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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation
Editor in Chief :
Moo Jong Park
Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Dec 2015
Volume 15, Issue 5 - Oct 2015
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Aug 2015
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Jun 2015
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Apr 2015
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Definition of CCTV Monitoring Duty for K-12 School Safety People
Hwang, Sung-Eun ; Kim, Jin-Wook ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 1~8
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.1
Recently, a great deal of complementary institutions and facilities are implemented for safety in school; However, skills and qualification of staff related to school safety need to be enhanced. Also, expectations, role, and education on relevant management such as CCTV monitoring for safety have to be improved. For these reasons, the study analyzes the current status of labor force being in charge of school safety, and what they do for school safety. With these results concerning necessary considerations that need to be complemented such as CCTV monitoring for safety management, some policies were suggested. As a result, recruitment criteria for applicants of school safety has not been applied as principle, and salary system of employees appears to need more improvements. Consequently, hiring qualifications of applicant for school safety should be enhanced, criteria for penalty when hiring applicants whose skills are fall short of should be established, and appropriate salary system should be improved. Since there is little education related to monitoring CCTV camera and keeping materials and relevant manuals currently, training session to reinforce CCTV operatorsí role among many roles protecting students, and development of manual are considered to be necessary.
Evaluation of Probabilistic Capacities of Old Window Systems in Residential Buildings for Strong Winds
Kim, Ju Yeon ; Kim, Ji Young ; Kim, Hyun Joo ; Moon, Ki Hoon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 9~16
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.9
The fragility of the old window systems need to be evaluated to expect damage levels because they were generally designed based on experiences without specified engineering procedures. The probabilistic resisting capacities of the old window systems are required to perform fragility analysis. Firstly, the types of old window systems were investigated to classify size, material, structural systems, etc. The structural components of each window system are classified and their resisting capacities are evaluated through structural tests or using previous experiment results and specifications. Finally, the probabilistic resisting capacity of each window type is evaluated by the Monte Carlo simulation. By summarizing the evaluation results, the probability parameters of resistances for old window systems are provided for the fragility analysis.
Temperature Estimation Method of Hollow Slab at Elevated Temperature
Choi, Hyun Ki ; Choi, Chang Sik ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 17~22
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.17
Various researches were carried out to evaluate the residual strength of reinforced concrete which is damaged by fire. ACI 216 committee and Eurocode committee define the strength reduction of reinforced concrete which was damaged by fire using temperature distribution of members according to the sectional shape. This method can be used under accurate thermal distribution estimation. However, it is hard to apply this method when sections have different sectional parameters and material characteristics compared with standard properties of reinforced concrete structures. Therefore, in this study, evaluation of thermal distribution estimation method suggested by the codes about hollow slabs.
Prediction of Creep Behavior of Ground Anchor
Kim, Min-Woo ; Kim, Doo-Hwan ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 23~29
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.23
Ground Anchors are an effective method for connecting the civil structures or building structures with high strength steel in order to ground and apply a fixed or stable binding force or pre-load on the structure by introducing a high tensile strength to the steel. Ground anchor test will be conducted in order to obtain the information necessary to prove that you are happy with the design or the design conditions and the like are typical test Performance Test and Extended Creep Test, Creep test is to estimate the load decreases with the lapse of time after the anchor installation and is an important Test to determine whether ensure the safety for the long-term behavior. In this study, the test for identifying a permanent anchor such as ultimate strength and creep deformation in weathered rock analyzes the short-term prediction scheme presented creep behavior of the anchor.
Fireproof Performance Experiment and Field Applicability Evaluation of Parking Lot Flooring using Bottom-Ash
Moon, Jong-Wook ; Kim, Byung-Yun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 31~37
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.31
Korea's parking lot flooring is regulated pursuant to the laws and regulations on the indoor environment, according to the trend of large scale indoor parking lots. The experiment results actually evaluated the fireproof performance and field applicability of parking lot flooring, equipped with self-leveling function, and added with bottom-ash, in order to improve existing organic flooring's weaknesses and minimize property and safety damages by parking lot fire. (1) The fireproof performance test result met the standard of the first grade of fire retardant, which is the target of this research. (2) In the field applicability evaluation, this research ascertained field defect factors can be reduced, if construction is carried out by quantified and standardized equipment, and the stabilization of materials and mix, including the change of water mixture ratio, is promoted.
Rotation Capacity Evaluation of Column-Tree Type Steel Moment Connection with Bolt-Slip
Lee, Kyungkoo ; Chae, Bong Su ; Kim, Seonwoong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 39~45
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.39
In this paper, the rotation capacity of a column-tree type steel moment connection is analytically investigated with the consideration of bolt-slip effects. To this end, nine specimens with the column-tree type steel moment connection were precisely modeled and material and geometric nonlinear finite element analyses considering the bolt-slip, which the span-to-depth ratio and the beam depth are variables in this study, were conducted. Its chord yield rotation capacity is larger than welded steel moment connection and its bearing force redistribution occurs by the bolt-slip. As the span-to-depth ratio is getting larger, the flexural resisting capacity in the beginning point of the bolt-slip is decreased while the magnitude of the stiffness reduction and the yield rotation capacity is increased. Therefore, it can be found that a governing factor to determine the rotation capacity of the column-tree type steel moment connection is the span-to-depth ratio. As a result, in order to achieve the reasonable seismic performance evaluation of the Korean existing column-tree type steel moment connection, the moment-rotation relationship considering the bolt-slip should be applied to.
Estimation of Freshly Fallen Snow Unit Weight and Maximum Probable Snow Load
Lee, Youngkyu ; Lee, Chuljoo ; Ahn, Seungil ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 47~55
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.47
Korea needs to take snow unit weight into account to transform snow depth into snow loads because Korean Meteorological Agency does not gauge snow loads. In world wide building codes they use different snow unit weights to evaluate snow depth into snow loads. In this paper we estimate unit weight of daily freshly fallen snow with gauge precipitation, freshly fallen snow depth, and daily mean wind speed. We also introduce the MPS (Maximum Probable Snow) load to estimate conservatively the snow loads at the sites where it does not gauge snow. The challenge to improve an accuracy of MPS loads is to consider locally spatial variation of freshly fallen snow. The snow hazard map for insurance is developed based on MPS loads. The hazard map shows characteristics that the hazard level in vicinity of East Sea and Yellow Sea coasts is higher and the level in most of the other region is very low.
Evaluation of Capacities of Windows System with Full Scale Mock-up Test
Kim, Juyeon ; Kim, Hyunjoo ; Kim, Jiyoung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 57~62
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.57
The windows of city facilities are categorized into the old window systems and new window systems. The structural components of each window system are classified and their probabilistic resisting capacities are evaluated through structural tests or based on previous experiments or specifications. From the resisting capacity data of the structural components, the probabilistic wind
resisting capacities of window systems are evaluated by the Monte Carlo simulation. In this study, the full scaled Mock-up tests of each one of the old windows and the new window systems respectively in the previous study were conducted. The experimental results were compared with the previous results to evaluate wind-resisting capacities of actually the combination window system. When calculated in this way, the wind-resisting capacities of windows performance appeared to have performances of approximately 144% for old window systems and 138% for new window systems higher than existing performances.
Evaluation of Surface Roughness of Concrete in Accordance with the Chipping Method
Ko, Dongwoo ; Lee, Sungeun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 63~69
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.63
In spite of the roughness of the substrate surface affects on the bond strength of the interface in RC jacketing column and walls, Current design code shows only qualitative approach through visual inspection. The purpose of this study is to provide data to develop surface roughness index of chipped concrete through analysis of the roughness profile data. The authors measured the surface roughness profile for chipped concrete using a self-made device, and quantified with the surface roughness of chipped concrete 5 ways. Analysis results showed that the surface roughness of the chipped concrete should be quantified through the analysis of the hysteresis characteristic than only by chipping depth.
Bond Behavior of CFRP Rod for Near Surface Mounted Strengthening Method Under Temperature Variation
Lee, Heeyoung ; Jung, Wootai ; Kang, Jaeyoon ; Park, Jongsup ; Chung, Wonseok ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 71~78
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.71
Most of the tendons used in prestress concrete structures are made of steel which is vulnerable to corrosion in external environment. In order to solve strengthen efficiently the structure, active research has been widely conducted on the Near Surface Mounted (NSM) strengthening method using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) tendon. This study is to investigate adhesive properties depending on the temperature variation(
) of NSM method by filler. Total 18 cubic specimens were fabricated and pull-out tests were conducted. Bond behavior including bond strength under temperature variation and failure mode was analyzed and discussed.
Early-Age Expansion of High Performance Wet Shotcrete with Expansive Agent
Choi, Sungyong ; Park, Jaehoon ; Hur, In ; Lee, Kyeore ; Han, Seungyeon ; Yun, Kyongku ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 79~86
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.79
In this dissertation, expansion admixture was used to suppress the cracking of high performance wet shotcrete. At the same time, characteristics of shotcrete were evaluated to using the silica-fume, fly ash, blast-furnace slag. The effect of expansion admixture (0, 3, 7, 11 and 15%) on the high-performance shotcrete was analyzed. Also, the effect of silica fume(10%), fly ash(20%), blast furnace slag(40%), meta-kaolin(10%) were analyzed. The incorporation rate of the mineral admixture were selected based on the previous studies. The results are as follows: All expansion occurred before initial 10 hours in the shotcrete mixture with pozzolan material without expansion agent. The shotcrete mixture with 11% expansive admixture showed a reduction in shrinkage, and this would lead to prevention of crack in concrete due to a reduction in long term shrinkage. The optimal content of expansive additive would range between 7.0% and 11.0% when considering expansion and contraction and heat of hydration.
Risk Assessment of Heavy Snowfall Using PROMETHEE - The Case of Gangwon Province -
Oh, Semin ; Kim, Gilho ; Jung, Younghun ; Kim, Duckhwan ; Kim, Hung Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 87~98
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.87
This study has been carried out to evaluate heavy snowfall risk of local governments in Gangwon province to prepare for the heavy snowfall disaster caused by abnormal climate. In doing so, the main influential factors of damage caused by snowfall have been reviewed by analyzing literature and data related to damage of snowfall. According to these data, thirteen evaluation criteria have been set. The weights of each evaluation criterion has been determined by using eigenvector method proposed by AHP. And PROMETHEE which is merited with ranking preference, among multi-criteria decision making methods, has been utilized to evaluate the level of risks for each region. As a result, Samcheok-city has been found to be with the highest level of risk among the 18 regions in Gangwon province. Further, Gangneung, Pyeongchang and Donghae city have exhibited the next high level of risk respectively. The results from net outranking flow calculation have been classified into 3 classes according to quartile method for review. The review has revealed that more regions with high risk are located in Yeongdong region than Yeongseo region. For verification of results of this study, bivariate correlation analysis has been carried out with the data on damage in the past. The correlation coefficient has been 0.586 which indicates statistically high level of correlation. Finally, GAIA plane analysis has been performed to analysis and contemplate relation and feature of each evaluation criterion and alternative visually. The result of this study is expected to be utilized as the basic information for establishment of prevention of heavy snow disaster in a macro perspective in the future.
Analysis of Annual Maximum Daily Rainfall Using RCP Climate Change Scenario in Korean Peninsula
Kwon, Minsung ; Lee, Gyumin ; Jun, Kyung Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 99~110
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.99
This study analyzes daily rainfall within the Korean Peninsula under RCP scenario. To compare RCP scenarios with recent rainfall, a total of 88 rainfall stations across Korean Peninsula, including 61 stations in South Korea and 27 in North Korea, with no missing daily rainfall data from 1981 to 2010 (SP0) were selected, and the RCP scenario was separated into three periods: 2011-2040 (SP1), 2041-2070 (SP2), and 2071-2100 (SP3). Comparisons between scenarios, and between the recent observed data (SP0) and each of the RCP scenarios were performed using the mean and maximum of the annual maximum daily rainfall for each period. The parameters of the Gumbel distribution at each station for the observed SP0 period were estimated by using a probability weighted moment method. Using these parameters, the return period was estimated for the maximum rainfall in the RCP scenario for each period. Across all scenarios and in all periods, more rainfall stations registered an increase in the maximum rainfall than in the mean rainfall, and North Korea has much higher rates of increases in the mean rainfall than does South Korea. Ratios of rainfall stations with a return Period over 300-year in SP1, SP2, and SP3 are 14%, 28% and 35%, and ratios of rainfall stations with a return period over 1,000-year among those are especially high: SP1 64%, SP2 63% and SP3 69%.
Applicability of Precipitable Water for Enhancing Radar Accuracy on Identification of Rain and No Rain
Yoo, Chulsang ; Kang, Minseok ; Ro, Yonghun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 111~121
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.111
Rain or no rain information may not be so important from the view of disasters, but should be an important factor for many industries like the agriculture and construction as well as on our daily lives. This study examined the radar accuracy on rain/no rain decision, and evaluated the possible role of the precipitable water to improve the radar accuracy. This study analyzed the Gwanaksan radar data and three AWS station data near Yongin as well as the aerological observation data at the Osan station. First, the occurrence of rainfall was analyzed and evluated using the CAPPI and PPI data. Also, it was investigated how the precipitable water could improve the accuracy of rain/no rain decision. Results are summarized as follows. (1) The radar accuracy on the rain decision is rather poor but much better on the no rain decision. (2) The role of precipitable water was found bigger when the radar indicates rain, rather than no rain. (3) The precipitable water was found to improve the radar accuracy on rain/no rain decision by 9% when using the CAPPI data, and by 12% when using the PPI data.
Characterizing Changes of Hydrologic Variability at Multi-purpose Dams in Korea
Kang, Ho-Yeong ; Lee, Sang-Hwa ; Kim, Jong-Suk ; Moon, Young-Il ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 123~130
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.123
This study analyzed the characteristics of daily flow data for eight multipurpose dams in the Korean Peninsula. According to the results of the peak flow analysis, occurrence frequencies of peak flow in six multipurpose dams tend to increase statistically significantly. In particular, according to the analysis, Sumjin River's dam basin shows the tendency of increase in all the four indices (magnitude, timing, frequency, and duration), which implies that it suffers the biggest ecological stress than the other dam basins. According to the results of trend analysis on 7-day low flow, Sumjin River dam shows the tendency of increase in dam inflow while Andong dam and Chungju dam indicatea statistically significant pattern of decrease. Typology analysis on the upper and lower quartiles shows that the increase of the upper quartile only occurs intermittently in July to August and September to October in Soyang dam or Chungju dam. The tendency of decrease in either the upper or lower quartile only occurs in turn from November to December, January to March, March to May, and May to July. In addition, Seomjin River dam (May to December, January) and Daecheong dam (January to March, March to July) show the tendency of increase in the lower quartile only.
Surficial Stability Analysis by the Green-Ampt Infiltration Model with Bedrock Boundary Condition
Cho, Sung-Eun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 131~142
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.131
Many regions around the world are vulnerable to rainfall-induced slope failures. In Korea, the depth of weathered residual soil is shallow and rainfall of strong intensities is frequent. Therefore, saturation of whole soil layer caused by the reaching of saturated wetting front from the slope surface to impermeable bedrock by rain infiltration is one of important causes of slope failure. This leads to the shallow depth of slope failure that passes through the interface between soil and impermeable bedrock. In this study, one-dimensional Green-Ampt model on sloping surfaces in infiltration analysis is used for the shallow slope failure analysis based on the limit equilibrium method. Time-varying intensity of rainfall was considered and shallow impermeable boundary condition was imposed in the Green-Ampt model to simulate the impermeable bedrock underlying the shallow residual soil. The results of example analysis showed that the proposed method can be used to efficiently consider the rainfall infiltration behavior caused by shallow impermeable bedrock boundary in stability assessment of infinite slope.
A Case Study for Landslide of Busan-Gyeongnam Area Occurred in 2014
Ryu, Ji-Hyeob ; Seo, Sang-Hoon ; Kim, Youl ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 143~151
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.143
This year(2014), seasonal rain front was stagnated in the southern region. As a result, the many landslides occurred in Busan and Gyeongnam region. In particular, many property damages were occurred owing to the landslides induced by rainfall in 17~18, 25 August 2014. It was confirmed that the major lanaslide damage cases occurred in the Busan and Gyeongnam region were the total of seven cases such as the two areas in Busan, one area in Gyeongnam-Goseong, one area in Gyeongnam-Yangsan, three areas in Gyeongnam-Changwon. In this study, field survey and cause of the landslide of seven areas were performed. As a result, we was possible to confirm the problem of the slope management. And the result will be utilized as the basic data for the steep slope disaster prevention.
Field Measurements for Subgrade Compaction Using MEMS Accelerometers
Kim, Kyu-Sun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 153~159
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.153
The monitoring of compaction energy propagation by depth during field compaction can provide valuable information for quality control and quality assurance of embankment construction. This paper studies compaction effectiveness by monitoring the acceleration responses of instrumented soil beds during field compaction in a highway construction site. Miniature Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) accelerometers were installed at various depths within subgrade layers to identify the profile of transmitted compaction energy contributing to compaction. The internal acceleration measurements gave information on local rotations, particle accelerations and frequency changes as compaction progressed. Mechanical resistance data measured by a dynamic cone penetrometer were compared with MEMS acceleration response data. Field data could detect the regions that were deemed under-compacted, and gave indications of the depth of compaction effectiveness. Thus, the data from MEMS accelerometers provided engineering understanding of the compaction effectiveness during field compaction, and suggests an alternative low-cost sensor to evaluate the compaction quality of subgrade soils.
A Study on the Setting of Landslide Management Area
Ryu, Ji-Hyeob ; Seo, Sang-Hoon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 161~168
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.161
In comprehensive disaster management plan, landslide hazard is defined as a natural slope collapse and artificial steep slope collapse. However. Result of analysing the completed Comprehensive Disaster Management Plan(9 cities), landslide hazard areas is almost point unit. Because there is no criteria for setting the management area. Therefore, we have developed a method of setting the landslide management area throughout the study and then examined the applicability to Gimcheon city.
Applications of EPA-SWMM and FHWA Hydraulic Toolbox to Analyze Cause of Urban Inundation
Yoo, Do Guen ; Choi, Hyeon Seok ; Kim, Joong Hoon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 169~180
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.169
In order to analyze the cause of urban inundation, Y area, which is one of the city in Gyeonggi-do province, is selected. And we analyzed the past storm event on July 2011 using hydrologic and hydraulic methods to check whether the flood control structures and plans are good or not. For simulating the past flood event, in terms of hydrology and hydraulics, the urban storm water management model(EPA-SWMM) was used and for analyzing the roadway discharge and collection efficiency of trench, FHWA Hydraulic Toolbox model was used. At the results, it was found that the abnormal linkage of storm sewers and the insufficient number of trench was the primary causes of flooding. In conclusion, with using both storm water management model and FHWA Hydraulic Toolbox model, the cause analysis of urban inundation became simple and effective and also it could be used for establishing inundation reduction plan as the effective measures.
A Study on the Development of Digital Signal Transmission AFCI and Electric Accident Position Indicator in Distribution Panel
Kwak, Dongkurl ; Shin, Jongkeun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 181~186
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.181
Because a main factor of the electric fire is due to electrical arc faults, recently, AFCIs (Arc Fault Circuit Interrupter) are installed in flush-mounted outlets within doors to prevent the electric fire. In this research, a new AFCI that applies digital signal transmission and electric power line network is proposed. The proposed AFCI transmits a coded digital pulse-signal to great distance DP (distribution panel) when electric accident occurred. The transmitted digital signal is transferred to micom system established in DP and accident position indicator in DP is operated. The purpose of this research prevents electric fire and gives notice of the correct position of electric accident in order to achieve early accident suppression and measures. That is, main outline of this system development is that the proposed AFCI sends an informationized digital pulse-signal to DP through electric power line network when electrical arc faults occur, and can be a development of indicator that give an alarm accident position from micom system that is designed in DP. This system constructs smart distribution panel using advanced micom system and electric power line network.
The Study of Insurance Premium Rate Mapping Considering the Wind and Flood Hazard Risks
Lee, JunSeok ; Lee, InSu ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 187~193
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.187
Recently, the number of natural disaster occurrence are increasing because of abnormal changes of weather in Korea. In Korea the storm and flood insurance system is enforced to prevent these natural disasters. The national storm and flood insurance buying rate is very low and the risk of adverse selection resides because of choosing by who lives in high risk area. To solve these problems, the storm and flood insurance rate map is required. In this study, we had researched the domestic and foreign case of storm and flood insurance map and extracted the common elements of the storm and flood insurance map. In this study, we made the prototype storm and flood insurance premium rate map of the Ulsan Korea and showed the method of GIS analysis for the insurance premium rate calculating and the procedure of the Ulsan storm and flood insurance rate map.
A Study on the Characteristics of Smoke Control Using Mechanical Ventilation with or without Lower Part Opening in a Large Scale Space
Ju, Hyeon-Don ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 195~205
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.195
Smoke control systems of an atrium keep occupants safe from smoke generated during unwanted fires. Smoke controls in large spaces are achieved by mechanical ventilation in the upper layer of two-zone layer. The objective of this study are to study the mechanical ventilation with or without the lower opening of the atrium, to predict the smoke layer heights according to the mass outflow rates through the upper opening supplied by fan, and to predict the steady-state smoke layer height. The steady-state smoke layer heights are analyzed by FDS. And the parts of results analyzed by FDS are compared with the experimental results performed by Yamana and Tanaka. The smoke mechanical ventilation for the mass outflow directing into the outside from the atrium by fan without the lower opening was superior to the smoke ventilation with the lower opening. And the effect of the exhaust fan start-up time was small when the lower opening was closed. And in the mechanical venting system with a lower opening it is surely not to increase the smoke exhaustion efficiency at the upper part of the atrium by increasing the mechanical power of the fan.
A Study on Effects of Active Cooling Method on Human Body Wearing Firefighting Protection Equipment - Focusing on Using Ice-vest-
Bang, Chang-Hoon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 207~213
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.207
The aim of study intends to investigate an effects of active cooling method using ice-vest on human body wearing firefighting protective equipment and to provide the basic data for the safety of firefighter. The results of the study are as follows; After firefighting majoring students(n=9; age
) performed workload of 9 METs in high-temperature environment WBGT
, dry bulb temperature of
, relative humidity 45.2%) during 15-minute by dividing applied firefighting protective equipment(FPE) and active cooling method using ice-vest(FPE+I). In the case of heart rate and respiratory rate are statistically significant for measurement time(p<.05) but the combined effects of measurement time and the group do not represented. In the case of tympanic temperature change, thermal Sensation, RPE and lactate are statistically significant for measurement time and group(p<.05) but the combined effects of measurement time and the group do not represented. It is concluded that body temperature and fatigue level of human body varied considerably and reflected by active cooling method using ice-vest.
A Study on the Fire Safety Performance of Apartment House Interior Finish Wall Lightweight Drywall
An, Jae Hongs ; Yeo, In Hwan ; Park, Jae Sung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 215~221
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.215
Recently, the structure system for apartment buildings in Korea has been changing from wall to post-beam structure. This study examines the fire safety performance of light-weight dried wall, a component of post-beam structure. For the fire resistance in Korea, the Compartment wall of apartment house in the case of building regulation has regulations specify the detailed requirement of fire compartment walls in apartment, but do not specify that of interior finish walls. This study proposes the fire safety rate of the interior finish wall into three grades in which the highest grade requires fire resistance of 30 minutes.
A Experimental Study on Fire Resistance Performance of Board Encased Steel Frame Used in Modular House
An, Jae Hong ; Yeo, In Hwan ; Park, Jae Sung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 223~229
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.223
The modular house that is firstly manufactured in a factory and secondly assembled in site is beneficial to shorten the construction period, to improve the construction quality and to reduce the construction fee. However, for fire protection, few research work has been studied in Korea, in which, in turn, the demand for the construction of the modular houses has never been increased, due to the fire safety issue. This study investigates the improvement of fire resistance of the modular houses. A gypsum board and an insulating material were applied to the beams and columns, and their fire resistance performance was examined. The results of fire tests showed that the board encasing system had the least damage and protected the substrate modular structures from fire for maximum 71 min. Hence, it can be expected that this new board encasing system can inspire other researchers who work for developing the fire resistance technique for the modular house in near future.
A Study on the Physiological Response Wearing Fire Chemical Protective Clothing
Bang, Chang-Hoon ; Kwon, Jung-Suk ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 231~236
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.231
The aim of study intends to investigate the physiological response wearing fire chemical protective clothing and to provide the basic data for the safety of firefighter. The results of the study are as follows; After firefighters(n=10; age 31.2) performed workload of 9 METs(6 km/h, 10%) in WBGT
, dry bulb temperature of
, relative humidity 77.2%) during 20minute. After experiments, mean skin temperature(9.9%), tympanic temperature change(4.2%), heart rate(112.3%), RPE(65.4%), thermal Sensation(87.1%), weight loss(0.7%), glucose(17.6%) and lactate(533.3%) are statistically significantly higher by wearing fire chemical protective clothing. It is concluded that physiological responses of human body varied considerably and reflected by wearing fire chemical protective clothing.
Fire-Resistance Performance Tests for Floor Structure of Railway car Using Aluminum Porous Sandwich Panel
Park, Won-Hee ; Lee, Duck-Hee ; Lee, Dong-Yob ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 237~241
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.237
The floor structure of a railway car in one of the main structure of the railway car should support the many things such as chairs, passengers and electronic units which are hung to the structure. One of main functions of the floor structure of the railway car besides the supporting function is fire-resistance performance for fire safety of the railway car. In this study a new type of a floor structure of a railway car adopted an aluminum porous sandwich panel and urethane foam are introduced for weight reduction and easiness of installation, respectively. The fire-resistance performance of the three specimens of the floor structure of a railway car are tested. Two of them are assembled the sandwich aluminum porous panel and the other is assembled a plywood as a supporting floor for the reference test. Urethane foam and glass fiber for of insulation materials are considered.
Analysis of Modal Parameter Estimation Methods for Structural Integrity Monitoring of a Railroad Bridge
Choi, Sanghyun ; Kim, Minseu ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 243~249
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.243
Since the railroad bridge is subjected to the heavy and periodic live load, which runs through a fixed path called the track, it is important to accurately identify dynamic properties. In this paper, the applicability of existing representative modal analysis methods including PS, FDD, p-LSCF, SSI BR and SSI CVA to a railroad bridge is examined and relative performance is compared. Also, considering the characteristics of a railroad bridge which has vibration of relatively high amplitude but short period, a method to obtain more accurate modal parameter estimates is studied when more than single response measurement set is available. The review is performed using a numerical model for a steel-concrete composite slab bridge and a commercial finite element analysis program, ABAQUS.
Analysis of Characteristics of Vertical and Horizontal Response Spectrum of Acceleration Ground Motions from Fukuoka Earthquake Series
Kim, Jun Kyoung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 251~262
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.251
The vertical response spectra using the observed ground motions (acceleration) from 14 Fukuoka earthquake series, including main earthquake (2005/03/20; Mw=6.5), were analysed and then were compared to horizontal response spectrum, the seismic design response spectra (Regulatory Guide 1.60), applied to the domestic nuclear power plants, and the Korean Standard Design Response Spectrum for general structures and buildings (1997). 89 vertical ground motions, without considering soil types, 1were used for normalization with respect to the peak acceleration value of each ground motion. The results showed that vertical response spectrum has strong dependency on epicentral distance and natural frequency(natural period). The ratio of vertical to horizontal response spectrum showed various characteristics. The results also showed that the vertical response spectra from observed ground motions revealed higher values for frequency bands below approximately 20 Hz than Regulatory Guide 1.60 (1968). The results were also compared to the Korean Standard Response Spectrum (500 years of recurrence rate) for the 3 different soil types (SC, SD, and SE) and showed that the vertical response spectra from observed ground motions revealed higher values for the period bands below approximately 2 second (0.5 Hz) than the Korean Standard Response Spectrum (500 yrs; Return Period; Seismic province 1; SE soil conditions). Through the qualitative improvements and quantitative enhancement of the observed ground motions, it is necessary that the conservation of vertical and horizontal seismic design response spectrum should be considered more significantly for the frequency bands suggested above.
Post-earthquake Recovery Simulation Model for Water Supply Network
Lee, Young Jin ; Yoo, Do Guen ; Lee, Do-Hun ; Bae, Deg Hyo ; Kang, Doosun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 263~272
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.263
This study proposes a computer model simulating post-earthquake recovery strategy of water supply system. Recognizing earthquake damages, water utilities have to develop restoration strategies to minimize the interruptions of water service and speed-up the recovery time. For these purposes, a computer simulation model can be helpful in evaluation of the various restoration strategies in a risk-free and virtual environment under a range of possible earthquake scenarios. The proposed simulation model can be used in conjunction with other pre-event and/or post-event loss reduction strategies for the design of robust and resilient water supply infrastructure and optimization of restoration strategies. The proposed methodology depicts the real-life restoration process thus can be used by water utilities for rapid and efficient recovery of water system under catastrophic disasters.
Arrangements of Rail Accident Command Structure, Roles and Responsibilities for Infrastructure Manager and Train Undertakings
Lim, Kwangkyun ; Kim, Sigon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 273~280
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.273
A train operating company on Korean nationwide express and regular lines is entirely taking care of managing infrastructures. It seemed quite natural that the company is responsible for all of required activities in terms of rail incident response, restoration and investigation. In the case of more than two train operators along a single route, however, such activities cannot be performed by one dominant operator due to fairness problems in the investigation and regional coverage issues, rather the incidents need to be taken over by the every related operators. Thus such necessary activities must be planned in advance to effectively response for rail accidents. This study proposes an effective command structure involving every train and infrastructure undertakings with the arrangements between the parties that are required for emergent incident responses, restoration and investigation.
Use of Shot-Noise Concept for Changing Clark UH and Its Evaluation
Yoo, Chulsang ; Youn, Sunghyun ; Ku, Jung Mo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 281~289
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.281
This study examined the Clark unit hydrograph (UH), and proposed a spatially-variable Clark UH by considering the concept of shot noise. The spatially-variable Clark UH is distinguished from the conventional Clark UH from the fact that it is derived by applying the linear reservoir first and the linear channel later. Also, the storage coefficient is differently assigned to be proportional to the distance from the basin outlet. The proposed spatially-variable Clark UH was applied to the Sanganmi basin for the rainfall-runoff analysis, whose results has also been compared to those of the conventional Clark UH. Summarizing the results are as follows. (1) The spatially-variable Clark UH with the same storage coefficient was found to be identical to the conventional Clark UH. (2) The spatially-variable Clark UH was found to have higher runoff peak and shorter peak time than those of the conventional Clark UH. (3) In the application to the Sanganmi basin, it could not be concluded that the spatially-variable Clark UH is superior to the conventional Clark UH. More applications to various basin should be done to reach any solid conclusions.
Field Measurement and Analysis for Discharge-Suspended Sediment of Small-Medium Streams in Nonsan Catchments
Lee, Jong-Seok ; Kim, Chi-Gon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 291~296
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.291
This study aims to analyze for distribution characteristic of flow discharge and suspended sediment through the field measurement from the main points of national-local channel reaches at small-medium streams in Nonsan river systems. The field measured data are obtained using a sampler at the depth-averaged concentration or the free surface and analyzed by the dry or the filtration method. The data had been collected from August 2012 to August 2013 at the seven measuring stations of national-local streams in the Nonsan river systems. As a results, the relationships of a flow discharge-suspended sediment is derived as a function of power law and it will be used as a useful tool for the practical works in hydraulic engineering of sediment transport.
Comparison of Selection Methods for Proxy Variables on Flood Vulnerability Analysis in South Korea and Thailand
Chung, Gunhui ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 297~304
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.297
In this study, the methods for flood vulnerability index is proposed for the East Asia including Thailand where the extreme flood had occurred in 2011. Thailand was selected as the representative country in the East Asia. AHP method which is pairwise comparison was applied for the flood vulnerability analysis. The differences and difficulties between Thailand and Korea was analyzed in terms of the data availability and flood characteristics. As as result, the experts in Thailand answered that the exposure components such as geometric and rainfall characteristics were more important in flood vulnerability, while exposure, adaptative capability, and sensitivity have almost equal weight in Korea. The total rainy season precipitation was the most important factor in Thailand survey results, but the Maximum daily rainfall has the highest weight in Korea. These differences should be considered in the flood vulnerability analysis.
Investment Priorities for the Decision-making Support Based on the Evaluation of Downstream Areas and Surrounding of Dam
Choi, Byoung Han ; Lee, Baeg ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 305~313
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.305
The understanding of the safety concept has been newly reorganized from the existing safety assessment to the quantitative risk assessment, such as the level of risk calculation including potential risks and its consequences. It is difficult to detect the increment of the level of risk using the grade measurement method in the current safety check and diagnosis of the traditional water application concept to fulfill the safety of the dam because of the rapid development of the downstream area and the rapid aging of dam. In addition, the current grade measurement method for the efficient utilization of the limited budget is limited to find out the investment priorities based on the safety inspection and evaluation because provided levels of information is insufficient and limited, therefore, the result is inevitably qualitative. The purpose of this study is to provide the advice information for decision-making of the investment priorities of the second-class reservoir (below
in capacity) in the sensitive section on the basis of 150 reservoir safety results considered the disaster impact evaluation of downstream areas and surrounding of dam in order to meet both satisfying the maintenance control and maximizing the investment efficiency.
Preliminary Feasibility Study on Alert Standard Rainfall for Urban Mid and Small Rivers
Song, Yang Ho ; Park, Moo Jong ; Lee, Jung Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 315~326
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.315
For a period of 5 years beginning in May, 2011, the Ministry of Public Safety and Security has, by way of the "Development and Construction of a Flood Forecasting and Warning System for Medium and Small Streams" research project, undertaken research related to medium and small stream flood warning mentioned above as well as the creation of a flood forecasting and warning system. As a part of the project, this study has proposed the criteria for the issuance of medium and small stream flood warnings in urban areas, targeting the Jeongneung stream located in Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul. In order to establish flood warning issuance criteria, analysis was undertaken applying the "Flood Forecasting Estimation Methodology of Standard Rainfall for Urban Mid and Small Rivers considering Upper- and Down-stream Water Levels" scenario put forward by Song et al. (2014) in the case of complex warning criteria estimation methods in line with rising water levels. During the course of research, the HEC-HMS model was applied to the relationship between rainfall-outflow, while analysis of the outflow-water level relationship calculated the standard precipitation amount for the issuance of flood warning in accordance with drainage conditions by constructing the Jeongneung stream basin based on HEC-RAS. The results of calculations took into account the feasibility of criteria for the issuance of flood forecasting and warnings for streams in urban areas through a comparison of real-time water level observations in Jeongneung stream.
Proposed of River Information Service Based on Service Oriented Architecture for Water Disaster Response
Shin, Hyungjin ; Chae, Hyosok ; Lee, Eulrae ; Hwang, Euiho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 327~334
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.327
Water-related systems currently operated contribute a lot to establishing various policies to cope with frequently occurring incidents such as flood, drought, water pollution, etc. To realize a more efficient and scientific water disaster response, however, it is necessary to maximize the efficiency of currently operated water management systems in active utilization of information technology (IT). To comprehensively utilize nationwide a large quantity of information about rivers accumulated by various governmental offices and public agencies, researches on information service are essential based on SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) such as big data, cloud computing technology, linked data technology, etc. SOA makes it easier to integrate, link, and distribute information about rivers accumulated by various governmental divisions and public agencies as well as provide converged services by exchanging data with other systems real time. Hence, this study aims to provide river information based on SOA for river information access, exchange, and storage in prompt response to water disasters.
Design of Stormwater Pipe Considering Vegetative Swale with Water Conveyance
Kang, Taeuk ; Koo, Youngmin ; Lee, Sangjin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 335~343
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.335
Recently, there is growing interest in low impact development (LID) such as rainfall harvesting with rain barrel, construction of green infrastructure, and so on. The storm water management model (SWMM) that can simulate LID techniques is actively used in many studies and designs. The SWMM, however, can't represent water conveyance of vegetative swale. The purpose of the study is to show the limit of the SWMM for simulation of vegetative swale and to propose an alternative to overcome the problem. A conceptual method was suggested to simulate vegetative swale by separating characteristics of that into pervious area in subcatchment and channel. Simulation results from the conceptual method were compared with those derived from the calculation module of vegetative swale in the SWMM to validate the conceptual method. A need for simulation of vegetative swale with water conveyance was suggested viewpoint based on a reasonable design by applying to the study area where vegetative swale is planned to be installed.
Analysis on Discharge Capacity Considering the Sedimentation in Storm Sewer Pipe Line
Song, Yang Ho ; Jun, Hwan Don ; Lee, Jung Min ; Lee, Jung Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 345~353
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.345
The storm sewer is designed to pass the inflow rate depending on the design frequency smoothly. However, taking a look at the example of flooding generated in urban area shows that an increase in the generation and damage of flooding can be often caused by the deposition of sediment in the sewer. This is a problem in the maintenance of sewers, but this implies that the effect of sediment deposition should be considered to some degree for the design of a conduit itself in another aspect. Thus, it is necessary to realize design in a direction to reduce flood damage pursuant to it by considering the deposition aspect of sediment in a conduit when designing a storm sewer. This study conducted an analysis on the current storm sewer for the Bujeon stream basin at Busan in order to analyze the deposition aspect of sediment in a sewer network at an actual urban area and the effect of the generation of flooding damage due to this. The applicable sewer is a box type, which has appeared to be able to discharge capacity enough to discharge a design rainfall over 30, 50, 80 and 100 years for a duration time such as 60, 120, 180 and 240 minutes when not considering the deposition of soil in the sewer network. On the other hand, when considering the deposition of sediment in conduit, flooding took place for all the above design rainfall. In addition, as a result of adjusting the slope of the conduit section arbitrarily for the current conduit, it was analyzed that the deposition of sediment can be reduced and the generation of overflows for the design rainfall applied according to this can be reduced by maximum about 65%. From these analysis results, it appeared as necessary to consider the deposition aspect of sediment when designing a sewer network, and design it in a direction to secure the discharge capacity pursuant to this as much as possible.
Reservoir Routing for Water Level Change According to the Harbor Gate Installation
Lee, Jae Joon ; Lee, Hoo Sang ; Shim, Jae Sol ; Yoon, Jong Ju ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 355~360
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.355
In coastal, it suffers must damage by natural disasters such as floods and tsunami by typhoon. We think the Harbor Gate installation could be a solution to reduce these disasters. Thus, in this study, we classified the location of the Harbor Gate into three forms and analyzed the contents of the water level changes in the bay under the condition of completely cutting off the tide and height of a wave. In addition, considering the dyke height design of the coastal, we analyzed the water level changes to find the best solution. If the bay is completely cut off by the installation from outside, we can imagine it as a huge reservoir. In this study, we first subdivided the condition of maintaining the water level of the inside of the Masan bay according to 100 year and 50 year frequency inflow of the flood volume into the Namchoen and the Samhochoen river. Then we performed the reservoir routing in three ways according to the installation location of the harbor gate. As a result, difference in water level has been revealed according to the to the installation location. It is most stable to install the harbor gate portion corresponding to the entrance of Masan bay.
Quantitative Analysis on the Decrease of Wind Energy from the Composition Effect of the Coastal Forest for Damage Prevention - The Correlation of Dissipation Ratio to Stand Density -
Shin, Jonghyeon ; Chang, Semyong ; Jang, Mina ; Lee, Youngjin ; Youn, Hojoong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 361~368
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.361
The objective of this study is to establish a quantitative method for analyzing wind energy dissipation rate for the assessment of composition effect in the Coastal forest for damage prevention. The dissipation rate is defined as a ratio of the decreased power at the wake to the total incident kinetic energy per unit time for incident air particles. From the field data of East, West, and South sea coasts from Korean peninsula, the three-dimensional shape of tree is modeled with computer-aided design (CAD) technique, and the consecutive numerical analysis is accomplished using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Numerical results are compared with those of wind tunnel experiment with an aerodynamic test model, reduced but similar, output with a 3-D printer. Consequently, the correlations between tree density and dissipation rate are obtained for the reference fields of each coasts, which was found to regress in the graph of a logarithmic form.
Trend Analysis of 1-Day Probable Maximum Precipitation
Choi, Yu Jin ; Sim, Kyu Bum ; Kim, Sangdan ; Kim, Eung Seok ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 369~375
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.369
In this study, the 1-day probable maximum precipitation(PMP) is estimated by statistical methods. Frequency coefficients required for PMP estimation are corrected by taking the reciprocal of the scaling factor for 1-day to 24-hour after estimating frequency coefficients for 24-hour. PMPs are derived as two types, respectively; 1) PMP based on the moving average (30-year basis) of the data, and 2) PMP based on the cumulative average of the data. Trend rate of each PMP is analyzed using the first-order linear regression. As a result, 1-day PMP is shown that there is a tendency to increase as a whole.
A Study on an Environmental-Load Reduction Plan for a Purification Plant Using Life-Cycle Assessment
Jung, Do Hwan ; Kim, Sung-Keun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 15, issue 1, 2015, Pages 377~389
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2015.15.1.377
In this study, a life cycle assessment (LCA) that quantitatively calculates environmental loads, is performed for a water treatment plant (purification plant), and a method for reducing environmental loads for the plant is proposed. The environmental loading substances according to the six impact categories of the environmental declaration of products (EDP) are quantitatively calculated. The results indicated that 98.9% of all environmental loading substances are generated in the global warming impact category.
accounts for 97.2% of the total emissions, and with regards to each stage of the entire life-cycle, 99.9% of environmental loads occurs in the construction stage, while 0.1% occurs in the operation, deconstruction, and recycling stages. The results from the purification facility are compared with those obtained from a wastewater reuse facility to examine any similarities and differences. Moreover, four scenarios are proposed as methods for reducing environmental loads, in order to verify the reduction of environmental loads at the purification plant. Furthermore, reduction effects are confirmed by applying the developed reduction method to a practical case, and conducting an LCA analysis.