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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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Journal DOI :
Korean Association for Radiation Protection
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Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Dec 2003
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Sep 2003
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Jun 2003
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Mar 2003
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Analysis on the contaminant transport in subsurface soil at Daeduk site
Suh, Kyung-Suk ; Kim, Eun-Han ; Hwang, Won-Tae ; Jeong, Hyo-Joon ; Han, Moon-Hee ; Lee, Chang-Woo ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 28, issue 3, 2003, Pages 155~163
The groundwater flow and contaminant transport numerical models have been established for analyzing the movements of pollutants in subsurface soil at Daeduk site. The groundwater flow and concentration of U-234 using the numerical models were simulated around Daeduk nuclear facilities. The computed groundwater flow was mainly advected toward the direction of east and southeast around HANARO in the site. The radioactive material entered into the subsurface soil was transported along the same direction with groundwater flow. The radioactive material deposited on the surface from the calculated concentration distributions was not affected by surrounding environment of the site.
Isolation and Characterization of Humic Acids Present in the Soils at the Vicinity of Domestic Atomic Power Plants(NPPs)
Lee, Chang-Hoon ; Shin, Hyun-Sang ; Chung, Kun-Ho ; Cho, Young-Hyun ; Lee, Chang-Woo ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 28, issue 3, 2003, Pages 165~172
Humic acids present in the soils at the vicinity of domestic atomic power plants(NPPs), located in Yeongkwang(YK), Uljin(UJ), Kori(KR), Koseong(KS), Wolseong(WS) area were isolated, and characterized using elemental analysis and UV/Vis, IR, CPMAS
NMR spectroscopic methods. The characteristics were compared with one another and with commercial humic acid (Aldrich Co.). Molecular size distributions of the humic acids were determined using a stirred cell ultrafiltration technique. The results of elemental analysis showed that soil humic acid from UJ contains higher oxygen content than humic acids from KR and KS (O/C ratios: 0.51 (UJHA) us. 0.45(KRHA), 0.43(KSHA)). The molecular size distribution revealed that the soil humic acids of UJ and YK contained a higher percentage of larger molecules of > 30,000 daltons, compared to those of KR and KS. The spectral features obtained from UV/vis., IR and CPMAS
NMR showed that the aromatic character and oxygen containing functional groups in the humic acids from UJ and YK were relatively higher than those of KR and KS. These results indicate that the soil humic acids from UJ and YK were in a higher degree of humification, which may suggest higher affinity of the humic acids with radionuclides released in the soil environments.
Development of Prototype Liquid Scintillator System for Monitoring Liquid Radioactive Waste
Nam, Uk-Won ; Seon, Kwang-Il ; Kong, Kyoung-Nam ; Kim, Chang-Kyu ; Lee, Dong-Myung ; Lee, Sang-Kook ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 28, issue 3, 2003, Pages 173~182
A prototype liquid scillatillator system for measurement of multiple beta-labeled mixtures was developed and its characteristic was investigated. The signal processing system consists of two photomultiplier tubes and the coincident count circuit. The characteristic of the system was analyzed using 4 beta-labeled samples
. Beta spectra from the samples were obtained without radiation shielding, and the detection limits for each nuclides were estimated based on the spectra. The estimated detection limits were compared to the legal regulation values. It is found that the liquid radioactive nuclides are detectable well below the legal regulation values.
Collimator Design and Manufacture for
Park, Sung-Ho ; Kim, Jong-Kyung ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 28, issue 3, 2003, Pages 183~187
source was manufactured for compton scattering experiment. Exposure dose rate was calculated and measured using GM counter for radiation evaluation. These results were well agreed to each other and used for collimator design. SUS303 was used for collimator material because exposure dose rate at 10 cm is about 2 mR/h. The radiation emited from the 35 mm, 65 mm hole was measured using gamma camera which have 4' diameter. 2-D radiation image was acquired and analyzed. The radiation size at Gamma Camera was 8.0 mm and 5.8 mm respectively.
A Risk Assessment for A Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant
Hwang, Seok-Won ; Jae, Moo-Sung ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 28, issue 3, 2003, Pages 189~197
The Level 3 PSA being termed accident consequence analysis is defined to assess effects on health and environment caused by radioisotopes released from severe accidents of nuclear power plants. In this study consequence analysis on health effects depending on release characteristics of radioisotopes has been peformed using the 3 MACCS code in severe accidents. The results of this study may contribute to identifying the relative importance of various parameters occurred in consequence analysis as well as to assessing risk reduction accident management strategies. Especially three parameters for the purpose of consequence analysis, such as the release height, the heat content, and the duration time, are used to analyze the variation of early fatalities and latent cancer fatalities. Also, in this study risk assessment using the concept, 'products of uncertainty and consequences', has been performed using consequence of MACCS and frequency on source term category 19 scenarios from IPE (Individual Plant Examination) analysis.
Modification of Trunk Thickness of MIRD phantom Based on the Comparison of Organ Doses with Voxel Phantom
Lee, Choon-Sik ; Park, Sang-Hyun ; Lee, Jai-Ki ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 28, issue 3, 2003, Pages 199~206
Because the MIRD phantom, the representative mathematical phantom was developed for the calculation of internal radiation dose, and simulated by the simplified mathematical equations for rapid computation, the appropriateness of application to external dose calculation and the closeness to real human body should be justified. This study was intended to modify the MIRD phantom according to the comparison of the organ absorbed doses in the two phantoms exposed to monoenergetic broad parallel photon beams of the energy between 0.05 MeV and 10 MeV. The organ absorbed doses of the MIRD phantom and the Zubal yokel phantom were calculated for AP and PA geometries by MCNP4C, general-purpose Monte Carlo code. The MIRD phantom received higher doses than the Zubal phantom for both AP and PA geometries. Effective dose in PA geometry for 0.05 MeV photon beams showed the difference up to 50%. Anatomical axial views of the two phantoms revealed the thinner trunk thickness of the MIRD phantom than that of the Zubal phantom. To find out the optimal thickness of trunk, the difference of effective doses for 0.5 MeV photon beams for various trunk thickness of the MIRD phantom from 20 cm to 36 cm were compared. The optimal thunk thickness, 24 cm and 28 cm for AP and PA geometries, respectively, showed the minimum difference of effective doses between the two phantoms. The trunk model of the MIRD phantom was modified and the organ doses were recalculated using the modified MIRD phantom. The differences of effective dose for AP and PA geometries reduced to 7.3% and the overestimation of organ doses decreased, too. Because MIRD-type phantoms are easier to be adopted in Monte Carlo calculations and to standardize, the modifications of the MIRD phantom allow us to hold the advantage of MIRD-type phantoms over a voxel phantom and alleviate the anatomical difference and consequent disagreement in dose calculation.
An Analysis of Carbon-14 Metabolism for Internal Dosimetry at CANDU Nuclear Power Plants
Kim, Hee-Geun ; Lee, Hyung-Seok ; Ha, Gak-Hyun ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 28, issue 3, 2003, Pages 207~213
Carbon-14 is one of the major radionuclides released by CANDU Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs). It is almost always emitted as gas through the stack. From CANDU NPPs about 95% of all carbon-14 is released as carbon dioxide. Carbon-14 is a low energy beta emitter which, therefore, gives only a small skin dose from external radiation. As carbon dioxide Is physiologically rather inert gases for man's metabolism, the inhalation dose is probably less than 1 % of the ingestion dose. But this source of carbon-14, formed in a closed, nor-oxidative environment, was subsequently released into the workplace as an insoluble particulate when these systems were opened lip for re-tubing at CANDU NPPs. As a part of the improvement of dosimetry program at Wolsong Nuclear Power Plants, the carbon-14 metabolism based on references was investigated and studied to setup the internal dosimetry program due to inhalation of carbon-14.
Evaluation of the Size of Emergency Planning Zone for the Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants
Jeon, In-Young ; Lee, Jai-Ki ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 28, issue 3, 2003, Pages 215~223
Against major release of radioactive material in nuclear power plant, Emergency Planning Zone(EPZ)s are typically established around nuclear power plants to effectively perform the public protective measures. The domestic methodology to determine the size of the EPZ is similar to that of Japan established in 1980, where calculations were based on the conservative accident source term. The objective of this study is to re-evaluate the validity of established EPZ, the area within the radius of
around domestic nuclear power plants, using the source terms covering full spectrum of accidents obtained from PSA study of ULJIN 3&4. To evaluate the risks of health effects, the computer code MACCS2(MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System2) was used. The result shows that the existing EPZ can reduce the probability of early fatality adequately for most of the source term categories(STCs) except for STC-14 and STC-19. In case of STC-14 and 19, the evacuation distance of 16km and 13km, respectively, are required. These distances can be reduced by improving emergency preparedness since the sensitivity studies for the public protective actions show that the magnitude of early fatality is largely affected by the time delays in notification and evacuation.
Reduction of Patient Dose in Radiation Therapy for the Brain Tumors by Using 2-Dimensional Vertex or Oblique Vertex Beam Technique
Kim, Il-Han ; Chie, Eui-Kyu ; Park, Charn-Il ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 28, issue 3, 2003, Pages 225~231
Up-front irradiation technique as 3-dimensional conformation, or intensity modulation has kept large proportion of brain tumors from being complicated with acute radiation reactions in the normal tissue during or shortly after radiotherapy. For years, we've cannot help but counting on 2-D vertex beam technique to reduce acute reactions in the brain tumor patients because we're not equipped with 3-dimensional planning system. We analyzed its advantages and limitations in the clinical application. From 1998 to 2001, vertex or oblique vertex beams were applied to 35 patients with primary brain tumor and 25 among them were eligible for this analysis. Vertex(V) plans were optimized on the reconstructed coronal planes. As the control, we took the bilateral opposed techniques(BL) otherwise being applied. We compared the volumes included in 105% to 50% isodose lines of each plan. We also measured the radiation dose at various extracranial sites with TLD. With vertex techniques, we reduced the irradiated volumes of contralateral hemisphere and prevented middle ear effusion at contralateral side. But the low dose volume increased outside 100%; the ratio of V to BL in irradiated volume included in 100%, 80%, 50% was 0.55+/-0.10, 0.61+/-0.10, and 1.22+/-0.21, respectively. The hot area within 100% isodose line almost disappeared with vertex plan; the ratio of V to BL in irradiated volume included in 103%, 105%, 108% was 0.14+/-0.14, 0.05./-0.17, 0.00, respectively. The dose distribution within 100% isodose line became more homogeneous; the ratio of volume included in 103% and 105% to 100% was 0.62+/-0.14 and 0.26+/-0.16 in BL whereas was 0.16+/-0.16 and 0.02+/-0.04 in V. With the vertex techniques, extracranial dose increased up to
of maximum dose in the head and neck region except submandibular area where dose ranged 1 to 21%. From this data, vertex beam technique was quite effective in reduction of unnecessary irradiation to the contralateral hemispheres, integral dose, obtaining dose homogeneity in the clinical target. But it was associated with volume increment of low dose area in the brain and irradiation toward the head and neck region otherwise being not irradiated at all. Thus, this 2-D vertex technique can be a useful quasi-conformal method before getting 3-D apparatus.
ATM-induced Radiosensitization in Vitro and in Vivo
Choi, E.K. ; Ahn, S.D. ; Rhee, Y.H. ; Chung, H.S. ; Ha, S.W. ; Song, C.W. ; Griffin, R.J. ; Park, H.J. ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 28, issue 3, 2003, Pages 233~237
It has been known that ATM plays a central role in response of cells to ionizing radiation by enhancing DNA repair. We have investigated the feasibility of increasing radiosensitivity of tumor cells with the use of ATM inhibitors such as caffeine, pentoxifylline and wortmannin. Human colorectal cancer RKO.C cells and RKO-ATM cells (RKO cells overexpressing ATM) were used in the present study. The clonogenic cell survival in vitro indicated that RKO-ATM cells were markdely radioresistant than RKO.C cells. Treatment with 3 mM of caffeine significantly increased the radiosensitivity of cells, particulary the RKO-ATM cells, so that the radiosensitivity of RKO.C cells and RKO-ATM cells were almost similar. The radiation induced G2/M arrest in RKO-ATM cells was noticeably longer than that in RKO.C cells and caffeine treatment significantly reduced the length of the radiation induced G2/M arrest in both RKO.C and RKO-ATM cells. Pentoxifylline and wortmannin were also less effective than caffeine to radiosensitize RKO.C or RKO-ATM cells. However, wortmannin was more effective than caffeine against human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells indicating the efficacy of ATM inhibitor to increase radiosensitivity is cell line dependent. For in vivo study, RKO.C cells were injected s.c. into the hind-leg of BALB/C-nuslc nude mice, and allowed to grow to 130mm3 tumor. The mice were i.p. injected with caffeine solution or saline and the tumors irradiated with 10 Gy of X-rays. The radiation induced growth delay was markedly increased by 1-2 mg/g of caffeine. It was concluded that caffeine increases radiosensitivity of tumor cells by inhibiting ATM kinase function, thereby inhibiting DNA repair, that occurs during the G2/M arrest after radiation.
Estimation of Tritium Concentration in Groundwater around the Nuclear Power Plants Using a Dynamic Compartment Model
Choi, Heui-Joo ; Lee, Han-Soo ; Kang, Hee-Suk ; Choi, Yong-Ho ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 28, issue 3, 2003, Pages 239~245
Every nuclear power plant measured concentrations of tritium in groundwater and surface water around the plants periodically. It was not easy to predict the tritium concentration only with these measurement data in case of various release scenarios. KAERI developed a new approach to find the relationship between the tritium release rate and tritium concentration in the environment. The approach was based upon a dynamic compartment model. In this paper the dynamic compartment model was modified to predict the tritium behavior more accurately. The mechanisms considered for the transfer of tritium between the compartments were evaporation, groundwater flow, infiltration, runoff, and hydrodynamic dispersion. Time dependent source terms of the compartment model were introduced to refine the release scenarios. Also, transfer coefficients between the compartments were obtained using realistic geographical data. In order to illustrate the model various release scenarios were developed, and the change of tritium concentration in groundwater and surface water around the nuclear power plants was estimated.
Radiological Dose Assessment Due to the Operation of Nuclear Facilities at KAERI Nuclear Site
Han, M.H. ; Kim, E.H. ; Hwang, W.T ; Yeom, J.M. ; Han, J.T. ; Lee, Y.B. ; Han, W.J. ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 28, issue 3, 2003, Pages 247~254
To prevent the potential health detriment to the public from radioactive effluents, radiological dose assessments due to the operation of nuclear facilities located at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) site has been performed semiannually in compliance with the Minister of Science and Technology (MOST)'s Notice in Korea. Radiological dose assessment based on the new recommendation of the International Committee on Radiation Protection (ICRP-60) has been conducted since 1998. In this manuscript, a serial activities at KAERI site to meet the regulatory standards for routine releases of radioactive effluents are introduced and discussed including technical approaches. It is clear that each nuclear facility has been operated in compliance with regulatory standards. Furthermore, it is identified that the radiation induced health effects for residents around the site are neglectable.
Real-time Environmental Radiation Monitoring System with Automatic Restoration of Backup Data in Site Detector via Communication using Radio Frequency
Lee, Wan-No ; Kim, Eun-Han ; Chung, Kun-Ho ; Cho, Young-Hyun ; Choi, Geun-Sik ; Lee, Chang-Woo ; Park, Ki-Hyun ; Kim, Yun-Goo ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 28, issue 3, 2003, Pages 255~261
An environmental radiation monitoring system based on high pressurized ionization chamber has been used for on-line gamma monitoring surrounding the KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute), which transmits the dose data measured from ion chamber on the site via radio frequency to a central processing computer and stores the transmitted real-time data. Although communication using radio frequency has several advantages such as effective and economical transmission, storage, and data process, there is one main disadvantage that data loss during transmission often happens because of unexpected communication problems. It is possible to restore the loss data by off-line such as floppy disk but the simultaneous process and display of current data as well as the backup data are very difficult in the present on-line system. In this work, a new electronic circuit board and the operation software applicable to the conventional environmental radiation monitoring system are developed and the automatical synchronization of the ion chamber unit and the central processing computer is carried out every day. This system is automatically able to restore the backup data within 34 hours without additional equipments and also display together the current data as well as the transmitted backup data after checking time flag.