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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Broadcast Engineering
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Institute of Broadcast and Media Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 10, Issue 4 - Dec 2005
Volume 10, Issue 3 - Sep 2005
Volume 10, Issue 2 - Jun 2005
Volume 10, Issue 1 - Mar 2005
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Digital Speech Coding Technologies for Wire and Wireless Communication
Yoon, Byungsik ; Choi, Songin ; Kang, Sangwon ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 10, issue 3, 2005, Pages 261~269
Throughout the history of digital communication, the digital speech coder is used as speech compression tool. Nowadays, the speech coder has been rapidly developed in the area of mobile communication system to overcome severe channel error and limitation of radio frequency resources. Due to the development of high performance communication system, high quality of speech coder is needed. This kind of speech coder can be used not only in communication services but also in digital multimedia services. In this paper, we describe the technologies of digital speech coder which are used in wire and wireless communication. We also present a summary of recent speech coding standards for narrowband and wideband applications. Finally we introduce the technical trends of next generation speech coder.
Joint Optimization of the Motion Estimation Module and the Up/Down Scaler in Transcoders television
Han, Jong-Ki ; Kwak, Sang-Min ; Jun, Dong-San ; Kim, Jae-Gon ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 10, issue 3, 2005, Pages 270~285
A joint design scheme is proposed to optimize the up/down scaler and the motion vector estimation module in the transcoder system. The proposed scheme first optimizes the resolution scaler for a fixed motion vector, and then a new motion vector is estimated for the fixed scaler. These two steps are iteratively repeated until they reach a local optimum solution. In the optimization of the scaler, we derive an adaptive version of a cubic convolution interpolator to enlarge or reduce digital images by arbitrary scaling factors. The adaptation is performed at each macroblock of an image. In order to estimate the optimal motion vector, a temporary motion vector is composed from the given motion vectors. Then the motion vector is refined over a narrow search range. It is well-known that this refinement scheme provides the comparable performance compared to the full search method. Simulation results show that a jointly optimized system based on the proposed algorithms outperforms the conventional systems. We can also see that the algorithms exhibit significant improvement in the minimization of information loss compared with other techniques.
Stereo image compression based on error concealment for 3D television
Bak, Sungchul ; Sim, Donggyu ; Namkung, Jae-Chan ; Oh, Seoung-jun ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 10, issue 3, 2005, Pages 286~296
This paper presents a stereo-based image compression and transmission system for 3D realistic television. In the proposed system, a disparity map is extracted from an input stereo image pair and the extracted disparity map and one of two input images are transmitted or stored at a local or remote site. However, correspondences can not be determined in occlusion areas. Thus, it is not easy to recover 3D information in such regions. In this paper, a reconstruction image compensation algorithm based on error block concealment and in-loop filtering is proposed to minimize the reconstruction error in generating stereo image pair. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is shown in term of objective accuracy of reconstruction image with several real stereo image pairs.
Efficient Video Streaming Based on the TCP-Friendly Rate Control Scheme
Lee, Jungmin ; Lee, Sunhun ; Chung, Kwangsue ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 10, issue 3, 2005, Pages 297~312
The multimedia traffic of continuous video and audio data via streaming service accounts for a significant and expanding portion of the Internet traffic. This streaming data delivery is mostly based on RTP with UDP. However, UDP does not support congestion control. For this reason, UDP causes the starvation of congestion controlled TCP traffic which reduces its bandwidth share during overload situation. In this paper, we propose a new TCP-friendly rate control scheme called 'TF-RTP(TCP-Friendly RTP)'. In the congested network state, the TF-RTP exactly estimates the competing TCP's throughput by using the modified parameters. Then, it controls the sending rate of the video streams. Therefore, the TF-RTP adjusts its sending rate to TCP-friendly and fair share with competing TCP traffics. Through the simulation, we prove that the TF-RTP correctly estimates the TCP's throughput and improves the TCP-friendliness and fairness
Traffic-based Caching Algorithm and Performance Evaluation for QoS-adaptive Streaming Proxy Server in Wireless Networks
Kim, HwaSung ; Kim, YongSul ; Hong, JungPyo ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 10, issue 3, 2005, Pages 313~320
The increasing popularity of multimedia streaming services introduces new challenges in content distribution. Especially, it is important to provide the QoS guarantees as they are increasingly expected to support the multimedia applications. Multimedia streams typically experience the high start-up delay due to the large protocol overhead, the delay, and the loss properties of the wireless networks. The service providers can improve the performance of multimedia streaming by caching the initial segment (prefix) of the popular streams at proxies near the requesting clients. The proxy can initiate transmission to the client while requesting the remainder of the stream from the server. In this paper, we propose the traffic based caching algorithm (TSLRU) to improve the performance of caching proxy. TSLRU classifies the traffic into three types, and improve the performance of caching proxy by reflecting the several elements such as traffic types, recency, frequency, object size when performing the replacement decision. In simulation, TSLRU performs better than the existing schemes in terms of byte hit rate, hit rate, startup latency, and throughput.
Multi-View Video Coding Using Illumination Change-Adaptive Motion Estimation and 2D Direct Mode
Lee, Yung Ki ; Hur, Jae Ho ; Lee, Yung Lyul ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 10, issue 3, 2005, Pages 321~327
A MVC (Multi-view Video Coding) method, which uses both an illumination change-adaptive ME (Motion Estimation)/DC (Motion Compensation) and a 2D (Dimensional) direct mode, is proposed. Firstly, a new SAD (Sum of Absolute Difference) measure for ME/MC is proposed to compensate the Luma pixel value changes for spatio-temporal motion vector prediction. Illumination change-adaptive (ICA) ME/MC uses the new SAD to improve both MV (Motion Vector) accuracy and bit saving. Secondly, The proposed 2D direct mode that can be used in inter-view prediction is an extended version of the temporal direct mode in MPEG-4 AVC. The proposed MVC method obtains approximately 0.8dB PSNR (Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio) increment compared with the MPEG-4 AVC simulcast coding.
Low-bitrate Multichannel Audio Coding
Jang, Inseon ; Seo, Jeongil ; Beak, Seungkwon ; Kang, Kyeongok ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 10, issue 3, 2005, Pages 328~338
Technology for compressing low-bitrate multichannel audio coding is being standardized owing to the increasing need of consumer for multichannel audio contents. In this paper we propose the sound source location cue coding (SSLCC) for extremely compressing multichannel audio to be suitable at the narrow bandwidth transmission environment. To improve the compression capability of the conventional binaural cue coding(BCC), the SSLCC adopts the virtual source location information (VSLI) as a spatial cue parameter, a symmetric uniform quantizer, and Huffman coder. The objective and subjective assessment results show that the SSLCC provides lower bitrate and better audio quality than conventional BCC method.
Error-Resilience Enhancement based on Polyphase Down Sampling for the H.264 Video Coding Technology
Jung, Eun Ku ; Jia, Jie ; Kim, Hae Kwang ; Choi, Hae Chul ; Kim, Jae Gon ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 10, issue 3, 2005, Pages 340~347
This paper presents a polyphase down sampling based multiple description coding applied to H.264 video coding standard. For a given macroblock, a residual macroblock is calculated by motion estimation, and before applying DCT, quantization and entrophy coding of the H.264 coding process, the polyphase down sampling is applied to the residual macroblock to code in four separate descriptions. Experiments were performed for all the 9 test sequences of JVT SVC standardization in various packet loss patterns. Experimental results show that the proposed one gives 0.5 to 5 dB enhancement over an error-concealment based on the slice group map technolgoy.
Fast Bitrate Reduction Transcoding using Probability-Based Block Mode Determination in H.264
Kim, Dae-Yeon ; Lee, Yung-Lyul ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 10, issue 3, 2005, Pages 348~356
In this paper, we propose a fast bitrate reduction transcoding method to convert a bitstream coded by H.264 into a lower bitrate H.264 bitstream. Block mode informations and motion vectors generated by H.264 decoder are used for probability-based block mode determination in the proposed transcoding method. And the motion vector reuse and motion vector refinement process are applied in the proposed transcoding. In the experiment results, the proposed methods achieves approximately 40 times improvement in computation complexity compared with the cascaded pixel domain transcoding, while the PSNR(Peak Signal to Noise Ratio) is degraded with only
A Cross-Diamond-Triangle Search Algorithm for Fast Block-Matching Motion Estimation
Kim, Seong-Hoon ; Shin, Jae-Min ; Oh, Seoung-Jun ; Ahn, Chang-Beom ; Park, Ho-Chong ; Sim, Dong-Gyu ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 10, issue 3, 2005, Pages 357~371
In this Paper, we propose a new motion search algorithm called CDTS (Cross-Diamond-Triangle Search algorithm) that uses optimal search pattern according to the position of a search area to improve the performance of CDS(Cross-Diamond Search algorithm) as well as CDHSs(Cross-Diamond-Hexagonal Searches algorithms). We analyze motion distributions in various test video sequences to apply optimal search pattern according to a position of search area. Based on the result of this analysis, we propose a new triangle-shaped search pattern whose structure is asymmetric while previous search patterns are generally symmetric in conventional algorithms. In CDTS, we apply cross- and diamond-shaped search patterns to central search areas, and triangle- and diamond-shaped patterns to the other areas. Applying CDTS to test video sequences, the proposed scheme can reduce search points more than CDS and CDHSs by 16.22
, respectively, without any visual quality degradation.
Analysis of the Adjacent Channel Interference from High Power Gap-filler in Satellite Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (DMB)
Choi, Bokun ; Lee, Youngjin ; Hong, Youngjin ; Seo, JongSoo ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 10, issue 3, 2005, Pages 372~382
DS/CDM-QPSK (ITU-R Recommendation BO.1130-4 Annex 6, 'Digital System E'), which has been adoptedas a standard of Korean Satellite DMB (Digital Multimedia Broadcasting) system, is a satellite-based multimedia broadcasting service which transmits the multi-channel and high quality contents to the terrestrial users through a satellite or gap-fillers. The broadcast from a satellite is directly received in the plain terrain which are within line-of-sight, but in cities where the broadcast cannot be received directly due to the shadow of buildings, an attempt is being made to install 'Gap-Fillers' to improve the reception in those areas. The gap-fillers, however, may induce interference to service of adjacent band, when their output power is substantially higher compared to the received signal power of signal from a satellite of the adjacent service. In this paper, a link budget analysis is performed, and the optimal EIRP of a gap-filler to maximize the gap-filler coverage, while preventing adjacent band interference is derived.
A Deblocking Algorithm Using Anisotropic Diffusion for Block DCT-based Compressed Images
Choi, Euncheol ; Han, Youngseok ; Park, Min Kyu ; Kang, Moon Gi ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 10, issue 3, 2005, Pages 383~391
In this paper, a new anisotropic diffusion based on Alvarez, Lions, and Morel (ALM) diffusion model is proposed for the suppression of blocking artifact caused by discrete cosine transform (DCT) based image compression. The proposed diffusion model, which incorporates a 'rate control parameter' (RCP), makes it possible to reduce blocking artifacts while to preserve the edge. The RCP controls the rate between isotropic and anisotropic diffusion. Isotropic diffusion is encouraged to eliminate the blocking artifacts in a block boundary of a smooth region, while anisotropic diffusion is encouraged to keep the edge or texture sharp in edge and a block boundary within an edge region. Additionally, to avoid oversmoothness of the texture region, a 'speed control parameter' (SCP), which makes diffusion process slow in the texture region, is employed.
A full-Hardwired Low-Power MPEG4@SP Video Encoder for Mobile Applications
Shin, Sun Young ; Park, Hyun Sang ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 10, issue 3, 2005, Pages 392~400
Highly integrated MPEG-4@SP video compression engine, VideoCore, is proposed for mobile application. The primary components of video compression require the high memory bandwidth since they access the external memory frequently. They include motion estimation, motion compensation, quantization, discrete cosine transform, variable length coding, and so on. The motion estimation processor adopted in VideoCore utilizes the small-size local memories such that the video compression system accesses external memory as less frequently as possible. The entire video compression system is divided into two distinct sub-systems: the integer-unit motion estimation part and the others, and both operate concurrently in a pipelined architecture. Thus the VideoCore enables the real-time high-quality video compression with a relatively low operation frequency.
Design of the Upstream Cable Modem for Symmetric Multimedia Services over HFC Networks
Cho, Byung Hak ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 10, issue 3, 2005, Pages 401~412
We propose and design the algorithms of symbol timing recovery, carrier recovery, and equalization for the receiver of S-DMT cable modem, which supports more channels and better symmetric mutimedia services over HFC network. We evaluate the performance of the concatenated entire receiving system of 16QAM, 64QAM in the mixed noise channel of AWGN, ISI and impulse. The result of evaluation shows those algorithms work correctly and designed S-DMT receiver has good performance. We also verify the designed system has excellent immunity against impulse noise channel of practical Cable TV networks by the result of simulation with the parameters of impulse internal
and noise power
Design of Multiple-symbol Lookup Table for Fast Thumbnail Generation in Compressed Domain
Yoon, Ja-Cheon ; Sull, Sanghoon ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 10, issue 3, 2005, Pages 413~421
As the population of HDTV is growing, among many useful features of modern set top boxes (STBs) or digital video recorders (DVRs), video browsing, visual bookmark, and picture-in-picture capabilities are very frequently required. These features typically employ reduced-size versions of video frames, or thumbnail images. Most thumbnail generation approaches generate DC images directly from a compressed video stream. A discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficient for which the frequency is zero in both dimensions in a compressed block is called a DC coefficient and is simply used to construct a DC image. If a block has been encoded with field DCT, a few AC coefficients are needed to generate the DC image in addition to a DC coefficient. However, the bit length of a codeword coded with variable length coding (VLC) cannot be determined until the previous VLC codeword has been decoded, thus it is required that all codewords should be fully decoded regardless of their necessary for DC image generation. In this paper, we propose a method especially for fast DC image generation from an I-frame using multiple-symbol lookup table (mLUT). The experimental results show that the method using the mLUT improves the performance greatly by reducing LUT count by 50
Intelligent Broadcasting System and Services for Personalized Semantic Contents Consumption
Jin, Sung Ho ; Cho, Jun Ho ; Ro, Yong Man ; Kim, Jae-Gon ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 10, issue 3, 2005, Pages 422~435
Compared with analog broadcasting, digital broadcasting supports technical background to provide personalize the TV watching environment by offering broadcasting services that can adapt to viewers' preferences. However, current digital broadcasting shows limited services such as reservation recording, simple program guiding with an electronic program guide (EPG) on a personal video recorder system, and primitive data broadcasting by broadcasters. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to suggest a new broadcasting environment which gives a person facility and a difference fur watching TV by serving enhanced personalized services. For that reason, we propose an intelligent broadcasting system which can minimize viewer's actions, and enhanced broadcasting services which are based on understanding of the semantics of broadcasting contents. To implement the system, agent technology as well as the MPEG-7 and TV-Anytime Forum (TVAF) are employed. For content-level services, real-time content filtering and personalized video skimming are designed and implemented. To verify the usefulness of the proposed system, we demonstrate it with a test-bed on which content-level personalized services are implemented.
A Study on Integrated Media using MAF for Photo Album
Cho, Jun Ho ; Yang, Seungji ; Jin, Sung Ho ; Ro, Yong Man ; Kim, Sang-Kyun ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 10, issue 3, 2005, Pages 436~450
In this paper we propose an integrated media format for a photo album including media resources and corresponding meta-data The main purpose of the integrated media is to be more reusable meta-data and to facilitate constructing a photo album from a large number of photo images as well. The proposed media format is based on MAF(multimedia Application Format) which is recently going on progress in MPEG standards. In this paper, we propose the integrated media consisting of JPEG data and content-based meta-data based on MPEG-7 MDS. We verified the usefulness of the proposed media through experiments with implementation of encoder and photo MAF player for the MAF-based media format.