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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 33, Issue 6 - Dec 2013
Volume 33, Issue 5 - Oct 2013
Volume 33, Issue 4 - Aug 2013
Volume 33, Issue 3 - Jun 2013
Volume 33, Issue 2 - Apr 2013
Volume 33, Issue 1 - Feb 2013
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Variation of Nanoindentation Curve due to Wear of Indenter Apex and Its Correction Method
Lee, Yun-Hee ; Kim, Yong-Il ; Park, Jong Seo ; Kim, Kwang Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 129~137
DOI : 10.7779/JKSNT.2013.33.2.129
A force calibration of a nanoindenter and a 3D morphology observation of indenters were carried out in this study. A microbalance calibrated with standard weights was used for measuring the loads generated by a nanoindenter. The indentation load could be calibrated from the ratio of measured and generated loads and the first contact load also could be detected from the microbalance data. By analyzing atomic force microscopy images of two indenters, curvature radii of apexes were determined by
nm, respectively, for the nearly new indenter A and the severly worn indenter B. Corresponding bluntness depths were estimated by 1.22 and 64.56 nm for the both indenters by overlapping their profiles on the perfect pyramidal shape. In addition, nanoindentation curves obtained from a fused silica reference material with the both indenters showed a depth difference corresponding to the bluntness depth difference along the indentation depth axis. By shifting amounts of the bluntness depths along the horizontal axis, whole nanoindentation curves overlapped on themselves and resulted in nanohardness values consistent within 1.11 % without considering the complex indenter area function of each indenter.
Evaluation of Crack Growth Estimation Parameters of Thick-Walled Cylinder with Non-Idealized Circumferential Through-Wall Cracks
Han, Tae-Song ; Huh, Nam-Su ; Park, Chi-Yong ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 138~146
DOI : 10.7779/JKSNT.2013.33.2.138
The present paper provides the elastic stress intensity factors(SIFs) of thick-walled cylinder with non-idealized circumferential through-wall cracks. For estimating these elastic SIFs, the systematic three-dimensional(3D) elastic finite element(FE) analyses were performed. In order to consider practical shape of thick-walled cylinder and non-idealized circumferential through-wall crack, the values of thickness of cylinder, reference crack length and crack length ratio were systematically varied. As for loading conditions, axial tension, global bending and internal pressure were considered. In particular, in order to calculate the SIFs of thick-walled cylinder with non-idealized circumferential through-wall crack from those of thick-walled cylinder with idealized circumferential through-wall crack, the correction factor representing the effect of non-idealized crack on the SIFs were proposed in this paper. The present results can be applied to accurately evaluate the rupture probabilities of nuclear piping considering actual crack growth behaviors.
A Study for Experiment to Measure Mechanical Properties of Pressurizer Nozzle and Safety-Ends in Nuclear Power Plant
Lee, Kyoung-Soo ; Lee, Sung-Ho ; Kim, Jin-Weon ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 147~153
DOI : 10.7779/JKSNT.2013.33.2.147
Recently the primary water stress corrosion cracking(PWSCC) has occurred in the dissimilar metal weld region between pressurizer nozzle and safe-end in nuclear power plants(NPPs). As material of the pressurizer nozzle, SA508 Gr. 3 low alloy steel was used. F316L stainless steel and Alloy 82/182 were used as safe-end and weld metal, respectively. Although mechanical properties are needed for evaluation of the structural integrity against flaw in the material, material specification and standard don't supply those properties. Therefore, the present study conducted tensile and fracture toughness tests on SA508 Gr.3 and F316L stainless steel at ambient temperature and operating temperature of NPPs and reported the tested results.
Structural Analysis of High Precision Reflector Using Finite Element Analysis
Lee, Sang-Yong ; Kim, Ghiseok ; Kim, Geon-Hee ; Lee, Young-Shin ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 154~159
DOI : 10.7779/JKSNT.2013.33.2.154
In this paper, the effect of bolt clamping force and form accuray of contact surface between mirror and mount on mirror surface was studied. Normally, mirror used in reflecting optical system was assembled with mount by bolts or adhesive. In this case, the tension caused by bolt clamping force or adhesive force may distort the mirror surface. Also, form accuracy error of the contact surface have a negative impact on wrenched mirror surface which assembled by bolts or adhesive. In this study, stress and distorted displacements on mirror surface were analyzed according to the different contact surface form accuracies and bolt clamping forces by using the finite element analysis method.
A Study on the Measurement of Foreign Material in Dissimilar Metal Contact Using Pulse Laser and Confocal Fabry-Perot Interferometer
Hong, Kyung-Min ; Kang, Young-June ; Park, Nak-Kyu ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 160~164
DOI : 10.7779/JKSNT.2013.33.2.160
A laser ultrasonic inspection system is a non-contact inspection device which generates and measures ultrasonics by using laser beam. A laser ultrasonic inspection system provides a high measurement resolution because the ultrasonic signal generated by a pulse laser beam has a wide-band spectrum and the ultrasonic signal is measured from a small focused spot of a measuring laser beam. In this study, galvanic corrosion phenomenon was measured by non-destructive and non-contact method using the laser. The case of mixed foreign material on the part of corrosion was assumed and laser ultrasonic experiment was conducted. Ultrasonic was generated by pulse laser from the back side of the specimen and ultrasonic signal was acquired from the same location of the front side using continuous wave laser and Confocal Fabry-Perot Interferometer(CFPI). The characteristic of the ultrasonic signal of exist foreign material part was analyzed and the location and size of foreign material was measured.
A Study on Utilizing Instrumented Indentation Technique for Evaluating In-field Integrity of Nuclear Structures
Song, Won-Seok ; Kim, Seung-Gyu ; Ahn, Hee-Jun ; Kim, Kwang-Ho ; Kwon, Dongil ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 165~172
DOI : 10.7779/JKSNT.2013.33.2.165
Power generating unit structures are designed and built to meet standard to secure its safety for expected life time. As the structures have been exposed to combined environment, degradation of structure material is accelerated and it can cause unexpected damage; evaluating precise mechanical properties of weak site like welded area is an essential research area as it is directly connected to safety issues. Existing measuring technique like tensile test requires specific size in testing specimen yet it is destructive method which is hard to apply on running structures. To overcome above mentioned limitation, IIT is getting limelight as it is non-destructive and simple method. In this study, latest technique is introduced to evaluate tensile property and residual stress by analyzing stress field occurs under the indenter while IIT is performed. Test on welded area, the weak site of nuclear structures have been practiced and confirmed that IIT can be usefully applied to evaluate integrity in industry.
The Study of Mechanical Properties of Degraded Compacted Graphite Iron(CGI) Under 873~1273 K
Nam, Ki Woo ; Lee, Soo Cheol ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 173~180
DOI : 10.7779/JKSNT.2013.33.2.173
Compacted graphite iron(CGI), also known as vermicular graphite iron, is a metal which is gaining popularity in applications that require either greater strength, or lower weight than cast iron. Recently compacted graphite iron has been used for diesel engine blocks. Considering that using in exhaust manifold of the diesel engine, CGI340 was conducted the heat treatment during 1 hour to 96 hours from 873 to 1273 K. Mechanical characteristics were evaluated. The obtained results are as follows; The tensile strength of the heat treated specimens showed overall lower tensile strength than that of the base metal. Tensile strength decreases with increasing of heat treatment time, and the higher heat treatment temperature and the longer time, were more reduced. The fatigue limit by the ultrasonic fatigue test was approximately 130 MPa of base metal, 100 MPa of 1173 K (96 hrs) specimen, respectively. The hardness decreases with increasing heat treatment time, and the higher the heat treatment temperature was lowered hardness distribution. In CGI340, average hardness of nodular graphite was 120 Hv, average hardness of vermicular graphite was 114 Hv. This showed lower hardness than the base structure ferrite. The nodular graphite and vermicular graphite according to the heat treatment temperature and time didn't have a consistent change. However, the grain size of base structure grew with increasing of heat treatment time.
Nondestructive Characterization for Remanent Life of Advanced Ferritic Steel by Reversible Permeability
Hong, Seung-Pyo ; Ryu, Kwon-Sang ; Kim, Chung-Seok ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 181~186
DOI : 10.7779/JKSNT.2013.33.2.181
We present nondestructive characterization for remanent life of advanced ferritic steels, next-gen energy facility materials by reversible permeability. The reversible permeability is based on the theory that the value of reversible permeability is the same differential of the hysteresis loop. The measurement principle is based on the foundation of harmonics voltage induced in a sensing coil using a lock-in amplifier tuned to the frequency of the exciting one. The peak interval of reversible permeability(PIRP), Vickers hardness, and tensile strength(TS) of the aged samples decreased with aging time. We could estimate the remanent life of advanced ferritic steel by using the relationship between the peak interval of reversible permeability and Larson-Miller parameter(LMP), non-destructively.
Thermographic Inspection of Fatigue Crack by Using Contact Thermal Resistance
Yang, Seungyong ; Kim, Nohyu ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 187~192
DOI : 10.7779/JKSNT.2013.33.2.187
Fatigue crack was detected from a temperature change around surface crack using the thermographic technique. Thermal gradient across the crack decreased very much due to thermal resistance of contact surface in the crack. Heat diffusion flow passing through the discontinuity was visualized in temperature by infrared camera to find and locate the crack. A fatigue crack specimen(SM-45C), which was prepared according to KS specification and notched in its center to initiate fatigue crack from the notch tip, was heated by halogen lamp at the end of one side to generate a heat diffusion flow in lateral direction. A abrupt jump in temperature across the fatigue crack was observed in thermographic image, by which the crack could be located and sized from temperature distribution.
Evaluation of Ultrasonic Nonlinear Characteristics in Heat-Treated Aluminum Alloy
Kim, JongBeom ; Cheon, Chung ; Jhang, Kyung-Young ; Kim, Chung-Seok ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 193~197
DOI : 10.7779/JKSNT.2013.33.2.193
In this study, ultrasonic nonlinear characteristics in the heat-treated aluminum alloy have been evaluated. The nonlinearity of ultrasonic wave has been measured as the acoustic nonlinear parameter
, depending upon the amplitude ratio of the second-order harmonic and the fundamental frequency component of ultrasonic wave propagating through the materials. The parameter
measurement has been carried out with the reflected signals from the back-wall of specimens at the same plane using the contact-type transducers. The heat-treatment, aging, has been achieved at
for various durations in the range of 1 to 50 hours. The tensile strength and elongation are obtained by the tensile test and then compared with the parameter
. There is a peak of the acoustic nonlinear parameter
on 5 hours aging and the
decreases thereafter, exhibiting closed relations with tensile strength and elongation. Also, the heat-treatment time showing peak in the parameter
was identical to that showing severe change in the
curve. These results suggest that the acoustic nonlinear parameter
can be used for monitoring the strength variations with aging of aluminum alloys.
Detection of Acoustic Signal Emitted during Degradation of Lithium Ion Battery
Choi, Chan-Yang ; Byeon, Jai-Won ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 198~204
DOI : 10.7779/JKSNT.2013.33.2.198
Acoustic emission(AE) signal was detected during charge and discharge of lithium ion battery to investigate relationships among cumulative count, discharge capacity, and microdamages. AE signal was received during accelerated charge/discharge cycle test of a coin-type commercial battery. A number of AE signals were successfully detected during charge and discharge, respectively. With increasing number of cycle, discharge capacity was decreased and AE cumulative count was observed to increase. Microstructural observation of the decomposed battery after cycle test revealed mechanical damages such as interface delamination and microcracking of the electrodes. These damages were attributed to sources of the detected AE signals. Based on a linear correlation between discharge capacity and cumulative count, feasibility of AE technique for evaluation of battery degradation was suggested.
Characteristics of Welds of Pure Titanium Plate Using Ultrasonic Attenuation
Seon, Sang-Won ; Yi, Won ; Park, Hee-Dong ; Hwang, Yeong-Tak ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 205~211
DOI : 10.7779/JKSNT.2013.33.2.205
This paper studies on mechanical properties, fractures, and ultrasonic characteristics of Pure Titanium welds using ultrasonic attenuation. Ti specimen was made by using AR purge gas. When the titanium weld specimen is fractured, Tensile tests were conducted in order to observe the ultrasonic signal changes. A scanning electron microscope(SEM) was used to observe changes in failure surface and an ultrasonic normal probe with the central frequency of 4 MHz was used to obtain ultrasonic signals. As a result, the value of the mechanical properties in the weld zone was lower than that in the base zone and heat affected zone(HAZ) from Ti. Also the grain size in the weld zone was bigger than that in the weld zone and HAZ from Ti. Ultrasonic signals using a RMS method presents correlation between envelope area and the tensile strength. Consequently, the ultrasonic method could be potential tool for integrity evaluation of the Ti weld zone.
Measurement of Ballooning Gap Size of Irradiated Fuels Using Neutron Radiography Transfer Method and HV Image Filter
Sim, Cheul-Muu ; Kim, TaeJoo ; Oh, Hwa Suk ; Kim, Joon Cheol ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 212~218
DOI : 10.7779/JKSNT.2013.33.212
A transfer method of neutron radiography was developed to measure the size of the end plug and a gap of an intact K102L-2, the irradiated fuel of a ballooned K174L-3, a ballooned and ruptured K98L-3. A typical irradiation time of 25 min. was determined to obtain a film density of between 2 and 3 of SR X-ray film with neutrons of
. To validate and calibrate the results, a RISO fuel standard sample, Cd plate and ASTM-BPI/SI were used. An activated latent image formed in the
Dy foil was subsequently transferred in a dark room for more than 8 hours to the SR film which is a maximum of three half-lives. Due to the L/D ratio an unsharpness of
and a magnification of 1.0003 were given. After digitizing an image of SR film, the ballooning gap of the plug was discernible by an H/V filter of image processing. The gap size of the ballooned element, K174L-3, is equal to or greater than 1.2 mm. The development of a transfer method played a pivotal role in developing high burn-up of Wolsung and PWR nuclear fuel type.
Single Layer Array of Transmitting and Receiving Spiral Coils for Magnetostrictive Type Long-Range Ultrasonic Testing
Choi, Myoung Seon ; Kim, Yoo Jin ; Lee, Hyo Moon ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 219~225
DOI : 10.7779/JKSNT.2013.33.2.219
Separate and layered transmitting and receiving spiral coil arrays had been used for the optimized individual applications of magnetostrictive type long-range ultrasonic testing. In this study, it was demonstrated that when taking advantages of the spiral coils with the leg width reduced to be half of the previous one and of the empty spaces due to the decrease of leg width, the transmitting and receiving coil array can be arranged to form a single layer structure allowing more easy use and fabrication. Because of the number of turns of the receiving coils that is proportional to their leg width, the sensitivity of the single layer coil array was about half that of the corresponding double layer coil array while it allowed the receiving amplifier to get faster recovery from a saturation due to the main bang echo. It was also found that the two types of coil arrays have almost the same performances in the view points of signal-to-noise ratio and directivity control.
Remarks on of Optimizations of Time-Resolved Pulse Thermography for Nondestructive Testing Evaluations
Kim, Wontae ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 226~231
Advances in Damage Visualization Algorithm of Ultrasonic Propagation Imaging System
Lee, Jung-Ryul ; Sunuwar, Nitam ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing, volume 33, issue 2, 2013, Pages 232~240
This paper presents recent advances in damage visualization algorithms of laser generated ultrasonic propagation imaging(UPI) system. An effective damage evaluation method is required to extract correct information from raw data to properly characterize anomalies present in structure. A temporal-reference free imaging system provides easy and rapid defect inspection capability with less computational complexity. In this paper a number of methods such as ultrasonic wave propagation imaging(UWPI), anomalous wave propagation imaging(AWPI), ultrasonic spectral imaging(USI), wavelet ultrasonic propagation imaging(WUPI), variable time window amplitude mapping(VTWAM), time point adjustment(TPA), time of flight and amplitude mapping(ToF&Amp) and ultrasonic wavenumber imaging(UWI) are discussed with instances of successful implementation on various structures.