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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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Journal DOI :
Korean Association for Radiation Protection
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Volume & Issues
Volume 38, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 38, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 38, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 38, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
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IDENTIFICATION OF GENES EXPRESSED IN LOW-DOSE-RATE γ-IRRADIATED MOUSE WHOLE BRAIN
Bong, Jin Jong ; Kang, Yu Mi ; Choi, Seung Jin ; Kim, Dong-Kwon ; Lee, Kyung Mi ; Kim, Hee Sun ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 38, issue 4, 2013, Pages 166~171
DOI : 10.14407/jrp.2013.38.4.166
While high-dose ionizing radiation results in long term cellular cytotoxicity, chronic low-dose (<0.2 Gy) of X- or
-ray irradiation can be beneficial to living organisms by inducing radiation hormesis, stimulating immune function, and adaptive responses. During chronic low-dose-rate radiation (LDR) exposure, whole body of mice is exposed to radiation, however, it remains unclear if LDR causes changes in gene expression of the whole brain. Therefore, we aim to investigate expressed genes (EGs) and signaling pathways specifically regulated by LDR-irradiation (
, a cumulative dose of 1.7 Gy for total 100 days) in the whole brain. Using microarray analysis of whole brain RNA extracts harvested from ICR and AKR/J mice after LDR-irradiation, we discovered that two mice strains displayed distinct gene regulation patterns upon LDR-irradiation. In ICR mice, genes involved in ion transport, transition metal ion transport, and developmental cell growth were turned on while, in AKR/J mice, genes involved in sensory perception, cognition, olfactory transduction, G-protein coupled receptor pathways, inflammatory response, proteolysis, and base excision repair were found to be affected by LDR. We validated LDR-sensitive EGs by qPCR and confirmed specific upregulation of S100a7a, Olfr624, and Gm4868 genes in AKR/J mice whole brain. Therefore, our data provide the first report of genetic changes regulated by LDR in the mouse whole brain, which may affect several aspects of brain function.
Evaluation of Neutron Detection Efficiency of the Unified Non-Destructive Assay Using MCNPX Code
Won, Byung-Hee ; Seo, Hee ; Lee, Seung Kyu ; Park, Se Hwan ; Kim, Ho Dong ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 38, issue 4, 2013, Pages 172~178
DOI : 10.14407/jrp.2013.38.4.172
In this study, neutron detection efficiency of the UNDA system, which has been developed for study on nuclear material accountancy in a future pyro-process facility, was evaluated by using the MCNPX code. The detection efficiency was evaluated as a function of (1) positions of
neutron source in the axial and radial directions, and (2) thicknesses and locations of the container filled with the depleted uranium materials for two different designs of the UNDA. In the case of
source positions, detection efficiency was distributed from 6.83% to 13.35%. As
source was positioned at upper part in the axial direction, detection efficiency was decreased after a slight increase. On the other hands, as
source was positioned at outer part in the radial direction, detection efficiency was increased. In the case of container thickness, there was a slight decline when the thickness was increased. As the container was located at upper part, detection efficiency was decreased and as the container was located at outer part, detection efficiency was increased. Detection efficiency was varied from 10.31% to 13.61%. These values were higher than that of
source case. The UNDA with polyethylene cover has about 2% higher detection efficiency than the UNDA without the cover.
DOSE AND DOSE RATE EFFECTS OF IRRADIATION ON BLOOD COUNT AND CYTOKINE LEVEL IN BALB/c MICE
Son, Yeonghoon ; Jung, Dong Hyuk ; Kim, Sung Dae ; Lee, Chang Geun ; Yang, Kwangmo ; Kim, Joong Sun ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 38, issue 4, 2013, Pages 179~184
DOI : 10.14407/jrp.2013.38.4.179
The biological effects of radiation are dependent on the dose rate and dose of radiation. In this study, effects of dose and dose rate using whole body radiation on plasma cytokines and blood count from male BALB/c mice were evaluated. We examined the blood and cytokine changes in mice exposed to a low (3.49m Gy
) and high (2.6 Gy
) dose rate of radiation at a total dose of 0.5 and 2 Gy, respectively. Blood from mice exposed to radiation were evaluated using cytokine assays and complete blood count. Peripheral lymphocytes and neutrophils decreased in a dose dependent manner following high dose rate radiation. The peripheral lymphocytes population remained unchanged following low dose rate radiation; however, the neutrophils population increased after radiation. The sera from these mice exhibited elevated levels of flt3 ligand and granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), after high/low dose rate radiation. These results suggest that low-dose-rate radiation does not induce blood damage, which was unlike high-dose-rate radiation treatment; low-dose-rate radiation exposure activated the hematopoiesis through the increase of flt3 ligand and G-CSF.
PRELIMINARY STUDY OF WATER CONTENTS AND SIGNAL BEHAVIOR IN FINGERNAIL/EPR DOSIMETRY
Choi, Hoon ; Choi, Sul A ; Lee, Byungil ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 38, issue 4, 2013, Pages 185~188
DOI : 10.14407/jrp.2013.38.4.185
Heating method using electric heater was used to reduce water content in fingernail clippings. Authors found that low water content is helpful to measure EPR signal of fingernail sample with enhanced variability. Generally, natural dehydration happens in normal room condition at least one month and needs much time for using in experiment. So, artificial heating method is applied in this study for time savings. Fingernail samples were tested to find effect of water content to the EPR signal on microwave power levels for dosimetry. Low water content in fingernail reduced variability of EPR signal and makes it possible to measure accurate EPR signal. It also made it possible to measure constant movement of EPR signals on several microwave power levels. Although this method was difficult to apply directly in fingernail/EPR dosimetry, we, authors, believe that this heating method would be useful to differentiate MIS2 and RIS which are generally located at the same g-factor and almost impossible to be identified with each other.
Preliminary Analysis of Dose Rate Variation on the Containment Building Wall of Dry Interim Storage Facilities for PWR Spent Nuclear Fuel
Seo, M.H. ; Yoon, J.H. ; Cha, G.Y. ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 38, issue 4, 2013, Pages 189~193
DOI : 10.14407/jrp.2013.38.4.189
Annual dose on the containment building wall of the interim storage facility at normal condition was calculated to estimate the dose rate transition of the facility of PWR spent nuclear fuel. In this study, source term was generated by ORIGEN-ARP with 4.5 wt% initial enrichment, 45,000 MWd/MTU burnup and 10 years cooling time. Modeling of the storage facility and the containment building and radiation shielding evaluations were conducted by MCNP code depending on the distance between the wall and the facility in the building. In the case of the centralized storage system, the distance required for the annual dose rate limit from 10CFR72 was estimated to be 50 m.
STUDY ON MONITORING UNIT EFFICIENCY OF FLATTENING-FILTER FREE PHOTON BEAM IN ASSOCIATION WITH TUMOR SIZE AND LOCATION
Kim, Dae Il ; Kim, Jung-In ; Yoo, Sook Hyun ; Park, Jong Min ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 38, issue 4, 2013, Pages 194~201
DOI : 10.14407/jrp.2013.38.4.194
To investigate monitoring unit (MU) efficiency and plan quality of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using flattening-filter free (FFF) photon beam in association with target size and location. A virtual patient was generated in Eclipse
(ver. A10, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, USA) treatment planning system. The length of major and minor axis in axial view was 50 cm and 30 cm, respectively. Cylindrical-shaped targets were generated inside that patient at the center (symmetric target) and in the periphery (asymmetric target, 7.5 cm away from the center of the patient to the right direction) of the virtual patient. The longitudinal length was 10 cm and the diameters were 2, 5, 10 and 15 cm. Total 8 targets were generated. RapidArc
plans using TrueBeam STx
were generated for each target. Two full arcs were used and the axis of rotation of the gantry was set to be at the center of the virtual patient. Total MU, homogeneity index (HI), target mean dose, the value of gradient measure and body mean dose were calculated. In the case of symmetric targets, averaged total MU of FFF plan was 23% and 19% higher than that of flattening filter (FF) plan when using 6 MV and 10 MV photons, respectively. The difference of HI, target mean dose, gradient measure and body mean dose between FF and FFF was less than 0.04, 2.6%, 0.1 cm and 2.2%, respectively. For the asymmetric targets, total MU of FFF plan was 21% and 32% was higher than that of FF when using 6 MV and 10 MV photons, respectively. The homogeneity of the target was always worse when using FFF than using FF. The maximum difference of HI was 0.22. The target mean dose of FFF was 3.2% and 4.1% higher than that of FF for the 6 MV and 10 MV, respectively. The difference of gradient measure was less than 0.1 cm. The body mean dose was higher when using FFF than FF about 4.2% and 2.8% for the 6 MV and 10 MV, respectively. No significant differences between VMAT plans of FFF beam and FF beam were observed in terms of quality of treatment plan. The HI was higher when using FFF 10 MV photons for the asymmetric targets. The MU was increased noticeably when using FFF photon beams.
Impedance Changes of Living Tissue During Radiation Exposure Dose
Kil, Sang Hyeong ; Lee, Moo Seok ; Nam, Ji Ho ; Lee, Yeong Hwa ; Kim, Gun Do ; Lee, Jong Kyu ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 38, issue 4, 2013, Pages 202~207
DOI : 10.14407/jrp.2013.38.4.202
Bioimpedance involves a lot of information related to living tissue. If there is alteration in bio tissue, its electrical characteristics also change. It is to study electrical characteristics of pork tenderlion in using a HP-4194A Impedance/Gain-phase analyzer instrument and electrical characteristics changes by graded radiation exposure dose. The results were as follow 1. Electrical characteristics of pork tenderlion in repeated measurement had high precision within
% of coefficiency of variability. 2. During the measurement impedance absolute value and phase alteration did not show statistically significant difference.(p>0.05) 3. While impedance phase of electrical characteristics associated with frequency change was almost stable, impedance absolute value was in inverse proportion to frequency that means high inverse correlation of -0.096(r). 4. Impedance absolute value dropped in radiation exposure dose. The alteration of the value did not show statistically significant difference in 1 Gy, 2 Gy and 4 Gy.(p>0.05) However in radiation exposure dose of 10 Gy, the decrease of impedance absolute value was significantly different.(p<0.05) 5. Impedance phase according to radiation exposure dose change did not show statistically significant difference in 1 Gy, 2 Gy, 4 Gy, and 10 Gy(p>0.05).
Field Tracer Experiments under Severe Wether Conditions for the Validation of the Dispersion of Radioactive Materials
Han, Moon Hee ; Kim, Eun Han ; Jeong, Hyo Joon ; Jeong, Hae Sun ; Park, Mi Sun ; Hwang, Won Tae ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 38, issue 4, 2013, Pages 208~213
DOI : 10.14407/jrp.2013.38.4.208
The suitability of the site criteria is a basic requirement for securing safety of nuclear power plants. The suitability should be confirmed through the estimation of environmental radiation effects at the exclusion area boundary under the severe weather conditions. In this study, field tracer experiments over short range of 1 km radius under severe weather conditions were conducted at flat area in Daejeon. Severe weather conditions are represented with stable atmospheric condition and low wind speed. In general, the condition is appeared at clean night time with weak wind. The analysis of the measured distribution of the released tracer gas shows two big differences between the results of the past experiments conducted under the favorable weather conditions. One is the difficulty of finding the typical distribution of the released tracer gas with peak concentration in the downwind direction. The other one is the appearance of the contour of the concentration of tracer gas at several hundred meters even though the gas released at 10 m height over the ground.
Review of the Radiation Risk and Clinical Efficacy Associated with Computed Tomography Cancer Screening
Kim, Hyun Ja ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 38, issue 4, 2013, Pages 214~227
DOI : 10.14407/jrp.2013.38.4.214
Computed tomographic scan as a screening procedures in asymptomatic individuals has seen a steady increase with the introduction of multiple-raw detector CT scanners. This report provides a brief review of the current controversy surrounding CT cancer screening, with a focus on the radiation induced cancer risks and clinical efficacy. 1. A large study of patients at high risk of lung cancer(the National Lung Screening Trial[NLST]) showed that CT screening reduced cancer deaths by 20%(1.33% in those screened compared with 1.67% in those not screened). The rate of positive screening tests was 24.2% and 96.4% of the positive screening results in the low-dose CT group were false-positive. Radiation induced lung cancer risk was estimated the most important in screening population because ERR of radiation induced lung cancer does not show the decrease with increasing age and synergistic connection between smoking and radiation risk. Therefore, the radiation risk may be on the same order of magnitude as the benefit observed in the NLST. Optimal screening strategy remain uncertain, CT lung cancer screening is not yet ready for implementation. 2. Computed tomographic colonography is as good as colonoscopy for detecting colon cancer and is almost as good as colonoscopy for detecting advanced adenomas, but significantly less sensitive and specific for smaller lesions and disadvantageous for subsequent therapeutic optical colonoscopy if polyps are detected. The average effective dose from CT colonography was estimated 8-10
, which could be a significant dose if administered routinely within the population over many years. CT colonography should a) achieve at least 90% sensitivity and specificity in the size category from 6 and 10 mm, b) offer non-cathartic bowl preparation and c) be optimized and standardized CT parameters if it is to be used for mass screening. 3. There is little evidence that demonstrates, for whole-body scanning, the benefit outweighs the detriment. This test found large portion of patient(86~90.8%) had at least one abnormal finding, whereas only 2% were estimated to have clinically significant disease. Annual scans from ages 45 to 75 years would accrue an estimated lifetime cancer mortality risk of 1.9%. There is no group within the medical community that recommends whole-body CT. No good studies indicate the accuracy of screening CT, at this time. The benefit/risk balance for any of the commonly suggested CT screening techniques has yet to be established. These areas need further research. Therefore wild screening should be avoided.
Measurement Method of Final Residual Radioactivity of Radioactive Metallic Waste for Clearance
Seo, Bumkyoung ; Ji, Youngyong ; Hong, Sangbum ; Lee, Keunwoo ; Moon, Jeikwon ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 38, issue 4, 2013, Pages 228~233
DOI : 10.14407/jrp.2013.38.4.228
It has been continuously generated the requirement for the replacement of the main components such as a steam generator due to the deterioration of the nuclear power plant all around the world. Also, a large amount of radioactive metal was generated during the decommissioning in a short period. It is required to make an accurate measurement of the residual radioactivity for recycling the metal waste for releasing from regulatory control. In planning the measurement procedures, the influence of geometry, self-absorption, density and other relevant factors on the representativeness of the measurements should be considered for the decommissioning metal waste. In this study, the method for measurement procedures, the source term evaluation, the ways to secure representative samples, the measurement device for wide area and the self-absorption correction factors for different density were evaluated. The metal samples for measurement were prepared for securing the simple geometry and representative by melting process. The developed correction method for measuring the radioactivity a variety density of metal waste could improve the reliability of the evaluation results for clearance.
Practical Radiation Safety Control: (I) Application of Annual Limit on Intake and Derived Air Concentration
Kim, Hyun Kee ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 38, issue 4, 2013, Pages 234~236
DOI : 10.14407/jrp.2013.38.4.234
Some of radioactive contamination is unavoidable in the facilities using the unsealed radioactive material. The primary purpose of radioactive contamination control in the workplace with contamination concern is the effects from the potential intake of radioactive material into the body. This paper provides procedures to estimate the level of internal exposure for the worker based on the conservative assumptions and simple calculations. They consist of two processes; to calculate air concentration of radioactive material and annual intake by inhalation with contaminated air and to compare each of them to Derived Air Concentration and Annual Limit on Intake mentioned in the related notification. The procedures are applicable to make a decision on practical requirements for monitoring air contamination and internal exposure of worker as follows; needs for measurement of air contamination and internal exposure and acquisition of information on the design of the ventilation system.
Analysis of a Lead Vest Dose Reduction Effect for the Radiation Field at Major Working Places during Refueling Outage of Korean PWR Nuclear Power Plants
Kim, Jeong-In ; Lee, Byoung-Il ; Lim, Young-Khi ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 38, issue 4, 2013, Pages 237~241
DOI : 10.14407/jrp.2013.38.4.237
The gamma energy distributions at the major working places during refueling outage of Korean PWR nuclear power plants were measured. In order to estimate the dose reduction effect of a lead vest, Monte Carlo calculation method was used. For the simulations, the MIRD-V phantom with a lead vest was formed and exposed to the measured radiation field. The average measured gamma energy is lower than that of standard which is generally applied to radiation protection procedures. For the efficient use of a lead vest and achievement of radiation protection purpose, it is necessary to estimate the energy distribution of radiation field at working places.
Application of the Detection of External Contamination on Radiation Workers for Bed Type Whole Body Counting Using Monte Carlo Method
Kim, Jeong-In ; Lee, Byoung-Il ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 38, issue 4, 2013, Pages 242~245
DOI : 10.14407/jrp.2013.38.4.242
Monte Carlo method was applied to discriminate the external contamination on radiation workers in nuclear power plants for internal dose assessment generally used with a bed type scanning detector whole body counter. Korean voxel model with internal contamination was used to estimate the detection patterns of whole body scanning. Also, the BOMAB model with various external contamination was assumed to compare with detection of radionuclides inside the human body. From the comparison of detection efficiency between front and back side up, external contamination was easily distinguished.