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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Association for Radiation Protection
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Volume & Issues
Volume 37, Issue 4 - Dec 2012
Volume 37, Issue 3 - Sep 2012
Volume 37, Issue 2 - Jun 2012
Volume 37, Issue 1 - Mar 2012
Selecting the target year
THE SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF LOW-DOSE-RATE RADIATION ON EL4 LYMPHOMA CELL
Bong, Jin-Jong ; Kang, Yu-Mi ; Shin, Suk-Chul ; Choi, Moo-Hyun ; Choi, Seung-Jin ; Lee, Kyung-Mi ; Kim, Hee-Sun ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 37, issue 2, 2012, Pages 56~62
DOI : 10.14407/jrp.2012.37.2.056
To determine the biological effects of low-dose-rate radiation (
, 2.95 mGy/h) on EL4 lymphoma cells during 24 h, we investigated the expression of genes related to apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, iron transport, and ribonucleotide reductase. EL4 cells were continuously exposed to low-dose-rate radiation (total dose: 70.8 mGy) for 24 h. We analyzed cell proliferation and apoptosis by trypan blue exclusion and flow cytometry, gene expression by real-time PCR, and protein levels with the apoptosis ELISA kit. Apoptosis increased in the Low-dose-rate irradiated cells, but cell number did not differ between non- (Non-IR) and Low-dose-rate irradiated (LDR-IR) cells. In concordance with apoptotic rate, the transcriptional activity of ATM, p53, p21, and Parp was upregulated in the LDR-IR cells. Similarly, Phospho-p53 (Ser15), cleaved caspase 3 (Asp175), and cleaved Parp (Asp214) expression was upregulated in the LDR-IR cells. No difference was observed in the mRNA expression of DNA repair-related genes (Msh2, Msh3, Wrn, Lig4, Neil3, ERCC8, and ERCC6) between Non-IR and LDR-IR cells. Interestingly, the mRNA of Trfc was upregulated in the LDR-IR cells. Therefore, we suggest that short-term Low-dose-rate radiation activates apoptosis in EL4 lymphoma cells.
PRELIMINARY ESTIMATION OF ACTIVATED CORROSION PRODUCTS IN THE COOLANT SYSTEM OF FUSION DEMO REACTOR
Noh, Si-Wan ; Lee, Jai-Ki ; Shin, Chang-Ho ; Kwon, Tae-Je ; Kim, Jong-Kyung ; Lee, Young-Seok ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 37, issue 2, 2012, Pages 63~69
DOI : 10.14407/jrp.2012.37.2.063
The second phase of the national program for fusion energy development in Korea starts from 2012 for design and construction of the fusion DEMO reactor. Radiological assessment for the fusion reactor is one of the key tasks to assure its licensability and the starting point of the assessment is determination of the source terms. As the first effort, the activities of the coolant due to activated corrosion product (ACP) were estimated. Data and experiences from fission reactors were used, in part, in the calculations of the ACP concentrations because of lack of operating experience for fusion reactors. The MCNPX code was used to determine neutron spectra and intensities at the coolant locations and the FISPACT code was used to estimate the ACP activities in the coolant of the fusion DEMO reactor. The calculated specific activities of the most nuclides in the fusion DEMO reactor coolant were 2-15 times lower than those in the PWR coolant, but the specific activities of
were expected to be much higher than in the PWR coolant. The preliminary results of this study can be used to figure out the approximate radiological conditions and to establish a tentative set of radiological design criteria for the systems carrying coolant in the design phase of the fusion DEMO reactor.
CHARACTERISTICS OF FABRICATED SiC RADIATION DETECTORS FOR FAST NEUTRON DETECTION
Lee, Cheol-Ho ; Kim, Han-Soo ; Ha, Jang-Ho ; Park, Se-Hwan ; Park, Hyeon-Seo ; Kim, Gi-Dong ; Park, June-Sic ; Kim, Yong-Kyun ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 37, issue 2, 2012, Pages 70~74
DOI : 10.14407/jrp.2012.37.2.070
Silicon carbide (SiC) is a promising material for neutron detection at harsh environments because of its capability to withstand strong radiation fields and high temperatures. Two PIN-type SiC semiconductor neutron detectors, which can be used for nuclear power plant (NPP) applications, such as in-core reactor neutron flux monitoring and measurement, were designed and fabricated. As a preliminary test, MCNPX simulations were performed to estimate reaction probabilities with respect to neutron energies. In the experiment, I-V curves were measured to confirm the diode characteristic of the detectors, and pulse height spectra were measured for neutron responses by using a
neutron source at KRISS (Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science), and a Tandem accelerator at KIGAM (Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources). The neutron counts of the detector were linearly increased as the incident neutron flux got larger.
Analysis of Adolescent Awareness of Radiation: Marking the First Anniversary of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident
Park, Bang-Ju ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 37, issue 2, 2012, Pages 75~83
DOI : 10.14407/jrp.2012.37.2.075
Marking the first anniversary of the Fukushima nuclear accident, which took place on March 11th, 2011, the level of adolescent awareness and understanding of radiation was surveyed, and the results were then compared with those for adults with the same questionnaires conducted at similar times. A qualitative survey and frequency analysis were made for the design of the study methodology. Those surveyed were limited to 3rd grade middle school students, 15 years of age, who are the future generation. The questionnaire, which is a survey tool, was directly distributed to the students and 2,217 answers were analysed. The questionnaires were composed of 40 questions, and it was found that Cronbach`s coefficient was high with `self awareness of radiation` at 0.494, `risk of radiation` at 0.843, `benefit of radiation` at 0.748, `radiological safety control` at 0.692, `information sources of radiation` at 0.819, and `impacts of Fukushima accident`. The results of the survey analysis showed that the students` knowledge of radiation was not very high with 67.4 points (69.5 points for adults) calculated on a maximum scale of 100 points (converted points). The impacts of the Fukushima nuclear accident were found to be less significant to adolescents than adults, and the rate of answer of "so" or " very so" in the following questions demonstrates this well. It was also shown that the impacts of the Fukushima accident to adolescents were comparatively low with 27.0% (38.9% for adults) on the question of "attitude changed against nuclear power due to the Fukushima accident," 65.7%(86.6% for adults) on the question of "the damages from the Fukushima accident was immeasurably huge," and 65.0% (86.3% for adults) on "the Fukushima accident contributed to raising awareness on the safety of nuclear power plants". The adolescents had a high rate of "average" answers on most of the questions compared with adults, and it can be construed that this resulted from adolescent awareness of radiation not being firmly rooted on themselves. This study was the first of its kind for surveying adolescents regarding the level of awareness of radiation after the Fukushima accident, and the results were compared with the survey results of adults, and they are expected to greatly contribute toward establishing a radiation policy by the government in the future.
Radiation Dose and Image Quality of Low-dose Protocol in Chest CT: Comparison of Standard-dose Protocol
Lee, Won-Jeong ; Ahn, Bong-Seon ; Park, Young-Sun ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 37, issue 2, 2012, Pages 84~89
DOI : 10.14407/jrp.2012.37.2.084
The purpose of this study was to compare radiation dose and image quality between low-dose (LDP) and standard-dose protocol (SDP). LDP (120 kVp, 30 mAs, 2-mm thickness) and SDP (120 kVp, 180 mAs, 1.2-mm thickness) images obtained from 61 subjects were retrospectively evaluated at level of carina bifurcation, using multi-detector CT (Brilliance 16, Philips Medical Systems). Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated at ascending aorta and infraspinatus muscle, from CT number and back-ground noise. Radiation dose from two protocols measured at 5-point using acrylic-phantom, and CT number and noise measured at 4-point using water-phantom. All statistical analysis were performed using SPSS 19.0 program. LDP images showed significantly more noise and a significantly lower SNR and CNR than did SDP images at ascending aorta and infraspinatus muscle. Noise, SNR and CNR were significantly correlated with body mass index (p<0.001). Radiation dose, SNR and CNR from phantom were significant differences between two protocols. LDP showed a significant reduction of radiation dose with a significant change in SNR and CNR compared with SDP. Therefore, exposure dose on LDP in clinical applications needs resetting highly more considering image quality.
Effect of Simultaneous K and Ca Application to Paddy Soil on the Uptake of Radiocaesium and Radiostrontium by Rice
Choi, Yong-Ho ; Lim, Kwang-Muk ; Jun, In ; Keum, Dong-Kwon ; Kim, In-Gyu ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 37, issue 2, 2012, Pages 90~95
DOI : 10.14407/jrp.2012.37.2.090
A radio-tracer experiment was performed in a greenhouse to investigate the effectiveness of the simultaneous application of K and Ca as a countermeasure for reducing the radiocaesium and radiostrontium uptake by rice. Paddy soil (loam of pH 6.5) in soil boxes was spiked with
, and treated with K and Ca in the forms of KCl and
, respectively, at agrochemical grades before transplanting. For the seeds of the control plants, soil-to-plant transfer factors (TF,
, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for the straws were
, respectively. The TF values of
kept decreasing as the level of the simultaneous application of K and Ca (K/Ca,
) increased up to 33.6/322 and 48.0/460, respectively. The maximum rate of the decrease was around 60% for both radionuclides. Nearly 60% reduction in the TF value of
was observed even at the dosage of 33.6/322, which was considered the optimum dosage based on crop productivity as well as reduction in the radiocaesium and radiostrontium uptake by rice. The optimum dosage may depend on various factors so further experiments need to be made for many different conditions.
A Feasibility Study on the Lens of Eye Dose Assessment Using the System of Multi-Element TLD
Lee, Na-Rae ; Han, Seung-Jae ; Lee, Byung-Il ; Cho, Kun-Woo ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 37, issue 2, 2012, Pages 96~102
DOI : 10.14407/jrp.2012.37.2.096
International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has revised its recommendations concerning the tissue reaction to ionizing radiation in accordance with consideration of the detriment arising from non-cancer effects of radiation on health based on recent epidemiological basis. Particularly, for the lens of the eye, the threshold in absorbed dose revised to be 0.5 Gy, for occupational exposure in planned exposure situation the commission recommended "An equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye of 20 mSv in a year, averaged over defined periods of 5 years, with no single year exceeding 50 mSv." To monitor the radiation exposure of radiation worker, TLD is typically provided and the lens of eye dose can be assessed by run of dose calculation algorithm with TL element response data. This study is to assess equivalent dose of the lens of eye using the Harshaw TLD system and its two different dose calculation algorithms. The result provides the Harshaw TLD system showed the assessment of the lens of eye dose with 48.84% error range.
Changes in External Radiation Dose Rate for PET-CT Test Patients
Kim, Su-Jin ; Han, Eun-Ok ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 37, issue 2, 2012, Pages 103~107
DOI : 10.14407/jrp.2012.37.2.103
This paper analyzes changes in the external radiation dose rate of PET-CT test patients as a part of providing basic materials for reduction of radiation exposure to PET-CT test patients. In theory the measurement of external radiation dose rate of PET-CT test patients shows that the further the distance from the patient injected with radioactive pharmaceutical and a longer time elapsement from the injection leads to a smaller amount of radiation. Particularly, the amount of radiation marked the highest in the chest was at 4.17 minutes immediately after the intravenous injection and in the head after 77.47 minutes after urination in advance to the PET-CT test. As in the generalized information, it is desired to keep distance between the patient and caretakers or professionals to reduce the amount of radiation exposure from PET-CT test patients and to resume contact the patient after the time when the radiation has reduced. If contact is unavoidable, it is desired to keep at least 200cm from the patient. In addition, the amount of radiation reached the highest in the chest at first and then in the head from 77 minutes after injection. Accordingly, it would be helpful in achieving the optimization if contact is made based on the patient`s physical characteristics. This study is significant as it measures changes in radiation the dose rate by; distance from the PET-CT test patient, time elapsed, and specific parts of body. Further studies based on the findings in this paper are required to analyze changes in radiation dose rate in accordance with individual characteristics unique to PET-CT patients and to utilize the results to reduce the amount of radiation patient, caretakers and professions are exposed.