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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation
Editor in Chief :
Moo Jong Park
Volume & Issues
Volume 8, Issue 6 - Dec 2008
Volume 8, Issue 5 - Oct 2008
Volume 8, Issue 4 - Aug 2008
Volume 8, Issue 3 - Jun 2008
Volume 8, Issue 2 - Apr 2008
Volume 8, Issue 1 - Feb 2008
Selecting the target year
A Study on Mechanical Characteristics and Behaviors of FRP Composite with Three Different types of Matrices under High Temperature
Jung, Woo-Young ; Jang, Jun-Ho ; Back, Min-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 8, issue 3, 2008, Pages 1~9
Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites are used extensively in aerospace, marine, automotive, infrastructure, chemical processing and sporting good applications. A concern with using FRP composites in some engineering structures is their high flammability and poor fire resistance In this research, material properties of FRP composites at increasingly high temperatures was measured and verified. The obtained mechanical properties of FRP composites were performed according to ASTM D3039/D3039M and tested to a wide range of heat conditions with temperatures from Room-temp. to 300 for times up to 30 min. It is found that the mechanical properties of FRP composites dropped with increasing heat or temperature. The reduction to the properties was due mainly to thermal degradation and combustion of the polymer matrix.
Geometrically Linear and Non-linear Analysis of Plates and Shells Resting on Arbitrary Elastic Edge Supports
Lee, Won-Hong ; Han, Sung-Cheon ; Park, Weon-Tae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 8, issue 3, 2008, Pages 11~21
A linear and non-linear analysis for plates and shells with arbitrary edge supports subjected to various loading was presented. The 9-node ANS(Assumed Natural Strain) hell element was employed and the spring element, which could express an arbitrary edge support using the six degrees of freedom, was introduced. For the application of his analysis, the plates and shells with various edge supports were analyzed, and the ending behavior with these edge supports were obtained accurately. For these edge supports, particularly elastic edge support was simulated by six springs and reasonable results were obtained. The results show that the present method can be widely used to analyze the bending behavior of plates and shells with arbitrary edge conditions.
Development of a Conjunctive Surface-Subsurface Flow Model for Use in Land Surface Models at a Large Scale: Part II. Model Implementation
Choi, Hyun-Il ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 8, issue 3, 2008, Pages 23~27
The new conjunctive surface-subsurface flow model at a large scale was developed by using a 1-D Diffusion Wave (DW) model for surface flow interacting with the 3-D Volume Averaged Soil-moisture Transport (VAST) model for subsurface flow for the comprehensive terrestrial water and energy predictions in Land Surface Models (LSMs). A selection of numerical implementation schemes is employed for each flow component. The 3-D VAST model is implemented using a time splitting scheme applying an explicit method for lateral flow after a fully implicit method for vertical flow. The 1-D DW model is then solved by MacCormack finite difference scheme. This new conjunctive flow model is substituted for the existing 1-D hydrologic scheme in Common Land Model (CLM), one of the state-of-the-art LSMs. The new conjunctive flow model coupled to CLM is tested for a study domain around the Ohio Valley. The simulation results show that the interaction between surface flow and subsurface flow associated with the flow routing scheme matches the runoff prediction with the observations more closely in the new coupled CLM simulations. This improved terrestrial hydrologic module will be coupled to the Climate extension of the next-generation Weather Research and Forecasting (CWRF) model for advanced regional, continental, and global hydroclimatological studies and the prevention of disasters caused by climate changes.
The Characteristics of Disaster by Track of Typhoon Affecting the Korean Peninsula
Ahn, Suk-Hee ; Kim, Baek-Jo ; Lee, Seong-Lo ; Kim, Ho-Kyung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 8, issue 3, 2008, Pages 29~36
The purpose of this study is to examine the characteristics of disaster associated with typhoon passed through the sea areas excluding the South Sea around the Korean Peninsula. First, Korean peninsula-affecting typhoons were divided into their track patterns of passing through the Korean West Sea and East Sea based on typhoon data from 1951 to 2006 provided by Regional Specialized Meteorological Center(RSMC)-Tokyo. Then, annual and monthly frequency and intensity of typhoon in each pattern was examined. In particular, typhoon related damages during the period of 1973 to 2006 were analyzed in each case. Results showed that since early 1970, in the West Sea case, typhoon becomes weaker without significant change in frequency, while in the East Sea case, it becomes stronger with an increasing trend. It is also found that the high amount of typhoon damage results from the submergence of houses and farmlands in the East Sea case, while it is due to the breakdown of houses, ships, roads and bridges in the West Sea case. In addition, it is revealed from the analysis of rainfall and maximum wind speed data associated with typhoon disasters that the main cause of occurring typhoon disasters seem to be qualitatively related to strong wind in the West Sea case and heavy rainfall in the East Sea case.
A Study on Heat and Smoke Exhaust Characteristics from the Subway Fire for Different Ventilation Modes
Chang, Hee-Chul ; Yoon, Kyung-Beom ; Park, Won-Hee ; Kim, Tae-Kuk ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 8, issue 3, 2008, Pages 37~42
This study is focused on the numerical predictions for different smoke-control ventilation modes for the subway fire. Smoke-control ventilation mode in the domestic platform is that exhausting for the smoke detected zones while supplying air or stopping any ventilation for other zones in the platform. Three cases of smoke control ventilation modes are considered. First and second case are present running smoke control mode in Korea. The third is that smoke-control ventilation fans equipped in the platform are operated in first 4 minute(platform evacuation time, NFPA130) since then the fans equipped in the platform are stopped and the fans equipped in the tunnels are operated. Distributions of heat, carbon monoxide and visible range are compared at a height of 1.7m(passenger breath/sight height) above the platform. The numerical results show that air supply fan operation in the platform causes the smoke disturbance and a rapid spread of the smoke. The switch-operation with fans in both the platform and tunnel are better than operation with only platform fans in smoke rejection efficiency.
Evaluating the Effects of Sprawl on Evacuation Time: An Exploratory Analysis from Texas Coastal Counties
Jung, Ju-Chul ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 8, issue 3, 2008, Pages 43~49
The objective of this research was to test a hypothesis that sprawl increases congestion, and so the estimated evacuation time become longer. For this, sprawl was thought to be poor accessibility so that vehicle miles of travel become longer. This research shows that the daily vehicle miles per lane mile that are thought to be an accessibility index had a strong and statistically significant relationship to the estimated evacuation time, while urban population density has no statistically significant relationship to the evacuation time. The result of this research recommends that we should consider sustainable land use patterns that decrease traffic demand by providing good accessibility.
Evaluation of Dynamic Modulus based on Aged Asphalt Binder
Lee, Kwan-Ho ; Cho, Kyung-Rae ; Lee, Byung-Sik ; Song, Yong-Seon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 8, issue 3, 2008, Pages 51~58
Development of a new design guide which is based on empirical-mechanistic concept for pavement design is in action. It is called AASHTO 2002 Design Guide in USA and the KPRP(Korean Pavement Research Project) in Korea. The material characteristic of hot mix asphalt is a key role in the design guide. Therefore it is urgent to get a proper materials database, especially the dynamic modulus of hot mix asphalt. In this research, dynamic modulus test, which is based on aged asphalt binder, has been carried out and proposed the predicted equation of dynamic modulus. Nine different hot mix asphalt with three different asphalt binder have been used for the dynamic modulus test. Short-term aging, which is covers the time for the production of asphalt plant, transportation, lay-down, and compaction, can be simulated at
with 2 hour curing. Long-term aging has been carried out for a performance period of asphalt pavement. The dynamic modulus of asphalt pavement increases with aging time. As the nominal aggregate size increases, the change of dynamic modulus is not big.
Model of Road Design and Location of Urban Facilities for the Prevention of Disasters
Kim, Gyeong-Seok ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 8, issue 3, 2008, Pages 59~65
This research attempts to consider disasters and calamities in the process of urban planning and road design. It presents a model that copes with disaster response. This model is an integrated system that performs the collective evaluation of roads, shelters, storage reservoirs and evacuation route systems. Consequently, this research attempts to discuss major issues to apply this system to cities.
Development of Steel-Concrete Composite Lining Board using Section Shape Steel
Oh, Soo-Cheol ; Yang, Hae-Sool ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 8, issue 3, 2008, Pages 67~75
This research is to develop the steel-concrete composite lining board using section shape steel. This lining board adopts section shape steel, rectangular pipe and H-beam, instead of roll-formed steel member commonly used in other composite lining board. Consequently, it reduces fabrication effort. Efficient section which can reduce the weight of steel of the lining board is made by placing the neutral axis of the section near the lower surface of concrete. Behavior of composite section is improved by adding bolts as shear connector. Static and fatigue tests were conducted to verify the performance of the composite lining board developed. The test results indicate that serviceability as well as safety of the lining board developed is secured with good margin and reduction of steel weight can be made about 27% compared with other composite lining boards.
Reliability and Accuracy Analyses of Prediction Equations for Settlement Calculation of Shallow Foundations Constructed on Sandy Soils
Lim, Yu-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 8, issue 3, 2008, Pages 77~86
A database program is constructed by collecting all information related to shallow foundations such as measured load-settlement data, foundation shapes and sizes, properties of soils under the foundation and various measured data obtained from field investigation methods including CPT, PMT and SPT etc.. Based on the database program, a special program module is developed for performing statistical analyses of reliability and accuracy of predicting equations used for calculation of settlement of the shallow foundations. Special interests are focused not only on the settlement, but also on the settlement to width ratio (s/B). Results of the reliability and accuracy analyses on five available settlement equations are provided. Conclusions based on the provided results can be confirmed by extending number of related reliable data about the shallow foundations and can be adapted as guidelines for design of the shallow foundations.
Development of Inversion Analysis Framework to Determine Nonlinear Shear Moduli of Soils In Situ
Ahn, Jae-Hun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 8, issue 3, 2008, Pages 87~93
The large scale shaker can be employed to measure linear and nonlinear shear moduli of soils in situ as a function of shear strain. The method involves applying dynamic loads on a surface foundation measuring the dynamic response of the soil mass beneath the foundation with embedded instrumentation. This paper focuses on the development of a framework of the inverse analysis for the interpretation of test data to estimate linear and nonlinear shear moduli of soils along with the necessity of the inverse analysis. The suggested framework is based on the nonlinear least squares but it uses two iterative loops to account for the nonlinear behavior of soil that sensors are not located. The validity of the suggested inversion framework is tested through a series of numerical parametric studies. An example use of the suggested inversion framework is also shown. Because the field condition may affect the accuracy of suggested method, it is important to conduct a preliminary inverse analysis to quantify the discrepancy between the estimated modulus and the baseline.
A Simulation of Earthquake Loss Estimation for a Gyeongju Event
Kang, Su-Young ; Kim, Kwang-Hee ; Suk, Bong-Chool ; Yoo, Hai-Soo ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 8, issue 3, 2008, Pages 95~103
Knowledge of expected losses in terms of physical, economic, and social damages due to a potential earthquake will be helpful in the effort to mitigate seismic hazards. In this study, losses due to a magnitude 6.7 scenario earthquake in the Gyeongju area have been estimated using the deterministic method in HAZUS. The attenuation relation proposed by Sadigh et al.(1997) for site classes B, C, and D, which are assumed to represent the characteristics of the strong-motion attenuation in the Korean Peninsula, has been applied. Losses due to the hypothetical earthquake have been also calculated using other attenuation relationships to examine their roles in the loss estimation. The findings indicate differences among the estimates based on various attenuation relationships. Estimated losses of the Gyeongju area by a scenario earthquake using HAZUS should be seriously considered in the planning of disaster response and hazard mitigation.
A Comparison and Analysis of Planning Models for the Design of Detention Pond in Urban Area
Lee, Jae-Joon ; Kwak, Chang-Jae ; Lee, Sang-Won ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 8, issue 3, 2008, Pages 105~115
Urbanization results in increased runoff volume and peak flowrate and shortening in time of concentration, which may cause frequent flooding downstream. There are various types of flow retardation methods including detention ponds, retention ponds, and infiltration ponds. In general, hydrologic models to design the detention pond are classified into planning model and design model. This study is comparing and analyzing of planning model to design the detention pond in urban area. Detention ponds data of Disaster Impact Assessment Report on 22 sites were analyzed to investigate proper planning models in this study. From this research, following conclusions are derived, 1) In case of on-line detention pond, Lee model(1991) is the best planning model and similar to real storage volume. 2) In case of off-line detention pond, Abt and Grigg model is much more proper model compared to other models.
The Flow Characteristic Variation by Installing a Movable Weir having Water Drainage Equipment on the Bottom
Choi, Gye-Woon ; Byeon, Seong-Joon ; Kim, Young-Kyu ; Cho, Sang-Uk ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 8, issue 3, 2008, Pages 117~122
Generally, water is taken through channels and rivers, in which there are many weirs and structures, which cross rivers and temporally hold up water. But this way has its own shortcomings. It is main reason that the water flows through structures, and backwater come into being. So it causes many water quality problems and some flood side-effects and so on. In this study, among the various movable weirs, we installed bottom-discharged and air pressure movable weir in the experimental channel. And we analyzed flowing influence, which is followed by the angle variation of movable weir. We also make further study the flow characteristic variation followed by installing entrance at the bottom to discharge the bottom water. The analysis result was that installed weir angle was increased, and the discharge also gradually increased. The installed weir angle depended on the water quantity, which can be excluded in the bottom. In case of velocity, there was increased as maximum 21.9 times, according to there is entrance or not at the bottom. And in case of water level, it showed the water level of locally above the average decrease in the upper river of weir.
A study on the Development of River Turbidity by the Rainfall Properties in the Watershed of Highland-agriculture
Choi, Han-Kuy ; Kim, Joung-Ouk ; Oh, Ki-Ho ; Park, Soo-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 8, issue 3, 2008, Pages 123~128
This study inquired into changes of turbidity of a river depending on the rainfall characteristics of each month through investigating the water quantity and turbidity of Jawoonchun drainage basin in the upper reaches of Soyangho (lake) for the year of 2005. It could be seen from the study that high turbidity occurred during the period from May to August due to rainfall intensity and rainfall duration. On the other hand, it could be confirmed that turbidity was constantly low after September because of early cleansing effect of rainfall. Next, the influence of controlling factors of turbidity was looked into. For May and June, it was 89% rainfall intensity among the controlling factors, for July and August, it was 67% rainfall intensity and 32% rainfall duration that was confirmed to have influence over the occurrence of turbidity. In addition, regression analysis was carried out about the controlling factors that had influence over the occurrence of turbidity and regression equation was suggested.
Application of a Two-dimensional Flood Inundation Model based on Quadtree Grid
Kim, Jong-Ho ; Lee, Seung-Oh ; Yoon, Kwang-Seok ; Cho, Yong-Sik ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 8, issue 3, 2008, Pages 129~136
All measures to cope with flooding rely on flood predictions to some extent. To investigate these predictions such as maximum water level or inundation area, a numerical model has been developed. The governing equations of the model are the two-dimensional Saint-Venant equations. The governing equations are discretized explicitly by using the leap-frog scheme and upwind scheme based on quadtree grids. The predicted numerical results have been verified by comparing to those of a Thacker problem. As a result of verifications, the present model is not only nearly four times as efficient as uniform grids but also in close agreement with the previous models. Next, the developed model is applied to several flood events in the Uiryeong basin. A general tendency is found that as a frequency is increasing, overall water levels including peak water level are increasing. At only a 500 year frequency, maximum water level is higher than 18.5 m. Therefore, it can be predictable that inundation will be generated in a 500 year frequency.
Characteristics of the Momentum Equation in Open Channel Flow
Jeon, Min-Woo ; Jeon, Jong-Ki ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 8, issue 3, 2008, Pages 137~147
The relative magnitudes of the individual terms of the momentum equation are analyzed and compared by analytical methods. The temporal variations of each term are analyzed for the influence factors to runoff expressed by the parameters of the momentum equation, stream slopes and roughness coefficients. The magnitudes of local acceleration and convective acceleration offset each other. The peak time of each term except the gravity term coincides with inflection point of the hydrograph rising limb each other. The magnitudes of each term vary with the channel characteristics, especially when the roughness coefficients are dominant or for the mild stream slopes the pressure term can not be negligible.
Comparative Analyses on Hydraulic Stability Formulae of Riprap
Choi, Hung-Sik ; Lee, Min-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 8, issue 3, 2008, Pages 149~155
To evaluate the formulae for the stability of riprap, the formulae of Isbash, California division of highway, Netherlands, ASCE, Pilarczk, and Maynord are comparatively analysed with the experimental results. The critical velocity which initiates the motion of riprap is increased with the weight and the size in diameter and the riprap size with water depth, Froude number, shear velocity with mean velocity, Shields parameter have great correlation with them. The results by 6 formulae are overestimated in riprap size in diameter and the result by Maynord formula proposed by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers estimates rather correct. The results by Isbash, Netherlands, and Pilarczk are overestimated in riprap weight but the result by California division of highway formula coincides with experimental result. In the experimental results of model riprap artificially made by gypsum with light weight density, the critical velocity is increased with shape factors. The critical velocity appears greater in regular arrangement of model riprap than in random arrangement of it. Therefore the shape factor and the degree of interlocking are an important parameters in riprap stability.
Modeling and Visualization of Flood Inundation in Natural River
Goh, Tae-Jin ; Jung, Tae-Sung ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 8, issue 3, 2008, Pages 157~164
A modeling and visualization system of flood inundation in natural river, FloodViz, has been developed. Unsteady river flow and flood inundation are calculated by FLDWAV model. FLDWAV model and HEC-RAS model have been applied to a flood event at the same time to check model reliability. Simulation results of the two models showed good agreements. Flood propagation and inundation process can be analyzed accurately and easily by using visualization function of the FloodViz. Even though FloodViz users don't know well about both hydraulics and hydrology, they can understand flood inundation phenomena easily. This system can be used as a useful tool in forecasting flood inundation and observing the simulation results. Countermeasures for natural disaster prevention due to flood inundation can be established rapidly by using the FloodViz.
A Study on Optimum HRT Combination for Efficient Nitrogen Removal at WWTP in Winter Days
Gil, Kyung-Ik ; Lee, Un-Gil ; Rho, Hae-Yeon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 8, issue 3, 2008, Pages 165~169
It has been reported that most wastewater treatment plants have difficulties in nitrogen removal during winter season due to declined activity of nitrifiers in the condition of low temperature. This study was conducted in order to find out optimum operating condition for efficient nitrogen removal in low temperature. A series of operating conditions with various HRTs of each tank were simulated using the GPS-X program. The optimum HRT combination for effective nitrogen removal was 0.3 hr/0.5 hr/1.36 hr/4.84 hr(PreAx/An/Ax/Ox) with 51.4% of T-N removal efficiency and 57.3% of
-N removal efficiency.