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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Broadcast Engineering
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Institute of Broadcast and Media Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 6 - Nov 2011
Volume 16, Issue 5 - Sep 2011
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Jul 2011
Volume 16, Issue 3 - May 2011
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Mar 2011
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Jan 2011
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Adaptive Combination of Intra/Inter Predictions in JM KTA Software
Kim, Min-Jae ; Seo, Chan-Won ; Jang, Myung-Hun ; Han, Jong-Ki ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 2, 2011, Pages 190~206
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.2.190
We propose an adaptive combination scheme of intra and inter prediction modes, where uni-directional intra prediction, bi-directional intra prediction, and inter prediction method are adaptively selected in an EMB (extended macro block). For each EMB, after all inter blocks have been encoded and decoded, the reconstructed blocks are used as reference data for bi-directional intra prediction of other blocks. Whereas conventional intra coding scheme does not use the right and below side pixels of the current block as reference data, the proposed method uses those for bi-directional intra prediction mode. In this paper, we propose three advanced techniques; (a) filter design for bi-directional prediction, (b) adaptive coding order scheme which increases the chance to use the bi-directional intra prediction mode, (c) modification of syntax to represent coding order. The information for the coding order is informed to the decoder by using the modified syntax structure without adding any additional flag. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme reduces the BD-Rate by 0.5%, on average, compared to KTA.
Channel estimation scheme of terrestrial DTV transmission employing unique-word based SC-FDE
Shin, Dong-Chul ; Kim, Jae-Kil ; Ahn, Jae-Min ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 2, 2011, Pages 207~215
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.2.207
A signal passed through multi-path channel suffers ISI(Inter-Symbol Interference) and severe distortions caused by channel delay spread and noise components at the SC-FDE(Single Carrier with Frequency Domain Equalizer) transmission. Conventional UW(Unique-Word) based SC-FDE iterative channel estimation improves channel estimation performance by smoothing estimated CIR(Channel Impulse Response) of the noise components outside the channel length at time domain and restoring the broken cyclic property through UW reconstruction. In this paper, we propose channel estimation scheme through noise suppression within channel length. To suppress the noise, we estimate noise standard deviation as estimated CIR of the noise components outside the channel length and make criteria of the noise standard deviation gain that doesn't affect the original signal samples. When estimated CIR samples within channel length are less than the criteria value using the noise standard deviation and gain, the noise components are removed. Simulation results show that the proposed channel estimation scheme brings good channel MSE(Mean Square Error) and good BER(Bit Error Rate) performance.
Dual Codec Based Joint Bit Rate Control Scheme for Terrestrial Stereoscopic 3DTV Broadcast
Chang, Yong-Jun ; Kim, Mun-Churl ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 2, 2011, Pages 216~225
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.2.216
Following the proliferation of three-dimensional video contents and displays, many terrestrial broadcasting companies have been preparing for stereoscopic 3DTV service. In terrestrial stereoscopic broadcast, it is a difficult task to code and transmit two video sequences while sustaining as high quality as 2DTV broadcast due to the limited bandwidth defined by the existing digital TV standards such as ATSC. Thus, a terrestrial 3DTV broadcasting with a heterogeneous video codec system, where the left image and right images are based on MPEG-2 and H.264/AVC, respectively, is considered in order to achieve both high quality broadcasting service and compatibility for the existing 2DTV viewers. Without significant change in the current terrestrial broadcasting systems, we propose a joint rate control scheme for stereoscopic 3DTV service based on the heterogeneous dual codec systems. The proposed joint rate control scheme applies to the MPEG-2 encoder a quadratic rate-quantization model which is adopted in the H.264/AVC. Then the controller is designed for the sum of the left and right bitstreams to meet the bandwidth requirement of broadcasting standards while the sum of image distortions is minimized by adjusting quantization parameter obtained from the proposed optimization scheme. Besides, we consider a condition on maintaining quality difference between the left and right images around a desired level in the optimization in order to mitigate negative effects on human visual system. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed bit rate control scheme outperforms the rate control method where each video coding standard uses its own bit rate control algorithm independently in terms of the increase in PSNR by 2.02%, the decrease in the average absolute quality difference by 77.6% and the reduction in the variance of the quality difference by 74.38%.
Channel Estimation for MIMO System by using Orthogonal Code with Comb Type Pilot
Park, Do-Hyun ; Kang, Eun-Su ; Han, Dong-Seog ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 2, 2011, Pages 226~236
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.2.226
In this paper, we propose the channel estimation for the space time coded-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ST-OFDM) muti-input multi-output (MIMO) system with comb type pilot arrangements. In the conventional method, specially constructed pilots are inserted in the OFDM symbols at all transmit antennas separately. The proposed algorithm multiplies the orthogonal code to be transmitted OFDM symbols to estimate channels at the receiver. This algorithm can estimate a long channel delay with high accuracy. It is proved by computer simulations.
Design of Recommender System and Metadata Construction for UCC producer
Song, Ju-Hong ; Moon, Nam-Mee ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 2, 2011, Pages 237~246
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.2.237
In order to produce the variety of UCC, the recommendation service is required which considers the copyright of UCC producer discriminated from one for UCC consumers and the purpose of its production. The recommender system designed in this thesis enables UCC which is much similar to one UCC producer utilizes to be used with custom-made when recommending and producing based on UCC view history and production list, etc. of its producer. The recommender system is largely divided into filtering based on the preferred tag, UCC filtering used when producing the preferred UCC and creating process of recommended UCC using the Pearson formula. The recommender system in this thesis requires the data which were used when producing UCC. For that, we added the reference factor so that the data of UCC which were utilized when producing UCC into the existing metadata can be recorded. If the recommender system suggested in this thesis is used, the more effective and convenient UCC recommendation services with custom-made for producers can be provided.
HDR Image Acquisition from Two LDR Images
Park, Tae-Jang ; Park, In-Kyu ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 2, 2011, Pages 247~257
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.2.247
In this paper, we propose a scene adaptive method to obtain two LDR images with proper shutter speeds which capture the irradiance of scene effectively. The proposed method adaptively selects two shutter speeds across the video frame even when the illumination varies continuously. For the performance evaluation, we compute the PNSR to the ground truth which is obtained by the state-of-the-art HDR imaging method. It shows that the proposed method is able to select approximately optimal shutter speeds while avoiding the exhaustive search of every possible pair of shutter speeds.
Design and Implementation of Multi-View 3D Video Player
Heo, Young-Su ; Park, Gwang-Hoon ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 2, 2011, Pages 258~273
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.2.258
This paper designs and implements a multi-view 3D video player system which is operated faster than existing video player systems. The structure for obtaining the near optimum speed in a multi-processor environment by parallelizing the component modules is proposed to process large volumes of multi-view image data at high speed. In order to use the concurrency of bottleneck, we designed image decoding, synthesis and rendering modules in a pipeline structure. For load balancing, the decoder module is divided into the unit of viewpoint, and the image synthesis module is geometrically divided based on synthesized images. As a result of this experiment, multi-view images were correctly synthesized and the 3D sense could be felt when watching the images on the multi-view autostereoscopic display. The proposed application processing structure could be used to process large volumes of multi-view image data at high speed, using the multi-processors to their maximum capacity.
A Depth-map Coding Method using the Adaptive XOR Operation
Kim, Kyung-Yong ; Park, Gwang-Hoon ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 2, 2011, Pages 274~292
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.2.274
This paper proposes an efficient coding method of the depth-map which is different from the natural images. The depth-map are so smooth in both inner parts of the objects and background, but it has sharp edges on the object-boundaries like a cliff. In addition, when a depth-map block is decomposed into bit planes, the characteristic of perfect matching or inverted matching between bit planes often occurs on the object-boundaries. Therefore, the proposed depth-map coding scheme is designed to have the bit-plane unit coding method using the adaptive XOR method for efficiently coding the depth-map images on the object-boundary areas, as well as the conventional DCT-based coding scheme (for example, H.264/AVC) for efficiently coding the inside area images of the objects or the background depth-map images. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm improves the average bit-rate savings as 11.8 % ~ 20.8% and the average PSNR (Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio) gains as 0.9 dB ~ 1.5 dB in comparison with the H.264/AVC coding scheme. And the proposed algorithm improves the average bit-rate savings as 7.7 % ~ 12.2 % and the average PSNR gains as 0.5 dB ~ 0.8 dB in comparison with the adaptive block-based depth-map coding scheme. It can be confirmed that the proposed method improves the subjective quality of synthesized image using the decoded depth-map in comparison with the H.264/AVC coding scheme. And the subjective quality of the proposed method was similar to the subjective quality of the adaptive block-based depth-map coding scheme.
A New Hardware Architecture of High-Speed Motion Estimator for H.264 Video CODEC
Lim, Jeong-Hun ; Seo, Young-Ho ; Choi, Hyun-Jun ; Kim, Dong-Wook ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 2, 2011, Pages 293~304
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.2.293
In this paper, we proposed a new hardware architecture for motion estimation (ME) which is the most time-consuming unit among H.264 algorithms and designed to the type of intellectual property (IP). The proposed ME hardware consists of buffer, processing unit (PU) array, SAD (sum of absolute difference) selector, and motion vector (MVgenerator). PU array is composed of 16 PUs and each PU consists of 16 processing elements (PUs). The main characteristics of the proposed hardware are that current and reference frames are re-used to reduce the number of access to the external memory and that there is no clock loss during SAD operation. The implemented ME hardware occupies 3% hardware resources of StatixIII EP3SE80F1152C2 which is a FPGA of Altera Inc. and can operate at up to 446.43MHz. Therefore it can process up to 50 frames of 1080p in a second.
Switched Digital Video for the Efficient Utilization of Bandwidth In Cable Systems
Choi, Jin-Chul ; Lee, Chae-Woo ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 2, 2011, Pages 305~318
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.2.305
Since switched digital video (SDV) provides specific programs only to the subscribers who request the programs, SDV has attracted considerable interest of MSOs for bandwidth efficiency. In North America, MSOs service over 2.3 million households with the SDV for cable networks. In Korea, since demand of HD program, high-speed Internet, VoD, and VoIP is noticeably rising, the SDV is considered as the alternative for bandwidth saving and efficient managing. In this paper, the characteristics, operating structure, and bandwidth saving of the SDV are discussed and technical requirements for the SDV are also introduced. The channel switching performance and stability of the SDV are analyzed through the test-bed.
A Method of Stereoscopic 3D Image Quality Assessment
Park, Young-Soo ; Hur, Nam-Ho ; Pyo, Kyung-Soo ; Song, Chung-Kun ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 2, 2011, Pages 319~330
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.2.319
For objective assessment of stereoscopic 3D image quality, we measure quality of left and right image with 2D image quality measurement method. However, this method is inconvenient because that we have to measure quality of left and right image individually. Therefore we propose a method of stereoscopic 3D image quality assessment using one overlaid image with left and right image. Using this method, One can measure quality of stereoscopic 3D image more easily and quickly.
Visual Fatigue Prediction for Stereoscopic Video Considering Individual Fusional Characteristics
Kim, Dong-Hyun ; Choi, Sung-Hwan ; Sohn, Kwang-Hoon ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 2, 2011, Pages 331~338
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.2.331
In this paper, we propose a visual fatigue prediction metric which considers individual fusional characteristics for stereoscopic video. It predicts the visual fatigue level by examining the disparity and motion characteristics of 3D videos. In addition, we classified the viewers into 2 groups according to fusional limit and the slope of fusional response which are acquired from random dot stereogram test. Then, Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficient was measured between the proposed metrics and the subjective results, acquiring 80% and 79%.
Reference Frame Memory Compression Using Selective Processing Unit Merging Method
Hong, Soon-Gi ; Choe, Yoon-Sik ; Kim, Yong-Goo ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 2, 2011, Pages 339~349
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.2.339
IBDI (Internal Bit Depth Increase) is able to significantly improve the coding efficiency of high definition video compression by increasing the bit depth (or precision) of internal arithmetic operation. However the scheme also increases required internal memory for storing decoded reference frames and this can be significant for higher definition of video contents. So, the reference frame memory compression method is proposed to reduce such internal memory requirement. The reference memory compression is performed on 4x4 block called the processing unit to compress the decoded image using the correlation of nearby pixel values. This method has successively reduced the reference frame memory while preserving the coding efficiency of IBDI. However, additional information of each processing unit has to be stored also in internal memory, the amount of additional information could be a limitation of the effectiveness of memory compression scheme. To relax this limitation of previous memory compression scheme, we propose a selective merging-based reference frame memory compression algorithm, dramatically reducing the amount of additional information. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm provides much smaller overhead than that of the previous algorithm while keeping the coding efficiency of IBDI.
T-DMB Hybrid Data Service Part 1: Hybrid BIFS Technology
Lim, Young-Kwon ; Kim, Kyu-Heon ; Jeong, Je-Chang ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 2, 2011, Pages 350~359
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.2.350
Fast developments of broadcasting technologies since 1990s enabled not only High Definition Television service providing high quality audiovisual contents at home but also mobile broadcasting service providing audiovisual contents to high speed moving vehicle. Terrestrial Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (T-DMB) is one of the technologies developed for mobile broadcasting service, which has been successfully commercialized. One of the major technical breakthroughs achieved by T-DMB in addition to robust vehicular reception is an adoption of framework based on MPEG-4 System. It naturally enables integrated interactive data services by using Binary Format for Scene (BIFS) technology for scene description and representation of graphics object and Object Descriptor Framework representing multimedia service components as objects. T-DMB interactive data service has two fundamental limitations. Firstly, graphic data for interactive service should be always overlaid on top of a video not to be rendered out of it. Secondly, data for interactive service is only received by broadcasting channel. These limitations were considered as general in broadcasting systems. However, they are being considered as hard limitations for personalized data services using location information and user characteristics which are becoming widely used for data services of smart devices in these days. In this paper, the architecture of T-DMB hybrid data service is proposed which is utilizing broadcasting network, wireless internet and local storage for delivering BIFS data to overcome these limitations. This paper also presents hybrid BIFS technology to implement T-DMB hybrid data service while maintaining backward compatibility with legacy T-DMB players.
T-DMB Hybrid Data Service Part 2: Hybrid Service Authoring Framework
Lim, Young-Kwon ; Kim, Kyu-Heon ; Jeong, Je-Chang ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 2, 2011, Pages 360~371
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.2.360
T-DMB hybrid data service provides advanced data services while maintaining backward compatibility with legacy T-DMB receivers by using hybrid BIFS technology enabling distributed delivery of scene description information and object description information. This paper presents the hybrid service authoring framework implementing hybrid BIFS technology for creating contents for distributed delivery, and the results of experiments by using it. Hybrid service authoring framework is comprised of service creation system, service management system, and contents offering system. It enables the creation of combined hybrid data service and the splitting of the contents into two parts for ecah delivery network, data for broadcasting network and the data for mobile network. It also enables the managements of the contents. The feasibility of advanced data services while maintaining backward compatibility with the legacy T-DMB receiver has been proved by the contents created by using the hybrid authoring framework presented in this paper.
Adaptive Interleaved Motion Vector Coding using Motion Characteristics
Won, Kwang-Hyun ; Yang, Jung-Youp ; Park, Dae-Yun ; Jeon, Byeung-Woo ;
Journal of Broadcast Engineering, volume 16, issue 2, 2011, Pages 372~383
DOI : 10.5909/JEB.2011.16.2.372
This paper proposes an improved design of an interleaved motion vector coding scheme with flexibility in predictive motion vector component by exploiting motion characteristics. It can use component-wise adaptive motion vector predictor based on the utility of spatial and temporal motion field without any signaling bit for indicating decoder of the selected predictive motion vector component. Experiment with test video data shows about 1.99% (max 8.71%) bit rate reduction compared to the conventional H.264/AVC method.