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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Broadcast Engineering
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Institute of Broadcast and Media Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 6 - Nov 2009
Volume 14, Issue 5 - Sep 2009
Volume 14, Issue 4 - Jul 2009
Volume 14, Issue 3 - May 2009
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Mar 2009
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Jan 2009
Selecting the target year
A Novel Video Copy Detection Method based on Statistical Analysis
Cho, Hye-Jeong ; Kim, Ji-Eun ; Sohn, Chae-Bong ; Chung, Kwang-Sue ; Oh, Seoung-Jun ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 14, issue 6, 2009, Pages 661~675
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2009.14.6.661
The carelessly and illegally copied contents are raising serious social problem as internet and multimedia technologies are advancing. Therefore, development of video copy detection system must be settled without delay. In this paper, we propose the hierarchical video copy detection method that estimates similarity using statistical characteristics between original video and manipulated(transformed) copy video. We rank according to luminance value of video to be robust to spacial transformation, and choose similar videos categorized as candidate segments in huge amount of database to reduce processing time and complexity. The copy videos generally insert black area in the edge of the image, so we remove rig black area and decide copy or not by using statistical characteristics of original video and copied video with center part of frame that contains important information of video. Experiment results show that the proposed method has similar keyframe accuracy to reference method, but we use less memory to save feature information than reference`s, because the number of keyframes is less 61% than that of reference`s. Also, the proposed method detects if the video is copied or not efficiently despite expansive spatial transformations such as blurring, contrast change, zoom in, zoom out, aspect ratio change, and caption insertion.
Development of Service Guide for Mobile Broadcast Considering Interoperability
Kim, Jun-Hwan ; Jang, Sung-Man ; Jeong, Shin-Il ; Kyung, Il-Soo ; Kim, Hyun-Soon ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 14, issue 6, 2009, Pages 676~691
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2009.14.6.676
Recently mobile broadcast standards that have IP layer between transport layer and service layer such as DVB-IPDC, OMA-BCAST have been commercialized. Specially, IP abstract layer of OMA-BCAST makes it possible to interface diverse transport layers. Service guide, that is important for user interface, of these mobile broadcast standards has complex structure and heterogeneous schema. ESG schema is not interoperable, therefore terminals should have various implementations of service layer to support more than one service layer at a time. In this paper, not only for enabling interoperability of DVB-IPDC and OMA-BCAST but for supporting basic scenarios of mobile broadcast, simple ESG schema was developed. This new schema can be used as an independent ESG schema, especially for the integrated mobile broadcast middleware environment.
A Camera Tracking System for Post Production of TV Contents
Oh, Ju-Hyun ; Nam, Seung-Jin ; Jeon, Seong-Gyu ; Sohn, Kwang-Hoon ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 14, issue 6, 2009, Pages 692~702
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2009.14.6.692
Real-time virtual studios which could run only on expensive workstations are now available for personal computers thanks to the recent development of graphics hardware. Nevertheless, graphics are rendered off-line in the post production stage in film or TV drama productions, because the graphics` quality is still restricted by the real-time hardware. Software-based camera tracking methods taking only the source video into account take much computation time, and often shows unstable results. To overcome this restriction, we propose a system that stores camera motion data from sensors at shooting time as common virtual studios and uses them in the post production stage, named as POVIS(post virtual imaging system). For seamless registration of graphics onto the camera video, precise zoom lens calibration must precede the post production. A practical method using only two planar patterns is used in this work. We present a method to reduce the camera sensor`s error due to the mechanical mismatch, using the Kalman filter. POVIS was successfully used to track the camera in a documentary production and saved much of the processing time, while conventional methods failed due to lack of features to track.
Design and Implementation of a Realistic Multi-View Scalable Video Coding Scheme
Park, Min-Woo ; Park, Gwang-Hoon ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 14, issue 6, 2009, Pages 703~720
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2009.14.6.703
This paper proposes a realistic multi-view scalable video coding scheme designed for user`s interest in 3D content services and the usage in the future computing environment. Future video coding schemes should support realistic services that make users feel the 3-D presence through stereoscopic or multi-view videos, as well as to accomplish the so-called one-source multi-use services in order to comprehensively support diverse transmission environments and terminals. Unlike the most of video coding methods which only support two-dimensional display, the proposed coding scheme in this paper is the method which can support such realistic services. This paper designs and also implements the proposed coding scheme through integrating Multi-view Video Coding scheme and Scalable Video Coding scheme, then shows its possibility of realization of 3D services by the simulation. The simulation results show the proposed structure remarkably improves the performance of random access with almost the same coding efficiency.
Analysis of laboratory test results on the constellation ratio in hierarchical modulation based AT-DMB
Lee, Jae-Hong ; Bae, Jae-Hwui ; Choi, Seung-Won ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 14, issue 6, 2009, Pages 721~732
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2009.14.6.721
AT-DMB system has been developed to increase data rate up to double of conventional T-DMB in same bandwidth while maintaining backward compatibility. The AT-DMB system adopted hierarchical modulation which adds BPSK signal or QPSK signal as enhanced layer to existing DQPSK signal. The enhanced layer signal should be small enough to maintain backward compatibility and to minimize the coverage loss of existing T-DMB service area. But this causes the enhanced layer signal of AT-DMB susceptible to fading effect in transmission channel. A turbo code which has powerful error correction capability is applied to the enhanced layer signal of the AT-DMB system for compensating channel distortion. We developed the prototype AT-DMB transmitter and receiver systems for performance evaluation. LAB test for analysing the effect of constellation ratio between existing base layer signal and enhancement layer signal, was conducted and the measurement results are shown with analysis comments.
Power Reduction of Multi-Carrier Transmission System by Using Multi-Dimensional Constellation Mappings
Lee, Kyoung-Won ; Kim, Jang-Hyun ; Kim, Dae-Jin ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 14, issue 6, 2009, Pages 733~741
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2009.14.6.733
The design rule of digital communication systems is the reliable data transmission with high spectral efficiency and minimum allowable power. This paper suggests the method that saves the average power by implementing a multi-dimensional constellation in case of multi-carrier communication system. By using multi-dimensional constellations we can relocate constellation points in the form of a sphere. If we simply convert the two-dimensional QAM modulation into multi-dimensional QAM, constellation points of 2 N dimensional cube form are made up. Relocating outermost constellation points of 2 N dimensional cube form into low energy constellation points, the constellation of the 2 N-dimensional sphere form is made up which decreases power consumption. In this paper, the multi-dimensional constellations of 2 N-dimensional sphere form are designed from 16-QAM to 2,048-QAM, and power reductions are obtained by comparing constellations of 2-dimensional QAMs and multi-dimensional constellations of 2 N-dimensional sphere form. The result shows that the average power consumption of higher dimensional constellations increases, because the more a dimension elevates, the more the relocatable constellation points increase. But, the increment of the average power savings decreases as the a dimension elevates. The transmission of the data by using multi-dimensional constellations of the sphere form is effective to save the average power consumption with little hardware complexity.
Demosaicing Algorithm Using Directional Neighboring Pixels
Kim, Hee-Chang ; Jeong, Je-Chang ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 14, issue 6, 2009, Pages 742~748
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2009.14.6.742
Most commercial digital still cameras use a single sensor array (e.g., CMOS or CCD) with color filter array (CFA) to reduce the cost and size. Since the image obtained with CFA has only one color value per pixel, the demosaicing is needed to acquire missing two color values. Although many demosaicing methods have been proposed, they still have artifacts such as rainbow and zippering artifact. In this paper, we propose the simple demosaicing algorithm using tendency of neighbor pixels with the enhanced weighting function. In the experimental results, our algorithm shows much better subjective qualities of the images than conventional demosaicing algorithm and improves objective qualities.
Intra Prediction Offset Compensation for Improving Video Coding Efficiency
Lim, Sung-Chang ; Lee, Ha-Hyun ; Choi, Hae-Chul ; Jeong, Se-Yoon ; Kim, Jong-Ho ; Choi, Jin-Soo ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 14, issue 6, 2009, Pages 749~768
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2009.14.6.749
In this paper, an intra prediction offset compensation method is proposed to improve intra prediction in H.264/AVC. In H.264/AVC, intra prediction based on various directions improves the coding efficiency by removing spatial correlation between neighboring blocks. In details, neighboring pixels in reconstructed block can be used as intra reference block for the current block to be coded when intra prediction method is used. In order to reduce further the prediction error of the intra reference block, the proposed method introduces an intra prediction offset which is determined in the sense of the rate-distortion optimization and is added to the conventional intra prediction block. Besides the intra prediction offset compensation, the coefficient thresholding method which is used for inter coding in JM 11.0, is used for chroma component in intra block, which leads the improvement of the luma coding efficiency of the proposed method. In experiments, we show that the proposed method achieves average 2.45% in High Profile condition and maximum 4.41% of bitrate reduction relative to JM 11.0.
Design of MPEG-2 Transport Stream specification for stereoscopic video broadcasting service
Park, Heung-Sik ; Kim, Kyu-Heon ; Lee, Gun-Hee ; Yun, Kug-Jin ; Suh, Doug-Young ; Park, Gwang-Hoon ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 14, issue 6, 2009, Pages 769~782
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2009.14.6.769
Stereoscopic video service is one of the most widely adopted technologies for 3-Dimensional technology. However, the stereoscopic video service has not been penetrated into the market since there does not exist a proper transmission method even though the conventional MPEG-2 Transport Stream (TS) has support for broadcast service of mono-scopic video contents. This is partly because the MPEG-2 TS does not support displaying a stereoscopic video content which consists of several composition types widely used in the market. This paper proposes the new MPEG-2 TS specification suitable for transmitting and displaying stereoscopic video contents. In order to show feasibility of the proposal, this paper describes an end-to-end system which is implemented with consideration of the method how to multiplex and de-multiplex stereoscopic video contents as well as keeping backward compatibility with the traditional MPEG-2 TS.
The analysis of demand and supply in contents for platform differentiation
Park, Sang-Eun ; Choi, Seong-Jhin ; Lee, Young-Ju ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 14, issue 6, 2009, Pages 783~795
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2009.14.6.783
We analyze the demand and supply in contents for platform differentiation in this paper. The contents provided by new platforms such DMB, IPTV which are introduced by the digital techniques and broadband network are almost same, so it is definitely necessary to differentiate the broadcasting contents for the development of telecommunication industry. To forecast the contents demand needed for each media, we assume 3 scenarios such as maximum, medium and minimum demand for contents considering deregulation of media policy. Also, we include the expected number of channels according to the changeover of policies as a variable for scenario. To predict the supply of contents of each media, we analyze 3 scenarios according to operating rates of production facilities as 100%, 70%, 50% and first-run ratio/rerun ratio of both terrestrial broadcastings and major program providers. The result shows that in case of scenario A, new contents for 453,484 hours are required every year and maximum contents that can be produced in present production facilities are just for 72,852 hours even in condition of 100% operating rate. This means that the unbalance of demand and supply of contents is extremely big and implies that the policies of focusing only on the development of platform and network industry are inadequate. It is time to foster contents business for differentiation of multiplatforms.
Adaptation of SVC to Packet Loss and its Performance Analysis
Jang, Euy-Doc ; Kim, Jae-Gon ; Thang, Truong Cong ; Kang, Jung-Won ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 14, issue 6, 2009, Pages 796~806
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2009.14.6.796
SVC (Scalable Video Coding) is a new video coding standard to provide convergence media service in heterogeneous environments with different networks and diverse terminals through spatial-temporal-quality combined flexible scalabilities. This paper presents the performance analysis on packet loss in the delivery of SVC over IP networks and an efficient adaptation method to packet loss caused by buffer overflow. In particular, SVC with MGS (Medium Grained Scalability) as well as spatial and temporal scalabilities is addressed in the consideration of packet-based adaptation since finer adaptation is possible with a sufficient numbers of quality layers in MGS. The effect on spatio-temporal quality due to the packet loss of SVC with MGS is evaluated. In order to minimize quality degradation resulted by packet loss, the proposed adaptation of MGS based SVC first sets adaptation unit of AU (Access Unit) or GOP corresponding to allowed delay and then selectively discards packets in order of importance in terms of layer dependency. In the experiment, the effects of packet loss on quantitative qualities are analyzed and the effectiveness of the proposed adaptation to packet loss is shown.
Real-Time Image-Based Relighting for Tangible Video Teleconference
Ryu, Sae-Woon ; Parka, Jong-Il ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 14, issue 6, 2009, Pages 807~810
DOI : 10.5909/JBE.2009.14.6.807
This paper deals with a real-time image based relighting system for tangible video teleconference. The proposed image based relighting system renders the extracted human object using the virtual environmental images. The proposed system can homogenize virtually the lighting environments of remote users on the video teleconference, or render the humans like they are in the virtual places. To realize the video teleconference, the paper obtains the 3D object models of users in real-time using the controlled lighting system. In this paper, we use single color camera and synchronized two directional flash lights. Proposed system generates pure shading images using on and off flash images subtraction. One pure shading reflectance map generates a directional normal map from multiplication of each reflectance map and basic normal vector map. Each directional basic normal map is generated by inner vector calculation of incident light vector and camera viewing vector. And the basic normal vector means a basis component of real surface normal vector. The proposed system enables the users to immerse video teleconference just as they are in the virtual environments.