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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation
Editor in Chief :
Moo Jong Park
Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Aug 2016
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Jun 2016
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Apr 2016
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Feb 2016
Selecting the target year
Analytical Study on Coupling Beam with Developed Reinforcement Details
So, Jaehyuk ; Oh, Keunyeong ; Chun, Young-Soo ; Lee, Kangmin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.1
The details of coupling beam which connected special shear wall were difficult to construct because of complex. In this study, verify the analytical model of coupling beam having complex details with using finite element analysis program ABAQUS. And conducted variable finite element analysis about replaced the head bar and steel plate for complex details based on this model. Based on the analytical model, the finite element analysis was conducted, and improved reinforcement details of coupling beam were evaluated on those structural performance. As a result of analysis, improved reinforcement details were expected to improve the constructability.
Evaluation of the Damage by a Fire of the Full Scale Concrete Tunnel Lining Exposed to the High Temperature
Kwon, Kiseok ; Shin, Hyunjun ; Kim, Heungyoul ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 9~15
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.9
Since a temperature will be high in a short term and also it can lead to mass damage due to the difficult access for the fire fighting in case a fire is taking place in a tunnel it is necessary to study the evaluation on the fire resistance performance of the tunnel lining to minimize the fire damage. However, it needs to urgently establish the fire resistance test method because there is no evaluation method for the fire fighting performance of the concrete tunnel lining in South Korea. Therefore, in the study, the damage by the fire has been assessed in order that the major damaged part of the full scale concrete tunnel lining will be extracted and accordingly used as the basic establish the fire resistance test method. As a result of the analysis on the temperature history of the concrete and main reinforcement, a side segment of 60 mm and an upper segment of 50 mm have been damaged caused by the heat, respectively. As the depths correspond to the cover depth of the segment, it seems to directly affect the temperature behavior of the main reinforcement. Therefore, considering structural stability during firing in a tunnel and maintenance after the fire, it is considered that the fire resistance method securing the tunnel lining should be established.
A Comparative Study on the Thermal Characteristics of Concrete Structural Fire Resistant Board Consisting of a Flame Retardant and a Silicone Compound
Kim, Hyungkyu ; Kim, Jinkwang ; Jang, Panki ; Kim, Byungchul ; Kim, Chanwoo ; Jang, Ilyoung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 17~25
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.17
The internal temperature of the structure during a fire in the concrete structure reaches up to
. The characteristic of concrete is likely to cause explosion phenomenon, the temperature of main reinforcement can cause serious damage such as increased structural stability and durability decrease. In this study, the stability and durability of the structure in the event of a fire using a fire-resistant board, the addition of a flame retardant to a silicone compound as a base, was to determine the possibility of fire resistance obtained. To this end, the silicone compound ATH, MDH, MC was analyzed thermal characteristics and flame retardant to the analysis of the sample by changing imparted to weight of the 25~ 40%. As a result, when a fire-resistant board applied to a concrete structure, it can be secured its stablity, endurance, and fire-resistance.
A Study on the Establishment of Occupant Load Density Considering Safety Ratio of Design
Seo, Donggoo ; Hwang, Eunkyoung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 27~33
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.27
As the performance-based fire safety design is progressed for large scale structures, it is required to ensure reliability of basic information such as fire load and occupant load density in accordance with space use of structures. Among these, occupant load density as a factor involved with evacuation time requires accurate values in accordance with space use. However, as the current standard applies the foreign standard, it is required to verify whether it is appropriate to apply in Korea. Therefore, in this study, we attempted probabilistic approach on the risk of fire by performing calculation on design safety factor with the main focus on the fire statistics in Korea. As a results, we have verified the current standard of occupant load density and proposed introduction plan for design safety factor of the future.
A Investigation on the Fire Case Analysis and Fire Safety Management of Administrators in Elderly Care Facility for Evacuation Safety Design
Hong, Haeri ; Kim, Bongchan ; Hasemi, Yuji ; Kwon, Youngjin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 35~42
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.35
As a research study conducted to basic data for escape safety of vulnerable people to disaster, this study indicated a problem through an analysis on fire cases of nursing home, and conducted an actual condition survey of fire fighting safety consciousness targeting administrators of nursing home to draw an improvement proposal. The researcher conducted a survey about recognition of fire fighting supervision and rules related to fire fighting targeting 350 workers in 30 nursing homes across the country. As a result, although nursing homes are defined to conduct regular safety education and fire drill, workers`safety consciousness of evacuation is low, so it is possible to expand damage on fire, and measures to prevent this are needed.
Vibration Acceleration Analysis of the Train to Evaluate the Construction Accuracy Depending on Manufacturing Method of Rubber-tired AGT Runway
Lee, Il-Wha ; Moon, Ji-ho ; Shin, Jung-Rul ; Lee, Ho-Yong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 43~51
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.43
Vibration accelerations for various velocity and running direction were analyzed to evaluate the construction accuracy of rubber-tired AGT runways manufactured by the cast-in-place and pre-casted method. For this, time and frequency history characteristics of vibration acceleration were analyzed for the test section constructed by cast-in-place and pre-casted method. From the results, it was found that quantitative evaluation of construction accuracy depending on manufacturing method was possible, and the pre-casted method showed considerably improved runway performance comparing with cast-in place typed runway.
Analytical and Experimental Evaluation of Flexural Capacity Improvement Method for Reinforced Concrete Pier and Case-in-Steel-Shell Pile Foundation Connection
Kim, Jungkyun ; Moon, Jiho ; Kim, Jongmin ; Lee, Hakeun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 53~59
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.53
Recently, Cast-In-Steel Shell(CISS) pile has been used as the foundation of bridges and a pier is directly connected to the pile. In this case, plastic hinge is generally formed at the connection between the pile and pier. To increase the flexural capacity of such structure, a proper improvement method is necessary for the connection. In this study, a steel tube has been used to enhance flexural capacity of the connection and the effect by the such method was evaluated through a series of 3-dimensional finite element method analysis and experimental studies. From the analysis and test results, it can be found that the flexure capacity is considerably increased by applying the steel tube at the connection.
Development of Nonlinear Analysis Model of CWR Track
Lee, Jin-Ok ; Yun, Kyung-Min ; Bae, Hyun-Ung ; Lim, Nam-Hyoung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 61~68
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.61
CWR(Continuous Welded Rail) has many advantages such as the reduction of maintenance costs, increase of service life of the track components and reduction of vibration and noise and so on. However, the stability problems such as the lateral buckling of CWR track has been occurred. Theoretical and experimental studies have been done in order to secure stability of CWR track for many years in the many country research institutes. In this study, analytical model was developed by using a commercial FE program to examine the stability of CWR track. Verification studies were conducted such as snap-through behavior, large deformation analysis and Euler-buckling analysis due to temperature. Also, to prove the validity of the developed model, comparison study was done with existing verified 3D CWR buckling analysis results.
Optimum Design Property Estimation of the Precast Floating Track System for Vibration Reduction
Koh, Yong-Sung ; Ji, Yong-Soo ; Choi, Hyeong-Soo ; Choi, Sanghyun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 69~76
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.69
An elevated railway station able to utilize the space under railway has been increasing recently due to difficulties in finding sites for railway construction. However, complaints concerning noise and vibration from passengers and employees working in the elevated railway station are tend to increase due to the structural characteristics of elevated railway station. A new precast floating track system well known as an efficient solution for reducing noise and vibration is being developed for rapid installation during break hours after business operation. In this paper, to minimize noise and vibration, a method for determining optimum design parameters such as a slab panel length, the effective stiffness and damping ratio of an isolator for the precast floating system is presented. The optimum process consists of first estimating slab panel length and determining optimum effective stiffness and damping ratio of an isolator based on dynamic analysis. The dynamic analysis is carried out using the finite element method.
Development of Vibration Mitigation Method for a Railway Station Using a Tuned-Mass-Dampered Platform
Yoo, Yong ; Kwon, Soon-Jung ; Choi, Sanghyun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 77~82
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.77
Traffic noise, which accounts for the largest share among noise related complaints, is the main obstacle to maintaining pleasant environment in metropolitan area. Especially, in case of the railway station which is increasingly large and multi-functional, developing more economic and effective methodology for mitigating noise and vibration is urgent, due to increasing various commercial and business facilities inside. In this paper, a vibration mitigation method utilizing a tuned-mass-dampered platform by installing a spring-damper system between the platform and the platform foundation is suggested. The suggested method can be achieved without installing additional mass to a railway station building and thus performing significant structural modification, and can utilize a simple massive platform as a meaningful vibration mitigation device. The applicability and feasibility of the suggested method is verified via a numerical example on a two story elevated railway station. The result shows that the method can reduce vibration as low as 5dB(V).
A Numerical Study on Effects of Fire Safety by Smoke Ventilation Velocity at Railway Tunnel in Fire
Ryu, Ji-oh ; Shin, Hyun-Jun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 83~89
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.83
As railway tunnel fires, and those fires have started at the central part of the train, some take skeptical views about the smoke control by longitudinal ventilation due to the high possibilities of evacuees which can be posited at the both ends of the fire car. Consequently, adequate ventilation air velocity and smoke control direction have not been introduced in the academia so far. Hence, the objective of this research is to investigate the ventilation air velocity in terms of fire safety by analyzing tunnel wall surface temperature and the number of fatalities according with the ventilation air velocity. In case of 15 MW of fire intensity, surface temperature of tunnel wall does not exceed the spalling temperature(
). However, in case of 100 MW intensity, the tunnel wall can be substantially damaged by high temperature. As the ventilation air velocity grows, the damaged area is decreased. Analyzing available safety egress time(ASET) based on the time at which first fatality occurs, ASET was the shortest when air velocity remains 1.0~1.5 m/s. Thus, to increase the ventilation air velocity at railway tunnel fire is expected to provide a more favorable environment for evacuation and structures safety.
Stress Evolution in Compression Area of Structures Consisting of Concretes Having Different Creep Behavior
Kim, Jung Joong ; Choi, Rock Jun ; Lee, Joo Ha ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 91~95
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.91
This study examined stress evolution in compression area of concrete structures made of different types of concrete with respect to creep behavior. The significance of creep with the effect of damage on structural safety of concrete structures could be realized by examining the stress evolution in structures due to the stress over the strength limit. A simplified mechanical model with step-by-step in time analysis was used to incorporate the interaction of creep and damage to estimate the maximum stress occurred in concrete structures. It was shown that the interaction of creep and damage can accelerate the failure of structures.
Vibration Mitigation Characteristics of an Elevated Railroad Station with Precast Floating Track
Kim, Minseu ; Um, Daeyong ; Kwon, Se-Gon ; Choi, Sanghyun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 97~102
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.97
The noise and vibration level in the elevated railroad station is higher than other station types, and thus researches on mitigating noise and vibration inside the station is necessary. In this paper, using a commercial finite element analysis program, ABAQUS, vibration reduction characteristics of the precast floating track system for the elevated railroad station is analyzed. For more accurate dynamic analysis, an analysis model considering train-track-structure interaction is utilized in simulating stopping of the Saemaeul train. The analysis result shows that the floating track system can reduce the vibration by maximum of 25 dB and average of 10 dB~15 dB for vibration range greater than 30 Hz.
Characterization of the Rainfall Structure Change in the Han-River Basin Using a Stochastic Rainfall Model
Cho, HyunGon ; Kim, GwangSeob ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 103~111
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.103
The regional impact of accelerated climate change causes changes of the structure of regional rainfall events. A stochastic rainfall generation model is used to analyze the detail structural variability of rainfall events since traditional approaches of measuring rainfall variability have limitations in analyzing detail change of rainfall structure. In this study, the NSRPM (Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulse Model) which has 5 model parameters such as mean arrival rate of a storm, mean number of cells in a storm, mean displacement between cells, mean cell life span, mean intensity of a rain cell, is used to overcome the limitations of traditional approaches using rainfall observations. Changes of model parameters were evaluated using hourly rainfall data from 1973 to 2014 in the Han River Basin. The changes of model parameter estimates were characterized and compared with results of traditional analysis.
A Study on Heavy Rain Forecast Evaluation and Improvement Method
Song, Youngseok ; Lim, Chaeheon ; Joo, Jingul ; Park, Moojong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 113~121
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.113
Due to recent occurrence of regional heavy rain events, the amount of life loss and property damages is increasing every year. In case of South Korea, it is necessary to have a pretty accurate weather forecasting system to predict regional heavy rain events during rainy season in summer since typhoons or heavy rains result in urban inundation. In this study, we select 12 government districts out of the important districts and metropolitan cities and determine the accuracy of heavy rain forecasts by comparing the observed rainfall data and heavy rain forecast announced by KMA based on the old and current two criteria for issuing heavy rain forecast which were revised in June of 2011. Also, by comparing the regional design rainfall for each return period and heavy rain warning, it may contribute to improve the accuracy of heavy rain forecast and suggest a way of the application for each region.
A Simulation Method for Reduction Facilities of Natural Type for Non-Point Pollution by the SWMM
Kang, Taeuk ; Lee, Sangjin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 123~131
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.123
Recently, adapting facilities of natural type for non-point pollution is being proliferated to replace reduction facilities of manufactured type. However, integrated removal efficiency of the reduction facilities of natural type for non-point pollution is difficult to estimate because those facilities are distributed on several locations in a basin. The facilities of natural type also reduce pollutant load by storage, infiltration, and lag of stormwater. The study suggested a simulation method for the reduction facilities of natural type for non-point pollution using the SWMM. The method was applied to a study area, and it was evaluated whether the planned reduction facilities of manufactured type for non-point pollution may be replaced with facilities of natural type. Consequently, reduction facilities of natural type for non-point pollution with artificial wetland and vegetative swale could remove 93.6% of the non-point pollution that is planned to treat with the reduction facilities of manufactured type for non-point pollution. The results from the study will be used to plan natural stormwater treatment devices.
The Numerical Simulation Considering Air Pressure and the Influence Factor Analysis of Geyser in a Stormwater Tunnel with Large Diameter
Choi, Seohye ; Lee, SeungOh ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 133~139
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.133
The existing pipe system has a problem with deficit in discharge of drainage because run-off increases due to localized heavy rain and increase in impervious area by urbanization in Korea. For measurement of that, some urban drainage infrastructures are planed and being constructed as a deep underground tunnel. In such stormwater and sewage pipe, geyser may occur with a damage of both life and property during storm event by erupting inflow with the pressurized air. Thus, 1D numerical model able to consider the effect of air was developed and the sensitivity analysis for entrapped air pressure was performed to derive the influence factors: diameter ratio and inflow discharge. And multi-variate analysis was also performed because the pressurization of the air was generated by interactions between air and water. When the diameter ratio is greater, the air pressure is higher and the maximum point was occured at 85% of relative initial depth. To provide against the geyser, the results from this study would be contributed for design, operation and maintenance for the safe stormwater system.
Develpment and Structural Performance Evaluation of Rainwater Storage Tank Using Polypropylene
Kim, Sung-hoon ; Lee, Seung-yong ; Seol, Ki-hwan ; Choi, Jun-Kyeok ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 141~148
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.141
This study presents the development of PP (Polypropylene) rainwater storage tank with a high porosity and the results of experimental evaluation of structural performance. PP rainwater storage tank is a lightweight, assembly has the ease of use, it has an advantage in friendly environment, workability and economy. In the design of the rainwater storage tank, the optimal structural element design was planed to secure the above porosity of 95% and DB-24 truck live load. To evaluate the structural performance of the rainwater storage tank, static loading tests were and conducted. From the results, the relation of load-displacement, the maximum load capacity, the maximum displacement and structural performance evaluation were evaluated.
Priority Ranking and Design for Development of Coastal Disaster Management System Functions Using AHP Method
Yoon, Chorong ; Oh, Kukryul ; Kim, Wonhyun ; Yang, Dongmin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 149~159
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.149
Due to climate change, coastal areas are expected to be weighted disaster caused by sea level rise, the regional disaster characterized by coastal and river disasters, sea level rise, tsunamis, high tides may occur in combination. For disaster preparing and proactive management taking into account the characteristics of these coastal areas are considered necessary for the development of Coastal Disaster Management System to manage the complex disasters in coastal areas to reflect local characteristics and management. This study was designed to create a Coastal Disaster and Management System that may be beneficial because the expected collective flooding caused by various attention to regional characteristics of coastal cities were considered. It provided evacuation guidance and information over the coastal disaster information service assisting the general public and decision-making organizations. For an effective development of system, functions were identified, given their respective relative importance and development priority, by comparing the internal and external Natural Hazards System case studies and survey questions. These functions were selected through Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Priority rank derived through the AHP, flood maps, evacuation maps, disaster field information, disaster information management function was proposed for Coastal Disaster Management System model, taking into account the individual characteristics and authority. Menu structure was also obtained.
A Study on the Development of Automated Damage Estimation System using High Resolution Satellite Imagery
Hwang, Seungho ; Kim, Kyehyun ; Lee, Geonhwi ; Lee, Miran ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 161~172
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.161
Currently in South Korea, to grasp the damage of natural disasters, damage investigations are conducted by dispatching personnel from local governments to disaster regions. However, there are difficulties due to limited human resources and damage investigations that must be done manually and such investigations are considerably to be time consuming. Therefore, to provide support the investigations of flood damage due to typhoons, this study developed an automated damage estimation system. To achieve this goal, CVA(Change Vector Analysis) and DNDVI(Differential Normalized Difference Vegetation) algorithms were used to calculate the damage areas and estimated the damage cost using GIS DB. Heungcheon-myeon in Yeoju-si was selected as the study area and the database was constructed using satellite images and GIS DB in the study area. To calculate the size of the damage areas and damage cost, the developed system was applied to four sites with serious damages. The true value of the size of the damage areas and the damage cost were estimated through the visual interpretation of the damage areas. When the damaged areas and the damage cost calculated through the system were compared to the true values, the classification accuracy of the damage areas was 87.23% and the Kappa value was 0.716. Furthermore, according to the results of visual interpretation of the four sites, the rank of the calculated damage cost was of the same order as that of the results derived from the system. Consequently, if the developed system is used to determine priorities and allocation of personnel for damage investigations, it will contribute to enhance the work efficiency of the existing damage investigations.
Hack`s Law and Topographical Properties Analysis of Small River Basin
You, KwangTae ; Jun, HwanDon ; Lee, JiHo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 173~182
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.173
In this study, the topographical characteristics of the small river basin were evaluated using Hack`s law and the shape factor. For this purpose, the basin area and river length were classified by the cluster analysis and the scale parameter of Hack`s law was estimated. In addition, we understand the basin shape though the shape factor and examine the effect of shape factor on the empirical formula which is applied for the design flood estimation of small river basin. As result, we found the small river is the straight river close to the square river basin shape. The result of empirical formula evaluation for design flood estimation, the time of concentration and the storage coefficient have a relation of 1.37 and Russel coefficient is 0.73. It means that the time of concentration and storage coefficient is estimated smaller compared with the middle-big basin. It will be possible to develop the empirical formula which is suitable to domestic small river basin if the rainfall and discharge analysis and additional research are carried out.
A Study on the Level Evaluation of Flood Damage Statistics by Multi-criteria Decision Making Technique
Kang, Wonsam ; Kim, Wonhyun ; Park, Sunhee ; Sim, Oubae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 183~190
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.183
Recently, Flood damage that cause life and property damage is a continuously increasing trend in accordance with the impacts of climate change. But information into Flood damage statistics are written in purpose of simple statistics integrated management, so this level is insufficient as basic information required for the policy of disaster prevention. In this study, we arrange level evaluation method consider drawbacks and implications of Korea, Japan and the United States`s flood damage statistics information in order that we evaluate level of flood damage statistics information as decision making information across the social and economic that we can actually feel, as well as direct damage. And we analyzed the current level of domestic flood damage statistics. Domestic flood damage statistics showed about 50% level of Japan and the United States due to problem that damage estimate support oriented restoration expense without considering the indirect damage items. If we build a detailed classification of flood damage statistics considering the advanced foreign statistics, we will establish a reasonable disaster prevention through directly or indirectly physical, social and economic damage assessment.
Mobile Simple Payment Attributes and Intention to Use : Focused on Non-users
Go, Chang Hyun ; Han, Eun Kyoung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 191~196
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.191
We investigate attributes of mobile simple payment and relationship between the attributes and intention to use among non-users of mobile simple payment. Mobile simple payment is a simple payment method by log in or finger scan on mobile devices. The attributes are investigated with exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, and the relationship is examined by structure equation model. Attributes of mobile simple payment are safety for payment, trigger of excessive consumption, convenience, personal information leakage, limitation of free use, and generality. Safety for payment, convenience, and generality positively influence intention to use. Personal information leakage and trigger of excessive consumption negatively affect intention to use.
A Study on Build the Frame of the Coastal Cities Flood Vulnerability Assessment Management System
Kang, Minsuk ; Oh, Kukryul ; Kim, Wonhyun ; Sim, Oubae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 197~204
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.197
Sea level has been continually rising due to climate change experienced worldwide. As a proof, in South Korea peninsula, the average sea level rose up to about 10cm high. Simultaneously, coastal cities experience torrential rain and typhoons more frequently, therefore making them susceptible to disasters such as widening of rivers. There is a high probability that external demand inundation occurs. Thus, in order to address the prevention and mitigation of disasters along coastal areas, a flood vulnerability assessment is required. This research is necessary for developing decision support system and to provide a user-friendly vulnerability evaluation management system interface. In this study, coastal cities flood vulnerability assessment management system was developed taking into consideration its accessibility and usability to end-users. This will provide a strong support system in making decisions for coastal disaster measures which is the first stage of the system development in trying to build a development direction setting and framework. Survey questionnaires were deployed to locals living along the coastal area, then the results were incorporated to generate a GIS-based survey. These were then analyzed considering the existing disaster-related management systems, urban planning, water resources and hydro-meteorology. This research established a platform for the developmental direction based on the database generated from the survey results. Development of a prototype based from the framework of this study will allow advancement in flood vulnerability assessment and decision support function for the coastal area which will be an effective tool in urban planning for coastal areas, disaster prevention and localized emergency preparedness.
Building and Applying Scheme of Big Data for Enhancement of Hazard Map Utilization
Lim, Hyuntaek ; Bae, Sangyoung ; Sim, Gyooseong ; Kim, Jungsoo ; Park, Sungyong ; Kim, Yongseong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 205~213
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.205
A hazard map was created to record the flood damage and provide the evacuation routes and disaster information by local government when the disaster such as typhoon, heavy rain, tsunami would be occurred. This map was classified as hazard information map, flood prediction map, and inundation trace map. Also, it was provided the hazard information and such as depth, range, and time of inundation and the evacuation information such as shelter location and evacuation routes. However, the utility value of hazard map have not lived up to expectation because information of that map was simply recorded inundation range after flooding occurrence. Also, hazard information by local government was limited on preparation of the massive damage by localized torrential rainfall. Therefore, it is necessary to collet the additional data for more various and detailed information provision. The problems of conventional disaster map were derived from the results analyzed mapping method and application cases of hazard map by local government. The big data analysis system was constructed to link the hazard map and to provide the disaster information. The improved hazard map was expected to be able to express effectively the various disaster information on the spatial information.
The Analysis of the Effectiveness of Safety Community Projects Utilizing the Qualitative Analysis Method and the System Proposal
Heo, Bo Young ; Park, So Soon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 215~222
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.215
As interest in overall safety issues including natural disasters and living safety accidents is rising, preparing countermeasures against these problems has emerged as an important issue. Up to the present, mostly the government-initiated safety measures have been established and the system is such that safety service or safety information is provided unilaterally for the people. However, as questions as to its effectiveness are raised, demand for preparation of diverse forms of alternatives is increasing. Recently, breaking away from the government-led forms, the resident participation types of policies and safety improvement projects are attempted as part of the vitalization of citizen participation. Accordingly, the necessity to objectively and statistically investigate and analyze the residents` feeling effects such as feeling degree about the safety against disasters in the residential regions, the necessity of and the participation in the projects has been raised. In this research, through the questionnaire survey on 1,277 residents living in 20 places of the 2015 safety community projects, the effects of the projects such as the safety feeling degree of the residents of the applicable regions, the necessity of the detailed projects and participation intention, resident communities` disaster prevention capabilities (disaster risk awareness state, evacuation guidance abilities, the degree of autonomous preparation for evacuation, disaster and safety community activities, the degree of residents` participation, surveillance and security readiness, information delivery readiness) were analyzed. Through this, the items and the system of the analysis of the effectiveness of the safe community building projects were proposed and it is expected that this will be utilized not only in these projects but also similar projects.
A Study on the Application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Improvement Method of the Making Inundation Trace Map
Lim, Hyuntaek ; Ahn, Seungwoo ; Kim, Jungsoo ; Park, Sungyong ; Kim, Yongseong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 223~231
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.223
The hazard map contained the results of inundation trace investigation, flood possibility analysis, and establishment of evacuation plan for flood area has become the principal means of non-structural flood prevention. The inundation trace maps are used as a basis for the creation of the hazard map and produced by using the results of preliminary investigation and scrutiny about inundation trace of flood damage area. Even though this map is the basic data for national disaster, this mapping was often delayed or impossible because of investigation delay, management insufficiency of inundation trace, and lack of budget. Therefore, it is necessary to study for budget reduction and mapping time shortening when this map was produced. Since the research for produce the various utilization by using a unmanned aerial vehicle(UAV) was actively conducted, the application of the UAV were analyzed to produce the inundation trace map in this study. This map was produced by the virtual survey tool(VST) converted the image data photographed in UAV into map form. The inundation trace map of Gahyeon-dong and Yongdu-ri, Anseong-si, Gyeonggi-do was reproduced by the previous method and was compared with the established one. As a result of comparison of the inundation range in those maps, the inundation trace was almost match. Therefore, the proposed method would be very useful to more quickly and accurately produce the inundation trace map.
Application Scheme of Community Safety for Discrimination of Natural Disaster Insurance Rate
Lee, Heechun ; Lim, Hyuntaek ; Shin, Dongho ; Park, Sungyong ; Kim, Yongseong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 233~245
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.233
Natural disaster insurance is one of the policy insurance that guarantees payment of part or full premium by government(community). In this insurance, it regards both insured persons and government(community) as a subject of risk management. As reducing premium to some cities where perform well in risk management, it can enforce `Promotion of Loss Control`, which is one of the most important thing to consider when rate-making. Some example cases of domestic and foreign schedule rate system, especially the US`s Community Rating System, are deeply researched and analyzed, and systems have operated on purpose of the promotion of loss control. Based on the result, it sets check items and check criteria to evaluate the level of risk control. It suggests a method of calculation in the community safety discount ratio and its application plan. In addition, it uses the suggested calculating method to evaluate the community safety discount ratio of Andong, Gyeongsangbuk-do Province as an example, and it proves that it makes insurance rate-making fairly discriminatory. This research checks the possibility of actual application of the method of calculation.
Performance Assessment of Rockfall Protection Fences for the Rockfall Energy of 100 kJ Using ETAG 27
Han, Kijang ; Moon, Byunggab ; Ko, Mangi ; Kim, Keedong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 247~259
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.247
The purpose of this study is to design a rockfall protection fence which can contain a rockfall with the impact energy of 100 kJ using the performance assessment criteria based on European Standard ETAG 27. For an improved design of the rockfall protection fence for highways which could dissipate the rockfall impact energy of 50 kJ, the performance limit was assessed using a computer simulation. The improved design needed additional devices to dissipate further the impact energy of about 30kJ because it could dissipate up to the impact energy of 70 kJ. Designs that adjusted the spacing of spacing-maintainers and applied breaking elements were possible alternatives. The breaking element uses the strain energy of a steel pipe. It was verified by full-scale rockfall crash tests that the alternative installing two breaking elements per a span on a wire-rope could accommodate a rockfall with the impact energy of 100 kJ, and the deformed rockfall protection fence after impacting would not interfere with the vehicle traffic of the outer lane.
A Study on the Combustion Characteristics of the Interior Wallpaper in the Residential Fires
Park, Youngju ; Lee, Haepyeong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 261~267
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.261
In this study, we carried out the analysis of the hydrocarbon residues and the ignition and thermal risk factors for the interior wallpapers in order to estimate the combustion characteristics in the residential fires. The combustion experiments were performed in accordance with the ISO 5660-1 and ISO 5660-2 standards and we selected the seven kinds of wallpapers such as paper, paper weave, flame retardant, vermiculite, corn starch, silk, and PP which are mainly used at home. As a result, the mean heat release rate of PP wallpaper was relatively highest in the
range, followed by paper > paper weave > vermiculite > flame retardant > corn starch > silk. The total smoke release ranged in
and the smoke release appeared higher in order of PP > vermiculite > flame retardant > silk > paper weave > corn starch > paper and PP was found to emit smoke by 21.63 times more than paper. Therefore, flame retardant wallpaper is considered to be more clearly leaving a border on the wall because of the relatively large smoke. PP wallpaper is relatively proceed as quickly as possible to the fire. Because PP emits more smoke than paper, paper weave, and corn starch it is thought that contributes to form the smoke layer of the ceiling with thermal current of the compartment.
A Study on the Prevention Measures of Fires Related with Wood Stoves
Lee, Euipyeong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 269~278
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.269
Many cottages or pensions have a wood stove and a wood stove fire is increasing. The characteristics, cases, laws and regulations, causes, prevention measures of a wood stove fire are analyzed in this study. As a result, the spread of a wood stove with a sloping fuel supply system, enacting safety standards for a wood stove, enacting provisions to build a wood stove, making and distributing wood stove instructions, taking prevention measures against and PR of low-temperature, long-term ignition, making a safety check list, obligatory furnishing of a early fire-extinguisher, and preparing to commonly use a pellet wood stove are proposed by prevention measures of a wood stove fire.
A Study on the Improvement Method of the Fire Department Connection for Fire Suppression at the Apartment
Lee, Young-Sam ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 279~285
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.279
The definition of an apartment is a building more than 5 stories high and is the standard law. Currently, the number of apartments is increasing much faster than detached houses. Owning an apartment is a normal trend these days. However, the increasing number of apartments has been increasing the number of apartment fires which also has been making social problems. Therefore, this study was conducted for the fire department connection among other fire facilities because it is important for fire suppression. The research subject is on the fire department connections that are on 30 apartment buildings of more than 10 stories. Survey and analysis were conducted for 60 fire department connections. There are two fire department connections for each apartment. The result of this study is that all installed fire department connections have a type that includes two holes each at 65 mm wide, and the average distance between fire department connections and access roads is 4.4 m. The total average percentage of insufficiency conditions such as drive ways for fire trucks, visibility, accessibility, pressure range sign, installed height, cover of the hole, etc. is 47.2%. So improvement of law and systems that are fire facility construction and maintenance implementations will be needed in my opinion.
A Study on the Development of the High Pressure Pump Systems for Emergency Coolant Injection of a Nuclear Power Plant
Sung, Gi-Chan ; Min, Se-Hong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 287~295
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.287
The accident that occurred at nuclear plants causes a shutdown. At the same time it can damage a number of the devices to perform the safety stop or accident mitigation. It can give considerable effects in a nuclear power plant. Unlike the accidents that occur in the general buildings and industrial facilities, accidents in nuclear power plants are the probability of core damage appeared to be higher than other types of accidents. When long-term power loss, serious accident due to loss of mandatory cooling source caused by a natural disaster that exceeds the design basis occur, it inject Emergency coolant on to alleviate the accident, it meet make-up water, transport and mobility, we designed the high pressure pump system applied to a high-voltage rotary positive displacement pump is designed so that it can be securely fixed within seismic building in an earthquake. Ultra-high pressure pump system can be used for the purpose of emergency cooling water supplied to steam generator and spent nuclear fuel storage of a nuclear reactor from the ground tank (or underground tanks and underground storage tank).
A Study on Applicability of the Local Smoke Spread Prevention & Procrastination Facility in Medium - Length Tunnel
Kim, Hyo-gyu ; Lee, Ho-hyung ; Choi, Pan-gyu ; Song, Seog-hun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 297~305
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.297
As middle scale tunnel does not essentially require the installation of the smoke control equipment and cross-passage way by regulation, thus the evacuators during fire can die from fire smoke(CO and Temperature). Therefore this study analyzed the expansion of fire smoke by natural ventilation, air curtain, smoke barrier in case of a fire on the middle scale tunnel. In case of natural ventilation, it was analyzed to be difficult for smooth evacuation environment as the fire smoke exceeded the standard limit value in case of a fire. In case of air curtain was forecasted that problem might occur in the structural aspect by the thermal de-isolation phenomenon of the straight upper part of the vehicle that occurred fire in case of a fire. In case of smoke barrier, it was analyzed to be possible to make smooth evacuation environment as the fire smoke does not exceed the standard limit value when the intervals is 100m. Therefore if the intervals of the smoke barrier is adequately set, it is judged that the smoke barrier is effective compared to the air curtain in the cost and performance aspect.
Intensity Similarity Analysis between Intensity Simulated Crack and Actual Crack according to Shooting Condition
Cho, Hyun Woo ; Yoon, Hyuk Jin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 307~314
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.307
Intensity simulated cracks were widely used to verify the performance of the image-based crack inspection algorithm. Intensity simulated crack is defined to the crack to only simulate the intensity of cracks using color and printed papers. The similarity between actual crack and intensity simulated crack was not fully verified yet. In this study, the differences between the actual cracks and intensity simulated cracks were analyzed by focusing on the intensity. Two types of crack to simulate the intensity and geometry were theoretically analyzed using a reflection model, and prepared for the experiment. According to the different angle of the camera and light, the images of the crack specimen were captured. Using that images, the effect of the shooting condition on the view of the intensity were analyzed. The intensity profile image of the shape simulated crack was affected by the angle change of the camera and the light, but in case of the intensity simulated crack the angle of the light did not have a notable effect.
Development of the Response System for Disaster Recovery Action Plan Using Internet of Things
Hwang, Gyusun ; Han, Sumin ; Choe, Sangyun ; Hwang, Chanho ; Park, Jinwoo ; Yun, Hyeokjin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 315~323
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.315
This study has tried to develop the resource allocation algorithm and the system for the efficient disaster response. Our suggested system allocates the disaster response resources to multiple damaged sites. After fulfilling the demand of recovery, the system should adjust the initial allocation to changed environment, if the unexpected events occur. To meet this requirements, the evaluation of resource capability and allocation algorithm using Tabu search algorithm are developed. In addition, classification of the unexpected events and the response processes are suggested and applied to the allocation algorithm. Finally, to collect the real time data, the framework of the disaster response system with IoT has been introduced.
Flexural Strengthening Limitation of RC Slabs to Induce Ductile Failure
Kim, Jung Joong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 325~330
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.325
The demands for rehabilitation of reinforced concrete (RC) structures increase due to aging of structures and increase of design loads. This study proposed design criteria of continuous reinforced concrete (RC) slabs enhanced in flexural to derive ductile failure. The proposed design criteria was applied to the design of one-way continuous RC slab strengthened with externally bonded glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP). Design technique to derive ductile failure of strengthened RC slabs with the proposed design criteria was also presented with case study.
Experimental Study on Heat Transfer Characteristic by Ground Heating Method
Han, Heui-Soo ; Im, Eun-Sang ; Park, Min-Cheol ; Kim, Tae-Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 331~340
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.331
The heating method had a difficulty in applying for soil improvement until now, because it induced economical and environmental problems. However the electric heater was developed recently, which made the improvement and solution on heating treatment of weak soil. The lab test and theoretical analysis were made for the verification of linear heating source model, futhermore the heat transferring mechanisms in soil were examined and analyzed. If the vapor was emitted out of soil surface, the heat loss made the soil temperature lower in surface than that of inner soil. However, if the vapor emission is prohibited, the temperature variation happened periodically. After reaching certain pressure, the vapor was emitted out of the soil surface, which reduced the soil temperature. The linear source model showed the log functioned temperature reduction according to the horizontal distance increase. To the contrary, the lab test results showed the exponential function if there was no vapor emission. But if vapor was emitted, the temperature reduction was appeared as the second degree polynomial function.
A Study on Warning Level-based-Landslide Triggering Rainfall Criteria considering Weathered Soil Type and Landslide Type
Kang, Hyo-Sub ; Kim, Yun-Tae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 341~350
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.341
In this paper, warning level-based-landslide triggering rainfall criteria was proposed using quantile-regression method to set up a objective and reasonable criteria. Also, in order to increase the accuracy and reliability of the proposed rainfall criteria, rainfall criteria were subdivided based on weathered soil types and landslide types. The warning levels obtained from quantile-regression analysis were defined into four classes: null (below 2nd percentile regression line), watch (above 2nd and below 20th percentile regression lines), warning (above 20th and below 50th percentile regression lines), alarm (above 50th percentile regression line). This study indicates the weathered metamorphic soil is more sensitive to rainfall-induced landslide than the other two soil types. Debris flows is more vulnerable in case of high-intensity rainfall. The results showed that rainfall criteria depended on weathered soil types as well as landslide types. Validation of the proposed criteria was carried out using I-D paths of landslide events occurred during 2013~2014. The proposed warning level-based rainfall criteria considering weathered soil types and landslide types could be expected to improve the accuracy and reliability of the landslide early warning system.
Effect of Climate Change Scenarios and Regional Climate Models on the Drought Severity-Duration-Frequency Analysis
Kim, Jungho ; Lee, Jungho ; Park, Moojong ; Joo, Jingul ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 351~361
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.351
This study examined the effect of climate change scenarios and regional climate models on the drought severity-duration-frequency (SDF) analysis. As a result, we found that SDF curves from RCP 4.5 and 8.5 have similar trend, but the severity of RCP 8.5 is bigger than RCP 4.5. In the spatial distribution results, the rate range (%) of RCP 4.5 to RCP 8.5 was -45.0~50.0%, so it was quite large. In RCMs results, the fluctuation of the drought severities depending on the RCMs has been getting a large uncertainty when the frequency of SDF is increasing. In spatial distribution results, GRIMs was dominant, because its severity is bigger than the other RCMs. However, the rate of GRIMs to the other RCMs shown the difference of the quantitative scale and regional spatial distribution characteristics, so we could find the effect of various climate change scenarios and regional climate models on the drought severity-duration-frequency analysis.
Analysis of Snow Vulnerability and Adaptation Policy for Heavy Snow
Kwon, Soonho ; Park, Heeseong ; Chung, Gunhui ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 363~368
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.363
The frequency of heavy snow induced by abnormal climate has increased worldwide and the expectation of the cycle and spatial pattern become hard. Severe damage could be occurred in the region without preparation. In South korea, heavy snow is likely concentrated regionally. It is normal to have heavy snow more than 5-10 cm or sometimes more than 30 cm in the east part of Tae-beak mountain. However, in the southern part of Korea, it is very difficult to see snow and the severe traffic jam is experienced by 1-2 cm of snow. Therefore, it is important to propose an adjusted snowfall policy according to the snow characteristics. In this study, historical snow damage were investigated from the National Disaster Report (1994-2013) and analyzed the vulnerability for snow. The adjusted snow policy could be proposed based on the result of this study.
Frequency Analysis of Future Maximum Fresh Snow Depth using Multiple Regression Model with Interaction
Park, Heeseong ; Jeong, Sangman ; Chung, Gunhui ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 369~376
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.369
As the frequency of snowfall inducing life loss and property damages increases, many researches to calculate future maximum fresh snow depth and trend have been implemented. In this study, 400-year pre-industrial climate control simulated RCP 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, 8.5 climate change scenario for Korean Peninsula was applied to develop multiple regression models for the estimation of future probable maximum fresh snow depth. Precipitation, minimum, maximum, and average temperature was used as the independent variables, and the multiplication of precipitation and average temperature was inserted in the multiple regression model to consider the interaction between the two variables. Total 74 gauging stations data was applied to varify the developed model. The calculated probable maximum fresh snow depths for 10, 30, 50, and 100 years were compared. The model efficiency of the multiple regression model with interaction was superior to multiple linear regression model. The probable maximum fresh snow depth tend to decrease over the entire Korean Peninsula without the significant changes. The spatial distribution of the locations with highest maximum fresh snow depths remains the same. The results shows the overall variation trend rather than the exact snow depth. Using the developed model, the maximum fresh snow depth could be calculated using the precipitation and temperatures if the input variables are predicted accurately.
Flood Vulnerability Assessment by Analysis of Flood Damage Data in Coastal Areas
Lee, Jong Seok ; Choi, Hyun Il ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 377~385
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.377
Flood damage occurs nationwide in the Korean Peninsula and it causes more severe impacts in coastal areas due to regional climate characteristics. This study has therefore performed the flood vulnerability assessment for 74 administrative districts in coastal areas by analysis of 17-year historical flood damage data. Three flood damage indicators were constructed from flood damage data collected separately for the two occurrence causes of typhoon and rainstorm events, such as casualty losses, property damage, and inundated areas to represent social, geographic, and economic aspects, respectively, for understanding of flood damage features in coastal areas. Three flood damage indicators were also normalized by rank order for each indicator and then integrated by Euclidean distance function as typhoon flood vulnerability index, rainstorm flood vulnerability index, and typhoon/rainstorm flood vulnerability index, respectively, for flood vulnerability assessment by damage occurrence causes. This study has proposed a methodology for flood vulnerability assessment by flood damage data from occurrence causes, which is expected to provide the basic information for development of flood damage assessment and mitigation plans in coastal areas.
Analysis of the Characteristics of Flood Damage Caused by Typhoon "SANBA" using Index Assessment Method in Nakdong-River
Lee, Jaehyuk ; Lee, Eunku ; Park, Jaerock ; Shin, Hyunsuk ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 387~397
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.387
The uncertainty of major floods caused by torrential downpours and frequency of typhoon occurrence has been dramatically increased. Especially the frequency and the damage of localized rainfall are becoming unpredictable because of meteorological change and other factors, but most of the measures are the type of recover after-the-fact. This reveals the limitation to seek and designate the potential damage area and to concentrate budget and resources so the active measures are needed to execute in practice. For those reasons the definitions of flood damage factors from analysis of hydro-hydraulic-mophic characteristics could be used practically as the basis for decision-making in flood damage management. In this study, the characteristics of flood-damaged areas caused by typhoon "SANBA"are analysed using the investigation report of the past flood damage records, and the usability is proposed as a pre-process for local and specific assessment. Also the flowchart which consists of damage report-hydrologic modelling-hydraulic modelling-characteristics analysis-definition of risk area and the need to establishment of system are proposed.
The Study of the Critical Depth and Critical Velocity of Casualties on Mud Flow
Lee, JiHo ; Oak, SueYeun ; Jun, HwanDon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 399~405
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.399
In this study, we suggest that the methodology which can estimate the critical depth and critical velocity based on the results of the previous experimentation with focusing on damage of human side. The case of human instability means that the human is swallowed by mud flows. We modified the drag force of mud flow for considering the difference of drag force by the fluid density. The velocity reduction factor is applied to estimate the drag force on mud flow. As a result, the mud flow was found that the critical velocity on mud flow is estimated smaller, compared with the flooding due to the density of mud flow. It means the risk of casualties on mud flow is higher than the flooding. In addition, it was found that the elderly and children are more vulnerable to mud flow, and children were ones in most danger.
An Improvement of Investment Priority for Prevention Measures against Storm and Flood Damage
Roh, Sub ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 407~412
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.407
In nationwide loss of lives and economic damage from typical disaster is damaged by a storm and flood. In past it took a passive attitude and relief work after a storm and flood, it cope with an active manner and pre-arranged plan nowadays. A prevention against a storm and flood is constituted of education, public relations and facility investment. But decision-making system for a prevention work against a storm and flood is not clear i.e. in a prevention work economic benefits and various effective results are not too much consider for decision-making. Such a consideration for a prevention work can make not important with other works. In this study, a standard of Federal Emergency Management Agency in U.S.A. is investigated and an improvement proposal suggest to investment priority for a prevention work. In our standard for investment priority it need various considerations such as a economic benefit(more allocation), time(duration) for work and public relations. For this considerations it is investigated by a comprehensive plan for storm and flood damage reduction in two case area data. And improved proposal is suggested by case study.
Evaluation of Flood Control Stability for Large River using Index Assessment Method and Analysis on the Effect of River Management in Nakdong River Networks
Lee, Jaehyuk ; Lee, Eunku ; Yoon, Euihyuk ; Shin, Hyunsuk ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 413~426
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.413
Recently, the characteristics of rainfall occurring in Korea have been changed significantly because of global climate change, and in particular, the uncertainty of stability for flood mitigation has been increased, owing to river management projects such as channel alteration. However, the effective measuring systems in flood mitigation and river management considering the temporal/spatial changes of channel morphology have not been established to keep the national disaster security; thus, the countermeasures considering the rainfall occurrence and the conveyance of river are very demanded to be established with analyzing hydromorphic and hydrodynamic factors. Herein, we represents the indices system denoting vulnerability and stability of rivers, attributed to massive channel alteration projects in Nakdong river network, Korea, which shows that 85.1% of reach has been up-ranked, and in partiuclar, 7.5% of reach has 2-step up-ranked in Nakdong river and upgraded segment is 24.2% and downgraded segment is 1.5% in its first tributaries. The proposed evaluation system for river flood stability is expected to provide the informative data to stakeholders making decisions in the river management.
Flood Vulnerability Index Estimated by Comparing Analysis Methods of Flood Damage Data
Lee, Jong Seok ; Choi, Hyun Il ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 427~435
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.427
This study has made a selection of flood damage data as the representative factors for flood vulnerability assessment in national-wide 230 administrative districts, and evaluated the regional flood vulnerability by comparing results of flood damage indicators from different analysis methods of flood damage data. For flood vulnerability assessment of each administrative district, the three flood damage indicators were constructed from flood damage data of casualty losses, inundated areas, and property damage during recent 17 years to represent social, geographic, and economic features, respectively. This study has estimated and compared flood damage indicators by raw values and ratio values of flood damage data to population or area of each administrative district. The characteristics of flood damage indicators were also compared between annual average and event`s average for 17-year historical flood damage data. The new flood vulnerability index estimated by comparing analysis methods of flood damage data is expected to present more rational and comprehensive flood damage characteristics in districts.
Snow Damage Estimation of Gangwon Province damages using Regression Analysis
Kwon, Soonho ; Kim, Junghwan ; Park, Heeseong ; Chung, Gunhui ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 437~443
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.437
Recently, the damage caused by natural disasters has been increased over the world and global warming and climate change are considered as one of the most accelerating factors. From 1993 to 2002, 7.6% of the property damage caused by disaster in South Korea is from snow disaster. However, it is difficult to estimate accurate damage caused by snow due to the lack of collected data. Therefore, the development of more reliable database about snow disaster is required for the accurate damage estimation. In this study, the snow damage in Gangwon province was estimated using regression analysis based on the data in the Disaster Annual Report(1994~2013) published by Ministry of Public Safety(formerly National Emergency Management). Daily maximum snow depth, population, area, GRDP are used as independent variables for the regression analysis. The proposed method might be applied for the disaster response and management to prepare the damage and mitigate the property losses.
A Plan for an Assessment of Drop Structure and Levee Design Using HEC-RAS and HEC-6
Lee, Choonho ; Lee, Taegeun ; Lim, Donghwa ; Sim, Gyooseong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 445~453
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.445
Drop structure prevents variation of river bed caused by bed erosion and deposition. However, discontinuous river flow and water-level difference between upstream and downstream can occurs in near the drop structure. Without proper assessment, therefore, unalleviated upstream water level by the drop structure may cause flooding in interior area and levee breaks at the downstream. It would be a simple solution to make higher levees, however, stream longitudinal slope will increase rapidly. This will cause decline of levee usability and additional economic and time loss. In this study, evaluation of flood water level at the drop structure and, prediction of river-bed change are analyzed using HEC-RAS and HEC-6. Based on this study, we propose hydraulic characteristic about height and relocation of existing drop structure, and rational design of levee. Assessment method and procedures of stream crossing facilities systematizing might be provide efficient river design and plan for related field expert.
Evaluating Estimation Method of Sediment Yield Coupling with SCS-CN
Park, Changyeol ; Kim, Hayoung ; Yoo, Chulsang ; Shin, Sang Young ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 455~462
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.455
This study is to estimate the sediment yield amount derived by applying USLE coupling with SCS-CN concept. 4 data sets for rainfall event were collected and applied. The sediment yield estimated by each event was compared with the observed data and the sediment yield using MUSLE. As a result, the sediment yield amount estimated by applying USLE/SCS-CN coupling model was found to well the characteristics of those of observed as compared with the case of MUSLE. Therefore, USLE/SCS-CN coupling model proposed by this study would be helpful to determine the accurate estimation of sediment yield for proper watershed management and optimal design of the sediment basin.
A Comparison of Drought Prospection by Future Climate Models
Kim, Jungho ; Kim, Sangdan ; Park, Moojong ; Joo, Jingul ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 463~472
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.463
This study compared the characteristics of drought occurrence projections of five regional climate models. For this purpose, RCP 8.5 scenario daily precipitation data from Climate Change Information Center are used. Standard precipitation index calculable only with daily precipitation was used to project the drought occurrence characteristics. As a result, we found that the similarity of RegCM4 and SNURCM was the most similar case, however, the case of WRF had drought occurrence characteristics different from the other four models. On the other hand, spatial distribution results showed that regional climate models have large difference in extremely drought events, each other.
A Study on Design Flood Estimation Equation of Small and Medium Sized Urban River
Son, Heewon ; Kim, Minseok ; Park, Kyungmi ; Moon, Youngil ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 473~482
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.473
Design flood has been usually calculated though rainfall-runoff analysis due to shortage of observation data in hydrological analyses. However, the rainfall-runoff analysis which is the simulation analysis by using analysis of design rainfall and modelling takes a lot of time to estimate design flood. Moreover the result of design flood can make a significant difference according to conditions so that it needs comparative study. In this study, the author investigated the empirical formulas of design flood and figured out the problem according to input factor. Besides, the local stream in Korea has distinguished between urban stream and local stream in accordance with urbanization ratio and estimation formula of design flood has been calculated according to watershed area and design frequency. Furthermore, the empirical formula of design flood has also comparative analyzed. After analyzing the result, it showed that estimation formula improved on correlationship and precision better than empirical formula. It is expected that it is used for the short evaluation of design flood calculated from rainfall-runoff model.
Development and Application of Indicators for Water Management for River Basin - Focusing on Water use and Flood
Baeck, Seung Hyub ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 483~494
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.483
World widely, water scarcity and flood mainly results from climate change and rapid urbanization, and these water-related disasters cause enormous losses. This study develops and analyzes water use and flood management indices on basin suitable for Korea reflecting regional characteristics. Study area is standard basin and the related variables were established during 20 years. The indicators were set by regression analysis and statistically based factor analysis and the indices were finally developed based on 7 sub-indices, respectively. Developed indices were compared by implementing different normalization methods. Final index was aggregated five-year average indices were evaluated and change of these indices was analyzed. It can help providing comprehensive information about basins status and objective measures to establish policy decision and project backgrounds.
A Study on the Standardization of ASETon Deck of Ro-ro Passenger Ship through Simulation Analysis of the SEWOL Ship Turnover Accident
Park, Hyung-Joo ; Lee, Young-Jae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 495~503
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.495
Later investigations go to show that there have been two chances to be taken action for evacuation after the SEWOL ro-ro ship`s stop at Jindo offshore. After two hypothetical scenarios have been established on the basis of two chances for passenger`s evacuation, the RSET on open deck came up with 29 min 04 sec and 21 min 28 sec respectively. But the scenario 2 has proved to be improper due to late evacuation finish (44minutes) and steep slope (over
), therefore, the scenario 1 could satisfy normal evacuation condition and the slow slope (
). Since the RSET on full capacity of the SEWOL ship with
slope, came up with 29 min 04 sec (includes IMO`s allowable cognition time 10min. NFPA`s pre-movement time 2 min), an evacuation guidance action by crew should be taken within
deck slope. Therefore, it concluded if the ASET on open deck of ro-ro ship`s turnover disaster should be required on 30 min limit, all refugee would be launched at sea or transported to the rescue ship within another 30 min.
Future PMPs Projection under Future Dew Point Temperature Variation of RCP 8.5 Climate Change Scenario
Lee, Okjeong ; Kim, Sangdan ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 505~514
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.505
Since future air temperature and humidity are expected to increase gradually, it is necessary to estimate the probable maximum precipitations (PMPs) reflecting the impact of climate change. In this study, futrue PMPs are estimated in consideration of AR5 RCP 8.5 dew point temperature change scenario. The hydro-meteorologic method is used to calculate PMPs. In addition, the orographic transposition factor, which has been recently developed, is applied in place of the conventional terrain impact factor which has been used in previous PMPs estimation procedure. As a result, future PMPs have been shown to increase. PMPs with 24-hour duration and
effective area are projected to be increased in the average rate of about 1.3 mm/yr by 2045.
A Study on Management Strategy of Non Point Source Pollutants in Stream Basin
Kim, Soo Jun ; Song, Yang Ho ; Lee, Jung Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 515~522
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.515
The eutrophication arises from the oversupply of nutrients, particularly phosphorus, which induces explosive growth of algae in water body. Such an algal bloom causes negative impacts to other organisms and even human via production of natural toxins with color and smell deterioration. The seasonal water quality deterioration of Daecheong stream by eutrophication, which has been using as a main drinking water source for more than 770,000 people, has been commonly reported. It could be attributed to the accidental release of non point source pollutants into water during intensive rainfall from July to September. In this study, to prevent the eutrophication, proper management strategy of non point source pollutants has been investigated using water quality modelling program (SWAT). As results, if the 70% reduction of non point sources pollutant of total phosphorus in Geum-Bon F15 subbasin, the delivery pollutant loads at the outlet were analyzed 9.3 kg/d, 36.3 kg/d, 65.8 kg/d, and 42.8 kg/d respectively during June~September and all loads were within the target qualities. In this study, various scenarios are analyzed according to reduction ratio of non point source pollutants of each subbasin. Therefore, this study may be contributed to the management of non point source pollutants.
A Study on Establishment Method of Prevention Capacity Target Against Disasters Considering Sea Level Rise
Lee, Naeun ; Heo, Juri ; Kal, Byungseok ; Park, Jaebeom ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 16, issue 2, 2016, Pages 523~527
DOI : 10.9798/KOSHAM.2016.16.2.523
Urban inundation problem in the coastal city adjacent to rivers or the sea causes more damage than the problem on inland city. Because the sea level is applied to the external water level conditions, the precipitation of the prevention capacity target against disasters below the average rainfall increases possibility of the inundation. Study area was constructed by the Storm Water Management Model(SWMM). Construction Model was to create a graph of sea level rise and probable precipitation estimated for various return period. As a result, there are differences of probable precipitation by each duration. For example, if overflow rate is decrease by 30 percent, the precipitation of the prevention capacity target against disasters has to be reduced between 9.0 percent and 16.4 percent. In addition, if overflow rate is decrease by 50 percent, the precipitation has to be reduced between 15.7 percent and 26.9 percent. The results of this study can be utilized to determined sea level rise is taken into account prevention Capacity target against disasters estimate data due to climate change.