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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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Korean Association for Radiation Protection
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Volume & Issues
Volume 41, Issue 2 - Jun 2016
Volume 41, Issue 1 - Mar 2016
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Preliminary Research of CZT Based PET System Development in KAERI
Jo, Woo Jin ; Jeong, Manhee ; Kim, Han Soo ; Kim, Sang Yeol ; Ha, Jang Ho ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 41, issue 2, 2016, Pages 81~86
DOI : 10.14407/jrpr.2016.41.2.081
Background: For positron emission tomography (PET) application, cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) has been investigated by several institutes to replace detectors from a conventional system using photomultipliers or Silicon-photomultipliers (SiPMs). The spatial and energy resolution in using CZT can be superior to current scintillator-based state-of-the-art PET detectors. CZT has been under development for several years at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) to provide a high performance gamma ray detection, which needs a single crystallinity, a good uniformity, a high stopping power, and a wide band gap. Materials and Methods: Before applying our own grown CZT detectors in the prototype PET system, we investigated preliminary research with a developed discrete type data acquisition (DAQ) system for coincident events at 128 anode pixels and two common cathodes of two CZT detectors from Redlen. Each detector has a
volume size with a 2.2 mm anode pixel pitch. Discrete amplifiers consist of a preamplifier with a gain of
and noise of 55 equivalent noise charge (ENC), a
shaping amplifier with a
peak time, and an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) driver. The DAQ system has 65 mega-sample per second flash ADC, a self and external trigger, and a USB 3.0 interface. Results and Discussion: Characteristics such as the current-to-voltage curve, energy resolution, and electron mobility life-time products for CZT detectors are investigated. In addition, preliminary results of gamma ray imaging using 511 keV of a
gamma ray source were obtained. Conclusion: In this study, the DAQ system with a CZT radiation sensor was successfully developed and a PET image was acquired by two sets of the developed DAQ system.
Development and Performance of a Hand-Held CZT Detector for In-Situ Measurements at the Emergency Response
Ji, Young-Yong ; Chung, Kun Ho ; Kim, Chang-Jong ; Yoon, Jin ; Lee, Wanno ; Choi, Geun-Sik ; Kang, Mun Ja ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 41, issue 2, 2016, Pages 87~91
DOI : 10.14407/jrpr.2016.41.2.087
Background: A hand-held detector for an emergency response was developed for nuclide identification and to estimate the information of the ambient dose rate in the scene of an accident as well as the radioactivity of the contaminants. Materials and Methods: To achieve this, the most suitable sensor was first selected as a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) semiconductor and the signal processing unit from a sensor and the signal discrimination and storage unit were successfully manufactured on a printed circuit board. Results and Discussion: The performance of the developed signal processing unit was then evaluated to have an energy resolution of about 14 keV at 662 keV. The system control unit was also designed to operate the CZT detector, monitor the detector, battery, and interface status, and check and transmit the measured results of the ambient dose rate and radioactivity. In addition, a collimator, which can control the inner radius, and the airborne dust sampler, which consists of an air filter and charcoal filter, were developed and mounted to the developed CZT detector for the quick and efficient response of a nuclear accident. Conclusion: The hand-held CZT detector was developed to make the in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry and its performance was checked to have a good energy resolution. In addition, the collimator and the airborne dust sampler were developed and mounted to the developed CZT detector for a quick and efficient response to a nuclear accident.
Energy Spectrum Measurement of High Power and High Energy (6 and 9 MeV) Pulsed X-ray Source for Industrial Use
Takagi, Hiroyuki ; Murata, Isao ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 41, issue 2, 2016, Pages 93~99
DOI : 10.14407/jrpr.2016.41.2.093
Background: Industrial X-ray CT system is normally applied to non-destructive testing (NDT) for industrial product made from metal. Furthermore there are some special CT systems, which have an ability to inspect nuclear fuel assemblies or rocket motors, using high power and high energy (more than 6 MeV) pulsed X-ray source. In these case, pulsed X-ray are produced by the electron linear accelerator, and a huge number of photons with a wide energy spectrum are produced within a very short period. Consequently, it is difficult to measure the X-ray energy spectrum for such accelerator-based X-ray sources using simple spectrometry. Due to this difficulty, unexpected images and artifacts which lead to incorrect density information and dimensions of specimens cannot be avoided in CT images. For getting highly precise CT images, it is important to know the precise energy spectrum of emitted X-rays. Materials and Methods: In order to realize it we investigated a new approach utilizing the Bayesian estimation method combined with an attenuation curve measurement using step shaped attenuation material. This method was validated by precise measurement of energy spectrum from a 1 MeV electron accelerator. In this study, to extend the applicable X-ray energy range we tried to measure energy spectra of X-ray sources from 6 and 9 MeV linear accelerators by using the recently developed method. Results and Discussion: In this study, an attenuation curves are measured by using a step-shaped attenuation materials of aluminum and steel individually, and the each X-ray spectrum is reconstructed from the measured attenuation curve by the spectrum type Bayesian estimation method. Conclusion: The obtained result shows good agreement with simulated spectra, and the presently developed technique is adaptable for high energy X-ray source more than 6 MeV.
Preliminary Evaluation of the Activity Concentration Limits for Consumer Goods Containing NORM
Jang, Mee ; Chung, Kun Ho ; Ji, Young Yong ; Lim, Jong Myung ; Kang, Mun Ja ; Choi, Guen Sik ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 41, issue 2, 2016, Pages 101~104
DOI : 10.14407/jrpr.2016.41.2.101
Background: To protect the public from natural radioactive materials, the 'Act on safety control of radioactive rays around living environment" was established in Korea. There is an annual effective dose limit of 1 mSv for products, but the activity concentration limit for products is not established yet. Materials and Methods: To suggest the activity concentration limits for consumer goods containing NORM, in this research, we assumed the "small room model" surrounding the ICRP reference phantom to simulate the consumer goods in contact with the human bodies. Using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX, we evaluate the effective dose rate for the ICRP reference phantom in a small room with dimension of phantom size and derived the activity concentration limit for consumer goods. Results and Discussion: The consumer goods have about 1600, 1200 and
, and the activity concentration limits are about six times comparing with the values of building materials. We applied the index to real samples, though we did not consider radioactivity of
, indexes of the some samples are more than 6. However, this index concept using small room model is very conservative, for the consumer goods over than index 6, it is necessary to reevaluate the absorbed dose considering real usage scenario and material characteristics. Conclusion: In this research, we derived activity concentration limits for consumer goods in contact with bodies and the results can be used as preliminary screening tool for consumer goods as index concept.
Characteristics of Radiation-Resistant Real-Time Neutron Monitor for Accelerator-Based BNCT
Nakamura, Takemi ; Sakasai, Kaoru ; Nakashima, Hiroshi ; Takamiya, Koichi ; Kumada, Hiroaki ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 41, issue 2, 2016, Pages 105~109
DOI : 10.14407/jrpr.2016.41.2.105
Background: For an accelerator-based BNCT, we have fabricated a new detector consisting of quartz optical fibers that have excellent radiation-resistant characteristics. Materials and Methods: The developed detectors were irradiated at Kyoto University Research Reactor. Results and Discussion: The experimental results showed that the new detector had good output linearity for the neutron intensity, and the response of the new detector did not decrease during the irradiation. Conclusion: The new detector consisting of quartz optical fibers can be applied to measurement of neutron field of an accelerator-based BNCT.
The Performance Test of Anti-scattering X-ray Grid with Inclined Shielding Material by MCNP Code Simulation
Bae, Jun Woo ; Kim, Hee Reyoung ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 41, issue 2, 2016, Pages 111~115
DOI : 10.14407/jrpr.2016.41.2.111
Background: The scattered photons cause reduction of the contrast of radiographic image and it results in the degradation of the quality of the image. In order to acquire better quality image, an anti-scattering x-ray gird should be equipped in radiography system. Materials and Methods: The X-ray anti-scattering grid of the inclined type based on the hybrid concept for that of parallel and focused type was tested by MCNP code. The MCNPX 2.7.0 was used for the simulation based test. The geometry for the test was based on the IEC 60627 which was an international standard for diagnostic X-ray imaging equipment-Characteristics of general purpose and mammographic anti-scatter grids. Results and Discussion: The performance of grids with four inclined shielding material types was compared with that of the parallel type. The grid with completely tapered type the best performance where there were little performance difference according to the degree of inclination. Conclusion: It was shown that the grid of inclined type had better performance than that of parallel one.
Initiating Events Study of the First Extraction Cycle Process in a Model Reprocessing Plant
Wang, Renze ; Zhang, Jiangang ; Zhuang, Dajie ; Feng, Zongyang ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 41, issue 2, 2016, Pages 117~121
DOI : 10.14407/jrpr.2016.41.2.117
Background: Definition and grouping of initiating events (IEs) are important basics for probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). An IE in a spent fuel reprocessing plant (SFRP) is an event that probably leads to the release of dangerous material to jeopardize workers, public and environment. The main difference between SFRPs and nuclear power plants (NPPs) is that hazard materials spread diffusely in a SFRP and radioactive material is just one kind of hazard material. Materials and Methods: Since the research on IEs for NPPs is in-depth around the world, there are several general methods to identify IEs: reference of lists in existence, review of experience feedback, qualitative analysis method, and deductive analysis method. While failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is an important qualitative analysis method, master logic diagram (MLD) method is the deductive analysis method. IE identification in SFRPs should be consulted with the experience of NPPs, however the differences between SFRPs and NPPs should be considered seriously. Results and Discussion: The plutonium uranium reduction extraction (Purex) process is adopted by the technics in a model reprocessing plant. The first extraction cycle (FEC) is the pivotal process in the Purex process. Whether the FEC can function safely and steadily would directly influence the production process of the whole plant-production quality. Important facilities of the FEC are installed in the equipment cells (ECs). In this work, IEs in the FEC process were identified and categorized by FMEA and MLD two methods, based on the fact that ECs are containments in the plant. Conclusion: The results show that only two ECs in the FEC do not need to be concerned particularly with safety problems, and criticality, fire and red oil explosion are IEs which should be emphatically analyzed. The results are accordant with the references.
Comparison of Physics Model for 600 MeV Protons and 290 MeV·n
Oxygen Ions on Carbon in MCNPX
Lee, Arim ; Kim, Donghyun ; Jung, Nam-Suk ; Oh, Joo-Hee ; Oranj, Leila Mokhtari ; Lee, Hee-Seock ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 41, issue 2, 2016, Pages 123~131
DOI : 10.14407/jrpr.2016.41.2.123
Background: With the increase in the number of particle accelerator facilities under either operation or construction, the accurate calculation using Monte Carlo codes become more important in the shielding design and radiation safety evaluation of accelerator facilities. Materials and Methods: The calculations with different physics models were applied in both of cases: using only physics model and using the mix and match method of MCNPX code. The issued conditions were the interactions of 600 MeV proton and
oxygen with a carbon target. Both of cross-section libraries, JENDL High Energy File 2007 (JENDL/HE-2007) and LA150, were tested in this calculation. In the case of oxygen ion interactions, the calculation results using LAQGSM physics model and JENDL/HE-2007 library were compared with D. Satoh's experimental data. Other Monte Carlo calculations using PHITS and FLUKA codes were also carried out for further benchmarking study. Results and Discussion: It was clearly found that the physics models, especially intra-nuclear cascade model, gave a great effect to determine proton-induced secondary neutron spectrum in MCNPX code. The variety of physics models related to heavy ion interactions did not make big difference on the secondary particle productions. Conclusion: The variations of secondary neutron spectra and particle transports depending on various physics models in MCNPX code were studied and the result of this study can be used for the shielding design and radiation safety evaluation.
Status of Radiation Dose and Radioactive Contamination due to the Fukushima Accident
Baba, Mamoru ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 41, issue 2, 2016, Pages 133~140
DOI : 10.14407/jrpr.2016.41.2.133
Backgrounds: The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), March 2011, caused serious radioactive contamination over wide area in east Japan. Therefore, it is important to know the effect of the accident and the status of NPP. Materials and Methods: This paper provides a review on the status of radiation dose and radioactive contamination caused by the accident on the basis of publicized information. Results and Discussion: Monitoring of radiation dose and exposure dose of residents has been conducted extensively by the governments and various organizations. The effective dose of general residents due to the accident proved to be less than a mSv both for external and internal dose. The equivalent committed dose of thyroid was evaluated to be a few mSv in mean value and less than 50 mSv even for children. Monitoring of radioactivity concentration has been carried out on food ingredients, milk and tap water, and actual meal. These studies indicated the percentage of foods above the regulation standard was over 10% in 2011 but decreasing steadily with time. The internal dose due to foods proved to be tens of
and much less than that due to natural
even in the Fukushima area and decreasing steadily, although high level concentration is still observed in wild plants, wild mushrooms, animals and some kind of fishes. Conclusion: According to extensive studies, not only the effect of the accident but also the pathway and countermeasures against radioactive contamination have been revealed, and they are applied very effectively for restoration of environment and reconstruction of the area.
Detailed Analysis of the KAERI nTOF Facility
Kim, Jong Woon ; Lee, Young-Ouk ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 41, issue 2, 2016, Pages 141~147
DOI : 10.14407/jrpr.2016.41.2.141
Background: A project for building a neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) facility is progressing. We expect that the construction will start in early 2016. Before that, a detailed simulation based on the current architectural drawings was performed to optimize the performance of our facility. Materials and Methods: Currently, several parts had been modified or changed from the original design to reflect requirements such as the layout of the electron beam line, shape of the vacuum chamber producing a neutron beam, and the underground layout of the nTOF facility. Detailed analysis for these modifications has been done with MCNP simulation. Results and Discussion: An overview of our photo-neutron source and KAERI nTOF facility were introduced. The numerical simulations for heat deposition, source term, and radiation shielding of KAERI nTOF facility were performed and the results are discussed. Conclusion: We are expecting that the construction of the KAERI nTOF facility will start in early 2016, and these results will be used as basic data.
A Methodology for Estimating the Uncertainty in Model Parameters Applying the Robust Bayesian Inferences
Kim, Joo Yeon ; Lee, Seung Hyun ; Park, Tai Jin ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 41, issue 2, 2016, Pages 149~154
DOI : 10.14407/jrpr.2016.41.2.149
Background: Any real application of Bayesian inference must acknowledge that both prior distribution and likelihood function have only been specified as more or less convenient approximations to whatever the analyzer's true belief might be. If the inferences from the Bayesian analysis are to be trusted, it is important to determine that they are robust to such variations of prior and likelihood as might also be consistent with the analyzer's stated beliefs. Materials and Methods: The robust Bayesian inference was applied to atmospheric dispersion assessment using Gaussian plume model. The scopes of contaminations were specified as the uncertainties of distribution type and parametric variability. The probabilistic distribution of model parameters was assumed to be contaminated as the symmetric unimodal and unimodal distributions. The distribution of the sector-averaged relative concentrations was then calculated by applying the contaminated priors to the model parameters. Results and Discussion: The sector-averaged concentrations for stability class were compared by applying the symmetric unimodal and unimodal priors, respectively, as the contaminated one based on the class of
was assumed as 10%, the medians reflecting the symmetric unimodal priors were nearly approximated within 10% compared with ones reflecting the plausible ones. However, the medians reflecting the unimodal priors were approximated within 20% for a few downwind distances compared with ones reflecting the plausible ones. Conclusion: The robustness has been answered by estimating how the results of the Bayesian inferences are robust to reasonable variations of the plausible priors. From these robust inferences, it is reasonable to apply the symmetric unimodal priors for analyzing the robustness of the Bayesian inferences.
Calculation of Low-Energy Reactor Neutrino Spectra for Reactor Neutrino Experiments
Riyana, Eka Sapta ; Suda, Shoya ; Ishibashi, Kenji ; Matsuura, Hideaki ; Katakura, Jun-ichi ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 41, issue 2, 2016, Pages 155~159
DOI : 10.14407/jrpr.2016.41.2.155
Background: Nuclear reactors produce a great number of antielectron neutrinos mainly from beta-decay chains of fission products. Such neutrinos have energies mostly in MeV range. We are interested in neutrinos in a region of keV, since they may take part in special weak interactions. We calculate reactor antineutrino spectra especially in the low energy region. In this work we present neutrino spectrum from a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) reactor core. Materials and Methods: To calculate neutrino spectra, we need information about all generated nuclides that emit neutrinos. They are mainly fission fragments, reaction products and trans-uranium nuclides that undergo negative beta decay. Information in relation to trans-uranium nuclide compositions and its evolution in time (burn-up process) were provided by a reactor code MVP-BURN. We used typical PWR parameter input for MVP-BURN code and assumed the reactor to be operated continuously for 1 year (12 months) in a steady thermal power (3.4 GWth). The PWR has three fuel compositions of 2.0, 3.5 and 4.1 wt%
contents. For preliminary calculation we adopted a standard burn-up chain model provided by MVP-BURN. The chain model treated 21 heavy nuclides and 50 fission products. The MVB-BURN code utilized JENDL 3.3 as nuclear data library. Results and Discussion: We confirm that the antielectron neutrino flux in the low energy region increases with burn-up of nuclear fuel. The antielectron-neutrino spectrum in low energy region is influenced by beta emitter nuclides with low Q value in beta decay (e.g.
) which is influenced by burp-up level: Low energy antielectron-neutrino spectra or emission rates increase when beta emitters with low Q value in beta decay accumulate Conclusion: Our result shows the flux of low energy reactor neutrinos increases with burn-up of nuclear fuel.
A Discussion for Alteration of the Radiation Issues Based on the Clipping Analyses of Radiation Articles Reported in Korea
Kim, Joo Yeon ; Youn, Dol Mi ; Yoo, Ji Yup ; Park, Tai Jin ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 41, issue 2, 2016, Pages 161~165
DOI : 10.14407/jrpr.2016.41.2.161
Background: Radiation accidents having occurred in recent containing the accident in Fukushima nuclear power plants of Japan were resulted to the increase in some public concern, anxiety and confusion for radiation or nuclear safety. The public anxiety for radiation is not being decreased though the announcements done in radiation research institutes in Korea. Therefore, this study aims at providing an effective system for radiation publicity to the public members by the clipping analysis for the radiation articles reported in the media. And, the relation between those radiation issues and the radiation perception to the public members is analyzed. Materials and Methods: The radiation articles reported by them in 2013 and 2014 have been collected, and they are then classified with the article characteristic, field and tendency. Classified articles have been reviewed by dividing as two year. The 210 articles have been compared for their tendencies, characteristics and fields by year reported, and their characteristic comparison by reported year are then reviewed. Results and Discussion: Though the frequency that the radiological accidents have occurred in worldwide is far low compared to the accidental frequencies occurred in the general industrial fields, the radiation perception is being still deteriorated because of its special problem, which is defined as exposure, contamination or radioactivity, about radiation. The basic principles for radiation communication were suggested for preventing some unnecessary misunderstanding due to the variation of understanding for radiation issues. Conclusion: It is necessary to perform a variety of strategies for the publicity in improving the radiation perception, to build a relationship with the press or the media and then to consistently interact with them. Radiation communication must be performed by radiation experts or complete charge department, and must be consistently performed and be taken predictable patterns.
Optical Characterizations of TlBr Single Crystals for Radiation Detection Applications
Oh, Joon-Ho ; Kim, Dong Jin ; Kim, Han Soo ; Lee, Seung Hee ; Ha, Jang Ho ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 41, issue 2, 2016, Pages 167~171
DOI : 10.14407/jrpr.2016.41.2.167
Background: TlBr is of considerable technological importance for radiation detection applications where detecting high-energy photons such as X-rays and
-rays are of prime importance. However, there were few reports on investigating optical properties of TlBr itself for deeper understandings of this material and for making better radiation detection devices. Thus, in this paper, we report on the optical characterizations of TlBr single crystals. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements at RT were performed for this work. Materials and Methods: A 2-inch TlBr single crystalline ingot was grown by using the vertical Bridgman furnace. SE measurements were performed at RT within the photon energy range from 1.1 to 6.5 eV. PL measurements were performed at RT by using a home-made PL system equipped with a 266 nm-laser and a spectrometer. Results and Discussion: Dielectric responses from SE analysis were shown to be slightly different among the different samples possibly due to the different structural/optical properties. Also from the PL measurements, it was observed that the peak intensities of the middle samples were significantly higher than those of the other two samples. With the given values for permittivity of free space (
), thickness (d = 1 mm), and area (
) of the TlBr sample, capacitances of TlBr were 6.9 pF (at
) and 4.4 pF (at
), respectively. Conclusion: SE and PL measurement and analysis were performed to characterize TlBr samples from the optical perspective. It was observed that dielectric responses of different TlBr samples were slightly different due to the different material properties. PL measurements showed that the middle sample exhibited much stronger PL emission peaks due to the better material quality. From the SE analysis, optical, dielectric constants were extracted, and calculated capacitances were in the few pF range.
Application of In Situ Measurement for Site Remediation and Final Status Survey of Decommissioning KRR Site
Hong, Sang Bum ; Nam, Jong Soo ; Choi, Yong Suk ; Seo, Bum Kyoung ; Moon, Jei Kwon ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 41, issue 2, 2016, Pages 173~178
DOI : 10.14407/jrpr.2016.41.2.173
Background: In situ gamma spectrometry has been used to measure environmental radiation, assumptions are usually made about the depth distribution of the radionuclides of interest in the soil. The main limitation of in situ gamma spectrometry lies in determining the depth distribution of radionuclides. The objective of this study is to develop a method for subsurface characterization by in situ measurement. Materials and Methods: The peak to valley method based on the ratio of counting rate between the photoelectric peak and Compton region was applied to identify the depth distribution. The peak to valley method could be applied to establish the relation between the spectrally derived coefficients (Q) with relaxation mass per unit area (
) for various depth distribution in soil. The in situ measurement results were verified by MCNP simulation and calculated correlation equation. In order to compare the depth distributions and contamination levels in decommissioning KRR site, in situ measurement and sampling results were compared. Results and Discussion: The in situ measurement results and MCNP simulation results show a good correlation for laboratory measurement. The simulation relationship between Q and source burial for the source layers have exponential relationship for a variety depth distributions. We applied the peak to valley method to contaminated decommissioning KRR site to determine a depth distribution and initial activity without sampling. The observed results has a good correlation, relative error between in situ measurement with sampling result is around 7% for depth distribution and 4% for initial activity. Conclusion: In this study, the vertical activity distribution and initial activity of
could be identifying directly through in situ measurement. Therefore, the peak to valley method demonstrated good potential for assessment of the residual radioactivity for site remediation in decommissioning and contaminated site.
Measuring Thermo-luminescence Efficiency of TLD-2000 Detectors to Different Energy Photons
Xie, Wei-min ; Chen, Bao-wei ; Han, Yi ; Yang, Zhong-Jian ;
Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, volume 41, issue 2, 2016, Pages 179~183
DOI : 10.14407/jrpr.2016.41.2.179
Background: As an important detecting device, TLD is a widely used in the radiation monitoring. It is essential for us to study the property of detecting element. The aim of this study is to calculate the thermo-luminescence efficiency of TL elements. Materials and Methods: A batch of thermo-luminescence elements were irradiated by the filtered X-ray beams of average energies in the range 40-200 kVp, 662 keV
gamma rays and then the amounts of lights were measured by the TL reader. The deposition energies in elements were calculated by theory formula and Monte Carlo simulation. The unit absorbed dose in elements by photons with different energies corresponding to the amounts of lights was calculated, which is called the thermo luminescent efficiency (
). Because of the amounts of lights can be calculated by the absorbed dose in elements multiply
can be calculated by the experimental data (the amounts of lights) divided by absorbed dose. Results and Discussion: The deviation of simulation results compared with theoretical calculation results were less than 5%, so the absorbed dose in elements was calculated by simulation results in here. The change range of
value, relative to 662 keV
gamma rays, is about 30% in the energy range of 33 keV to 662 keV, is in accordance by the comparison with relevant foreign literatures. Conclusion: The
values can be used for updating the amounts of lights that are got by the direct ratio assumed relations with deposition energy in TL elements, which can largely reduce the error of calculation results of the amounts of lights. These data can be used for the design of individual dosimeter which used TLD-2000 thermo-luminescence elements, also have a certain reference value for manufacturer to improve the energy-response performance of TL elements by formulation adjustment.