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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Broadcast Engineering
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The Korean Institute of Broadcast and Media Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 6 - Nov 2011
Volume 16, Issue 5 - Sep 2011
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Jul 2011
Volume 16, Issue 3 - May 2011
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Mar 2011
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Jan 2011
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Adaptive In-loop Filter Method for High-efficiency Video Coding
Jung, Kwang-Su ; Nam, Jung-Hak ; Lim, Woong ; Jo, Hyun-Ho ; Sim, Dong-Gyu ; Choi, Byeong-Doo ; Cho, Dae-Sung ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 1, 2011, Pages 1~13
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.1.001
In this paper, we propose an adaptive in-loop filter to improve the coding efficiency. Recently, there are post-filter hint SEI and block-based adaptive filter control (BAFC) methods based on the Wiener filter which can minimize the mean square error between the input image and the decoded image in video coding standards. However, since the post-filter hint SEI is applied only to the output image, it cannot reduce the prediction errors of the subsequent frames. Because BAFC is also conducted with a deblocking filter, independently, it has a problem of high computational complexity on the encoder and decoder sides. In this paper, we propose the low-complexity adaptive in-loop filter (LCALF) which has lower computational complexity by using H.264/AVC deblocking filter, adaptively, as well as shows better performance than the conventional method. In the experimental results, the computational complexity of the proposed method is reduced about 22% than the conventional method. Furthermore, the coding efficiency of the proposed method is about 1% better than the BAFC.
A Wavelet-Domain IKONOS Satellite Image Fusion Algorithm Considering the Spectrum Range of Multispectral Images
Lee, Young-Gun ; Kuk, Jung-Gap ; Cho, Nam-Ik ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 1, 2011, Pages 14~22
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.1.014
The conventional satellite image fusion methods usually add the same amount of higher frequency components extracted from the panchromatic image to all the multispectral images. However, it is noted that each of multispectral images has different amount of overlap with the panchromatic image in terms of its spectrum, and also has different intensities. Thus giving the same amount of high frequency contents to all the spectral bands does not match with this observation, which causes color distortion in the fused image. In this paper, we propose a new wavelet-domain satellite image fusion algorithm that can compensate for these differences in intensity and spectrum overlap. For the compensation of intensity differences, we first estimate the high resolution multispectral images from P, considering the relative intensity ratios. For the compensation of the amount of spectral overlap, their wavelet coefficients are appended to the conventional wavelet-domain method where the coefficients for the addition is determined by the amount of spectrum overlap. Experiments are conducted for the IKONOS satellite images whose spectrums are well known, and the results show that the proposed algorithm gives higher PSNR and correlation coefficients compared to the conventional methods.
Design and Implementation of Clipcast Service via Terrestrial DMB
Cho, Suk-Hyun ; Seo, Jong-Soo ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 1, 2011, Pages 23~32
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.1.023
Design and Implementation of Clipcast Service via Terrestrial DMB This paper outlines the system design and the implementation process of clipcast service that can send clips of video, mp3, text, images, etc. to terrestrial DMB terminals. To provide clipcast service in terrestrial DMB, a separate data channel needs to be allocated and this requires changes in the existing bandwidth allocation. Clipcast contents can be sent after midnight at around 3 to 4 AM, when terrestrial DMB viewship is low. If the video service bit rate is lowered to 352 Kbps and the TPEG service band is fully used, then 320 Kbps bit rate can be allocated to clipcast. To enable clipcast service, the terminals` DMB program must be executed, and this can be done through SMS and EPG. Clipcast service applies MOT protocol to transmit multimedia objects, and transmits twice in carousel format for stable transmission of files. Therefore, 72Mbyte data can be transmitted in one hour, which corresponds to about 20 minutes of full motion video service at 500Kbps data rate. When running the clip transmitted through terrestrial DMB data channel, information regarding the length of each clip is received through communication with the CMS(Content Management Server), then error-free files are displayed. The clips can be provided to the users as preview contents of the complete VOD contents. In order to use the complete content, the user needs to access the URL allocated for that specific content and download the content by completing a billing process. This paper suggests the design and implementation of terrestrial DMB system to provide clipcast service, which enables file download services as provided in MediaFLO, DVB-H, and the other mobile broadcasting systems. Unlike the other mobile broadcasting systems, the proposed system applies more reliable SMS method to activate the DMB terminals for highly stable clipcast service. This allows hybrid, i.e, both SMS and EPG activations of terminals for clipcast services.
Producing Stereoscopic Video Contents Using Transformation of Character Objects
Lee, Kwan-Wook ; Won, Ji-Yeon ; Choi, Chang-Yeol ; Kim, Man-Bae ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 1, 2011, Pages 33~43
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.1.033
Recently, 3D displays are supplied in the 3D markets so that the demand for 3D stereoscopic contents increases. In general, a simple method is to use a stereoscopic camera. As well, the production of 3D from 2D materials is regarded as an important technology. Such conversion works have gained much interest in the field of 3D converting. However, the stereoscopic image generation from a single 2D image is limited to simple 2D to 3D conversion so that the better realistic perception is difficult to deliver to the users. This paper presents a new stereoscopic content production method where foreground objects undergo alive action events. Further stereoscopic animation is viewed on 3D displays. Given a 2D image, the production is composed of background image generation, foreground object extraction, object/background depth maps and stereoscopic image generation The alive objects are made using the geometric transformation (e.g., translation, rotation, scaling, etc). The proposed method is performed on a Korean traditional painting, Danopungjung as well as Pixar`s Up. The animated video showed that through the utilization of simple object transformations, more realistic perception can be delivered to the viewers.
3D conversion of 2D video using depth layer partition
Kim, Su-Dong ; Yoo, Ji-Sang ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 1, 2011, Pages 44~53
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.1.044
In this paper, we propose a 3D conversion algorithm of 2D video using depth layer partition method. In the proposed algorithm, we first set frame groups using cut detection algorithm. Each divided frame groups will reduce the possibility of error propagation in the process of motion estimation. Depth image generation is the core technique in 2D/3D conversion algorithm. Therefore, we use two depth map generation algorithms. In the first, segmentation and motion information are used, and in the other, edge directional histogram is used. After applying depth layer partition algorithm which separates objects(foreground) and the background from the original image, the extracted two depth maps are properly merged. Through experiments, we verify that the proposed algorithm generates reliable depth map and good conversion results.
A New Parallelizing Algorithm and Cell-based Hardware Architecture for High-speed Generation of Digital Hologram
Seo, Young-Ho ; Choi, Hyun-Jun ; Yoo, Ji-Sang ; Kim, Dong-Wook ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 1, 2011, Pages 54~63
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.1.054
This paper proposes a new equation to calculate computer-generated hologram (CGH) in a high speed and its cell-based VLSI (veri large scale integrated circuit) architecture. After finding the calculational regularity in the horizontal or vertical direction from the basic CGH equation, we induce the new equation to calculate the horizontal or vertical hologram pixel values in parallel. We also propose the architecture of the CGH cell consisting of a initial parameter calculator and update-phase calculator(s) on the basis of the equation and implement them in hardware. Also we show a hardware architecture to parallelize the calculation in the horizontal direction by extending CGH. In the experiments we analyze the used hardware resources. These analyses makes it possible to select the amount of hardware to the precision of the results. Here, for the CGH kernel and the structure of the processor, we used the platform from our previous works.
Additional Data Transmission Scheme Using TxID Signal for ATSC System
Kang, Dong-Hoon ; Park, Sung-Ik ; Kim, Heung-Mook ; Oh, Wang-Rok ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 1, 2011, Pages 64~72
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.1.064
In a Single Frequency Network (SFN) for Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) terrestrial digital television (DTV) system, the interferences induced by the multiple transmitters and/or repeaters using same frequency are unavoidable. To ease the interference handing in the SFN for ATSC DTV system, transmitter identification (TxID) signal is recommended in the ATSC terrestrial DTV system. The TxID signal is embedded in the ATSC DTV signal and transmitted from each transmitter and repeater within the SFN and in ATSC recommended practice (RP) A/111, Kasami sequence is recommended as the TxID signal. In this paper, we propose an additional data transmission scheme using the TxID signal. In the proposed scheme, the Kasami sequence not only acts as the conventional TxID of the SFN for ATSC terrestrial DTV system but also carriers the additional data bits on its polarity and the code phase.
The Effects of Color Temperature on Video in Broadcasting Lighting
Kim, Yong-Kyu ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 1, 2011, Pages 73~84
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.1.073
In the 2000s, digital HDTV which is sensitive for color temperature and illumination in videos has witnessed many changes to lighting techniques and the next-generation UHDTV will see its resolution being improved up to as 16 times as that of existing high-definition TV. As a result, visible effects by lighting is expected to work more importantly for viewers. When color temperature conversion filters are used for current broadcasting production, the intensity of illumination and luminance can be lowered as well as people`s skin tone can be distorted. For this reason, high-quality images are materialized by analyzing the correlation between color temperature, illumination and luminance.
An Alternative Carrier Phase Independent Symbol Timing Offset Estimation Methods for VSB Receivers
Shin, Sung-Soo ; Kim, Joon-Tae ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 1, 2011, Pages 85~95
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.1.085
In this paper, we propose an alternative carrier phase independent timing recovery method for VSB receivers. The Gardner algorithm may not estimate a timing offset in VSB systems when the residual carrier phase offset is contained in the signal. We use the conjugate multiplication of received signals for cancelling out the carrier phase offset. Then Gardner algorithm is employed for extracting the spectral line. The proposed method generates a consistent timing error even in the presence of the carrier phase offset.
A Carrier Frequency Synchronization Scheme for modified ATSC Systems
Jeon, Young-Gon ; Kim, Joon-Tae ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 1, 2011, Pages 96~107
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.1.096
Recently, studies of 3D HDTV broadcasting technology have been processed actively. Korea is making efforts to modify Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) 8-Vestigial Side Band (8-VSB) systems for terrestrial 3D HDTV broadcasting services. We intend to adopt a new frame structure to use PN (Pseudo-Noise) sequence as frame header, and VSB modulation. PN sequence is used to recover carrier freqeuncy offset, carrier phase error. In this paper, we will describe this system as the modified ATSC systems. The receiver of the modified ATSC system should be able to estimate and recover carrier frequency offset exactly. A existing ATSC systems inserts pilot to recover carrier frequency offset, on the other hand the modified ATSC systems use PN sequence to recovery carrier frequency offset without the use of pilot. In this paper, we introduce carrier frequency recovery (CFR) scheme for the modified ATSC systems. The proposed CFR scheme is composed of coarse CFR scheme using Fitz algorithm and fine CFR scheme using a simple PN sequence correlation algorithm. And, the symbol information of QAM modulated signal is contained in both In-phase (I)channel and Quadrature-phase (Q)channel. However the symbol information of VSB modulated signal is contained in I channel, and Q channel is just Hilbert transform of I channel. For the reason, VSB modulated symbols can not have fixed phase like QAM modulated symbols, and VSB modulated symbols is more sensitive to carrier frequency offset. Therefore we perform phase correction of received PN sequence to improve performance.
Transcoding from Distributed Video Coding to H.264/AVC Based on Motion Vectors of Side Information
Min, Kyung-Yeon ; Yoo, Sung-Eun ; Sim, Dong-Gyu ; Jeon, Byeung-Woo ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 1, 2011, Pages 108~122
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.1.108
In this paper, a transcoding method with low computational complexity and high coding efficiency is proposed to transcode distributed video coding (DVC) bitstreams to H.264/AVC ones. For the proposed high-performance transcoding with low complexity, not only Wyner-Ziv frames but also key frames can be transcoded with motion vectors estimated in generation of side information. As a motion vector is estimated from a key frame to a prior key frame for side information generation, the motion vector can be used to encode the intra key frame as a predicted frame. Motion estimation is performed with two predicted motion vectors. One is the motion vector from side information generation and the other is median of motion vectors of neighboring blocks. The proposed method selects the best motion vector between two motion vectors based on rate-distortion optimization. Coding efficiency can be improved with a small size of search range, because a motion vector estimated in side information generation is used as an initial motion vector for transcoding. In the experimental results, complexity of transcoder is reduced about 12% and bitrate performance increases about 28.7%.
Rate-Distortion Based Selective Encoding in Distributed Video Coding
Lee, Byung-Tak ; Kim, Jae-Gon ; Kim, Jin-Soo ; Seo, Kwang-Deok ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 1, 2011, Pages 123~132
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.1.123
Recently, DVC (Distributed Video Coding) is receiving a lot of attention as one of the low complexity video encoding techniques suitable for various applications with computation-limited and/or power-limited environment, and is being actively studied for improving the coding efficiency. This paper proposes a rate-distortion based selective block encoding scheme. First, the motion information is obtained in the process of generating side information at decoder and received through the feedback channel, and then, based on this information, the proposed method performs a selective block encoding based on rate-distortion optimization. Experimental results show that the performance of the proposed scheme reaches up to 2.2 dB PSNR gain over the existing scheme. Moreover, it is shown that the complexity can be reduced by encoding parts of region considering rate-distortion cost.
Complexity Balancing for Distributed Video Coding Based on Entropy Coding
Yoo, Sung-Eun ; Min, Kyung-Yeon ; Sim, Dong-Gyu ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 1, 2011, Pages 133~143
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.1.133
In this paper, a complexity-balancing algorithm is proposed for distributed video coding based on entropy coding. In order to reduce complexity of DVC-based decoders, the proposed method employs an entropy coder instead of channel coders and the complexity-balancing method is designed to improve RD performance with minimal computational complexity. The proposed method performs motion estimation in the decoder side and transmits the estimated motion vectors to the encoder. The proposed encoder can perform more accurate refinement using the transmitted motion vectors from the decoder. During the motion refinement, the optimal predicted motion vectors are decided by the received motion vector and the predicted motion vectors and complexity load of block is allocated by adjusting the search range based on the difference between the received motion vector and the predicted motion vectors. The computational complexity of the proposed encoder is decreased 11.9% compared to the H.264/AVC encoder and that of the proposed decoder are reduced 99% compared to the conventional DVC decoder.
Fast Distributed Video Coding using Parallel LDPCA Encoding
Park, Jong-Bin ; Jeon, Byeung-Woo ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 1, 2011, Pages 144~154
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.1.144
In this paper, we propose a parallel LDPCA encoding method for fast transform-domain Wyner-Ziv video encoding which is suitable in an ultra fast and low power video encoding. The conventional transform-domain Wyner-Ziv video encoding performs LDPCA channel coding of quantized transform coefficients in bitplane-serial fashion, which takes about 60% of total encoding time, and this computational complexity becomes severer as the bitrate increases. The proposed method binds several bitplanes into one packed message and carries out the LDPCA encoding in parallel. The proposed LDPCA encoding method improves the encoding speed by 8 ~ 55 times. In the experiment, the proposed Wyner-Ziv encoder can encode 700 ~ 2,300 QCIF size frames per second with GOP
User Profile Based Seamless Framework under HTTP Adaptive Streaming Environment
Kim, Jung-Han ; Lee, Jang-Won ; Kim, Kyu-Heon ; Suh, Doug-Young ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 1, 2011, Pages 155~173
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.1.155
Recently, with the digitalization of a broadcasting system and the development of a communication technology, the existing trend of consuming media contents throughout the fixed-displayer and the dedicated channel is being changed. The existing user only could consume media contents under limited time and places because of the fixed-displayer and the dedicated channel. However, with advent of the IP-based terminals and HTTP adaptive streaming which transfer the media sequence according to the user`s transmission condition, users become possible to enjoy the media content anytime anywhere. As the result of the alteration of the broadcasting surrounding, users can enjoy the media content while changing his terminals according to their preferences and circumstances. However, in case that users try to consume consecutively the content from last view-point ended in the previous terminal under current HTTP adaptive streaming environment, a user has to remember the last view-point, and then has to apply the view-point to the changed terminal. Thus, for solving this problem, this paper defines "User Profile" for describing the metadata for the chained content consume environment between the terminals. Also, for proving the proposed method, this paper try to demonstrate the proposed method throughout the realization of the system based on Smooth Streaming from Microsoft.
An Optimal FIR Filter Design Method Using H/W Complexity Estimation
Kim, Rin-Chul ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 1, 2011, Pages 174~177
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.1.174
In this paper, we investigate a method for designing FIR filters with CSD coefficients. Firstly, the H/W complexity of a CSD FIR filter is estimated in terms of number of gates. Using the estimated complexity, an optimal filter that can meet the required performance with minimal H/W complexity can be designed. Next, based on the MILP problem solver called BonsaiG, we present a filter design program. From the two design examples, it is demonstrated that an optimal filter can be obtained by comparing the complexity of the candidate filters in terms of the gate counts, whose differences are estimated to be about 400-600 gates.
Object Tracking Based on Color Centroids Shifting with Background Color and Temporal filtering
Lee, Suk-Ho ; Choi, Eun-Cheol ; Kang, Moon-Gi ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 1, 2011, Pages 178~181
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.1.178
With the development of mobile devices and intelligent surveillance system loaded with pan/tilt cameras, object tracking with non-stationary cameras has become a topic with increasing importancy. Since it is difficult to model a background image in a non-stationary camera environment, colors and texture are the most important features in the tracking algorithm. However, colors in the background similar to those in the target arise instability in the tracking. Recently, we proposed a robust color based tracking algorithm that uses an area weighted centroid shift. In this letter, we update the model such that it becomes more stable against background colors. The proposed algorithm also incorporates time filtering by adding an additional energy term to the energy functional.