim, Hwang Jin ; Lee, Sung Eun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 259~265
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.259
The risk of casualties is inherently high in the event of a fire in a goshiwon, a residential facility with small single-room accomodations, since the building is divided into a number of small rooms in a single floor among multi-use establishments. Therefore, flame resistant treatment of plywood and wood materials for interior design is required to minimize casualties in the event of a fire. To examine the effect of flame resistant treatment, combustion characteristics of flame resistant treated plywood were analyzed and a real scale fire test was performed by creating a fire area in the actual goshiwon building. The heat release rate of plywood treated with flame retardants was measured
lower than that of untreated plywood, and ignition temperature was
higher. According to the result of the real scale fire test, time taken to reach the highest temperature was 120 seconds for flame resistant treated plywood and 65 seconds for untreated plywood in the early stages of fire. Therefore, flame resistant treatment was found to have a considerable effect on fire spread protection.
Developing Wireless Fire Detector with Remote Inspection Function for Apartment Housing
Jung, Jong Jin ; Hong, A Reum ; Lee, Chae Won ; Son, Bong Sei ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 267~272
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.267
In addition, they have limitations in accurately identifying the points of fire outbreak or allowing residents to properly recognize fire alarm. In particular, as for detectors installed inside residential space, the proper operating status can only be checked from inside the residential space. To improve on these shortcomings, this study aimed at developing a wireless fire detector that provides a function allowing residents to remotely check the detector from outside their homes. In addition, to assess performance of the detector developed through this study, a performance test and an experiment on characteristics of wireless detector have been conducted. The result indicated that this detector satisfied all test items, such as wireless communication ability, and thus it was found to be satisfactory in terms of both the functions it provides and its performance level.
Definition of the Load Ratio of RC Beam using Heat Transfer Analysis
Hwang, Kyu-Jae ; Yeo, In-Hwan ; An, Jae-Hong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 273~279
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.273
This study, to evaluate the technology of the fire resistance design of Reinforced Concrete beams based on fire resistance performance design, was suppose to use as basic data for performance design through a measure of temperature using heat transfer analysis of the Reinforced Concrete beams as parameter is the load ratio. The temperature load were imposed on beams. As a result of this study, 0.6 and 0.7 of load ratio can be ensured that the fire resistance performance was considered satisfactory.
A Study on Investigation and Analysis of Cause of An Automotive Fire Case That Broke out during Driving
Lee, Euipyeong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 281~288
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.281
In this paper, fire cause of an automotive fire was analyzed. The automotive fire broke out while driving in the downtown area 14 days after the purchase. The engine room, the right and left sides of the transmission of lower body parts and an exhaust pipe surrounding behind the transmission were damaged intensively due to the fire. And an insulation plate of the transmission surrounding was melted. It was analyzed that the fire origin was transmission surrounding and the fire spread from transmission of lower part to engine room of upper part. And it was analyzed that the fire cause was automatic transmission fluid leakage that was scattered on the exhaust pipe. Therefore, it was analyzed that an owner or a driver was not responsible for this automotive fire and the automotive fire was associated with automotive maker's manufacturing defect.
An Analysis on 119 Safety Center depending on the Distribution of Fire Occurrence in Chungju-Cheongwon City
Yeon, Kyung Hwan ; Hwang, Hee-Yun ; Hong, Eui-Dong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 289~296
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.289
The objective of this study is regarding to the distribution of fire occurrence inside the city and appropriateness of 119 safety center location. The procedures and methods of this study are as follows. Firstly, the geocoding work is made on the space after identifying the distribution of fire occurrence in Chungju Cheongwon and confirming the location on the topographic map and land registration map. Secondly, it is to perform the nearest proximity analysis and Kernel density analysis with ArcGis 9.3 space program after establishing the basic space data. Thirdly, it is to identify the positional relation of the hot spots after identifying 119 safety center location. The study results revealed that the distribution of fire occurrence was in clustered type in case of Chungj Cheongwon city. The fire occurrence ration within 5 minutes (Flash Over Time) which is the essential shortest time for the early suppression depending on the fire protection facility location is 96.31% for Chungju city and 52.03% for Cheongwon-gun. In case of Cheongwon-gun, the adjustment of 119 safety center is necessary. Finally, in case of Chungju City, it was evaluated as equipping a well organized fire protection system because the positioning of 119 safety centers are located adjacently to the hot spots mostly.
Numerical Analysis of the Effect of Water-film Thickness on Thermal Insulating Performance for a Curtain Wall
Sung, Kun Hyuk ; Nam, Jun Seok ; Ryou, Hong Sun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 297~302
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.297
As high-rise buildings globally increase, single or double layered curtain walls are being preferred for the beauty and convenient applicability. However, when a fire breaks out at the high-rise building with curtain walls, the fire propagates vertically due to the leap frog effect, and the fire leapfrogging can cause fatal personnel and material losses. It is essential to prevent damage to the curtain wall for stopping the fire leapfrogging. However, there is few numerical researches on the thermal insulating system for control temperature of curtain wall using water-film. In this study, numerical analysis is performed to investigate the effect of water-film thickness on thermal insulating performance for a curtain wall. In the result, the rate of increase in the maximum temperature of curtain wall is about four times larger than the rate of decrease in the water-layer thickness.
Dynamic Characterization of Palsangjeon in Beobju Temple using Ambient Vibration
Kim, Hye Won ; Lee, Jung Han ; Yi, Waon Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 303~309
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.303
According to the result of recent foreign study for seismic performance of 5-story wooden pagoda, it is revealed that damage controlled structure is constituted by central pillar and pagoda body with their respective different dynamic characteristics of reducing resonance of the wooden pagoda during occurrence of earthquake. In conjunction with this discovery, an engineering study is required even for examining structural stability and preservation of the 5-story wooden pagoda of Palsangjeon in Beobju Temple. Accordingly, in order to define seismic performance of Palsangjeon in Beobju Temple, ambient vibration testing was performed as a part of this study. Palsangjeon, which is the subject to be measured, was built in 1624, and was dismantled for repair in 1968. As far as its architectural dimension is concerned, it is constituted with the
, and the
, and the pagoda body height of Palsangjeon is 17.515 m, and the upper pagoda is 4.085 m, and total height is 21.6 m. Internal central pillar is connected from the
story, and it is surrounded by 4 outside pillars and walls. According to the result of ambient vibration testing, it was confirmed that the natural frequency of Palsangjeon is 1.22 Hz for X and Y direction, and the parallel mode is displayed at 2.76 Hz and 3.96 Hz simultaneously, and a reverse-phase mode is indicated at 1.49 Hz. Damping factor with human excitation was 1.9% for X direction and 1.7% for Y direction respectively. Comparing with the existing measurement result tested in 1997, the primary and secondary natural frequency were similar and there is no change of structural rigidity, and comparing with wooden pagodas of Japan, the height of Palsangjeon is smaller, however, its natural frequency, damping factor, and so forth had similar trend with those of the Japanese wooden pagodas. Comparing with the domestic traditional wooden structures such as private house, temple, castle gate, et cetera, it was confirmed that natural frequency was smaller, however, damping factor was similar with the value of around 2%.
A Study on the Stabiltiy Analysis of Railway Slopes Applying Net type Concrete Block (NTCB) Under Rainfall
Kim, Hyun Ki ; Lee, Jin Wook ; Choi, Chan Yong ; Shin, Min Ho ; Hwang, Soo Beom ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 311~316
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.311
One of the major slope failures in Korea railways is surface failure. It is based on geological and geographical properties of Korea. There are various types of methods to protect surface slope failures. Performance for each method should be examined beforre construction and it is important to select optimum installation place. In this study, Net type Concrete Block (NTCB) is developed to ruduce surface failure of a slope and also the performance of NTCB is examined by various construction location under rainfall.
Risk Assessment for HAZMAT Transportation by Railway
Lee, Chang-Hun ; Won, Jong-Un ; Kwon, Yong-Jang ; Kim, Si-Gon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 317~324
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.317
A method of risk assessment for transporting hazmats(hazardous materials) by railway is proposed in this paper. This method is focused on finding the risk probability dependent by railway geometries and consequences by hazmats railway accidents in order to improve safe movement by railways. The level of risk by railways are dependent of several factors which are population density, accident location, railway geometries, and the type of hazmats. Based on this method the level of risk was analyzed, section by section, along the all the railway networks nationwide. Addition to this the consequences by hazmat types was analyzed. Finally, the countermeasures for alleviating the risk and improving safe transportation by railway were suggested.
Development and Application of Isovel Distribution in Velocity Profile Method Using Poisson Equation
Cha, Jun-Ho ; Kim, Chang-Wan ; Cho, Yong-Sik ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 325~336
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.325
Recently in Korea, automatic discharge measurement system which calculates the river discharge using velocity measured by UVM(Ultrasonic Velocity Meter) and ADVM(Acoustic Doppler Velocity Meter) is actively being introduced. There are IVM(Index Velocity Method) and VPM(Velocity Profile Method) in the method of calculating river discharge. IVM is the method of calculating mean velocity of the entire cross-section by establishing the relationship between index velocity and mean velocity and VPM is the method of calculating velocity distribution of the entire cross-section by establishing the relationship between index velocity and velocity distribution. Chiu(1988)'s 2-D velocity distribution using VPM, it is necessary to adjust a lot of shape parameter and it is difficult to obtain the exact isovel distribution except for the rectangular flow cross-section. In this study, we proposed the VPM by a theoretical review of the Poisson equation in order to improve the disadvantages of Chiu's method and verified the applicability by utilizing the velocity data of the automatic discharge measurement system, Wuman, Hangangdaegyo in the Han river and Daecheon in the Mangyung river.
Evaluation for the Correction of Radar Rainfall Due to the Spatial Distribution of Raingauge Network
Lee, JiHo ; Yoon, JungSoo ; Jun, HwanDon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 337~345
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.337
The spatial variation characteristic of ground rainfall data is an important factor in determining the accuracy of the flush flood forecasting. This study has evaluated how affect it is the spatial distribution characteristics of ground rainfall network for radar rainfall correction. For that, the spatial distribution of rainfall network is quantified by the nearest neighbor index and the error analysis between the ground rainfall and radar rainfall is analyzed by G/R ratio. The suggested method is applied to Pyongchang river basin. As a result, it is found that the error between ground rainfall data and radar rainfall data is the smaller in the case of the best spatial distribution than the worst spatial distribution. This result implies that the spatial distribution is more important factor in the accuracy of radar correction. The achievement of study is judged that it would be able to contribute the quality improvement of rainfall data by the efficient operation of rainfall network in limited circumstance of weather stations, along with the qualitative improvement of flood warning system.
Raingauge Network Evaluation Considering the Spatial Distribution and Installation Altitude
Lee, JiHo ; Jun, HwanDon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 347~356
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.347
The evaluation of raingauge network is important to estimate the area average rainfall and the radar rainfall calibration for flash flood warning in mountainous areas. Basically, the necessary criterions for accurate area average rainfall estimate and flash flood warning are the uniform spatial distribution of raingauge network. This study has evaluated the raingauge network which is considered the spatial distribution and the density of rain gauge by altitude. The Euclidean distance method is adopted to consider the spatial distribution and the density of rain gauge by altitude for satisfying the both criteria, and is applied to 5 river basins. The spatial distribution of rainfall network is quantified by the nearest neighbor index and the characteristic of installation altitude is evaluate by CV(Coefficient of variation) of equal-altitude-ratio of the density. As a result, it can be found that Namgang Dam basin is excellent in uniformity of the spatial distribution and the density of rain gauge by altitude. Furthermore, the evaluation of persuasive raingauge network will be possible if the raingauge network is evaluated by the installation objective of regulatory agency.
Effect of Wind Speed on Rainfall-Runoff Analysis
Sim, Kyu Bum ; Chung, Gunhui ; Jo, Deok Jun ; Kim, Eung Seok ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 357~364
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.357
Rainfall data is measured by rain gauge and the effects of wind speed on the data have not been considered when the data is distributed. The calculated runoff using there rainfall data could be underestimated or overestimated. In this study, therefore, the rainfall data was calibrated using the wind speed, and the runoff was analayzed in the Geum Cheon catchment which has impervious area more than 90% of the catchment. SWMM model was used to calculate the runoff. Runoff characteristics were analyzed in dry, wet, and entire period. In wet period, the peak discharge has increased about 1.3 times than the runoff in dry period. The amount of total discharge in wet period has increased upto 1.3 times as well. The amount of rainfall and runoff has increased as the wind speed increase. Therefore, when stormwater pipes are designed, the wind speed should be considered to avoid underestimated runoff calculation which could cause urban flood.
Frequency Analysis of Future Fresh Snow Days and Maximum Fresh Snow Depth using Artificial Neural Network under Climate Change Scenarios
Park, Hee-Seong ; Jeong, Sangman ; Chung, Gunhui ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 365~377
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.365
As the heavy snow storm occurrence increases due to the climate change, the demage caused by snowstorm also increases. Therefore, in this study, RCP climate change scenario 4.5 and 8.5 are applied for the frequency analysis of future probable fresh snow days and probable maximum fresh snow depth. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models are constructed for the frequency analysis. Data in the input layer of ANN are the minimum, maximum, and average temperature and precipitation data for the simulation of the fresh snow days. Another ANN model has also the minimum, maximum, and average temperature and precipitation data for the simulation of the maximum fresh snow depth. Learning of ANN model used two types of data. The first uses total 74 gauging stations data and the second model uses each gauging station data separately. The model efficiency of the first model is higher than the second. Quantile mapping is applied to remove the discrepancy of the climate change data and to generate the outlier data from the model. As the result, probable fresh snow days and probable maximum fresh snow depth tend to decrease over the entire Korean Peninsula. Decreasing tendency in Kangwon province is noticeable. In Kyungsan province, maximum fresh snow depth decreases but fresh snow days increases.
Estimation of Flood Forecasting and Warning Rainfall Thresholds in Backwater Lengths of a Urban River
Choi, Yu Jin ; Song, Yang Ho ; Lee, Jung Ho ; Park, Moo Jong ; Kim, Eung Seok ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 379~385
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.379
Flood forecasting and warning systems have been mostly established in large rivers while they are lacking in most small-medium rivers. Thus, this study has constructed a flood forecasting and warning system for Danghyeon River basin, one of small-medium urban rivers with backwater effects, which has difficulties in flood forecasting and warning. The developed flood forecasting and warning model coupled a rainfall-runoff analysis model, HEC-HMS with a water depth-flow analysis model, which can estimate flood forecasting and warning rainfall thresholds at each rainfall duration time for flood water levels in junctions and warning alarm points to take into account backwater effects. Flood water levels at flood forecasting and warning alarm points in backwater lengths of the river consist of low water levels (initial overflow levels to the floodplain) and high water levels (design flood levels), and flood forecasting and warning rainfall thresholds were estimated as 60-min in 2-year for low water levels and 60-min in 70-year for high water levels. It is expected that flood forecasting and warning thresholds with high reliability can be available by the calibration and verification on results of this analysis in the future.
Analysis of Rainfall Data Considering Wind Effects
Sim, Kyu Bum ; Choi, Hyun Il ; Park, Moo Jong ; Kim, Eung Seok ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 387~394
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.387
Rainfall data an input for the hydrologic system is a key factor to estimate flood amount. Rainfall are usually influenced by wind speed because most rainfall events are accompanied by winds. For analysis of rainfall data considering wind effects, this study has collected both rainfall and wind data for 10 minute duration by KMA AWS(Korea Meteorological Administration Automatic Weather System) in Keumchoen-Gu, Seoul, and separated a single event from irregular rainfall data by IETD(inter-event time definition) method. This study has also analysed rainfall differences for dry, wet, and total periods with/without wind effects following experimental equations and examined rainfall increase with wind speed. The increase rate of total rainfall increases linearly with wind speed, and the rate for wet season was 1.1 times higher than that for dry season. It was found that wind affects rainfall measurements in wet season from June to September rather than dry season or total period, and measurement errors increase due to strong wind speed in wet season. The rainfall analysis for wind effects can affect the runoff estimation.
A Study on the Development of Filtration System for Drainage Discharge Capacity
Song, Youngseok ; Shin, Dongjin ; Joo, Jingul ; Park, Moojong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 395~404
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.395
Sedimentation of soil and debris on drainage caused damage of landslide and soil loss when design frequency rainfall is occurred. But, researchs of domestic and overseas do not suggest mitigation measures for drainage on soil and debris. In this study, the proposed filtration system on drainage that take account of design frequency, installation cases, characteristic of soil is analyzed using Fluent. It increases over twice of velocity when filter net was passed through installed filtration system and sedimentation section confirms around 50% of capture ratio. Proposed on filtration system could mitigate discharge capacity of culvert and reduced damage that occurred damage reduces through retention of discharge capacity.
Suggestion of Riprap Revetments Design Techniques considering River Meandering
Kim, Hyung-Jun ; Yoon, Kwang Seok ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 405~411
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.405
In Korea, most levee breaks had been occurred at steep or meandering region in river. To mitigate inland flood by protecting levee, riprap design formula should be modified by adopting channel meandering. In this study, experimental study had been performed to suggest modified riprap design formula. Unstability conditions of riprap revetments were regenerated in a straight and two meandering experimental channels. After experimental observation of unstability of riprap, the modified riprap design formula had been suggested. Furthermore, the design formula adopts correction coefficients which can consider cross section averaged velocity and channel meandering.
Biomass Expansion Factors and Allometric Equations in Age Class IV of Pinus thunbergii Coastal Disaster Prevention Forest in Seocheon, Chungnam
Kim, Sungyong ; Jang, Mina ; Youn, Hojoong ; Lee, Byungdoo ; Park, Kihyung ; Lee, Youngjin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 413~419
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.413
This study was conducted to determine the crown form characteristics, biomass expansion factors, stem density and to develop allometric equations for aboveground biomass estimation in age class IV of Pinus thunbergii stands at the Coastal Disaster Prevention Forest in Seocheon region. A total of 10 representative trees were destructively sampled, partitioned per biomass component and weighed to get the green and dry weights. Regression equations that estimate biomass using only diameter at breast height (DBH), and DBH and total height (H) as predictor variables were derived. Aboveground biomass expansion factor and stem density resulted to 1.173 and
, respectively. The ratio of each biomass component to aboveground biomass was determined and resulted to 85.4% for stem, 9.9% for branch and 4.7% for needles. The allometric equation with form
showed the best results based on model evaluation criteria, specifically the adjusted multiple coefficient of determination (90%), adjusted coefficient of determination and standard error of estimate.
Application of the Urban Flooding Forecasting by the Flood Nomograph
Jo, Deok Jun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 421~425
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.421
Increased impervious area resulting from urbanization with Increased occurrence of heavy rainfalls under the influence of climate change due to global warming has become a cause of repeated flooding damage of the city area. The urban flood forecasting system is one of the useful alternative to minimize urban flooding damage. In this study, using a Flood-Nomograph built for flood prediction from rainfall intensity and duration was evaluated the applicability of prediction on urban flooding. The results showed that F-N was useful nomograph to predict flooding if adopted to the Urban flood forecasting system.
Modeling of Suspended Solid Clogging of Porous Media in Urban Stormwater Infiltration Facility
Lee, Byung Sik ; Kim, Lee Hyung ; Lee, Kwan Ho ; Jeon, Pyung Goo ; Segismundo, E. ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 427~437
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.427
Infiltration facilities are applied increasingly as effective BMPs to the urban stormwater control. The important functions of the facilities are surface flow reduction, contaminants elimination and aquifer recharge resulting from filtration, retention and infiltration of stormwater by porous media. A major obstacle in operating infiltration facilities is clogging. Filters of porous media in the facility are clogged by deposition of sediment over time. Clogging reduces infiltration rate and lifespan of the facility. Clogging, thus, needs to be considered as one of the important design factors in constructing infiltration facilities. In this study, 3 clogging models were chosen to simulate clogging, which developed in different disciplines, environmental and geotechnical engineering. Since the models were developed initially for fine media, applicability to coarse media interested in this study needed to be examined. To examine the applicability of models, analytical procedures of models were thoroughly reviewed. Parametric studies were also conducted to determine appropriate input parameters. Finally, the models represented relatively appropriate applicability to estimate clogging developed in an artificial infiltration as well as a real infiltration testing conditions. Although further studies are still needed for considerable aspects in input parameters and equations, the models could be suggested as effective analytical tools to estimate clogging developed in infiltration facilities of urban stormwater.
Natural Disaster Vulnerability Assessment at Boroughs and Census Output Areas in Seoul Focusing on Socio-economic Perspective
Park, Yoonkyung ; Jeong, Sangman ; Kim, Sangdan ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 14, issue 6, 2014, Pages 439~449
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2014.14.6.439
In this study an indicator-based model is proposed to quantify socio-economic damage under natural disaster. For the purpose of considering various aspects on socio-economic vulnerability under natural disaster, the proposed socio-economic vulnerability assessment model is composed of demographic/social indicator, economic indicator, and prepare/response/recovery indicator. Each of them is consist of 5, 3, and 6 proxy variables, respectively. Using the suggested model, the socio-economic vulnerability for 25 boroughs and 16,230 census output areas of Seoul is assessed. As a result, it is shown that Seocho-gu has the lowest vulnerability score while Gwanak-gu is the most vulnerable under natural disaster in the sense of socio-economic aspect. In addition to such vulnerability assessment results in the scale of boroughs, the importance of vulnerability assessment in the scale of census output areas is presented.