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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation
Editor in Chief :
Moo Jong Park
Volume & Issues
Volume 7, Issue 5 - Dec 2007
Volume 7, Issue 4 - Oct 2007
Volume 7, Issue 3 - Aug 2007
Volume 7, Issue 2 - Jun 2007
Volume 7, Issue 1 - Mar 2007
Selecting the target year
Study on Fatigue Life of Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement with Design Parameter
Park, Jong-Sup ; Kang, Young-Jong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 7, issue 5, 2007, Pages 1~10
A laboratory investigation is conducted to characterize and quantify fatigue lives of continuously reinforced concrete pavements (CRCP) with initial design parameters. Eight specimens scaled were made based on results of finite-element analyses and stress-strain curve comparisons. Static tests were firstly performed to obtain magnitudes of static failure loads and to predict crack patterns before fatigue tests. The fatigue lives measured in the study were compared based on each initial design parameter. The comparison indicates that the fatigue lives of CRCP specimens with initial cracks increases with increasing the initial crack spacing, and CRCP specimens with reinforcements at top of the concrete slab have more fatigue lives than those with reinforcements at midheight of the concrete slab. In addition, the fatigue lives were significantly affected by soil conditions under the CRCP specimens. The results obtained in the study can be used for maintenance and retrofit of the continuously reinforced concrete pavements.
Flexural Fatigue Behavior of High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Mortar
Lim, Nam-Hyoung ; Lee, Chin-Ok ; Jang, Sun-Jae ; Ryu, Hyo-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 7, issue 5, 2007, Pages 11~18
A laboratory investigation was conducted to characterize the flexural fatigue behavior of high performance fiber reinforced cement mortar. Five specimens for statics flexural test and fourteen specimens for the flexural fatigue test were made based on the fiber mixing ratio. Static flexural tests were firstly performed to obtain magnitudes of static failure loads and stress levels before flexural fatigue tests. The flexural fatigue behaviors were investigated based on the stress level and fiber mixing ratio. Also, the equations for the interrelation of the flexural fatigue stress levels with the number at loading cycle were proposed.
An Analytical Study on the Ultimate Strength of Concrete Poles
Shin, Dong-Geun ; Yoon, Ki-Yong ; Lee, Seung-Hyun ; Yi, Gyu-Sei ; Kang, Young-Jong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 7, issue 5, 2007, Pages 19~25
In this study, a program based on the P-M interaction curve is developed to calculate the nominal strength of concrete pole. Using this, it is verified to compare with previous studies and the nominal strength
of concrete pole is calculated. It is less than the rupture strength
of the design standard. Thus, to increase nominal strength, several parameters are selected like as size of tension and reinforced bars, position of those, number of reinforcement bars, thickness of concrete pole, and diameter of it. The effects of those are analysed in the study. It is supposed that section of concrete pole are satisfied rupture strength.
Non-Prismatic Beam Element for Nonlinear Seismic Analysis of Steel Moment Frames I: Element Formulation
Hwang, Byoung-Kuk ; Jeon, Seong-Min ; Kim, Kee-Dong ; Ko, Man-Gi ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 7, issue 5, 2007, Pages 27~35
This study presents a non -prismatic beam element for modeling the elastic and inelastic behavior of the steel beam, which has the post-Northridge connections in steel moment frames that are subjected to earthquake ground motions. The elastic stiffness matrix for non-prismatic members with reduced beam section (RES) connection is in the closed-form. The plasticity model is of a discrete type and is composed of a series of nonlinear hinges connected by rigid links. The hardening rules can model the inelastic behavior for monotonic and random cyclic loading, and the effects of local buckling. Verification and calibration of the model are presented in a companion paper.
Non-Prismatic Beam Element for Nonlinear Seismic Analysis of Steel Moment Frames II: Verification of Model
Hwang, Byoung-Kuk ; Cheon, Chung-Ha ; Kim, Kee-Dong ; Ko, Man-Gi ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 7, issue 5, 2007, Pages 37~46
This is the second of two companion papers that describe non-prismatic beam element for nonlinear seismic analysis of steel moment frames. Described in a companion paper is the formulation of a non-prismatic beam element to model the elastic and inelastic behavior of steel beams, which have reduced beam sections(RBS). This study describes the determination of yield surfaces, stiffness parameters, and hardening (or softening) rule parameters for RBS beam element. Analytical results of the RBS beam element show good correlation with test data and Finite Element Method(FEM) results.
A Study of Structural Stability and Dynamics for Functionally Graded Material Plates and Shells using a 4-node Quasi-conforming Shell Element
Han, Sung-Cheon ; Lee, Chang-Soo ; Kim, Gi-Dong ; Park, Weon-Tae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 7, issue 5, 2007, Pages 47~60
In this paper, we investigate the natural frequencies and buckling loads of functionally graded material (FGM) plates and shells, using a quasi-conforming shell element that accounts for the transverse shear strains and rotary inertia. The eigenvalue of the FGM plates and shells are calculated by varying the volume fraction of the ceramic and metallic constituents using a sigmoid function, but their Poisson's ratios of the FGM plates and shells are assumed to be constant. The expressions of the membrane, bending and shear stiffness of FGM shell element are more complicated combination of material properties than a homogeneous element. In order to validate the finite element numerical solutions, the Navier's solutions of rectangular plates based on the first-order shear deformation theory are presented. The present numerical solutions of composite and sigmoid FGM (S-FGM) plates are proved by the Navier's solutionsand various examples of composite and FGM structures are presented. The present results are in good agreement with the Navier's theoretical solutions.
Nonlinear Analysis of Functionally Graded Materials Plates and Shells
Han, Sung-Cheon ; Lee, Chang-Soo ; Kim, Gi-Dong ; Park, Weon-Tae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 7, issue 5, 2007, Pages 61~71
Navier's and Finite element solutions based on the first-order shear deformation theory are presented for the analysis of through-thickness functionally graded plates and shells. The functionally graded materials are considered: a sigmoid function is utilized for the mechanical properties through the thickness of the isotropic structure which varies smoothly through the plate and shell thickness. The formulation of a nonlinear 9-node Element-based Lagrangian shell element is presented for the geometrically nonlinear analysis. Natural-coordinate-based strains are used in present shell element. Numerical results of the linear and nonlinear analysis are presented to show the effect of the different top/bottom elastic modulus, loading conditions, aspect ratios and side-to-thickness ratios on the mechanical behaviors. Besides, the result according to the variation of the power-law index of isotropic functionally graded structures is investigated.
Construction of Surface Boundary Conditions for the Regional Climate Model in Asia Used for the Prevention of Disasters Caused by Climate Changes
Choi, Hyun-Il ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 7, issue 5, 2007, Pages 73~78
It has been increasing that significant loss of life and property due to global wanning and extreme weather, and the climate and temperature changes in Korea Peninsula are now greater than the global averages. Climate information from regional climate models(RCM) at a finer resolution than that of global climate models(GCM) is required to predictclimate and weather variability, changes, and impacts. The new surface boundary conditions(SBCs) development is motivated by the limitations and inconsistencies of existing SBCs that have influence on model predictability. A critical prerequisite in constructing SBCs is that the raw data should be accurate with physical consistency across all relevant parameters and must be appropriately filled for missing data if any. The aim of this study is to construct appropriate SBCs for the RCM in Asia domain which will be used for the prevention of disasters due to climate changes. As all SBCs have constructed onto the 30km grid-mesh of the RCM suitable for Asia applications, they can be also used for other distributed models for climate and hydrologic studies.
On the Stationarity of Rainfall Quantiles: 1. Application and Evaluation of Conventional Methodologies
Jung, Sung-In ; Yoo, Chul-Sang ; Yoon, Yong-Nam ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 7, issue 5, 2007, Pages 79~88
This study evaluated the statistical stationarity of rainfall quantiles as well as the rainfall itself. The conventional methodologies like the Cox-Stuart test for trend and Dickey-Fuller test for a unit root used for testing the stationarity of a time series were applied and evaluated their application to the rainfall quantiles. As results, first, no obvious increasing or decreasing trend was found for the rainfall in Seoul, which was also found to be a stationary time series based on the Dickey-Fuller test. However, the Cox-Stuart test for the rainfall quantiles show some trends but not in consistent ways of increasing or decreasing. Also, the Dickey-Fuller test for a unit root shows that the rainfall quantiles are non-stationary. This result is mainly due to the difference between the rainfall data and rainfall quantiles. That is, the rainfall is a random variable without any trend or non-stationarity. On the other hand, the rainfall quantiles are estimated by considering all the data to result in high correlation between their consecutive estimates. That is, as the rainfall quantiles are estimated by adding a stationary rainfall data continuously, it becomes possible for their consecutive estimates to become highly correlated. Thus, it is natural for the rainfall quantiles to be decided non-stationary if considering the methodology used in this study.
On the Stationarity of Rainfall Quantiles: 2. Proposal of New Methodologies
Yoo, Chul-Sang ; Jung, Sung-In ; Yoon, Yong-Nam ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 7, issue 5, 2007, Pages 89~97
This study proposed new simple methodologies for testing the stationarity of rainfall quantiles, and applied to the rainfall data at Seoul. The methodologies in this study are based on the analysis of frequency change of rainfall quantiles, different from previous studies like Ahn et al. (2001) who analyzed the change of rainfall quantiles themselves. The different types of methodologies are proposed in this study; one is to evaluate the occurrence frequency of rainfall with its return period more than the data length, and the other is to evaluate the effect of new observation on the highest rainfall data recorded. The application of these methodologies shows that the rainfall quantiles at Seoul have no significant proof leading their non-stationarity.
Effect of Slab-base Friction on Response of JCP Slab with Different Material and Geometric Properties
Sun, Ren-Juan ; Lim, Jin-Sun ; Jeong, Jin-Hoon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 7, issue 5, 2007, Pages 99~110
A single slab concrete pavement has been modeled and analyzed by ABAQUS program. The stress and displacement of the JCP slab under traffic load with frictionless contact interaction between slab and base calculated by ABAQUS program have been compared with the results obtained by KENSLABS program. The results of the stresses of the two modeling show similar tendency and the difference of the two modeling is very small however the results of the displacement of the two modeling show some dissimilarity. In order to analyze the effects of material and geometric properties on the responses of slab, some varying parameters were chosen as input for the modeling. The changing parameters include the thickness and elastic modulus of the concrete slab, the thickness and elastic modulus of base and the elastic modulus of the subgrade. The contact interaction between the slab and base layer had been also studied and different friction coefficient 0, 2.5, 6.6, 7.5, 8.9 had been used to simulate the different friction interface condition. The results of the analysis showed that the responses of the concrete slab vary with the material and geometric properties of the pavement structure and the slab-base friction condition.
A Study on the Characteristic of Electric-Shock Mechanism in the Water
Do, Bum-Sung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 7, issue 5, 2007, Pages 111~118
Recently electric shock accidents constantly occurs caused by the street lamps. Especially the chance of electric shock accident is high when the street lamp submerges by heavy rainfall. Electric shock accident occurs mostly on the low voltage facilities of 220V, but the awareness of its danger is insufficient. The electric shock accident by street lamp voltage of 220V is very dangerous because it is installed in the street which is easily in contact with people. But there are insufficient investigation concerning the affect to hwnan body of underwater electric potential distribution as the distance changes from the leakage object in case of short circuit. In this thesis, the analysis will be made on the affect of underwater Earth leakage to human body and electric potential distribution in underwater, and to draw a comparison between electric shock channel and electric shock mechanism by experimenting on the affect to human body of underwater electric shock as the distance changes from the leakage object.
Study on the Estimation Method of Safely Index for Community Disaster
Jang, Dae-Won ; Jeong, Sang-Man ; Park, Moo-Jong ; Kim, Hung-Soo ; Seoh, Byung-Ha ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 7, issue 5, 2007, Pages 119~127
We reconstructed the community disaster risk and patterns of damage magnitude using 'Annual Report of National Disaster Data'. And we developed the inspection index for damage reduction capacity of each facility or each damage prevention measure. The inspection indices include climatic and hydrological vulnerabilities, and disaster probability components. Also we considered all indices and components for DB construction on the GIS system. Then we constructed 'Inspection for Safety Degree of Community System(ISDCS)' according to the facility's criteria from the combination of damage reduction capacity of facility and damage magnitude. The safety index has designed a system that encourages communities to carry out a list of activities in the raw from natural disaster. The activities ultimately saves lives, reduce property damage, and protect disaster facilities. Damage patterns were also analyzed according to damage type using pattern analysis and GIS.
Deformation Behavior of Underground Pipe with Controlled Low Strength Materials with Marine Dredged Soil
Lee, Kwan-Ho ; Kim, Ju-Deuk ; Hyun, Seong-Cheol ; Song, Yong-Seon ; Lee, Byung-Sik ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 7, issue 5, 2007, Pages 129~137
It is very urgent to research the proper recycling method of marine dredged soil as construction material for environmental conservation. Couple of developed countries have been lots of related researches on recycling of marine dredged soil for marine environmental conservation. This is highly imperative in our country. A small-scaled model test for underground pipe has been conducted on the use of controlled low strength materials with marine dredged soil. The flexible pipe, which is called PVC, was used. Four different testing materials, such as natural sand, insitu-soil, sand-CLSM with marine dredged soil and insitu-soil CLSM with marine dredged soil, were used. The vertical and lateral displacement of pipe with CLSM is one tenth of common granular materials. Also, the use of CSLM showed lower lateral and vertical pressure than that of common granular materials. The main reason is the effect of cement hardening of CLSM. This could increase of the stiffness of pipe with backfill materials. In this study, the data presented show that marine dredged soil and in-situ soil can be successfully used in CLSM and reduce the deformation and earth pressure on flexible pipe.
Microzonation on Site-specific Seismic Response at a Model Area in Seoul Using GIS
Sun, Chang-Guk ; Chun, Sung-Ho ; Jang, Eui-Ryong ; Chung, Choong-Ki ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 7, issue 5, 2007, Pages 139~150
As computer technology has been rapidly advanced, geographic information system (GIS) is recently used in many disciplines. In this study, for a model area in Seoul, seismic hazard potential relating to site effects, which are influenced by the subsurface geotechnical conditions, was estimated using the GIS tool. The distribution of pre-existing borehole drilling data in Seoul metropolitan area was examined for the regional estimation of site-specific seismic responses at the model area. Spatial geo-layers across the entire model area were predicted by constructing a GIS-based geotechnical information system (GTIS). A microzonation of site period
for estimating site-specific seismic responses at the model area was performed within the GTIS. The spatial microzoning map of
indicated seismic vulnerability of two- to four-storied buildings in the model area. Furthermore, a site classification map for determining the design ground motion was established based on the
within the GTIS. This informed that most of location in the model area was categorized into current site classes C and D. This seismic microzonation framework for the model area could be applicable particularly in the entire Seoul metropolitan area based on the pre-existing borehole data.
Estimate of Time of Concentration for Stream at Island near Coastal Region
Chung, Yeoun-Jung ; Choi, Gye-Woon ; Han, Man-Shin ; Shin, Sang-Man ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 7, issue 5, 2007, Pages 151~158
After installing calibrated depth scale at 11 different points inside the nine streams network for estimating time of concentration of stream in Young-Heung island near coastal region of Incheon we estimated the flow against actual rainfall events. By considering time of concentration formula which here mainly used for estimating the time of concentration from practical experiments, compared were three methods of inflow time and accepted to method of used the chart. The maximum flow occurrence time was estimated by an outflow model and observed maximum flow occurrence time were determined by to a comparative analysis. Kirpich formula was selected as the proper formula for calculating the concentration time inside the island streams. Kirpich formula could be applicable for the expanded range while catchment area of
and channel bed slope of
to catchment area of
and channel bed slope of about 1.5%.
A Framework to Estimate GDP Loss due to Extreme Water-related Disaster in Kangwon-do
Kang, Sang-Hyeok ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 7, issue 5, 2007, Pages 159~166
Large scale flood disasters bring human losses and properties, which lead to the decrease of our productive value and change social environment. Human loss and economic damage are considered to be the same system but they are viewed as separated systems. The total amount of human loss can be represented as the total amount of economic damage estimated in the frame of social system while it will be possible to make mutual changing by clearing the relations between social and economic systems. In this regard, an attempt to estimate economic loss considering per capita Gross Domestic Production (GDP) caused by flood-related mortality was carried out to the typhoon Rusa of 2002 in Kangwon-do. The proposed method tried to capture quantitative factors which are affecting the loss of per capita GDP. The approach has great importance not only to set up governmental policy but also methodological progress in the research due to impact of disaster-related mortality on GDP loss.
Effect of Rainfall Distribution Types of Moving Rainstorms on Surface Runoff
Jeon, Min-Woo ; Lee, Hyo-Sang ; Jeon, Jong-Ki ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 7, issue 5, 2007, Pages 167~178
Based on the kinematic wave equations, the influence of moving rainstorms on the surface runoff were analyzed with a focus on the rainfall distribution types. Applied hypothetical rainfall distribution types of moving rainstorms used are uniform, advanced, delayed and intermediate type. The moving rainstorm velocities applied in this study were
of moving upstream and downstream direction of plane surface. Simulations were undertaken by varying the rainfall distribution type, moving rainstorm velocity and moving direction, and the results were compared with that of stationary rainfall. The results indicate significant differences in peak discharges and hydrograph shapes for moving rainstorms of various rainfall patterns and moving directions. It shows that the moving rainstorms of downstream direction generate the largest peak runoff at all rainfall distributions. The sensitivity of runoff to rainfall distribution types decreases as storm velocity increases. It is clear that faster rainstorm velocity generates faster peak time and becomes thin hydrographs rapidly.
A Study for the Water Rising Effect on Flood Water Level by Debris
Cho, Yong-Ho ; Jeong, Sang-Man ; Han, Kyu-Ha ; Shin, Kwang-Seob ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 7, issue 5, 2007, Pages 179~186
This paper has investigated a rise of water level in upstream and downstream of bridge, which is caused by accumulation of debris in a bridge. The debris has been classified into several types in terms of size. The rise of water level which has been caused by installation and removal of sheet pile that is used to block water in a bridge has been analyzed using HEC-RAS model. According to the analysis, it has turned out that the debris has no influence on the rise of water level in ordinary water flow. In addition, sheet pile has little impact on the rise of water as well. Even though the impact of sheet file has turned out trivial in flood flow just like the ordinary water flow, it's been simulated that the maximum water level difference between upstream and downstream of bridge turned out more than 1.0meter because of debris in 80-year or more flood frequency. When the rise of water level in upstream from the cross section of the bridge was investigated based on 100-year flood frequency, besides, it has turned out that it had an influence up to 17.84km distance because of the effect of debris.
Experimental Study on Reduction of Rup-Up Height of Sloping Breakwater due to Submerged Structure
Park, Seung-Hyun ; Lee, Seung-Oh ; Jung, Tae-Hwa ; Cho, Yong-Sik ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 7, issue 5, 2007, Pages 187~197
Experimental study for a submerged structure was conducted to protect coastal structures and shorelines. The rectangular submerged structure known as the most efficient shape among various submerged structures in the literature was fabricated at the nose of a rubble mound breakwater. The reflection coefficients and the run-up heights along the slope of a breakwater were measured for different significant wave heights and periods. It is found in this study that the reflection coefficient is affected more relatively by the significant wave period than the significant wave height and the run-up heights are reduced approximately 28% in terms of
and 26% in terms of
, respectively, by the installation of a submerged structure inducing the interception and breaking of waves.