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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Association for Radiation Protection
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Dec 1996
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Sep 1996
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Jun 1996
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Mar 1996
Selecting the target year
Intercomparison of the KAERI Reference Photon and Beta Radiation Measurements
Chang, Si-Yeong ; Kim, Bong-Hwan ; Kim, Jang-Lyul ; McDonald, J.C. ; Murphy, M.K. ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 21, issue 4, 1996, Pages 255~262
This paper describes the results of intercomparison measurements of KAERI reference photon and beta radiation fields between the KAERI and the PNNL(Pacific Northwest National Laboratory), recently performed at KAERI radiation calibration and dosimetry laboratory on the basis of the ANSI N13.11 criteria for personal dosimeter performance test. Each laboratory used her own radiation detectors or measurement devices traceable to her national primary standard in measuring the exposure rates for photon fields, the absorbed dose rates for beta radiation fields. The agreements in reference radiation measurements between two laboratories were found to be less than
for photon fields,
for beta radiation fields. Therefore, it could be concluded that KAERI reference radiation fields comply well with the international standard and thus can further serve as a national basis for the researches and developments in radiation protection dosimetry in Korea.
A Theoretical Calculation for Angular Dependence of X-ray Beams on Extremity Phantom
Kim, Jong-Soo ; Yoon, Suk-Chul ; Kim, Jang-Lyul ; Kim, Kwang-Pyo ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 21, issue 4, 1996, Pages 263~271
The ANSI N13.32 recommends that a study of the angular response of a dosimeter be carried out once, although no pass/fail criterion is given for angular response. Gamma dose equivalent conversion and angular dependence factors were calculated by using MCNP code for the case of ANSI N13.32 extremity phantoms(finger and arm) at the depth of
. Those extremity dosimeters were assumed to be irradiated from both monoenergitic photons and ISO X-ray narrow beams. These calculated gamma dose equivalent conversion and angular dependence factors were compared to B. Grosswendt's result calculated by using X-ray beams. The result showed that the dose equivalent conversion factors of this study agreed well with that of B. Grosswendt for all energies within 2% except 7% in the case of the low energies. In the case of angular dependence factors comparison, they agreed within 3%. It was shown that angular dependence factors of the finger phantom decreased as the horizontal angle of the phantom increased for the ISO X-ray beams less than 60keV. For the higher energy X-ray beams range they decreased slightly around 40 degree, but then increased from this energy to 90 degree.
The Developmental Effects of Radiation on ICR Mouse Embryos in Preimplantation Stage
Gu, Yeun-Hwa ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 21, issue 4, 1996, Pages 273~284
Embryos and fetuses are more sensitive to various environmental agents than are adults or children. The biological effects such as intrauterine death and malformation are closely connected with prenatal exposure very various agents. The sensitivity of these embryonic/fetal effects depends on the stage of pregnancy. From the viewpoint of fetal development, embryonic and fetal stages can be divided into three stages : Preimplantation, organogenetic and fetal. Each stage corresponds to 0 to 4.5days, 4.5 to 13.5days, and 13.5days of gestation in mice, respectively. Many studies on the biologcal effects of mice irradiated by
at various stages during organogenesis and fetal period have been performed. Based on these results, the dose-effect and dose-response relationships in malformations, intrauterine death, or retardation of the physical growth have been practically modeled by the ICRP(International Commission on Radiological Protection) and other international bodies for radiation protection. Many experimental studies on mice have made it clear that mice embryos in the preimplantation period have a higher sensitivity to radiation for lethal effects than the embryos/fetuses on other prenatal periods. However, no eratogenic effects of radiation at preimplantation stages of mice have been described in many textbooks. It has been believed that 'all or none action results' for radiation of mice during the preimplantation period were applied. The teratogenic and lethal effects during the preimplantation stage are one of the most important problems from the viewpoint of radiological protection, since the preimplantation stage is the period when the pregnancy itself is not noticed by a pregnant woman. There are many physical or chemical agents which affect embryos/fetuses in the environment. It is assumed that each agents indirectly effects a human. Then, a safety criterion on each agent is determined independently. The pregnant ICR mice on 2, 48, 72 or 96 hours post-conception (hpc), at which are preimplantation stage of embryos, were irradiated whole body Cesium-gamma radiation at doses of 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 Gy with dose rate of 0.2 Gy/min. In the embryos from the fetuses from the mice irradiated at various period in preimplantation, embryonic/fetal mortalities, incidence of external gross malformation, fetal body weight and sex ratio were observed at day 18 of gestation. The sensitivity of embryonic mortalities in the mice irradiated at the stage of preimplantation were higher than those in the mice irradiated at the stage of organogenesis. And the more sensitive periods of preimplantation stage for embryonic death were 2 and 48 hpc, at which embryos were one cell and 4 to 7 cell stage, respectively. Many types of the external gross malformations such as exencephaly, cleft palate and anophthalmia were observed in the fetuses from the mice irradiated at 2, 72 and 96 hpc. However, no malformations were observed in the mice irradiated at 48 hpc, at which stage the embryos were about 6 cell stage precompacted embryos. So far, it is believed that the embryos on preimplantation stage are not susceptible to teratogens such as radiation and chemical agents. In this study, the sensitivity for external malformations in the fetuses from the mice irradiated at preimplantation were higher than those in the fetuses on stage of organogenesis.
An Analysis of
Energy Spectra Using the NaI(T1) Scintillation Detector in the Air and Water
Kim, Eun-Sug ; Park, Jae-Woo ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 21, issue 4, 1996, Pages 285~296
The energy spectra in the air and water of several
sources such as Cr-51, Cs-137, Mn-54, Zn-65 have been investigated using the NaI(T1) scintillation detector. General response functions, which can curve fit the measured spectra, have been constructed. We have found that the constructed response functions can successfully represent the measured spectra in the water as well as in the air, It is possible, by comparing the relevant parameters of the response functions, to quantitatively characterize the changing features of the measured spectra as obtained with varying the water depth. Of the response function parameters, those which affect the shape of the full-energy Peak have most notably changed. Besides, those parameters which affect the shapes of the flat continuum, the Compton continuum and edge have also shown slight changes with varying the water depth.
A New Approach for the Calculation of Neutron Dose Equivalent Conversion Coefficients for PMMA Slab Phantom
Kim, Jong-Kyung ; Kim, Jong-Oh ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 21, issue 4, 1996, Pages 297~311
ANSI decided PMMA slab phantom as a calibration phantom and introduced a conversion coefficient calculation method for it. For photon, the conversion coefficient can be obtained by using backscatter factor and conversion coefficient of the ICRU tissue cube and backscatter factor of the PMMA slab. For neutron, however, the ANSI has not introduced any conversion coefficient calculation method for the PMMA slab. In this work, the ANSI method for the photon conversion coefficient calculation was applied to the neutron conversion coefficient calculation of the PMMA slab. Quality weighted tissue kerma of neutron was applied to calculate the backscatter factors on the ICRU cube and the PMMA slab. The dose conversion coefficient of the ICRU cube was also calculated by using MCNP code. Then, the dose conversion coefficient of the PMMA slab was calculated from two backscatter factors and the dose conversion coefficient of the ICRU cube. The discrepancies of the dose conversion coefficients of the PMMA slab and the ICRU cube were less than 10% except 1eV(20%), 1keV(17%), and 4 MeV(16%).
Technology for AR Dry Storage of Spent Fuel
Lee, Heung-Young ; Yoon, Suk-Jung ; Lee, Ik-Hwan ; Seo, Ki-Seog ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 21, issue 4, 1996, Pages 313~327
As an at-reactor(AR) storage method o( spent fuel, there are horizontal concrete module type, metal storage cask type, concrete storage cask type, dual purpose (transportation and storage) cask type and multi-purpose (transportation, storage and disposal) cask type. All other types except multi-purpose one have been already used for AR dry storage of spent fuels after obtaining operation license in various foreign countries. Also the development of multi-purpose type has been continued for operation license. In America, Japan, Germany, Canada, Spain, Switzerland, and Czech Republic, etc., AR dry storage facilities are under operation or on propulsion, and spent fuels are transported to interim storage facility or reprocessing plant after dry storage at reactor temporarily. At Wolsung site, in case of Korea, concrete silo type has already been introduced, and it is believed to be inevitable to store spent fuels at reactor temporarily, considering the reality that storage capacity of spent fuel is approaching to the limit in some nuclear power plants. In this report, the system characteristics, design requirements, technical standards and status of AR storage system, which is suitable for domestic site such as Kori, have been studied. In most cases, the licensed period of storage cask is limited up to 20 years and the integrity of material and maintenance of leaktightness are required during the whole service life.
Considerations on the Concept of Dose Constraint
Chang, Si-Yeong ; Chung, Kyeong-Ki ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 21, issue 4, 1996, Pages 329~338