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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation
Editor in Chief :
Moo Jong Park
Volume & Issues
Volume 9, Issue 6 - Dec 2009
Volume 9, Issue 5 - Oct 2009
Volume 9, Issue 4 - Aug 2009
Volume 9, Issue 3 - Jun 2009
Volume 9, Issue 2 - Apr 2009
Volume 9, Issue 1 - Feb 2009
Selecting the target year
Nonlinear Analysis of a Circular CFT Column Considering Confining Effects
Han, Taek-Hee ; Won, Deok-Hee ; Yi, Gyu-Sei ; Kang, Young-Jong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 6, 2009, Pages 1~9
An analysis program to predict the behavior of a concrete filled steel tube column (CFT) was developed. It considered confining effect, material nonlinearity, strain hardening of steel, and initial axial load. With the developed program, axial load-bending moment interaction analyses, moment-lateral displacement relation analyses, and lateral load-lateral displacement relation analyses were performed. For the verification of the developed program, analysis results were compared with the test results from the other researches. The verified results showed that the developed program predicted the behavior of the CFT column with agreeable accuracy. And they showed that it is necessary to consider the confining effect for the reasonable analysis of the CFT column. A simple parametric study was performed and it chose the strength of unconfined concrete and the thickness of a steel tube as the major parameters affecting the behavior of the CFT column. The parametric analysis results showed that the CFT column had higher strength and smaller ductility by increasing the strength of concrete. But the CFT column showed higher strength and larger ductility by increasing the thickness of the steel tube.
Behavior of Strut in Concrete-filled FRP PSC Bridge using FBG Sensors
Chung, Won-Seok ; Kang, Dong-Hoon ; An, Zu-Og ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 6, 2009, Pages 11~15
Recently, a new PSC (Prestressed Concrete) bridge system, which is supported by Concrete-filled fiber-reinforced polymer (CFFRP) strut, has been introduced. This bridge is able to reduce self-weight and increase the width of traditional PSC bridges. However, no relevant research has been reported on local behavior of CFFRP strut in the bridge system. The purpose of this study is to investigate local behavior of CFFRP struts using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. Field tests were performed to examine the hoop strains and longitudinal strains of the FRP strut under various lateral positions and velocities of a test truck. It has been observed that CFFRP strut is under compression regardless of vehicle speed and location. However, the CFFRP strut is sensitive to the lateral position of vehicles in terms of strain magnitude. Results also indicated that the FBG sensors can faithfully record the hoop and longitudinal strains of the FRP strut without electro-magnetic interference.
Analysis of the Secular Trend of the Annual and Monthly Precipitation Amount of South Korea
Kim, Gwang-Seob ; Yim, Tae-Kyung ; Park, Chan-Hee ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 6, 2009, Pages 17~30
In this study, the existence of possible deterministic longterm trend of precipitation amount, monthly maximum precipitation, rain day, the number of rain day greater than 20mm, 30mm, and 80mm was analyzed using the Mann-Kendall rank test and the data from 62 stations between 1905 and 2004 in South Korea. Results indicate that the annual and monthly rainfall amount increases and the number of rain days which have more than 80mm rainfall a day, increases. However the number of rain days decreases. Also, monthly trend analysis of precipitation amount and monthly maximum precipitation increases in Jan., May, Jun., Jul., Aug., and Sep. and they decrease in Mar., Apr., Oct., Nov., and Dec. Monthly trend of the number of rain day greater than 20mm, 30mm, and 80mm increases in Jun., Jul., Aug., and Sep. However results of Mann-Kedall test demonstrated that the ratio of stations, which have meaningful longterm trend in the significance level of 90% and 95%, is very low. It means that the random variability of the analyzed precipitation related data is much greater than their linear increment.
Interdecadal Variation of Tropical Cyclone Genesis Frequency over the Western North Pacific
Choi, Ki-Seon ; Kim, Baek-Jo ; Lee, Seong-Lo ; Park, Jong-Kil ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 6, 2009, Pages 31~39
This study has found that there is a reverse phase with interdecadal variation in temporal variations of tropical cyclone (TC) genesis frequency (TCGF) between Northwest sector and Southeast sector, based on climatological mean tropical cyclone genesis location over the western North Pacific. The TCGF in the Northwest sector has been increased since the mid 1980s (1986-2005), while TCGF in the Southeast sector was higher until the early 1970s (1951-1970). The analysis of a difference between 1986-2005 and 1951-1970 showed results as follows: i) Through the analysis of vertical wind shear (VWS) and sea surface temperature (SST), less VWS and higher SST in the former (latter) period was located in the Northwest (Southeast) sector. ii) In the analysis of TC passage frequency (TCPF), TCs occurred in the Northwest sector frequently passed from east sea of the Philippines, through East China Sea, to Korea and Japan in the latter period, while TCs in the former period frequently has a lot of influences on South China Sea (SCS). In the case of TCs occurred in the Southeast sector, TCs in the west (east), based on
had a high passage frequency in the latter (former) period. In particular, TCs during the latter period frequently moved toward from the east sea of the Philippines to SCS and southern China. iii) This difference of TCPF between the two periods was characterized by 500 hPa anomalous pressure pattern. Particularly, anomalous cyclonic circulation strengthened over the East Asian continent caused anomalous southerlies along the East Asian coast line from the east sea of the Philippines to be predominate. These anomalous winds served as steering flows that TC can easily move toward same regions.
Analysis of Relation between Foundation Stiffness and Deformation below Widening Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Sections
Yang, Sung-Chul ; Lim, Yu-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 6, 2009, Pages 41~49
Poor compaction of subgrade soil causes low stiffness and bearing capacity of sublayers so that faulting and differential settlements can be generated between new and old pavement surfaces in case of widening works. However, investigation of verifying the reason of producing the defects in the pavements are not performed in detail. In this study, several in-field tests including PMT and PBT were performed for obtaining stiffness of the sublayers in new and old pavements respectively of an widening project. Then, based on the obtained stiffness values and the measured deformations obtained by specially designed tilt meters, the main reasons of generating different deformations between the old and new pavement sections and the relationship between the deformation and stiffness are verified.
Identifying Characteristics of Incidents at Hazardous Material Facilities
Kim, Geun-Young ; Kim, Sang-Won ; Won, Jai-Mu ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 6, 2009, Pages 51~56
Safety and quality assessment systems are very important in manufacture, storage, transportation, and handling of hazardous materials(hazmat) to prevent hazmat disasters. At present, hazardous materials exist everywhere in our daily lives with various forms of plastics, household products of cleaning and washing detergents, fertilizers or petroleum-related products. However, hazardous materials are dangerous substances when they are released to human or environment. Hazardous materials become very widely used substances in the age of oil-based industrial economy. The Korean Ministry of Environment (KMOE) describes about one hundred thousand types of chemicals are produced and used worldwide. Over four hundred new chemicals are introduced in every year. A crucial question for the Korean hazardous material management may have been raised: Will you be safe from hazardous material incidents? The gas leak disaster at Union Carbide's Bhopal, India in 1984 that made over 6,400 people killed and 30,000 to 40,000 people seriously injured is the representative case for the safety of hazmat. Korea becomes vulnerable to hazmat disaster due to the development of high-tech industry. Thus, the risk assessment system is required to Korea for transferring abandoned hazmat management systems to self-correcting safety systems. This research analyzed characteristics of various hazmat incidents applying statistical analysis methods including frequency analysis or analysis of category data to hazmat incidents for ten years. All of three analyses of category data indicate the significance of causality between hazmat incident site groups and seasons, regional groups, and incident casualty groups.
Probabilistic Risk Evaluation Method for Human-induced Disaster by Risk Curve Analysis
Park, So-Soon ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 6, 2009, Pages 57~68
Recently, damage scale of human-induced disaster is sharply increased but its occurrences and damages are so uncertain that it is hard to construct a resonable response & mitigation plan for infrastructures. Therefore, the needs for a advanced risk management technique based on a probabilistic and stochastic risk evaluation theory is increased. In this study, these evaluation methods were investigated and a advanced disaster risk evaluation method, which is based on the probabilistic or stochastic risk assessment theory and also is a quantitative evaluation technique, was suggested. With this method, the safety changes as the result of fire damage management for recent 40 years was analyzed. And the result was compared with that of Japan. Through the consilience of the traditional risk assessment method and this method, a stochastical estimation technique for the uncertainty of future disaster's damage could support a cost-effective information for a resonable decision making on disaster mitigation.
Ijang's Role and Stress as an Emergency Manager
Kim, Man-Jae ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 6, 2009, Pages 69~75
This paper examines the evolving role of ijang(village representative) and his job stress during Pyeongchang floods in 2006. Results based on telephone survey and interviews reveal that ijang played a crucial role in evacuating residents, allocating resources and commanding the recovery, although official job description considered him as only a mediator between local officers and villagers. Moreover, unexpected enormous burden created severe job stress to many ijangs; while 60 percent felt like quitting the job, about three fourth felt fretful whenever the telephone rang and lost some weights. Chi-square analysis also indicated that previous job training, villagers' abuse, and disaster damages were significantly related with job stress. These results suggest that the emergent human resources model rather than the command and control model can be an effective approach for a disaster management plan in rural Korea.
Estimation of Economic Impacts of SARS Disaster to Tour Demands of Four Major Countries in Korea
Kim, Geun-Young ; Moore II, James E. ; Chae, Seon-Hee ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 6, 2009, Pages 77~87
Potential risks of communicable disease outbreaks have significantly increased in the era of global society. However, contingency planning of local governments for communicable diseases is not prepared to the proper level in various governmental sectors of many countries. Human being has been remarkable advances in medical science and public health. However, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) still remains as a very dangerous transmissible disease that has great potential to create catastrophic consequences of casualties. The SARS outbreak between November 2002 and July 2003 resulted in 8,096 known infected cases and 774 deaths with a mortality rate of 9.6% worldwide (WHO, 2004). It is regarded as one of the human health disasters. Since about sixty-six percent of total SARS cases in the world were reported in People's Republic of China, Korean tour industry was significantly affected as a neighboring country. The objective of this research is to investigate major factors of Korea entry data sets, and to analyze economic impacts of Korean tour business interruption due to the period of SARS outbreak with tourist cases of four countries: Japan, U.S.A., China, and Taiwan. Results from this research show the seasonal and long-term trends of entry data sets of four countries, and direct and indirect impacts of SARS to Korean tour industry.
A Numerical Study on Characteristics of Flood Wave Passing through Urban Areas (1) : Development and Verification of a Numerical Model
Jeong, Woo-Chang ; Lee, Jin-Woo ; Cho, Yong-Sik ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 6, 2009, Pages 89~97
In this study, a two-dimensional unstructured finite volume model based on the shallow-water equations and well-balanced HLLC scheme is developed. The model is verified by applying to various one- and two-dimensional problems related to the analyses of dam-break wave. The predicted numerical results agree very well with available analytical solutions and laboratory measurements. The model provides slightly more accurate results compared with the existing models.
Analysis of Precipitation Distribution in the region of Gangwon with Spatial Analysis (II): Analysis of Quantiles with Interested Durations and Return Periods
Jeong, Chang-Sam ; Um, Myoung-Jin ; Heo, Jun-Haeng ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 6, 2009, Pages 99~109
In this study, often the spatial distribution of precipitation was analyzed using the quantile with regional frequency analysis and spatial analysis to find out the detail distribution of extreme precipitation for preventing the disaster in the region of Gangwon. The hourly precipitation data of 66 stations in Gangwon were used. As the results of regional frequency analysis, it shows that the generalized logistic (GLO) distribution is the best for the region of Gangwon. As the results of spatial analysis, the quaniles have high vaules nearby Seolakdong, Daegwallyeong and Cheongil as the duration of precipitation increase, and the change of spatial distribution occurs severely according to the duration of precipitation. The spatial characteristics of precipitation appears clearly as the return period of quantile increases. As the results of the spatial distribution of precipitation in Gangwon heavy quantiles usually are appeared in Yongdong, and the spatial distributions of quantile in Yongseo are various according to the duration and the return period of quantile. Therefore, to estimate more accurate quantiles in Gangwon, various geographical and weather conditions are considered additionally for the regional precipitation frequency analysis.
Characteristics Analysis for RUSLE Factors based on Measured Data of Gangwon Experimental Watershed (I)
Lee, Jong-Seol ; Chung, Jae-Hak ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 6, 2009, Pages 111~117
The RUSLE(Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation) has been most widely used to estimate sediment yield in Korea. However RUSLE factors have not been verified based on measured data of sediment yield. The analysis of characteristics for the rainfall erosivity factor R was performed in this study. The R factor of RUSLE is expressed as multiple of total rainfall energy and maximum 30 min rainfall intensity. In this study, the characteristics of 10 rainfall energy equations were investigated using data measured in Gangneung experimental watershed, and applicability of each equations was reviewed based on results of the correlation analysis between measured sediment yield and total rainfall, between measured sediment yield and maximum intensity, and between measured sediment yield and total rainfall energy yield. Also, the relationship of I30 and I60 was proposed using 10-min rainfall data during 9 years.
Characteristics Analysis for RUSLE Factors based on Measured Data of Gangwon Experimental Watershed(II)
Lee, Jong-Seol ; Chung, Jae-Hak ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 6, 2009, Pages 119~124
In this study, the characteristics of estimating methodology for RUSLE factors such as soil erodibility factor, slope length-steepness factor, and cover management factor were reviewed and then the relative error according to each methodology was analyzed. RUSLE was applied to experimental watershed for 42 storm events and their results were compared with measured sediment yield to examine the applicability of RUSLE. As a result, this paper found that it should be necessary to consider vegetation effect for forest application of RUSLE as cover management was the most sensitive factor. Also, soil erodbility factor was calculated from data of soil series by National Academy of Agricultural Science caused sediment yield to be overestimated because there were big differences between the soil series and on-site soil texture. The 22.7% of maximum relative error was shown according to selecting the rain energy equation. In addition, it will be necessary to verify the RUSLE factors with more data in order to improve their accuracy.
Estimation of the Flash Flood Severity using Flash Flood Index
Kim, Eung-Seok ; Choi, Hyun-Il ; Lee, Dong-Eui ; Kang, Dong-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 6, 2009, Pages 125~131
The aim of this study is to quantify the severity of flash food for a study watershed in Korea by estimation of flash food index using flood runoff hydrograph following Bhaskar et. al (2000). As an extension of the previous research, we examine the relation between flash food index and rainfall intensity, rainfall duration, and total runoff, respectively. This study has estimated the flash food index through simulated flood hydrographs to investigate the relative severity of flash flood in an ungauged basin, Megok river basin for 31 flood events.
Evaluation of Subsystem Importance Index considering Effective Supply in Water Distribution Systems
Seo, Min-Yeol ; Yoo, Do-Guen ; Kim, Joong-Hoon ; Jun, Hwan-Don ; Chung, Gun-Hui ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 6, 2009, Pages 133~141
The main objective of water distribution system is to supply enough water to users with proper pressure. Hydraulic analysis of water distribution system can be divided into Demand Driven Analysis (DDA) and Pressure Driven Analysis (PDA). Demand-driven analysis can give unrealistic results such as negative pressures in nodes due to the assumption that nodal demands are always satisfied. Pressure-driven analysis which is often used as an alternative requires a Head-Outflow Relationship (HOR) to estimate the amount of possible water supply at a certain level of pressure. However, the lack of data causes difficulty to develop the relationship. In this study, effective supply, which is the possible amount of supply while meeting the pressure requirement in nodes, is proposed to estimate the serviceability and user's convenience of the network. The effective supply is used to calculate Subsystem Importance Index (SII) which indicates the effect of isolating a subsystem on the entire network. Harmony Search, a stochastic search algorithm, is linked with EPANET to maximize the effective supply. The proposed approach is applied in example networks to evaluate the capability of the network when a subsystem is isolated, which can also be utilized to prioritize the rehabilitation order or evaluate reliability of the network.
Reliability Evaluation of Parameter Estimation Methods of Probability Density Function for Estimating Probability Rainfalls
Han, Jeong-Woo ; Kwon, Hyun-Han ; Kim, Tae-Woong ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 6, 2009, Pages 143~151
Extreme hydrologic events cause serious disaster, such as flood and drought. Many researchers have an effort to estimate design rainfalls or discharges. This study evaluated parameter estimation methods to estimate probability rainfalls with low uncertainty which will be used in design rainfalls. This study collected rainfall data from Incheon, Gangnueng, Gwangju, Busan, and Chupungryong gage station, and generated synthetic rainfall data using ARMA model. This study employed the maximum likelihood method and the Bayesian inference method for estimating parameters of the Gumbel and GEV distribution. Using a bootstrap resampling method, this study estimated the confidence intervals of estimated probability rainfalls. Based on the comparison of the confidence intervals, this study recommended a proper parameter estimation method for estimating probability rainfalls which have a low uncertainty.
A Study on Development of Program for Estimating Reservoirs Outflow using Genetic Algorithm
Ahn, Sang-Dae ; Kim, Won-Il ; Ahn, Byung-Chan ; Ahn, Won-Sik ;
Journal of Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, volume 9, issue 6, 2009, Pages 153~159
In order to estimate release water from reservoirs located on ungaged watersheds, an algorithm was suggested based on hydrologic reservoir routing and real time calibrating watershed parameters. A prototype - simple computer program was developed to implement the algorithm with Genetic Algorithm technic. The program was applied to a mid-size reservoir and its ungauged watershed area using observed rainfall data, spillway gates operation data and reservoir water stage time series data under a existing storm event. The result shows that the algorithm and the prototype would be useful to simulate released water from reservoirs.