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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Association for Radiation Protection
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 36, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 36, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 36, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 36, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
Selecting the target year
THREE-DIMENSIONAL VERIFICATION OF INTRACRANIAL TARGET POINT DEVIATION USING MRI-BASED POLYMER-GEL DOSIMETRY FOR CONVENTIONAL AND FRACTIONATED STEREOTACTIC RADIOSURGERY
Lee, Kyung-Nam ; Lee, Dong-Joon ; Suh, Tae-Suk ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 36, issue 3, 2011, Pages 107~118
Conventional (SRS) and fractionated (FSRS) stereotactic radiosurgery necessarily require stringent overall target point accuracy and precision. We determine three-dimensional intracranial target point deviations (TPDs) in a whole treatment procedure using magnetic resonance image (MRI)-based polymer-gel dosimetry, and suggest a technique for overall system tests. TPDs were measured using a custom-made head phantom and gel dosimetry. We calculated TPDs using a treatment planning system. Then, we compared TPDs using mid bi-plane and three-dimensional volume methods with spherical and elliptical targets to determine their inherent analysis errors; finally, we analyzed regional TPDs using the latter method. Average and maximum additive errors for ellipses were 0.62 and 0.69 mm, respectively. Total displacements were 0.92
0.25 and 0.77
0.15 mm for virtual SRS and FSRS, respectively. Average TPDtotal at peripheral regions was greater than that at central regions for both. Overall system accuracy was similar to that reported previously. Our technique could be used as an overall system accuracy test that considers the real radiation field shape.
MITOCHONDRIAL DNA DELETION AND IMPAIRMENT OF MITOCHONDRIAL BIOGENESIS ARE MEDIATED BY REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES IN IONIZING RADIATION-INDUCED PREMATURE SENESCENCE
Eom, Hyeon-Soo ; Jung, U-Hee ; Jo, Sung-Kee ; Kim, Young-Sang ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 36, issue 3, 2011, Pages 119~126
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion is a well-known marker for oxidative stress and aging, and contributes to harmful effects in cultured cells and animal tissues. mtDNA biogenesis genes (NRF-1, TFAM) are essential for the maintenance of mtDNA, as well as the transcription and replication of mitochondrial genomes. Considering that oxidative stress is known to affect mitochondrial biogenesis, we hypothesized that ionizing radiation (IR)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) causes mtDNA deletion by modulating the mitochondrial biogenesis, thereby leading to cellular senescence. Therefore, we examined the effects of IR on ROS levels, cellular senescence, mitochondrial biogenesis, and mtDNA deletion in IMR-90 human lung fibroblast cells. Young IMR-90 cells at population doubling (PD) 39 were irradiated at 4 or 8 Gy. Old cells at PD55, and H2O2-treated young cells at PD 39, were compared as a positive control. The IR increased the intracellular ROS level, senescence-associated
-gal) activity, and mtDNA common deletion (4977 bp), and it decreased the mRNA expression of NRF-1 and TFAM in IMR-90 cells. Similar results were also observed in old cells (PD 55) and
-treated young cells. To confirm that a increase in ROS level is essential for mtDNA deletion and changes of mitochondrial biogenesis in irradiated cells, the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) were examined. In irradiated and
-treated cells, 5 mM NAC significantly attenuated the increases of ROS, mtDNA deletion, and SA-
-gal activity, and recovered from decreased expressions of NRF-1 and TFAM mRNA. These results suggest that ROS is a key cause of IR-induced mtDNA deletion, and the suppression of the mitochondrial biogenesis gene may mediate this process.
A Study on the Implementation of Dose Constraints in Occupational Dose According to ICRP 103 Recommendations in Korea
Kim, Yong-Min ; Cho, Kun-Woo ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 36, issue 3, 2011, Pages 127~133
In 2007, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) published Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Accordingly IAEA safety standards committees have reviewed and revised the BSS. The process of the implementation of the ICRP 103 into Korean radiation protection regulations has been continued. Although the new recommendations retain the fundamental protection principles, the impact of the new ICRP recommendations will necessarily be greater than ever before. ICRP recommends the application of dose constraint in planned situations and reference level in existing & emergency situations for strengthening of the principle of optimization. Dose constraints and reference level play a criterion on the level of individual dose as prospective and source-related values. Therefore it is necessary to apply dose constraints and reference levels to all nuclear and RI&RG facilities in Rep. of Korea. Dose constraints and reference level of occupational exposure will be set-up by the stakeholder itself with the cooperation of regulatory body. In this study, the implementation method was discussed to apply the dose constraints and reference level as the procedure for the optimization, not the tool of the regulation.
Development of Cloud Chamber by Using Peltier Device
Woo, Jong-Kwan ; Kwon, Jin-Young ; Park, Sang-Tae ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 36, issue 3, 2011, Pages 134~139
In this research, we developed the newly cloud chamber apparatus by using Peltier device to apply nuclear physics experiment in high school or university. We observed the cosmic rays track by using the developed apparatus and a camcorder. And we compared and analyzed the acquired data. From the results, we acquired the following conclusions and suggestions : First, it is very difficult to observe the cosmic rays track in the typical cloud chamber because of the low frequency of it. But in the newly developed cloud chamber we can observe easily the cosmic rays track owing to the high frequency of it. Second, when we do the experiment with the newly developed apparatus, we found that the cosmic rays track happens well under the condition that the temperature of the upper place of cooling plate must be below 5
with more than isopropanol
. Third, the newly developed apparatus will be improved to have better precision by controling the temperature of cooling plate in the cloud chamber by current intensity. Therefore we think that it is very useful to use the newly developed apparatus in the nuclear physics experiment in highschool or university.
Radiation Safety Management Guidelines for PET-CT: Focus on Behavior and Environment
Jung, Jin-Wook ; Han, Eun-Ok ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 36, issue 3, 2011, Pages 140~147
Our purpose is to specify behavior and environmental factors aimed at reducing the exposed dosage caused by PET-CT and to develop radiation safety management guidelines adequate for domestic circumstances. We have used a multistep-multimethod as the methodological approach to design and to carry out the research both in quality and quantity, including an analysis on previous studies, professional consultations and a survey. The survey includes responses from 139 practitioners in charged of 109 PET-CTs installed throughout Korea(reported by the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine, 2010). The research use 156 questions using Cronbach's
(alpha) coefficients which were: 0.818 for "the necessity of setting and installing the radiation protective environment"; 0.916 for "the necessity of radiation protection", "setting and installing the radiation protective environment"; and 0.885 for "radiation protection". The check list, derived from the radiation safety management guidelines focused on behavior and environment, was composed of 20 items for the radiation protective environment: including 5 items for the patient; 4 items for the guardian; 3 items for the radiologist; and 8 items applied to everyone involved; for a total of 26 items for the radiation protective behavior including: 12 items for the patient; 1 item for the guardian, 7 items for the radiologist; and 6 items applied to everyone involved. The specific check list is shown in(Table 5-6). Since our country has no safety management guidelines of its own to reduce the exposed dosage caused by PET-CTs, we believe the guidelines developed through this study means great deal to the field as it is not only appropriate for domestic circumstances, but also contains specific check lists for each target who may be exposed to radiation in regards to behavior and environment.
Contaminated Surfaces in an Urban Environment
Hwang, Won-Tae ; Jeong, Hyo-Joon ; Kim, Eun-Han ; Han, Moon-Hee ; Ahn, Min-Ho ; Kim, In-Kyu ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 36, issue 3, 2011, Pages 148~153
EMRAS-2 (Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety, Phase 2) is an international comparison program, which is organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in order to harmonize the modelling of radionuclide behavior in the environment. To do so, the urban contamination working group within EMRAS-2 has designed the hypothetical scenarios for a specified urban area. In this study, the importance of contaminated surfaces composing an urban environment was analyzed in terms of dose rate using METRO-K, which has been developed to take a Korean urban environment into account. The contribution of contaminated surfaces to exposure dose rate showed distinctly a great difference as a function of specified locations and time following a hypothetical event. Moreover, it showed a distinct difference according to the existence of precipitation, and its intensity. Therefore, if an urban area is contaminated radioactively by any unexpected incidents such as an accident of nuclear power plants or an explosion of radioactive dispersion devices (RDDs), appropriate measures should be taken with consideration of the type of surface composing the contaminated environment in order to minimize not only radiation-induced health detriment but also economic and social impacts.
Application of the Two-Dosimeter Algorithm for Effective Dose Evaluations based on ICRP Publication 103
Kim, Hee-Geun ; Kong, Tae-Young ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 36, issue 3, 2011, Pages 154~159
To evaluate the radiation exposure of workers participating in task where high radiation exposure is expected, two-dosimeter is typically provided radiation workers, one on the chest and the other on the back, at Korean nuclear power plants (NPPs). In a previous study, the NCRP (55:50) algorithm was selected as the optimal two-dosimeter algorithm (TDA) with various field tests and this TDA has been applied to all Korean NPPs since 2006. In 2007, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) published the new ICRP recommendation, ICRP 103, which provides the revised weighting factors for both radiation and tissues and the new reference phantom. In this study, the applicability of current NCRP (55:50) algorithm at Korean NPPs for ICRP 103 was analyzed. As a result, it was found that the NCRP (55:50) algorithm is still effective to estimate the effective dose of workers under ICRP 103.
Measurement of Tumor Dose Using Optically Stimulated Luminescence Detectors (OSLDs) and Ionization Chambers for Primary and Metastatic Lymph Node Cancers with Head and Neck: Comparison of Beam Spoiler and Bolus
Lee, Jeong-Ok ; Lee, Jae-Seung ; Jeong, Dong-Hyeok ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 36, issue 3, 2011, Pages 160~167
This study conducts cross-comparison through verification of treatment planning of using beam spoiler and bolus, according to the dose variation of different tumor bed and metastatic lymph node cancers, against ionization and optically stimulated luminescence detectors(OSLDs), in head and neck radiotherapy. Verification of treatment planning examined the feasibility of inserting detectors through simulated solid dry water slabs under identical irradiated conditions from treatment planning system to measure beam spoiler and 0.5, 1 cm bolus. In addition, two detectors were cross-compared for verification of treatment planning accuracy and reliability within
2%. The study found that, given a beam spoiler thickness of 0.5 cm and beam spoiler-to-skin distance of 10 cm subjected to optimal dose distribution given for metastatic lymph node cancers, the bolus low-level skin dose was less, and the tumor bed dose reduced slightly. Additionally, two detectors were cross-compared for accuracy within
1%. Accordingly, The use of beam spoiler was determined that reduces skin side effects and can deliver an optimal dose distribution for tumor, and to apply to future clinical studies should be performed.
Characteristics of Dose Distribution at Junctional Area Using the Divergency Cutout Block in the Abutted Field of Photon and Electron Beams
Im, In-Chul ; Lee, Jae-Seung ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 36, issue 3, 2011, Pages 168~173
This study investigated characteristics of dose distribution at junction field of X-ray and electron beams according to the method for fabricating the insert block on the electron cone. Insert block were fabricated to the divergency cutout block and the straight cutout block. For the 6 MV X-ray and 10 MeV nominal energy of electron beam, we was adjacent to the light field of X-ray and electron beam at a surface of matrix chamber and measured to beam profile of abutted field in the 0, 1, 2, 3 cm measurement depth. As a result, characteristics of dose distribution at junction field, straight block was existent that over dose area exceed the give dose more than 5% and under dose area with a rapid change in dose distribution. However, divergency block had remarkably decreased the over dose area caused by the lateral scattering effects of decrease, and being existed uniformity dose distribution in the junction field. Therefore, divergency block were the benefits of radiation dose delivery, in order to applied the clinical, measurement of electron beams according to the fabrication method of the block should be considered carefully.