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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation
Editor in Chief :
Moo Jong Park
Volume & Issues
Volume 9, Issue 6 - Dec 2009
Volume 9, Issue 5 - Oct 2009
Volume 9, Issue 4 - Aug 2009
Volume 9, Issue 3 - Jun 2009
Volume 9, Issue 2 - Apr 2009
Volume 9, Issue 1 - Feb 2009
Selecting the target year
A Study of Sewer Layout to Control a Outflow in Sewer Pipes
Kim, Joong-Hoon ; Joo, Jin-Gul ; Jun, Hwan-Don ; Lee, Jung-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 1, 2009, Pages 1~7
Most developed models are designed to determine pipe diameter, slope and overall layout in order to minimize the cost for the design rainfall for the optimal sewer layout. However, these models are not capable of considering the superposition effect of runoff hydrographs in the sewer pipes. The flow characteristics in the sewer pipes, such as the sewer layout, pipe diameter and slope, vary according to the design of the sewer system. In particular, when the sewer network is modified, the shapes of the runoff hydrographs in the sewer pipes also change because of the superposition effect. In this study, the sewer layout is designed to control and distribute the flows in the sewer pipes, while considering the runoff superposition effect, in order to reduce the inundation risk at each junction. This is accomplished by separating the inflows that enter into each junction by changing the way in which pipes are connected between junctions. And this model combines SWMM (Storm Water Management Model) to perform the hydraulic analysis for the flows in the sewer network. The current sewer layout was modified to minimize the peak outflow at outlet in Garak basin, Seoul, South Korea. As the results, the peak outflows at the outlet were decreased by approximately 20% for the design rainfall during 30 minutes and the total overflows were also decreased for the excessive rainfalls.
Computer Aided Teaching of Structural Engineering Using Adaptive Schemes in the Finite Element Method
Yoon, Chong-Yul ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 1, 2009, Pages 9~13
A simple outline for teaching adaptive scheme based finite element method for planar problems as a part of computer aided teaching of structural engineering curriculum is presented. Displacement based finite element formulation for planar problems and representative strain value based adaptive scheme for mesh generation are considered. As examples, a cantilever beam with a concentrated load treated as a planar problem and stretching of a plate with a circular hole are analyzed with displacement based finite element method with adaptive meshes. The examples and outlines show how adaptive based finite element method may become an essential part of computer aided teaching of structural engineering.
Relationship between Chloride Diffusivity and the Fundamental Properties of Concrete
Choi, Doo-Sun ; Choi, Jae-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 1, 2009, Pages 15~20
Marine concrete structure is exposed to salt injury and deteriorated by steel corrosion due to chloride ions diffusion. It, therefore, is very important to estimate the chloride diffusivity in concrete. In this paper the compressive strength and permeable pore volume of concrete are measured and the diffusion coefficient and penetration depth of chloride ions in concrete were investigated to estimate the chloride diffusivity efficiently. To correlate these results each other, regression analysis was done. The results showed a good linear relation between chloride diffusivity and the fundamental properties of concrete and the chloride diffusivity of concrete with water-cement ratios of
Performance of Constructed Facilities: Pavement Structural Evaluation of William P Hobby Airport in Houston, Texas
Kim, Sung-Hee ; Jeong, Jin-Hoon ; Kim, Nak-Seok ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 1, 2009, Pages 21~25
The results of a recent case study for material characterizations and structural evaluation to design asphalt overlay thickness of William P Hobby airport in Houston, Texas are presented herein. The existing runway 12R-30L of Hobby airport consisted of thick asphalt overlay over Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) and the localized surface shoving as evident in the closure of surface groove has been observed recently. Using the field cored asphalt concrete mixtures, measurements of percent air voids, asphalt content and aggregate gradation were conducted to find out the causations of surface shoving and groove closure. The FAA layered elastic program, LEDFAA was utilized to evaluate pavement structural conditions for new asphalt overlay. Two different composition assumptions for existing pavement were made to evaluate the pavement as followings: 1) APC, Asphalt Concrete Overlay over PCC pavement and 2) AC, Asphalt Concrete pavement. Based on laboratory testing results, a ratio of percent passing #200 to asphalt content ranged 1.1 to 2.2, which is considered a high ratio and a tendency of tender mix design was observed. Thus, the localized surface shoving and groove closure of the runway 12R-30L could be attributed to the use of excessive fine contents and tender mix design. Based on the structural evaluation results, it was ascertained that the analysis assuming the pavement structure as AC pavement gives more realistic structural life when the asphalt overlay is thicker enough compared to PCC layer because the existing PCC pavement under asphalt overlay acts more like a high quality base material.
Evaluation of Characteristics of Tack Coat for Porous Pavement using Direct Shear Test
Kim, Nak-Seok ; Hong, Eun-Cheol ; Jo, Shin-Haeng ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 1, 2009, Pages 27~32
The main objective of this study is to develop a test for measuring the bond shear strength between pavement layers. The research is also conducted to evaluate tack coat materials and application rate in porous pavement. The experiment includes using two types of emulsions (RSC-4, Modified Emulsion) and a asphalt binder type (HM-1). HM-1 was developed to be applied in porous pavement. The bond shear strengths were measured by a direct shear type device under various test conditions. The shear strength may not be appropriate in the evaluation of the bond shear strength, while the toughness of the test may be useful. In case of the tack coat application rate in porous pavement, RSC-4 has to be used a minimum amount of
and modified emulsion asphalt has to be applied a volume of use
. HM-1, asphalt cement type, is far stronger bond shear strength than emulsified asphalt tack coat and had showed the excellent trackless property.
Evaluation of Compaction Properties of Subgrade Soil by Gyratory Compaction Curve
Lee, Kwan-Ho ; Cha, Min-Kyung ; Lim, Yu-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 1, 2009, Pages 33~40
Compacted soil are used in almost roadway construction with compaction of soil. The direct consequence of soil compaction is densification, which in turn results in higher strength, lower compressibility, and lower permeability. The standard and modified Proctor tests are the most common methods. Both of these tests utilize impact compaction, although impact compaction shows no resemblance to any type of field compaction and is ineffective for granular soils. It has been dramatic advances in field compaction equipment. Therefore, the Proctor tests no longer represent the maximum achievable field density. The main objectives of this research are a survey of current field compaction equipment, laboratory investigation of compaction characteristics, and field study of compaction characteristics. The findings from the laboratory and compaction program were used to establish preliminary guidelines for suitable laboratory compaction procedures.
A Numerical Analysis on the Diaphragm and Cutout Structures for Improvement of Structure Performance in Orthotropic Steel Decks
Shin, Jae-Choul ; An, Ju-Og ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 1, 2009, Pages 41~47
Transverse rib web of orthotropic steel decks is highly susceptible to stress concentration due to out-of-plane and oil canning deformation caused by longitudinal rib distortion. In particular, stress concentrations are observed in the crossing point of longitudinal rib-transverse rib-deck plate, and cutout parts of transverse rib. The main objective of this study is to improve structure performance and to reduce the stress concentration of aforementioned susceptible parts. It is known that the installation of diaphragm alleviates stress concentrations between crossing point ant cutout. The influence of transverse rib placement and cutout width on stress concentrations was thoroughly investigated through numerical analyses. The numerical result showed that diaphragms produce the structural details for improved structure performance, when the transverse rib was placed in the same location with diaphragms. In any case, it is certain that the installation of diaphragms has more advantageous than the case without diaphragms in terms of structure performance of orthotropic steel decks. In this study, the distance ratio(
) is defined as the ratio of the distance(
) between the deck plate and longitudinal rib bottom to the distance(
) between the deck plate and crossing point of longitudinal rib-transverse rib in cutout part. It has been found that the optimal distance ratio was 0.85 from the numerical simulation.
A study of Mechanical Properties of Hot Mix Asphalt for Developing of Quiet Pavement
Lee, Kwan-Ho ; Jeong, Tae-Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 1, 2009, Pages 49~55
Our domestic economy has been developed very rapidly after 1960's. Also, it is dramatically increasing traffic on road and surround environmental issues. Especially, rapid economic growth has been induced large construction of pavement, and bigger and higher traffic for transportation. These are making air pollution, traffic noise and vibration. The social requirement against the revealed road environment and traffic sound reduction is being demanded. Traffic noise of city zone is showed over the environmental specification more than 57%. In order to overcome these situations, the social attention is being increased. The quiet pavement is the same format of permeable pavement, but is not same for functional performance. In this research, it has been carried out to evaluate the fundamental-mechanical properties of hot mix asphalt for quiet pavement. Especially, couple of laboratory tests are conducted like marshall stability, resilient modulus, indirect tensile test, and compaction energy analysis with gyratory compaction curve. Also, two-layer pavement system has been adopted for developing of quiet pavement. The basic performance of hot mix asphalt of quiet pavement show a satisfaction of specification of hot mix asphalt.
Development of Asphalt Concrete Rutting Model by Triaxial Compression Test
Lee, Kwan-Ho ; Hyun, Seong-Cheol ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 1, 2009, Pages 57~64
This study intends to evaluate of the characteristics of pavement deformation and develop the model for prediction model in the asphalt layer using a regression analysis. In test, there are two different asphalt binders and 5 different aggregate types. The air voids of hot mix asphalt are 6% and 10% for target value. Repeated triaxial compression test with 3 different confining pressures was used for test at 3 different test temperatures. It is going to verify the main parameters for permanent deformation of HMA and to develop the distress model. This paper is to figure out the factor affecting the pavement deformation, and then to develop model the pavement deformation for asphalt mixture. Also, the reliability of prediction model has been studied. The permanent deformation prediction model for asphalt mixtures with temperature, loading time, and air voids has been developed and the proposed permanent deformation prediction model has been validated by using the multiple regression approach which is called Statistical Package for the Social Sciences(SPSS).
Dynamic Serviceability Estimation of the Simple Railway Bridge with PSC I Girder
Kang, Sung-Hoo ; Choi, Tae-Geun ; Park, Sun-Joon ; Kim, Sung-Il ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 1, 2009, Pages 65~71
In this study, dynamic serviceability of PSC, PreStressed Concrete, simple railway bridge with 25m span was estimated. All of the high speed and general train loads were considered at estimation. Natural frequency is estimated about 8Hz and includes within optimum natural frequency extent of the railway bridge. Also, the bridge was detected that resonance occurrence possibility does not exist. When travel the Moogunghwa train, acceleration response was measured to 0.43g that exceed limitation value 0.35g. Also, rotation angle of girders end did not satisfy design standard of railway bridge for high speed train, but impact coefficient and deflection satisfied design standard. As a result, that railway bridge was detected that is securing dynamic safety and serviceability partially, but methods to decrease vibration acceleration response are required.
Estimation of Sodium Hydroxide Waste Origin-Destination Matrices for Preventing Hazardous Material Transportation Disasters
Kim, Geun-Young ; Jung, Tae-Hwa ; Kim, Sang-Won ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 1, 2009, Pages 73~79
Hazardous materials (HazMats) are substances that are flammable, explosive, toxic, or harmful, if released into the environment. Since the transportation of HazMats increases in many developed countries, HazMat transportation has the key function in the process of HazMat usage to trace information of production, storage, shipment, usage, and waste disposal. The Korean Ministry of Environment (KMOE) and the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) have developed many laws, regulations, and standards for hazardous materials. However, the Korean HazMat laws, regulations, and standards do not guarantee accurate information of HazMat origin-destination (O-D) shipments, though the HazMat O-D movement is the critical information in safety and security of HazMat transportation. The objectives of this research are: (1) to investigate emerging and recurrent issues in Korean HazMat transportation, and (2) to develop the estimation method of O-D matrices for hazardous materials under limited data sets. The sodium hydroxide waste shipment among forty candidate HazMats is selected as the sample research case. The growth-factor method is applied to estimate the 2005 O-D matrix of sodium-hydroxide waste shipment. The column-and-row factoring process is used to calibrate the estimated sodium-hydroxide O-D matrix. The result shows the applicability of the O-D estimation process for hazardous materials. The Sodium Hydroxide Waste Origin-Destination Matrix is obtained to trace routes and paths of the Sodium Hydroxide transportation.
Research of Regional Disaster Prevention Evaluation(2): In the case of kangwon-do
Kim, Kyoung-Nam ; Kwon, Gun-Ju ; Baek, Min-Ho ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 1, 2009, Pages 81~89
Until now, Korea carried out disaster management under the perception that the central government or the local government bodies are totally responsible. However as the size of disasters become larger, the capacity of the public disaster management did not live up to the expectations. To analyze this issue, this research conducted interviews on disaster response readiness by "individual resident-residents cooperation-public/private collaboration" according to each preparedness-response-recovery stage, as resident representatives (Head of Ri, Head of Tong) as subjects. Based on the interviews, surveys were conducted to deduct the necessary factors needed for the general residents to exhibit disaster prevention capabilities. The surveys consist of 6 factors-risk perception, evacuation inductively, individual evacuation response, disaster prevention system, lookout & precaution, information communication.
The Study for Hazardous Material Incidents in Korea
Kim, Geun-Young ; Il, James E. Moore ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 1, 2009, Pages 91~97
Hazardous material (HazMat) is the material or substance that poses an unreasonable risk to human safety and health, and to property when transported in gases, solids, and liquids of all sizes. When HazMats are improperly released, they have potential to harm humans, property, or the environment to be considered hazardous, resulting in human-caused disasters. As the Korean economy has advanced, the use of HazMats has increased. And, the total number and the impacts of HazMat incidents have grown up. It increases the risk of HazMat incidents. When many goods of HazMats are transported from supply points to demand places, it is important to know what the types and characteristics of HazMat incidents are in terms of disaster management. The objectives of this research are: (1) to investigate types and characteristics of HazMats that generate HazMat incidents in Korea, and (2) to analyze time-series trends of HazMat incidents in terms of facilities and/or transportation. Statistical analysis methods including frequency analysis or analysis of category data are applied to examine the significance of difference in HazMat incidents.
A Study on Debris Flow Landslide Disasters and Restoration at Inje of Kangwon Province, Korea
Lee, Cheol-Ju ; Yoo, Nam-Jae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 1, 2009, Pages 99~105
The main purpose of this work is to analyse damages caused by debris flows during the heavy rainfalls at Inje of Kangwon Province, Korea. A series of site investigations have been carried out to survey the characteristics of debris flows occurred during the summer season of 2006. It has been found that major losses in human life and property are caused by discharge of soil and rock fragments from landslides. During the rainfall high precipitation rate of 113.5 mm/hour and 355 mm/day was recorded, which could happen at 80-500 year period. Comparing the rainfall record with the time of landslides being occurred, occurrence of the landslides is directly related to heavy rainfalls. At present, several debris barriers have been built at the valleys and natural slopes have been protected by the seed spray method. It is intended to propose an alternative of restoration of landslide damages and maintenance based on findings from the current study.
A Riverbed Change Prediction by River-Crossing Structure -Focused on the Major River Reaches of the Multifunctional Administrative City-
Yeon, Kyu-Sung ; Jeong, Sang-Man ; Yun, Chan-Young ; Lee, Joo-Heon ; Shin, Kwang-Seob ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 1, 2009, Pages 107~113
This study has been conducted for the long-term riverbed change prediction on Geum River and Miho Stream surrounding the planned Multifunctional Administrative City and the neighboring regions by the construction of a small dam. Based on the analysis of vertical riverbed changes of the cross-sectional data for the years 1988, 2002 and 2007, minimum bed elevation significantly decreased in both Geum River and Miho Stream in 2007 as compared to 1988. Compared to 2002, however, a slight elevation change was observed. To make a long-term prediction on riverbed changes by the construction of a small dam, a one dimensional HEC-RAS 4.0 model has been used. By the fixed bed model test, the water levels were calibrated. By using the cross-sectional data of 1988 and 2002, verification was conducted under a movable bed model. According to the prediction of riverbed changes for each scenario with varying height of small dam, minor impact is expected around Miho Stream while major impact is expected around Geum River by 2017, as the small dam height increases. If the small dam is 7m-high, for example, it's been simulated that 1.59m deposition would be expected around the upper stream of Miho Stream Confluence while 1.98m scour would be expected around the downstream of the small dam.
The Prediction and Analysis of Bed Changes Characteristics in the Seomjin River Downstream
Ceon, Ir-Kweon ; Kim, Min-Hwan ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 1, 2009, Pages 115~121
It is to use effectively for stream channel and watershed management as the prediction and the analysis of bed changes characteristics in the Seomjin river downstream. The necessary data (section, bed composition material, pivot point water elevation, coefficient of roughness) with regard to analysis of the bed changes characteristics were based upon the survey data and analysis results in the Seomjin river maintenance basic plan. The prediction of bed changes was also completed with HEC-6 model. The study results were summarized as follows: The main factor of bed changes in the Seomjin river downstream can be decided by extreme extraction of bed aggregate rather than the change of hydrological data. According to the analysis of bed stability based on the relation between friction velocity and representative grain size, and the relation between dimensionless tractive force and representative grain size, the Seomjin river downstream appears to be increased overall. The bed composition material in the stream channel of the Seomjin river of 2003 year shows higher composition rate of gravel and lower composition rate of sand as compared to those of 1989 year. According to result that the prediction of bed changes, it is estimated that the bed will be risen approximately 1.5 m to the place up to 9 km from the estuary, have been repetitively risen and fallen up to 1 m to the place between
section, and fallen about 0.5m to the place between
section. As a result, the bed of the Seomjin river downstream can be decided to be risen gradually. However, since the prediction of this study is based on the assumption that there will be no forced aggregate picking, the bed changes can be much greater than expected when there is a massive aggregate picking as it had happened before.
The Developmet and Application of GIS-Based Geomorpho-Hydrological Watershed Model (G2WMS)
Kim, Hong-Tae ; Shin, Hyun-Suk ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 1, 2009, Pages 123~133
In this study, we developed the GIS-based Geomorpho-hydrological Watershed Modeling System(
) which could consider both nonlilear rainfall-runoff relationship based on Geomorpho-Climatic Unit Hydrograph(GCUH) as well as watershed system inducing river routing. The developed new model was calibrated at the gaged rainfall events at natural watersheds and previewed to apply at the ungaged mountain basins, such as Sulma basin for small mountain basin and Andong-Dam basin for large scale basin, compared single with partitioned basin in the observed unit hydrographs and rainfall-discharge events. Finally, at the large scale Andong dam basin, we concluded that partitioned basin cases which including th nonlinear GCUH and river routing methods were superior to single basins which including the traditional methods in rainfall-discharge simulation at the mountain basins.
A Characteristic Analysis of Critical Duration of Design Rainfall in Medium Sized Catchment
Lee, Jung-Sik ; Park, Jong-Young ; Kim, Seok-Dong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 1, 2009, Pages 135~144
The objective of this study is to examine the effect of hydrological factors on critical durations, and to analyze the relationship between the watershed characteristics and the critical duration of design rainfall in the medium sized catchments. Hydrological factors are used to return period, probable intensity formula, hydrograph method, effective rainfall and temporal pattern of design rainfall. Hydrologic analysis has done over the 44 medium sized catchments with
. Watershed characteristics such as catchment area, channel length, channel slope, catchment slope, time to peak, concentration of time and curve number were used to simulate correlation analysis. All of hydrological factors except return period influence to the critical duration of design rainfall. Also, it is revealed that critical duration is influenced by the watershed characteristics such as area, channel length, channel slope and catchment slope. Multiple regression analysis using watershed characteristics is carried out for the estimation of relationship among these. And the 7 type equations are proposed by the multiple regression using watershed characteristics and critical duration of design rainfall. The determination coefficient of multiple regression equations shows
Analysis of Flood Reduction Effect of Washlands based on Variation of Rollway Characteristic
Baek, Chun-Woo ; Kim, Bok-Cheon ; Ahn, Tae-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 1, 2009, Pages 145~150
Because it is difficult to install new large hydraulic structure, washland is considered as alternatives of hydraulic facility. As flood reduction effect of washland is dependent on flood, hydrograph, capacity of washland and spillway height, applying adequate spillway height is very important to maximize flood reduction effect of washland. In this study, effect of variation of spillway height on flood reduction effect of washlands is analyzed. The existing model developed to make decision for optimal location of washland using flood reduction effect as evaluation function and location of washland as decision variable was revised for this purpose. The spillway height of washland is added as decision variable and revised model finally give optimal location and spillway height of washland as result. The developed model has been applied to the Ansung River basin and application result was compared with that of existing model. The application result shows that developed model can give more efficient result than existing model.
Evaluation System of Flood Damages using Stream Stage
Kim, Jong-Soon ; Lee, Young-Dai ; Oh, Kook-Yul ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 1, 2009, Pages 151~158
Many people have been suffering and loosing their property from inundation due to concentrated rain and massive storm. Although, river banks are strengthened and pumping stations are constructed to protect the life and property of people, the flood damages (disaster)could not be controlled, in fact it is increasing. In USA, CWMS (Corps Water Management System) has very good system of integration of study of rainfall data, computation of stream stage and simulation of flood damages, but there is lack of this type of study and analysis in the domestic context, so we have been facing many difficulties in simulation of flood damages. Therefore, a systematic collecting of data analysis and evaluation of flood damages is necessary. The main objective of this study is to suggest a systematic data collection and evaluation method, which could be useful to prevent the life and property from unusual damages. In this study, the system (Flood Damage Evaluation Model; K-FDEM) is proposed to evaluate the flood damages from rainfall with considering many field parameters.